Yazidis

Yazidis (also written as Yezidis (/jəˈzdz/ (listen),[27] Kurdish: ئێزیدی, Êzîdî[28][29]) are an endogamous and mostly Kurmanji-speaking[25] minority, indigenous to the Kurdish regions, which includes parts of Iraq, Iran, Syria and Turkey.[22][30][31] The majority of Yazidis remaining in the Middle East today live in the disputed territories of Northern Iraq, primarily in the Nineveh and Dohuk governorates.[32][33] There is a disagreement on whether Yazidis are a religious sub-group of Kurds or a distinct ethnoreligious group, among scholars and Yazidis themselves.[34][35] The Yazidi religion is monotheistic and has roots in a western pre-Zoroastrian Iranic faith.[36][37][38][39][40]

Yazidis
Êzîdî  ئێزیدی
Yazidis celebrating Feast of Assembly in Lalish
Total population
1,000,000–1,500,000 (estimate)[1][2]
Regions with significant populations
See List of Yazidi settlements
Listed by countries
 Iraq500,000 (2018 estimate)[3]
 Germany200,000 (2019 estimate)[4][5]
 Russia40,586 (2010 census)[6]
 Belgium35,000 (2018 estimate)[7]
 Armenia35,272 (2011 census)[8]
 Georgia12,174 (2014 census)[9]
 United States10,000 (2017 estimate)[10]
 France10,000 (2018 estimate)[11][12]
 Syria10,000 (2017 estimate)[13][14]
 Sweden6,000 (2018 estimate)[15]
 Turkey5,000 (2010 estimate)[16][17]
 Australia2,738 (2019 estimate)[18]
 Canada1,200 (2018 estimate)[19]
Religions
Yazidism (majority)[20]
Armenian Apostolic Church and Evangelicalism (adopted by some in Armenia and Georgia)[21] and Islam (forced conversion)[22][23]
Languages
Kurmanji (Northern Kurdish),[24] Arabic (in Bashiqa and Bahzani)[25] and Armenian (adopted by some in Armenia)[26]

For centuries, the Yazidis have faced persecution as their religion is perceived as heretical by Islamic clerics. Most recently the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant carried out a genocide of Yazidis in 2014.[41][42][43]

Origins

Yazidi chief in Bashiqa - picture by Albert Kahn (1910s)

The Yazidis' own name for themselves is Êzîdî or, in some areas, Dasinî, although the latter, strictly speaking, is a tribal name. The origins of the Yazidis is not completely clear.[44] Some western scholars derive the name from the Umayyad Caliph Yazīd ibn Muʿāwiya (Yazid I).[45] However, all Yazidis reject any relationship between their name and the caliph.[46] The word Yazidi means 'the servant of the creator'.[47] Other scholars derive it from Old Iranian yazata, Middle Persian yazad, divine being.[48] Another derivation of the word origin relates to Ez dā ('Created me'). Yazidis also refer to Xwedê ez dam ('God created me') and to Em miletê ezdaîn ('We are the Ezdayi nation').[49]

Scholars have discovered many striking similarities between the Yazidis, the Yaresan and the Kurdish Alevis.[50][51][52][53] The shared features between the three religions can be traced back to an ancient faith that was probably dominant among the western Iranic peoples[54] and likened to practices of pre-Zoroastrian Iranic religion.[55]

Early writers attempted to describe Yazidi origins, broadly speaking, in terms of Islam, or Persian, or sometimes even "pagan" religions; however, research published since the 1990s has shown such an approach to be simplistic.[25]

Identity

Yazidi women in traditional dress

Yazidi cultural practices are observed in Kurmanji, which is also used by almost all the orally transmitted religious traditions of the Yazidis. However, the Yazidis in Bashiqa and Bahzani speak Arabic as their mother language.[25] Although the Yazidis speak mostly in Kurmanji, their exact origin is a matter of dispute among scholars, even among the community itself as well as among Kurds, whether they are ethnically Kurds or form a distinct ethnic group.[35] Yazidis only intermarry with other Yazidis; those who marry non-Yazidis are expelled from their family and are not allowed to call themselves Yazidis.[56][57]

Yazidi boy in traditional clothes. In Sinjar, male Yazidis used to wear pigtails.[58]

