Vogue (Madonna song)
"Vogue" is a song by American singer Madonna from her second soundtrack album I'm Breathless (1990). It was released as the first single from the album on March 27, 1990, by Sire Records. Madonna was inspired by vogue dancers and choreographers Jose Gutierez Xtravaganza and Luis Xtravaganza from the Harlem "House Ball" community, the origin of the dance form, and they introduced "vogueing" to her at the Sound Factory club in New York City. "Vogue" is a house song which set trends in dance music in the 1990s with strong influences of 1970s disco within its composition. "Vogue" also contains a spoken section, in which Madonna name-checks various "Golden Age" Hollywood stars. Lyrically, the song is about enjoying oneself on the dance floor no matter who one is and it contains a theme of escapism. "Vogue" has appeared in a remixed form on two of Madonna's greatest hits compilations: The Immaculate Collection (1990) and Celebration (2009).
|Single by Madonna|
|from the album I'm Breathless|
|B-side||"Keep It Together"|
|Released||March 27, 1990|
|Madonna singles chronology|
|"Vogue" on YouTube|
Critically, "Vogue" has been met with appreciation ever since its release; reviewers have praised its anthemic nature and listed it as one of Madonna's career highlights. Commercially, the song remains one of Madonna's biggest international hits, topping the charts in over 30 countries, including Australia, Canada, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States. It became the world's best-selling single of 1990, selling over six million copies.
The accompanying music video for "Vogue", directed by David Fincher, was shot in black-and-white and takes stylistic inspiration from the 1920s and 1930s. Madonna and her dancers can be seen vogueing to different choreographed moves. The video has been ranked as one of the greatest of all time in different critic lists and polls, and won three awards at the 1990 MTV Video Music Awards out of a total of nine nominations.
Madonna has performed the song on six of her world tours, at the 1990 MTV Video Music Awards and at her performance during the halftime show of Super Bowl XLVI. The song has also been featured on the soundtrack of The Devil Wears Prada, as well as in "The Power of Madonna" episode of the Fox show Glee. Writers and critics have noted the video and the song's influence in bringing an underground subculture into mainstream popular culture through the postmodern nature of her power and influence, as well as the way in which it followed a new trend in which dance music enjoyed widespread popularity.
Background and recording
Producer Shep Pettibone had produced successful remixes for a number of Madonna songs and provided additional production on her singles "Like A Prayer" and "Express Yourself". Warner Music head of dance music Craig Kostich approached Pettibone with the idea of collaborating with Madonna on a new song. Pettibone recalled that "Vogue" was created quickly and cheaply; he wrote and recorded the backing track in two weeks on a budget of $5000, then submitted it to Madonna, who wrote the lyrics and conceived the title.
Madonna (who had just finished working on the Dick Tracy film and soundtrack) flew to New York and recorded her vocals in a small 24-track basement studio on West 56th St, in a booth that had been converted from a closet. According to Pettibone, Madonna was efficient in the studio, rapidly tracking all the verse and chorus vocals in order, in single takes. Pettibone proposed the idea of a rap to fill the middle eight. He suggested namechecking classic film stars, so he and Madonna quickly wrote a list of names and she recorded it immediately. Pettibone also came up with the vocal coda ("Ooooh, you've got to, let your body move to the music"). After Madonna returned to Los Angeles, Pettibone added piano and altered the bassline to fit her vocal. The finished song was submitted to Warners, three weeks after Kostich's approach.
"Vogue" was originally intended to be the B-side for "Keep It Together" (the final single from Like a Prayer), but after the completed track was presented to Warner Bros. executives, all parties involved decided that "Vogue" should be released as a single. Although the song itself had nothing to do with Dick Tracy, it was included on the album I'm Breathless, which contained songs from and inspired by the film. Madonna altered some of the suggestive lyrics because the song was connected to the Disney film via soundtrack. "Vogue" was also used in a commercial for Dick Tracy, prompting TV Guide Magazine to condemn the commercial as false advertisement.
"Vogue" is a house song with disco influence. The song has been noted by Allmusic critic Stephen Thomas Erlewine to have a "deep house groove" and to have a "throbbing beat" by Mark Coleman of Rolling Stone. The backing track also features elements of salsa-influenced soul music, including in the form of samples of horns and strings from the 1982 Salsoul Orchestra track "Ooh I Love It (Love Break)", the inclusion of which was later the subject of a lawsuit.
J. Randy Taraborrelli, in his book Madonna: An Intimate Biography, wrote that the song was a "pulsating dance track". According to sheet music published at Musicnotes.com at Alfred Publishing, the song is written in the key of A♭ major, has a tempo of 116 beats per minute, and in it, Madonna's vocal range spans from C4 to E♭5. Lyrically, the song has a theme of escapism, and talks about how any person can enjoy themself.
In the bridge, the song has a spoken rap section, in which Madonna references sixteen "Golden Age" Hollywood stars from the 1920s to the 1950s. In order of mention in the lyrics, they are Greta Garbo, Marilyn Monroe, Marlene Dietrich, Joe DiMaggio, Marlon Brando, Jimmy Dean, Grace Kelly, Jean Harlow, Gene Kelly, Fred Astaire, Ginger Rogers, Rita Hayworth, Lauren Bacall, Katharine Hepburn, Lana Turner and Bette Davis. Ten of the stars mentioned in the song (namely Davis, Dean, Dietrich, DiMaggio, Garbo, Harlow, Rogers, Turner, and both Kellys) were entitled to a royalty payment of $3,750, payable to their estates, when Madonna performed "Vogue" at the Super Bowl XLVI halftime show in 2012, as their likenesses were displayed during the performance. At the time, Bacall was the lone living star; she died in 2014, at the age of 89.
