Vodafone Group plc (//) is a British multinational telecommunications company. Its registered office and global headquarters are in Newbury, Berkshire, England. It predominantly operates services in Asia, Africa, Europe, and Oceania.
|Type||Public limited company|
|Founded||16 September 1991|
|Headquarters||Newbury, Berkshire, England, UK|
|Revenue||€44.974 billion (2020)|
|€4.099 billion (2020)|
|–€455 million (2020)|
|Total assets||€168.168 billion (2020)|
|Total equity||€62.625 billion (2020)|
Number of employees
|Divisions||Vodafone Global Enterprise|
As of November 2020, Vodafone has owned and operated networks in 22 countries, with partner networks in 48 further countries. Its Vodafone Global Enterprise division provides telecommunications and IT services to corporate clients in 150 countries.
The name Vodafone comes from voice data fone (the latter a sensational spelling of "phone"), chosen by the company to "reflect the provision of voice and data services over mobile phones".
The evolution of Vodafone started in 1981 with the establishment of the Racal Strategic Radio Ltd subsidiary of Racal Electronics, the UK's largest maker of military radio technology, which formed a joint venture with Millicom called 'Racal', which evolved into the present Vodafone.
Evolution as a Racal Telecom brand: 1980 to 1991
In 1980, Ernest Harrison, the then chairman of Racal Electronics, agreed to a deal with Lord Weinstock of the General Electric Company to allow Racal to access some of GEC's tactical battlefield radio technology. The head of Racal's military radio division, Gerry Whent, was briefed by Ernest Harrison to drive the company into commercial mobile radio. Whent visited a mobile radio factory run by General Electric (unrelated to GEC) in Virginia, USA, the same year to understand the commercial use of military radio technology.
Jan Stenbeck, head of a growing Swedish conglomerate, set up an American company, Millicom Inc, and approached Gerry Whent in July 1982 about bidding jointly for the UK's second cellular radio licence. The two struck a deal giving Racal 60% of the new company, Racal-Millicom Ltd, and Millicom 40%. Due to concerns of the British government about foreign ownership, the terms were revised, and in December 1982, the Racal-Millicom partnership was awarded the second UK mobile phone network licence. Final ownership of Racal-Millicom Ltd was 80% Racal, with Millicom holding 15% plus royalties, and the venture firm Hambros Technology Trust holding 5%. According to the UK Secretary of State for Industry, "the bid submitted by Racal-Millicom Ltd … provided the best prospect for early national coverage by cellular radio."
Vodafone was launched on 1 January 1985 under the new name, Racal-Vodafone (Holdings) Ltd, with its first office based in the Courtyard in Newbury, Berkshire, and shortly thereafter Racal Strategic Radio was renamed Racal Telecommunications Group Limited. On 29 December 1986, Racal Electronics issued shares to the minority shareholders of Vodafone worth GB£110 million, and Vodafone became a fully owned brand of Racal.
On 26 October 1988, Racal Telecom, majority held by Racal Electronics, went public on the London Stock Exchange with 20% of its stock floated. The successful flotation led to a situation where Racal's stake in Racal Telecom was valued more than the whole of Racal Electronics. Under stock market pressure to realise full value for shareholders, Racal demerged Racal Telecom in 1991.
Vodafone Group, then Vodafone Airtouch plc: 1991 to 2000
In July 1996, Vodafone acquired the two-thirds of Talkland it did not already own for £30.6 million. On 19 November 1996, in a defensive move, Vodafone purchased Peoples Phone for £77 million, a 181 store chain whose customers were overwhelmingly using Vodafone's network. In a similar move the company acquired the 80% of Astec Communications that it did not own, a service provider with 21 stores.
In January 1997, Whent retired and Chris Gent took over as CEO. In the same year, Vodafone introduced its Speechmark logo, composed of a quotation mark in a circle, with the Os in the Vodafone logotype representing opening and closing quotation marks and suggesting conversation.
On 29 June 1999, Vodafone completed its purchase of AirTouch Communications, Inc. and changed its name to Vodafone Airtouch plc. The merged company commenced trading on 30 June 1999. The acquisition gave Vodafone a 35% share of Mannesmann, owner of the largest German mobile network. To gain antitrust approval for the merger, Vodafone sold its 17.2% stake in Mannesmann's German competitor, E-Plus Mobilfunk.