Some modern Yazidis identify as a subset of the Kurdish people while others identify as a separate ethno-religious group.[25][20][59] In Armenia and Iraq, the Yazidis are recognized as a distinct ethnic group.[60][61][62][63] According to Armenian anthropologist Levon Abrahamian, Yazidis generally believe that Muslim Kurds betrayed Yazidism by converting to Islam, while Yazidis remained faithful to the religion of their ancestors.[64] Evliya Çelebi described soldiers of Abdal Khan of Bitlis as "Yezidi Kurds" and in fourteenth century, seven of the most prominent Kurdish tribes were Yazidi, and Yazidism was the religion of the Jazira Kurdish principality. Some traditional myths of the Yazidis tell that the Yazidis were the children of Adam alone and not of Eve, and thus separate from the rest of humanity.[65] In the autonomous Kurdistan Region of Iraq, Yazidis are considered ethnic Kurds[34] and the autonomous region considers Yazidis to be the "original Kurds".[66] The sole Yazidi parliamentarian in the Iraqi Parliament Vian Dakhil also stated her opposition to any move separating Yazidis from Kurds.[34] Aziz Tamoyan the president of the Yezidi National Union ULE indicate that the term Yazidi is used for a nation and their language is called Ezdiki and their religion is Sharfadin.[60] According to the researcher Victoria Arakelova, Yazidism is a unique phenomenon, one of the most remarkable illustrations of ethno-religious identity, centred on a religion the Yazidis call Sharfadin. And therefore, it is quite legitimate to speak of the unity of both the Yazidi religious identity and Yazidi ethnicity.[67][20]

Yazidis distinguish the name of their community from the name of their religion according the phrase:[68][69]

Miletê min Êzîd ("My nation - the Yazidis.")
Dîne min Şerfedîn ("My religion - Sharfadin.")[68]

However, this phrase doesn't come up in the official qewls (religious hymns), rather, in those qewls where the terms Şerfedîn and Êzîd (Êzî) are mentioned together, the term "Atqat" comes up next to Ezid instead of "Millet".

Me dîn Şerfedîne û Êzî atqate. ("Our religion is Sherfedin and belief is Ezi.")

Qewlê Şerfedîn

Me dîn Şerfedîn, atqad Siltan Êzîde. ("Our religion is Sherfedin, belief is Sultan Ezid.")

Qewlê Qendîla

Şerfedîn is the name of a son of Sheikh Hasan, who lead the Yezidis in 13th century and under whose rule the final canonization of the Yezidi religion took place. As a result, Şerfedîn is considered the personification of the Yezidi religion as implied in the aforementioned qewls. Likewise with Sultan Ezid, the name of God's manifestation, who personifies atqat (belief). However, some Yezidis who believe themselves to be a distinct ethnicity, consider "Şerfedîn" to be the name of the religion, meanwhile using "Êzidî" as the ethnonym.[68][70][71]

Additionally, the term "Millet" has only recently begun to be understood in a nationalistic sense due to the growing popularity of nationalist ideologies, as a result, the phrase itself has started to be perceived as an ethnic and national declaration. The term “millet” would've originally been equivalent to “religion” and “religious community” rather than ethnicity. Thus, the original meaning of the phrase "Miletê min Ezid" would've been "I belong to the religious group of Ezid".[68][70]

Aziz Tamoyan, the President of the Yezidi National Union ULE in Armenia

Yazidis are regarded as ethnic Kurds in Georgia.[72] The Soviet Union registered the Yazidis and the Kurds as two different ethnic groups for the 1926 census, but bulked the two together as one ethnicity in the censuses from 1931 to 1989.[73] Sharaf Khan Bidlisi's Sheref-nameh of 1597, which cites seven of the Kurdish tribes as being at least partly Yazidi, and Kurdish tribal confederations as containing substantial Yazidi sections.[74]

Conversely, during his research trips in 1895, anthropologist Ernest Chantre visited the Yazidis in today's Turkey and reported that Yazidis called their language zyman e ezda (the language of the Yazidis) and claimed that Kurds spoke their language and not vice versa.[75]

However, there's also evidence that Yezidis in the past too identified as Kurds, for example in a letter sent to the Romanov Emperor of Russia, the Yazidi leader, Usuv Beg writes that his people are Yezidi Kurds. He indicates his nationality as Kurdish, but specifies that they are Yezidi by religion:

"I am happy on behalf of 3,000 Families of Yezidi-Kurds, Who 60 years ago, led by my Grandfather Temur Agha, left Turkey and sought refuge in Russia. I would like to express my gratitude and wish success to you and your family. We live very well on earth and under your rule."[76][77]