Madonna and Pettibone were sued by VMG Salsoul in June 2012 based on the accusation that they had sampled the 1976 song "Love Break" by the Salsoul Orchestra. Pettibone’s defense was that he recreated the horn sound, not sampled it. The case was decided in Madonna's favor; the judge found that "no reasonable audience" would be able to discern the sampled portions, as they were insignificant to "Vogue". That decision was affirmed by the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals.
"Vogue" has been lauded by critics since its release. AllMusic critic Stephen Thomas Erlewine claimed that the song was "Madonna's finest single moment" and that it had an "instantly memorable melody". In a review of The Immaculate Collection, Erlewine also claimed that the song was "sleek" and "stylish". Jose F. Promis, in another AllMusic review, claimed that "Vogue" was a "crowning artistic achievement". Bill Coleman from Billboard commented that "the starlet's pop/house homage to the underground (soon to be pushed very overground) fad pulls off its aims." He stated that it "maintains the flavor of Pettibone's past "house" treatments with a bit of his classic "Love Break" tossed in for good deja vu measure." Ernest Hardy from Cashbox stated that "pop savvy takes well to a house setting", adding, "it's gonna be a Madonna Summer". Jim Farber from Entertainment Weekly, in a relatively negative review of I'm Breathless, asserted that the "finale of Vogue" is "the sole bright spot". David Giles from Music Week stated that "it possesses a meatier groove than we've been used to and also a silly "list" segment that reduces her to the level of the Beloved." In his review of I'm Breathless, Mark Coleman from Rolling Stone wrote that, whilst the song initially sounded "lackluster", within the album's context, it "gains a startling resonance". Sal Cinquemani of Slant Magazine, in his review of the album as a whole, claimed that whilst the "hugely influential" song initially sounded "grossly out of place", it turns out to be "a fitting finale" for I'm Breathless. J. Randy Taraborrelli, in his book, Madonna: An Intimate Biography, wrote that the song was a "funky, uptown anthem celebrating the art of 'voguing'", as well as that the rap section "is still one of Madonna's greatest camp musical moments".
In 2003, Madonna fans were asked to vote for their Top 20 Madonna singles of all-time by Q-Magazine. "Vogue" was allocated the number-14 spot. In 2007, VH1 ranked the song fifth on its list of "Greatest Songs of the 90s". Slant Magazine listed "Vogue" as tenth "Best Singles of the '90s" as well as third in their list of the "100 Greatest Dance Songs". "Vogue", on addition, has received numerous accolades. It won the 1991 Juno Award for Best Selling International Single, as well as winning the American Music Award for Favourite Dance Single. The song, based on the 1990 Rolling Stone Reader's Poll Awards, was voted Best single. The song was also ranked as the fourth best song of 1990 on that year's Pazz & Jop poll by The Village Voice.
After its release, "Vogue" reached number one in over 30 countries worldwide, becoming Madonna's biggest hit at that time. It was also the best-selling single of 1990 with sales of more than two million, and has sold more than six million copies worldwide to date. In the US, massive airplay and sales demand in response to the popular music video in April 1990 made way for "Vogue"'s number 39 debut in the week of April 14. The song shot to number one on the Billboard Hot 100 in its sixth week on the chart, dated May 19, 1990, displacing Sinéad O'Connor's four-week run in the top spot with "Nothing Compares 2 U". The song also reached number one on the Hot Dance Club Play chart, remaining there for two weeks. On June 28, 1990, "Vogue" was certified double platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) for sales of two million copies of the physical single across United States. "Vogue" became the first multiplatinum single by a female artist —and third overall— since the introduction of multiplatinum awards by the RIAA in 1984. To date, it remains Madonna's best-selling physical single in the country. After digital sales began in 2005, "Vogue" has sold additional 311,000 digital downloads, according to Nielsen SoundScan.
"Vogue" was also a huge success in Europe by topping the Eurochart Hot 100 Singles chart for eight consecutive weeks. In the United Kingdom, the song knocked Snap!'s "The Power" off the number one slot and stayed there for four weeks, continuing a trend of club/pop crossovers going to number one. It was helped in the UK by multi-formatting. As well as the 7-inch, 12-inch, CD and cassette singles, the label released four limited editions: 12-inch with Face of the 80s poster, 12-inch with 'X-rated' poster and an extra remix on the b-side, 7-inch picture disc and 12-inch picture disc. According to The Official Charts Company, the song has sold 505,000 (436,000 physical) copies there and is her 11th biggest selling single in the UK. Released as a double A-side to "Keep It Together", "Vogue" also topped the Australian ARIA singles chart for five weeks.
The video was directed by David Fincher and shot at the Burbank Studios in Burbank, California on February 10–11, 1990. The video was brought together after a large casting call in Los Angeles where hundreds of different sorts of dancers appeared.
Filmed in black-and-white, the video recalls the look of films and photography from the Golden Age of Hollywood with the use of artwork by the Art Deco artist Tamara de Lempicka and an Art Deco set design. Many of the scenes are recreations of photographs taken by noted photographer Horst P. Horst, including his famous Mainbocher Corset, Lisa with Turban (1940), and Carmen Face Massage (1946). Horst was reportedly "displeased" with Madonna's video because he never gave his permission for his photographs to be used and received no acknowledgement from Madonna. Some of the close-up poses recreate noted portraits of such stars as Marilyn Monroe, Bette Davis, Veronica Lake, Greta Garbo, Marlene Dietrich, Katharine Hepburn, Judy Garland and Jean Harlow. (Additionally, several stars of this era were name-checked in the song's lyrics.) Several famous Hollywood portrait photographers whose style and works are referenced include George Hurrell, Eugene Robert Richee, Don English, Whitey Schafer, Ernest Bachrach, Scotty Welbourne, Laszlo Willinger, and Clarence Sinclair Bull.
The video features the dancers for Madonna's then-upcoming Blond Ambition Tour - Donna De Lory, Niki Harris, Luis Xtravaganza Camacho, Jose Gutierez Xtravaganza, Salim Gauwloos, Carlton Wilborn, Gabriel Trupin, Oliver Crumes and Kevin Stea. The choreography was set by "Punk Ballerina" Karole Armitage. The video premiered worldwide on MTV on March 29, 1990, and it also premiered on BET on November 22 that same year, making it the first video by Madonna to air on an African-American channel.
The black-and-white video, set in Art Deco-themed 1920s and 1930s surroundings, starts off showing different sculptures, works of art, as well as Madonna's dancers posing. Along with this are images of a maid and a butler cleaning up inside what seems to be a grand house. When the dance section of the song starts, Madonna turns around, and, similarly to the lyrics, strikes a pose. The video progresses, and images of men with fedoras, Madonna wearing the controversial sheer lace dress and other outfits, follow. As the chorus begins, Madonna and her dancers start to perform a vogue dance routine, where she sings the chorus as her dancers mime the backing vocals. After this, other scenes of Madonna in different outfits and imitations of golden-era Hollywood stars progresses, after which there is a scene with Madonna's dancers voguing. Finally, after this scene, Madonna can be seen wearing her iconic "cone bra", after which she also performs a dance routine with a fellow dancer. As the rap section begins, different clips of Madonna posing in the style of famous photographs or portraits of Hollywood stars, begins, ultimately followed by a choreographed scene with her dancers and backup singers.
MTV placed the video at second on their list of "100 Greatest Music Videos Ever Made" in 1999. In 1993, Rolling Stone magazine listed the video as the twenty-eighth best music video of all-time. Also, the same magazine listed "Vogue" as the number-two music video of all time in 1999 second only to Michael Jackson's Thriller. It was also ranked at number five on "The Top 100 Videos That Broke The Rules", issued by MTV on the channel's 25th anniversary in August 2006. It was the third time Fincher and Madonna collaborated on a video (the first being 1989's "Express Yourself" and the second being 1989's "Oh Father"). About.com listed as the best Madonna video.
There was some controversy surrounding the video due to a scene in which Madonna's breasts and, if the viewer looks closely, her nipples could be seen through her sheer lace blouse, as seen in the picture on the right. MTV wanted to remove this scene, but Madonna refused, and the video aired with the shot intact.
"Vogue" music video received a total of nine MTV Video Music Awards nominations, becoming her most-nominated video at the award show. It won Best Direction, Best Editing and Best Cinematography. The video was voted number two on MTV's "100 Greatest Videos Ever Made".
In 2019, Vogue became Madonna's fourth music video to reach over 100 million views across four different decades (following "Bitch I'm Madonna", "Hung Up" and "La Isla Bonita") which made her the first female artist in history to achieve this feat within the streaming era.
On 6 September 1990, a month after the end of the Blond Ambition World Tour, Madonna made her now-famous appearance at the 1990 MTV Video Music Awards, lip-synching to "Vogue" with backing vocalists Donna De Lory and Niki Haris and Madonna's male dancers. The performance was repeated the following night at the AIDS Project Los Angeles' fourth annual Commitment To Life benefit at the Wiltern Theater, where Madonna was honored with an award.
Writer Carol Clerk has suggested that Madonna bore "great resemblance to Marie Antoinette". In a 2015 interview former Madonna dancers Luis Camacho and Jose Gutierez explained that the inspiration for theme in fact came from the 1988 film Dangerous Liaisons. Prior to the VMA performance, Madonna was uncertain whether she should perform "Vogue" or "Keep It Together", but just before the end of the concert tour, during a game of charades with her troupe, Madonna realized the connection between the "arrogant and aristocratic" attitudes and mannerisms of vogueing, and those of the characters in Dangerous Liaisons, so she arranged for the troupe to be dressed in appropriate 18th-century-styled costumes, and Madonna herself performed in one of the lavish gowns that Glenn Close had worn in the film. Camacho also recalled that the troupe was very nervous about their performance, because part of the routine called for Madonna and her singers to throw their fans in the air and catch them, but they kept dropping them in rehearsals. However, on the night, the move went off flawlessly, and Camacho said that the dancers were so relieved that they spontaneously applauded them. During the performance, Madonna and her dancers flashed their undergarments during their routine, at one point Madonna pushed the faces of two male dancers into her breasts, one of her dancers also fondled her breasts, and another briefly put his head under Madonna's skirts. Overall, the performance was ranked as the second best in the history of MTV Video Music Awards in a Billboard poll.