In addition, names of some Yazidi villages in Armenia contain Kurdish ethnonyms, such as Sipan village, which was settled in 1828 AD by Yezidis and was called Pampa Kurda/Kurmanca (Kurdish Pamb), until it was renamed to Sipan in 1970s. In the vicinity, there is another village, that was called "Armenian Pamb", but also was renamed later on, to "Lernapar".[78][79]

Furthermore, the Yezidi religious authorities, including Baba Sheikh, the Mîr and the Peshimam, frequently have emphasized the Kurdish ethnicity of the Yezidis. As according to letter from mayor of Shekhan to Mosul in 1966, after carrying out investigations and personal meetings with Yezidi religious leaders, Baba Sheikh and the Mir, they found out that Yazidis are considered to be of Kurdish ethnicity and nationality.[80][81]

"When carrying out the investigations and the personal meetings with some leaders of the Yazidis that dwell the region of our province, especially Tahsin Said, the general leader of the nation and its prince, and the Bāba-Shaykh, the religious head of the Yazidis and when enlarging upon the subject, based on what they have said, we note that the origin of the community is in the Kurdish regions of Northern Iraq. Thus, the nationality of its members is considered Kurdish." - Excerpt from the 1966 letter.

When Tord Wallström, a Swedish journalist, met the Yazidi Mir, Tahsin Beg in 1974. Tahsin stated his reason for participating in the Kurdish Revolt. He stated, “I believe in the principles of the revolt. However, there is no relation between the religion and the revolt. I am Kurdish, and all the Yezidis are Kurdish; this is the reason why I joined this revolt”. The journalist asked whether all the Yezidis are participating in the revolt, to which Mîr Tahsin responded: “No, but because their participation in the revolt has not been necessary as of yet. I've not requested their participation, but if I do, at least 95% will join the revolt. By the way, the government executed 20 Yazidis recently in Mosul”.[82]

Elsewhere, in Soviet Union, the Kurdish identity played an important role for the Yazidis in Georgia and Armenia, who played an crucial role in promoting a secularized idea of Kurdish nationalism and making huge achievements in preserving and institutionalizing Kurdish culture, folklore and language already in early 20th century.[83] Soviet Yazidis were able to establish the first Kurdish theatre and radio station in history, in addition, the first Kurdish latin-based alphabet was created by the Yazidi intellectual, Erebê Şemo, who was also responsible for writing the first-ever Kurmanji novel in 1929 titled "Şivanê Kurmanca" (The Kurdish/Kurmanji Shepherd).[84][40]

Historically, there have been persecutions against Yazidis at the hand of some Kurdish tribes.[85] and this persecution has on numerous occasions threatened the existence of Yazidis as a distinct group.[86][87]

Religion

Yazidism is a monotheistic faith[88] based on belief in one God, who created the world and entrusted it into the care of a Heptad of seven Holy Beings, often known as Angels or heft sirr (the Seven Mysteries).[89] Preeminent among these is Tawûsê Melek (also known as "Melek Taus"), the Peacock Angel.[90][91] Traditionally, Yazidis who marry non-Yazidis are considered to have converted to the religion of their spouse.[88][92]

Genetics

Kurds developed an own typical genetic profile called "Modal Kurdish Haplotype" (KMH or MKMH for Muslim Kurds) on subclade J2-M172 with the following loci: 14-15-23-10-11-12. The highest percentage of this hablotype has been measured so far in Yezidis in Armenia:

According to another genetic study, Yazidis from Northern Iraq may have a stronger genetic continuity with the original Mesopotamian people. The northern Iraqi Yazidi population were found in the middle of a genetic continuum between the Near East and Southeastern Europe.[94]

A genetic study on the Georgian Kurds, most of whom follow Yezidism,[95] showed that the populations with smallest genetic distance from Georgian Kurds were found to be Kurds from Turkey and Iran. Interestingly, the Kurmanji speakers from Turkey were found to be closer to the Zazaki speakers from Turkey than to the Georgian Kurds. Despite the former speaking the same dialect as the Georgian Kurds. According to the study, the Y-chromosome data suggests that the Kurdish group in Georgia was founded by Kurmanji speakers of Turkey.[96]