In 1992, Finnish progressive metal band Waltari recorded a cover version for their album Torcha!, which became a single and has a video clip. In 1998, Britney Spears added the song to the setlist of her ...Baby One More Time Tour, along with Madonna's "Material Girl". "Vogue" was featured in the 2006 film The Devil Wears Prada and appears as the opening track of its soundtrack album. Australian singer Kylie Minogue used the song in both her Homecoming Tour and For You, For Me Tour, as a mashup with her own song "Burning Up". In 2008, Rihanna performed the song during the Fashion Rocks show. In 2014, the studio version of the recording leaked online.
On the Fox TV show Glee, Sue Sylvester (Jane Lynch) sang and performed in a "Vogue" music video on the March 2010 all-Madonna episode, with the name of Ginger Rogers replaced by the name of Sue Sylvester, and the phrase "Bette Davis we love you" replaced by the phrase "Will Schuester I hate you". The song charted at number 106 on the UK Singles Chart. Beth Ditto included "Vogue" in several live performances, including at Moscow Miller Party. She also paid homage to "Vogue" with the video of her single "I Wrote the Book". In 2014, Katy Perry used a snippet of "Vogue" and mashed it with her own song "International Smile", during The Prismatic World Tour. In 2015, Ariana Grande performed a mashup of “Vogue” and Chaka Khan's “I'm Every Woman” during the third leg of The Honeymoon Tour.
"Vogue" was included on the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame's "500 Songs That Shaped Rock and Roll", and was voted number five on VH1's 100 Greatest Songs of the 90s. Time called it "the most famous fashion song of all time", although the song was not specifically about the [Vogue] magazine. Author Lucy O'Brien, in her book Madonna: Like an Icon, wrote a detailed description of the song's influence:
'Vogue' became the Number 1 hit of that summer, played in clubs across the globe, from London to New York to Bali. It rode the crest of the newly emerging dance craze, where club culture, house music and techno met the mainstream. 'Vogue' reflected the new hedonism; positive, upbeat, and totally inclusive.
With the release of the song, Madonna brought the underground "vogueing" into mainstream culture. Before Madonna popularized the dance, vogue was performed mostly in bars and disco of New York City on the underground gay scene. Steven Canals, the co-creator of TV series Pose stated "If we're looking at the history of ballroom and specifically that moment in time, what Madonna did was bring ballroom to the mainstream. She introduced the world to this community who, up until that point in time, had been a subculture." Vogueing has since become a prominent dance form practised worldwide, and many performers have followed Madonna's footsteps, with Beyoncé, Rihanna, Ariana Grande and Azealia Banks all adopting the dance style and incorporating it into their music videos and performances.
The song is also noted for bringing house music into mainstream popular music, as well as for reviving disco music after a decade of its commercial death. Erick Henderson of Slant Magazine explained that the song "was instrumental in allowing disco revivalism to emerge, allowing the denigrated gay genre to soar once again within the context of house music, the genre disco became in its second life." Sal Cinquemani of the same publication wrote that the song was "making its impact all the more impressive (it would go on to inspire a glut of pop-house copycats) and begging the question: If disco died a decade earlier, what the fuck was this big, gay, fuscia drag-queen boa of a dance song sitting on top of the charts for a month for?"
"Vogue" has inspired flash mobs around the US. In 2015, the rhythmic gymnastics group from Ukraine used the track for their 6 clubs and 2 hoops routine, which was intended to be shown at the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio.
US 7-inch and cassette single / Japanese 3-inch CD single
UK and European 7-inch / cassette single
US CD maxi-single / digital download (2020)
US 12-inch maxi-single
UK and European 12-inch / CD single
Japanese CD EP
Canadian 7-inch single
Certifications and sales
|Australia (ARIA)||2× Platinum||140,000^|
|Canada (Music Canada)||Platinum||100,000^|
|New Zealand (RMNZ)||Gold||5,000*|
|United Kingdom (BPI)||Gold||663,000|
|United States (RIAA)||2× Platinum||2,000,000^|
|Brazil (Pro-Música Brasil)||Gold||30,000*|
* Sales figures based on certification alone.
- List of Australian chart achievements and milestones
- List of Billboard Hot 100 number-one singles of 1990
- List of European number-one airplay songs of the 1990s
- List of UK Singles Chart number ones of the 1990s
- Novelty and fad dances
- "'Vogue' Producer Shep Pettibone's First Interview in 20 Years: On Making a Madonna Classic & Why He Left Music Behind". Billboard. Archived from the original on May 24, 2015. Retrieved May 15, 2019.
- Taraborrelli (2002), pp. 182–183.
- "AFI Catalog: Dick Tracy (1990)". American Film Institute. Retrieved February 3, 2021.
- Jose F. Promis. "Vogue – Madonna – Review". AllMusic. Archived from the original on January 9, 2013. Retrieved February 16, 2013.
- "Rewinding the Charts: 25 Years Ago, Madonna Was in 'Vogue' Atop the Hot 100". Billboard. Archived from the original on May 23, 2015. Retrieved May 20, 2015.
- "Vogue' Producer Shep Pettibone's First Interview in 20 Years: On Making a Madonna Classic & Why He Left Music Behind". Archived from the original on May 24, 2015. Retrieved May 23, 2015.
- Thomas, Stephen. "I'm Breathless – Madonna". AllMusic. Archived from the original on September 24, 2012. Retrieved January 8, 2012.
- Mark Coleman (June 14, 1990). "I'm Breathless | Album Reviews". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on September 24, 2012. Retrieved January 8, 2012.
- Jocelyn Vena (July 13, 2012). "Madonna Sued Over 'Vogue'". MTV. Archived from the original on December 6, 2014. Retrieved November 15, 2014.
- Taraborrelli (2008).
- "Unsupported Browser or Operating System". Musicnotes.com. Retrieved January 8, 2012.
- Gardner, Eriq (September 28, 2012). "Lawsuit Aims to Stop Marlon Brando Estate From Suing Madonna Over 'Vogue'". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on March 6, 2014. Retrieved December 28, 2013.
- Krule, Miriam (August 12, 2014). "All 16 of the Icons Name-Dropped in Madonna's "Vogue" Are Now Gone". Slate. Archived from the original on August 15, 2014. Retrieved August 15, 2014.
- "Madonna Sued Over 'Vogue'". MTV News. Archived from the original on December 6, 2014. Retrieved November 15, 2014.
- Gardner, Eriq (November 18, 2013). "Madonna and Music Producer Win 'Vogue' Sampling Lawsuit". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on February 14, 2015. Retrieved November 15, 2014.
- Gardner, Eriq (June 2, 2016). "Madonna Gets Victory Over 'Vogue' Sample at Appeals Court". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on June 3, 2016. Retrieved June 2, 2016.
- Thomas, Stephen (November 13, 1990). "The Immaculate Collection – Madonna". AllMusic. Archived from the original on February 9, 2012. Retrieved January 8, 2012.
- Promis, Jose F. "Vogue – Madonna". AllMusic. Retrieved January 8, 2012.
- Coleman, Bill (April 14, 1990). "Dance Trax: 'The Power' Single Gains Strength On Both Sides Of The Pond" (PDF). Billboard. p. 27. Retrieved October 14, 2020.
- Hardy, Ernest (April 21, 1990). "On The Dancefloor: New Grooves - Singles" (PDF). Cashbox. p. 10. Retrieved October 27, 2020.
- Farber, Jim (July 20, 2001). "The Girl Material". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on October 11, 2012. Retrieved January 8, 2012.
- Giles, David (April 7, 1990). "Singles" (PDF). Music Week. p. 25. Retrieved October 30, 2020.
- "Madonna: I'm Breathless | Music Review". Slant Magazine. March 9, 2003. Archived from the original on October 14, 2012. Retrieved January 8, 2012.
- Ali, Rahsheeda (May 23, 2013). "The 100 Greatest Songs Of the '90s | Music News + Gossip | VH1 Music". VH1. Archived from the original on February 14, 2012. Retrieved March 30, 2014.
- "Best Singles of the '90s". Slant Magazine. Archived from the original on January 22, 2012. Retrieved January 8, 2012.
- "100 Greatest Dance Songs". Slant Magazine. Archived from the original on January 21, 2012. Retrieved January 8, 2012.
- "18th American Music Awards (presented in 1991)". Rock on the Net. January 28, 1991. Archived from the original on September 10, 2012. Retrieved January 8, 2012.
- "Rocklist.net Rolling Stone (USA) End Of Year Lists". Rocklistmusic.co.uk. Archived from the original on July 23, 2010. Retrieved January 8, 2012.
- "Pazz & Jop 1990: Critics Poll". Robert Christgau. March 5, 1991. Archived from the original on January 5, 2012. Retrieved January 8, 2012.
- Cover Media (July 29, 2011). "Madonna: Beth Ditto is great". Yahoo! News. Archived from the original on June 15, 2012. Retrieved November 22, 2011.
- Lamb, Bill. "Madonna's Top 10 Pop Hits – The Biggest Madonna Songs". About.com. Archived from the original on April 11, 2012. Retrieved March 23, 2010.
- Holden, Stephen (August 5, 1990). "Strike the Pose: When Music Is Skin Deep POP VIEW; Video Age Music: Stark Images, Shrill Voices, Skin Deep". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 31, 2013. Retrieved June 23, 2012.
- "Hits of 1990". NineMSN. PBL Media / Microsoft. Archived from the original on March 4, 2010. Retrieved November 12, 2010.
- "Gold & Platinum Searchable Database – March 30, 2014". RIAA. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved March 30, 2014.
- "Madonna's 'Vogue' Hits Multiplatinum Mark In June" (PDF). Billboard. July 14, 1990. p. 3. Retrieved February 11, 2021.
- Trust, Gary (April 30, 2010). "Ask Billboard: 'Glee'-ful About Madonna". Billboard. Archived from the original on May 28, 2013. Retrieved April 22, 2012.