Demographics

Historically, the Yazidis lived primarily in communities located in present-day Iraq, Turkey, and Syria and also had significant numbers in Armenia and Georgia. However, events since the end of the 20th century have resulted in considerable demographic shift in these areas as well as mass emigration.[97] As a result, population estimates are unclear in many regions, and estimates of the size of the total population vary.[25]

Iraq

The majority of the Yazidi population lives in Iraq, where they make up an important minority community.[25] Estimates of the size of these communities vary significantly, between 70,000 and 500,000. They are particularly concentrated in northern Iraq in the Nineveh Governorate. The two biggest communities are in the Shekhan District, northeast of Mosul and in the Sinjar District, at the Syrian border 80 kilometres (50 mi) west of Mosul. In Shekhan is the shrine of Sheikh Adi ibn Musafir at Lalish. In the early 1900s most of the settled population of the Syrian Desert were Yazidi.[98] During the 20th century, the Shekhan community struggled for dominance with the more conservative Sinjar community.[25] The demographic profile has probably changed considerably since the beginning of the Iraq War in 2003 and the fall of Saddam Hussein's government.[25]

Traditionally, Yazidis in Iraq lived in isolation and had their own villages. However, many of their villages were destroyed by the Saddam regime. The Ba'athists created collective villages and forcibly relocated the Yazidis from their historical villages which would be destroyed.[99]

Yazidi new year celebrations in Lalish, 18 April 2017
Two Yazidi men at the new year celebrations in Lalish, 18 April 2017

According to the Human Rights Watch, Yazidis were under the Arabisation process of Saddam Hussein between 1970 and 2003. In 2009, some Yazidis who had previously lived under the Arabisation process of Saddam Hussein complained about the political tactics of the Kurdistan Region that were intended to make Yazidis identify themselves as Kurds.[33] A report from Human Rights Watch (HRW), in 2009, declares that to incorporate disputed territories in northern Iraq—particularly the Nineveh province—into the Kurdish region, the KDP authorities had used KRG's political and economical resources to make Yazidis identify themselves as Kurds. The HRW report also criticises heavy-handed tactics."[33]

Syria

Yazidis in Syria live primarily in two communities, one in the Al-Jazira area and the other in the Kurd-Dagh.[25] Population numbers for the Syrian Yazidi community are unclear. In 1963, the community was estimated at about 10,000, according to the national census, but numbers for 1987 were unavailable.[100] There may be between about 12,000 and 15,000 Yazidis in Syria today,[25][101] though more than half of the community may have emigrated from Syria since the 1980s. Estimates are further complicated by the arrival of as many as 50,000 Yazidi refugees from Iraq during the Iraq War.

Yazidi men

Georgia

The Yazidi population in Georgia has been dwindling since the 1990s, mostly due to economic migration to Russia and the West. According to a census carried out in 1989, there were over 30,000 Yazidis in Georgia; according to the 2002 census, however, only around 18,000 Yazidis remained in Georgia. However, by other estimates, the community fell from around 30,000 people to fewer than 5,000 during the 1990s. Today they number as little 6,000 by some estimates, including recent refugees from Sinjar in Iraq, who fled to Georgia following persecution by ISIL.[102] On 16 June 2015, Yazidis celebrated the opening of the Sultan Ezid Temple and cultural centre, named after Sultan Ezid in Varketili, a suburb of Tbilisi. This is the third such temple in the world after those in Iraqi Kurdistan and Armenia.[102]

Armenia

According to the 2011 census, there are 35,272 Yazidis in Armenia, making them Armenia's largest ethnic minority group.[103] Ten years earlier, in the 2001 census, 40,620 Yazidis were registered in Armenia.[104] They have a significant presence in the Armavir province of Armenia. Media have estimated the number of Yazidis in Armenia to be between 30,000 and 50,000. Most of them are the descendants of refugees who fled to Armenia in order to escape the persecution that they had previously suffered during Ottoman rule, including a wave of persecution which occurred during the Armenian genocide, when many Armenians found refuge in Yazidi villages.[105]

The Ziarat temple in Aknalich, Armenia

There is a Yazidi temple called Ziarat in the village of Aknalich in the region of Armavir. In September 2019, the largest Yazidi temple in the world called "Quba Mere Diwane", was opened in Aknalich, just a few meters from the Ziarat temple. The temple is privately funded by Mirza Sloian, a Yazidi businessman based in Moscow who is originally from the Armavir region.[106][107]

Turkey

Yazidi men in Mardin, Turkey, late 19th century

A sizeable part of the autochthonous Yazidi population of Turkey fled the country for present-day Armenia and Georgia starting from the late 19th century.[88] There are additional communities in Russia and Germany due to recent migration.[97] The Yazidi community of Turkey declined precipitously during the 20th century. Most of them have immigrated to Europe, particularly Germany; those who remain reside primarily in villages in their former heartland of Tur Abdin.[25]

Western Europe

This mass emigration has resulted in the establishment of large Yazidi diaspora communities abroad. The most significant of these is in Germany, which now has a Yazidi community of more than 200,000[4][5] living primarily in Hannover, Bielefeld, Celle, Bremen, Bad Oeynhausen, Pforzheim and Oldenburg.[108] Most are from Turkey and, more recently, Iraq and live in the western states of North Rhine-Westphalia and Lower Saxony.[25] Since 2008, Sweden has seen sizeable growth in its Yazidi emigrant community, which had grown to around 4,000 by 2010, and a smaller community exists in the Netherlands.[25] Other Yazidi diaspora groups live in Belgium, Denmark, France, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada and Australia; these have a total population of probably less than 5,000.[25]

North America

A community of Yazidis have settled as refugees in the United States of America and Canada. Many Yazidis now live in Lincoln, Nebraska[109][110][111][112] and Houston, Texas.[113][114][115] It is thought that Nebraska has the largest settlement (an estimated number of at least 10,000) of Yazidis in the United States, with a history of immigration to the state under refuge settlement programs starting in the late 1990s.[110] Many of the men of the community served as translators for the US military.[114][115]

Western perceptions

As the Yazidis hold religious beliefs that are mostly unfamiliar to outsiders, many non-Yazidi people have written about them and ascribed to their beliefs facts that have dubious historical validity. The Yazidis, perhaps because of their secrecy, also have a place in modern occultism.

In Western literature

Image from A journey from London to Persepolis, 1865

In William Seabrook's book Adventures in Arabia, the fourth section, starting with Chapter 14, is devoted to the "Yezidees" and is titled "Among the Yezidees". He describes them as "a mysterious sect scattered throughout the Orient, strongest in North Arabia, feared and hated both by Moslem and Christian, because they are worshippers of Satan." In the three chapters of the book, he completely describes the area, including the fact that this territory, including their holiest city of Sheik-Adi, was not part of "Irak".[116]

George Gurdjieff wrote about his encounters with the Yazidis several times in his book Meetings with Remarkable Men, mentioning that they are considered to be "devil worshippers" by other ethnicities in the region. Also, in Peter Ouspensky's book "In Search of the Miraculous", he describes some strange customs that Gurdjieff observed in Yazidi boys: "He told me, among other things, that when he was a child he had often observed how Yezidi boys were unable to step out of a circle traced round them on the ground" (p. 36)

Idries Shah, writing under the pen-name Arkon Daraul, in the 1961 book Secret Societies Yesterday and Today, describes discovering a Yazidi-influenced secret society in the London suburbs called the "Order of the Peacock Angel." Shah claimed Tawûsê Melek could be understood, from the Sufi viewpoint, as an allegory of the higher powers in humanity.[117]

In H.P. Lovecraft's story "The Horror at Red Hook", some of the murderous foreigners are identified as belonging to "the Yezidi clan of devil-worshippers".[118]

In Patrick O'Brian's Aubrey-Maturin series novel The Letter of Marque, set during the Napoleonic wars, there is a Yazidi character named Adi. His ethnicity is referred to as "Dasni".

A fictional Yazidi character of note is the super-powered police officer King Peacock of the Top 10 series (and related comics).[119] He is portrayed as a kind, peaceful character with a broad knowledge of religion and mythology. He is depicted as conservative, ethical, and highly principled in family life. An incredibly powerful martial artist, he is able to perceive and strike at his opponent's weakest spots, a power that he claims is derived from communicating with Malek Ta'us.

In US Army memoirs

In her memoir of her service with an intelligence unit of the US Army's 101st Airborne Division in Iraq during 2003 and 2004, Kayla Williams (2005) records being stationed in northern Iraq near the Syrian border in an area inhabited by "Yezidis". According to Williams, some Yazidis were Kurdish-speaking but did not consider themselves Kurds and expressed to her a fondness for America and Israel. She was able to learn only a little about the nature of their religion: she thought it very ancient, and concerned with angels. She describes a mountain-top Yazidi shrine as "a small rock building with objects dangling from the ceiling" and alcoves for the placement of offerings. She reported that local Muslims considered the Yazidis to be devil worshippers. (See #Persecution of Yazidis, below.)