- "Madonna: The Official Top 40". MTV. MTV Networks. Archived from the original on October 10, 2010. Retrieved December 20, 2010.
- "Australian-charts.com – Madonna – Vogue". ARIA Top 50 Singles. Retrieved April 23, 2020.
- O'Brien, Lucy (August 11, 2008). Madonna: Like an icon. ISBN 978-0-552-15361-4.
- "Archives | The Dallas Morning News, The Dallas Morning News". Nl.newsbank.com. May 16, 1990. Archived from the original on March 31, 2014. Retrieved March 30, 2014.
- "Greta Garbo Headshot". Nndb.com. Archived from the original on January 22, 2013. Retrieved March 30, 2014.
- "Video of the week: Madonna – Vogue – Rhino News". rhino.co.uk. Archived from the original on May 21, 2008.
- Clerk, Carol (2002). Madonnastyle. ISBN 0-7119-8874-9.
- Butler, Jeremy G. (2006). Television: Critical Methods and Applications. 3rd edition, ISBN 0-8058-5415-0
- Henry Keazor; Thorsten Wübbena (2007). Video Thrills The Radio Star: Musikvideos: Geschichte, Themen, Analysen (in German) 2nd edition, ISBN 3-89942-728-9
- Guilbert, Georges-Claude (2002). Madonna as Postmodern Myth. ISBN 0-7864-1408-1, p.140
- Kobal, John (1976). Hollywood Glamor Portraits: 145 photos of stars, 1926–1949. ISBN 0-486-23352-9
- Straube, Trenton (April 14, 2016). "Madonna's Blond Ambition Dancer "Slam" Is Ready to Talk About His HIV—Just Don't Ask Him to Vogue". POZ. Archived from the original on March 12, 2017. Retrieved March 11, 2017.
- "Strike a Pose —". strikeaposefilm.com. Archived from the original on March 12, 2017. Retrieved March 11, 2017.
- Vogue video by Madonna on YouTube
- "Music videos". Yahoo Music. Archived from the original on January 6, 2010. Retrieved April 14, 2010.
- ""Vogue (Pop Up Video) " by Madonna | Pop Up Video". VH1. Archived from the original on September 7, 2010. Retrieved March 30, 2014.
- "MTV: 100 Greatest Music Videos Ever Made". RockOnTheNet.com. Archived from the original on July 23, 2013. Retrieved January 23, 2010.
- "Top 10 Madonna Music Videos". About.com. Archived from the original on June 13, 2013. Retrieved March 12, 2013.
- "Madonna's 'Like a Prayer' Voted Most Groundbreaking Video of All Time!". MTV. Archived from the original on November 7, 2009. Retrieved December 20, 2009.
- "Madonna – "Vogue" (1990)". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on November 20, 2016. Retrieved August 22, 2017.
- "1990 MTV Video Music Awards – Highlights, Winners, Performers and Photos from the 1990 MTV VMAs". MTV. Archived from the original on February 19, 2017. Retrieved July 7, 2011.
- Christopher Ciccone; Wendy Leigh (March 3, 2009). Life with My Sister Madonna. Simon and Schuster. p. 191. ISBN 978-1-4165-8763-7. Archived from the original on May 5, 2016. Retrieved August 24, 2015.
- "MTV: '100 Greatest Music Videos Ever Made'". Rock On The Net. Archived from the original on July 23, 2013. Retrieved June 3, 2015.
- "Madonna the first female with 100M views on videos from 4 different decades". Tone Deaf. August 3, 2019. Archived from the original on December 15, 2019. Retrieved February 7, 2020.
- Stein, Jeannine (September 10, 1990). "Stars Turn Out to Support AIDS Benefit". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved February 5, 2021.
- Wilker, Deborah. BAN THE BOX' CRUSADE DOOMS WASTEFUL CD PACK Archived March 16, 2013, at the Wayback Machine Sun Sentinel. October 5, 1990.
- Debbi Voller (1999). Madonna: The Style Book. Omnibus. pp. 35–. ISBN 978-0-7119-7511-8.
- Gregory E. Miller (August 19, 2015). "Inside 3 Iconic MTV VMAs Moments With Madonna, Britney and Lady Gaga". TV Insider. Archived from the original on June 23, 2018. Retrieved July 13, 2018.
- "MTV VMAs' 15 Best Performances Ever". Billboard. August 20, 2014. Archived from the original on March 30, 2013. Retrieved July 27, 2015.
- "Waltari - Torcha! - Encyclopaedia Metallum: The Metal Archives". metal-archives.com. Archived from the original on April 21, 2017. Retrieved February 9, 2018.
- David Hasseldorf (December 12, 2009), Waltari - Vogue, archived from the original on September 27, 2016, retrieved February 9, 2018
- Scott Mervis (March 26, 2009). "If U seek Britney". post-gazette.com. Archived from the original on June 19, 2018. Retrieved June 19, 2018.
- Misener, Jessica (August 24, 2012). "Are The Clothes In 'The Devil Wears Prada' Already Out Of Style? (PHOTOS)". Archived from the original on March 22, 2017. Retrieved June 19, 2018 – via Huff Post.
- "The Devil Wears Prada - Original Soundtrack - Songs, Reviews, Credits". AllMusic. Archived from the original on June 19, 2018. Retrieved June 19, 2018.
- "Rihanna Covers Madonna's 'Vogue,' and More of the News You Missed Today". Vogue. Archived from the original on March 5, 2016. Retrieved February 26, 2016.
- "Official Singles Chart for the week ending 8 May 2010". ChartsPlus. Liverpool: UKChartsPlus (454): 1–4. May 6, 2010.
- "EXCLUSIVE: Gossip's Beth Ditto Nods to Madonna". Spin. February 16, 2011. Archived from the original on April 3, 2015. Retrieved January 8, 2012.
- Virtel, Louis. "From Katy Perry to Britney: Rank Covers of Madonna's 'Vogue'". HitFix. Archived from the original on May 9, 2014. Retrieved May 8, 2014.
- "Ariana Grande Sings Whitney Houston-Madonna Mashup At NYC Pride: Watch". idolator.com. June 29, 2015.
- "Ariana Grande Mashes Up Whitney Houston and Madonna in Concert". Spin. July 17, 2015. Archived from the original on June 19, 2018. Retrieved June 19, 2018.
- "The Songs That Shaped Rock and Roll". Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Archived from the original on June 24, 2016. Retrieved June 3, 2015.
- "The Greatest". VH1. Archived from the original on July 16, 2013. Retrieved November 13, 2014.
- Berry, Allison (February 7, 2013). "Madonna, "Vogue" (1990) | Stylish Tunes: Top 10 Songs About Fashion". Time. ISSN 0040-781X. Retrieved February 7, 2020.
- Kleinfield, Justin (February 1, 2007). "Junior Vasquez". Electronic Musician. Archived from the original on October 22, 2013. Retrieved March 30, 2013.
- Haggerty, George (November 5, 2013). Encyclopedia of Gay Histories and Cultures. Routledge. pp. 936–937. ISBN 978-1-135-58506-8.
- "True story behind iconic music video". NewsComAu. June 13, 2019. Archived from the original on August 2, 2019. Retrieved February 7, 2020.
- Henderson, Alex. "House (Relation to Soul)". AllMusic. Archived from the original on March 26, 2013. Retrieved January 8, 2012.
- "A Brief History of House Pop, Inspired by Robyn's Honey". Pitchfork. Archived from the original on July 4, 2019. Retrieved February 7, 2020.
- "Madonna: Celebration | Music Review". Slant Magazine. October 14, 2013. Archived from the original on October 16, 2013. Retrieved October 16, 2013.
- "Flash Mob Hits Art in Kayenta Festival". St. George News. September 23, 2009. Archived from the original on October 17, 2013. Retrieved January 8, 2012.
- "Austriancharts.at – Madonna – Vogue" (in German). Ö3 Austria Top 40. Retrieved April 23, 2020.
- "Ultratop.be – Madonna – Vogue" (in Dutch). Ultratop 50. Retrieved April 23, 2020.
- "Top RPM Singles: Issue 1256." RPM. Library and Archives Canada. Retrieved April 23, 2020.
- "Top RPM Adult Contemporary: Issue 7981." RPM. Library and Archives Canada. Retrieved April 23, 2020.
- "Top RPM Dance/Urban: Issue 7936." RPM. Library and Archives Canada. Retrieved April 23, 2020.
- "Top 3 Denmark" (PDF). Music & Media. Retrieved March 22, 2018.
- "Eurochart Hot 100". Music & Media. Amsterdam: European Music Report. 5 (16). April 21, 1990. OCLC 29800226.
- Nyman, Jake (2005). Suomi soi 4: Suuri suomalainen listakirja (in Finnish) (1st ed.). Helsinki: Tammi. ISBN 951-31-2503-3.
- "Lescharts.com – Madonna – Vogue" (in French). Les classement single. Retrieved April 23, 2020.
- "Offiziellecharts.de – Madonna – Vogue" (in German). GfK Entertainment Charts. Retrieved April 23, 2020.
- "Top 3 Greece" (PDF). Music & Media. June 9, 1990. Retrieved March 22, 2018.
- "The Irish Charts – Search Results – Vogue". Irish Singles Chart. Retrieved April 23, 2020.
- "Top 3 Singles in Europe" (PDF). Music & Media. Vol. 7 no. 18. May 5, 1990. p. 12. Retrieved November 22, 2019.
- Okamoto, Satoshi (2006). Oricon Single Chart Book: Complete Edition 1968–2005. Roppongi, Tokyo: Oricon Entertainment. ISBN 4-87131-076-0.
- "Nederlandse Top 40 – week 18, 1990" (in Dutch). Dutch Top 40 Retrieved April 23, 2020.
- "Dutchcharts.nl – Madonna – Vogue" (in Dutch). Single Top 100. Retrieved April 23, 2020.
- "Charts.nz – Madonna – Vogue". Top 40 Singles. Retrieved April 23, 2020.
- "Norwegiancharts.com – Madonna – Vogue". VG-lista. Retrieved April 23, 2020.
- "Top 3 Portugal" (PDF). Music & Media. Retrieved March 22, 2018.
- "Discos más populares en Latinoamérica". El Siglo de Torreon (in Spanish): 48. July 13, 1990. Retrieved March 5, 2021.
- Salaverri, Fernando (September 2005). Sólo éxitos: año a año, 1959–2002 (1st ed.). Spain: Fundación Autor-SGAE. ISBN 84-8048-639-2.