In an October 2006 article in The New Republic, Lawrence F. Kaplan echoes Williams's sentiments about the enthusiasm of the Yazidis for the American occupation of Iraq, in part because the Americans protect them from oppression by militant Muslims and the nearby Kurds. Kaplan notes that the peace and calm of Sinjar is virtually unique in Iraq: "Parents and children line the streets when U.S. patrols pass by, while Yazidi clerics pray for the welfare of U.S. forces."[120]

Tony Lagouranis comments on a Yazidi prisoner in his book Fear Up Harsh: An Army Interrogator's Dark Journey through Iraq:

There's a lot of mystery surrounding the Yazidi, and a lot of contradictory information. But I was drawn to this aspect of their beliefs: Yazidi don't have a Satan. Malak Ta'us, an archangel, God's favorite, was not thrown out of heaven the way Satan was. Instead, he descended, saw the suffering and pain of the world, and cried. His tears, thousands of years' worth, fell on the fires of hell, extinguishing them. If there is evil in the world, it does not come from a fallen angel or from the fires of hell. The evil in this world is man-made. Nevertheless, humans can, like Malak Ta'us, live in this world but still be good.[121]

Persecution of Yazidis

Through their history, the Yazidi people have endured much systematic violence as they upheld their religion in the face of severe Islamic persecution and attempts to force them to convert to Islam and "Arabize" them by the Ottoman Empire and later in the 20th century by Iraq.[122][47]

The belief of some followers of other monotheistic religions of the region that the Peacock Angel equates with their own unredeemed evil spirit Satan,[123]:29[88] has incited centuries of persecution of the Yazidis as "devil worshippers".[124][125]

Under the Ottoman Empire

A large Yazidi community existed in Syria, but it declined due to persecution by the Ottoman Empire.[126][127] Several punitive expeditions were organized against the Yazidis by the Ottoman governors (Wāli) of Diyarbakır, Mosul and Baghdad. The objective of these persecutions was the forced conversion of Yazidis to the Sunni Hanafi Islam of the Ottoman Empire.[128]

In post-invasion Iraq

On 7 April 2007, a 17-year-old Iraqi of the Yazidi faith, Du'a Khalil Aswad, was stoned to death by her family.[129][130] Rumours that the stoning was connected to her alleged conversion to Islam prompted reprisals against Yazidis by Sunnis, including the 2007 Mosul massacre. In August 2007, some 500 Yazidis were killed in a coordinated series of bombings in Qahtaniya that became the deadliest suicide attack since the Iraq War began. In August 2009, at least 20 people were killed and 30 wounded in a double suicide bombing in northern Iraq, an Iraqi Interior Ministry official said. Two suicide bombers with explosive vests carried out the attack at a cafe in Sinjar, west of Mosul. In Sinjar, many townspeople are members of the Yazidi minority.[131]

By the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL)

Defend International provided humanitarian aid to Yazidi refugees in Iraqi Kurdistan in December 2014.
Yazidi Peshmerga at the shrine of Sharaf ad-Din in the Sinjar Mountains, 2019

In 2014, with the territorial gains of the Salafist militant group calling itself the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) there was much upheaval in the Iraqi Yazidi population. ISIL captured Sinjar in August 2014 following the withdrawal of Peshmerga troops of Masoud Barzani, forcing up to 50,000 Yazidis to flee into the nearby mountainous region.[132] In early August the town of Sinjar was nearly deserted as Kurdish Peshmerga forces were no longer able to keep ISIL forces from advancing. ISIL had previously declared the Yazidis to be devil worshippers.[133] Most of the population fleeing Sinjar retreated by trekking up nearby mountains with the ultimate goal of reaching Dohuk in Iraqi Kurdistan (normally a five-hour drive by car). Concerns for the elderly and those of fragile health were expressed by the refugees, who told reporters of their lack of water. Reports coming from Sinjar stated that sick or elderly Yazidi who could not make the trek were being executed by ISIL. Yazidi parliamentarian Haji Ghandour told reporters that "In our history, we have suffered 72 massacres. We are worried Sinjar could be a 73rd."[133]