- "Swedishcharts.com – Madonna – Vogue". Singles Top 100. Retrieved April 23, 2020.
- "Swisscharts.com – Madonna – Vogue". Swiss Singles Chart. Retrieved April 23, 2020.
- "Official Singles Chart Top 100". Official Charts Company. Retrieved April 23, 2020.
- "Madonna Chart History (Hot 100)". Billboard.
- "Madonna Chart History (Adult Contemporary)". Billboard. Retrieved April 23, 2020.
- "Madonna Chart History (Dance Club Songs)". Billboard. Retrieved April 13, 2017.
- "Madonna Chart History (Dance Singles Sales)". Billboard. Retrieved April 23, 2020.
- "Madonna Chart History (Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs)". Billboard. Retrieved April 13, 2017.
- "ARIA End Of Year Singles 1990". Australian Recording Industry Association. 1991. Archived from the original on October 7, 2017. Retrieved January 26, 2018.
- "Jaaroverzichten 1990" (in Dutch). Ultratop. Archived from the original on January 7, 2020. Retrieved December 31, 2019.
- "Top 100 Hit Tracks of 1990". RPM. Library and Archives Canada. Retrieved April 23, 2020.
- "Top 50 Adult Contemporary Tracks of 1990". RPM. Library and Archives Canada. Retrieved April 23, 2020.
- "Top 50 Dance Tracks of 1990". RPM. Library and Archives Canada. Retrieved April 23, 2020.
- "Eurochart Hot 100 Singles" (PDF). Billboard. Retrieved December 31, 2019.
- "Top 100 Single-Jahrescharts". GfK Entertainment (in German). offiziellecharts.de. Archived from the original on July 31, 2016. Retrieved December 5, 2015.
- "Single top 100 over 1990" (PDF) (in Dutch). Top40. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 5, 2012. Retrieved December 31, 2019.
- "Jaaroverzichten – Single 1990" (in Dutch). MegaCharts. Archived from the original on November 30, 2019. Retrieved December 31, 2019.
- "End of Year Charts 1990". Recorded Music NZ. Retrieved April 23, 2020.
- "Topp 20 Single Vår 1990" (in Norwegian). VG-lista. Archived from the original on August 13, 2017. Retrieved May 14, 2021.
- "Top Swiss Singles 1990". Archived from the original on February 1, 2014. Retrieved April 19, 2012.
- "Top UK Hits of 1990". Archived from the original on September 12, 2012. Retrieved April 13, 2012.
- "The Year in Music 1990: Top Pop Singles" (PDF). December 22, 1990. p. YE-14. Retrieved June 2, 2021.
- "Year-end charts: DANCE CLUB SONGS 1990". Archived from the original on July 17, 2020. Retrieved June 2, 2021.
- "The CASH BOX Year-End Charts: 1990 . TOP 50 POP SINGLES". Cash Box. December 29, 1990. Archived from the original on February 24, 2020. Retrieved April 10, 2021.
- "ULTRATOP NINETIES500: De Ultratop 500 best verkochte hits van de 90's" (in Dutch). Ultratop. p. 4. Retrieved May 11, 2021.
- Geoff Mayfield (December 25, 1999). 1999 The Year in Music Totally '90s: Diary of a Decade – The listing of Top Pop Albums of the '90s & Hot 100 Singles of the '90s. Billboard. Retrieved October 15, 2010.
- "Greatest of All Time Hot 100 Songs". Billboard. Archived from the original on August 3, 2018. Retrieved August 13, 2018.
- "Greatest of All Time Hot 100 Songs by Women". Billboard. Archived from the original on February 5, 2018. Retrieved March 30, 2021.
- "ARIA Charts – Accreditations – 1990 Singles" (PDF). Australian Recording Industry Association. Retrieved July 14, 2021.
- "Canadian single certifications – Madonna – Vogue". Music Canada. Retrieved May 24, 2012.
- "French single certifications – Madonna – Vogue" (in French). InfoDisc. Retrieved July 12, 2016. Select MADONNA and click OK.
- "Lot n° 73: Vogue". La Gazette de l'Hôtel Drouot (in French). Archived from the original on February 5, 2021. Retrieved February 5, 2021.
Certifié par le S.N.E.P. en 1990 pour 500.000 exemplaires vendus en France.
- "Japanese single certifications – Madonna – Vogue" (in Japanese). Recording Industry Association of Japan. Select 1993年8月 on the drop-down menu
- Oricon Album Chart Book: Complete Edition 1970–2005. Roppongi, Tokyo: Oricon Charts. 2006. ISBN 4-87131-077-9.
- "New Zealand single certifications – Madonna – Vogue". Recorded Music NZ. Retrieved May 24, 2012.
- "British single certifications – Madonna – Vogue". British Phonographic Industry. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
- Myers, Justin (April 24, 2019). "Madonna's lead singles ranked". Official Charts Company. Archived from the original on April 24, 2019. Retrieved April 24, 2019.
- "American single certifications – Madonna – Vogue". Recording Industry Association of America. Retrieved May 24, 2012.
- "Brazilian single certifications – Madonna – Vogue" (in Portuguese). Pro-Música Brasil. Retrieved May 24, 2012.