UN groups say at least 40,000 members of the Yazidi sect, many of them women and children, took refuge in nine locations on Mount Sinjar, a craggy, 1,400 m (4,600 ft) high ridge identified in local legend as the final resting place of Noah's Ark, facing slaughter at the hands of jihadists surrounding them below if they fled, or death by dehydration if they stayed.[134] Between 20,000 and 30,000 Yazidis, most of them women and children, besieged by ISIL, escaped from the mountain after the People's Protection Units (YPG) and Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) intervened to stop ISIL and opened a humanitarian corridor for them,[135] helping them cross the Tigris into Rojava.[136] Some Yazidis were later escorted back to Iraqi Kurdistan by Peshmerga and YPG forces, Kurdish officials have said.[137][138]

Captured women are treated as sex slaves or spoils of war, some are driven to suicide. Women and girls who convert to Islam are sold as brides, those who refuse to convert are tortured, raped and eventually murdered. Babies born in the prison where the women are held are taken from their mothers to an unknown fate.[139][140] Nadia Murad, a Yazidi human rights activist and 2018 Nobel Peace Prize winner, was kidnapped and used as a sex slave by the ISIL in 2014.[141] In October 2014, the United Nations reported that more than 5,000 Yazidis had been murdered and 5,000 to 7,000 (mostly women and children) had been abducted by ISIL.[142] ISIS has, in their digital magazine Dabiq, explicitly claimed religious justification for enslaving Yazidi women.[143] In December 2014, Amnesty International published a report.[144][145] Despite the oppression Yazidis' women have sustained, they have appeared on the news as examples of retaliation. They have received training and taken positions at the frontlines of the fighting, making up about a third of the Kurd–Yazidi coalition forces, and have distinguished themselves as soldiers.[146][147]

See also

  • List of Yazidi organizations
  • List of Yazidi people
  • List of Yazidi settlements

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Further reading

  • Açıkyıldız, Birgül (2014). The Yezidis: The History of a Community, Culture and Religion. London: I.B. Tauris & Company. ISBN 978-1-784-53216-1. OCLC 888467694.
  • Cumont, Franz (1911). The Oriental Religions in Roman Paganism. Chicago, IL: Open Court Publishing. pp. 152–153. ISBN 978-0-486-20321-8. OCLC 670375427.
  • Drower, E.S. (1941). Peacock Angel; Being Some Account of Votaries of a Secret Cult and Their Sanctuaries. London: John Murray. OCLC 4821609.
  • Husseini, Rana (2012). "Chapter 15. The Historical and Religious Seeds of 'Honor'". In Clark, Kelly James (ed.). Abraham's Children: Liberty and Tolerance in an Age of Religious Conflict. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-18333-7. OCLC 809235956.
  • Joseph, Isya (January 1909). "Yezidi Texts". The American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures. 25 (2): 111–156. doi:10.1086/369616. JSTOR 527914.
  • Kreyenbroek, Philip G. (1995). "Yezidism -- Its Background, Observances, and Textual Tradition". Texts and Studies in Religion (in Kurdish and English). Lewiston, Queenston and Lampeter, NY: Edwin Mellen Press. 62. OCLC 31377794. ISBN 978-0-773-49004-8
  • Kreyenbroek, Philip G.; Kartal, Z.; Omarkhali, Kh.; Rashow, Kh. Jindy (2009). Yezidism in Europe: Different Generations Speak About Their Religion. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag. ISBN 978-3-447-06060-8. OCLC 554952854.
  • Omarkhali, Kh. "Yezidism: Society, Symbol, Observance". Istanbul, 2007. In Kurdish.
  • Reshid, T. Yezidism: historical roots, International Journal of Yezidi Studies, January 2005.
  • Rodziewicz, A., Yezidi Eros. Love as The Cosmogonic Factor and Distinctive Feature of The Yezidi Theology in The Light of Some Ancient Cosmogonies, Fritillaria Kurdica, 2014/3,41, pp. 42–105.
  • Rodziewicz, A., Tawus Protogonos: Parallels between the Yezidi Theology and Some Ancient Greek Cosmogonies, Iran and the Caucasus, 2014/18,1, pp. 27–45.
  • Williams, Kayla, and Michael E. Staub. 2005. Love My Rifle More Than You. W.W. Norton, New York. ISBN 0-393-06098-5
  • Victoria Arakelova Yezdistan versus Kurdistan: Another Legend on the Origin of the Yezidis // Iran and the Caucasus 21 (2017)
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