On 21 September 1999, Vodafone agreed to merge its US wireless assets with those of Bell Atlantic Corp to form Verizon Wireless. The merger was completed on 4 April 2000, just a few months prior to Bell Atlantic's merger with GTE to form Verizon Communications, Inc.
In November 1999, Vodafone made an unsolicited bid for Mannesmann, which was rejected. Vodafone's interest in Mannesmann had been increased by the latter's purchase of Orange, the UK mobile operator. Gent would later say Mannesmann's move into the UK broke a "gentleman's agreement" not to compete in each other's home territory. The hostile takeover provoked strong protest in Germany, and a "titanic struggle" which saw Mannesmann resist Vodafone's efforts. However, on 3 February 2000, the Mannesmann board agreed to an increased offer of £112 billion, then the largest corporate merger ever. The EU approved the merger in April 2000 after Vodafone agreed to divest the 'Orange' brand, which was acquired in May 2000 by France Télécom.
Vodafone Group plc: 2000 to present
On 17 December 2001, Vodafone introduced the concept of "Partner Networks", by signing TDC Mobil of Denmark. The new concept involved the introduction of Vodafone international services to the local market, without the need of investment by Vodafone. The concept would be used to extend the Vodafone brand and services into markets where it does not have stakes in local operators. Vodafone services would be marketed under the dual-brand scheme, where the Vodafone brand is added at the end of the local brand. (i.e., TDC Mobil-Vodafone etc.)
In 2007, Vodafone entered into a title sponsorship deal with the McLaren Formula One team, which traded as "Vodafone McLaren Mercedes" until the sponsorship ended at the end of the 2013 season.
On 1 December 2011, it acquired the Reading based Bluefish Communications Ltd, an ICT consultancy company. The acquired operations formed the nucleus of a new Unified Communications and Collaboration practice within its subsidiary Vodafone Global Enterprise, which will focus on implementing strategies in cloud computing, and strengthen its professional services offering.
In April 2012, Vodafone announced an agreement to acquire Cable & Wireless Worldwide (CWW) for £1.04 billion. The acquisition gave Vodafone access to CWW's fibre network for businesses, enabling it to take unified communications to expand its enterprise service offerings. On 18 June 2012, Cable & Wireless' shareholders voted in favour of the Vodafone offer.
On 2 September 2013, Vodafone announced it would be selling its 45% stake in Verizon Wireless to Verizon Communications for $US130 billion. With the proceeds from the deal, it announced a £19 billion Project Spring initiative to improve network quality in Europe and emerging markets, like India.
In January 2020, Vodafone confirmed that it has pulled out of Diem Association (known as Libra Association at the time), the governing council for the Facebook-created global digital currency initiative.
|* Majority stakes held through majority-owned Vodacom Group|
On 8 November 2006, the company announced a deal with Telecom Egypt, resulting in further co-operation in the Egyptian market and increasing its stake in Vodafone Egypt. After the deal, Vodafone Egypt was 55% owned by the group, while the remaining 45% was owned by Telecom Egypt.
On 29 January 2020, Saudi Telecom Company (STC) and the Vodafone Group signed a Memorandum of Understanding for the sale of Vodafone's entire 55 percent stake in Vodafone Egypt to STC. With the sale, Vodafone will be exiting Egypt (as a telecom operator) as the rest of the 45 percent stake in Vodafone Egypt is owned by Telecom Egypt. Telecom Egypt has said that it has no plans to sell its stake.
On 21 December 2020, Vodafone announced that its discussions with STC regarding the sale of Vodafone’s 55% shareholding in Vodafone Egypt have been terminated and that Vodafone would stay in the Egyptian market.
South Africa (Vodacom)
On 3 November 2004, the Company announced that its South African affiliate Vodacom had agreed to introduce Vodafone's international services, such as Vodafone live! and partner agreements, to its local market.
In November 2005, Vodafone announced that it was in exclusive talks to buy a 15% stake of VenFin in Vodacom Group, reaching agreement the following day. Vodafone and Telkom then had a 50% stake each in Vodacom. Vodafone now owns 57.5% of Vodacom after purchasing a 15% stake from Telkom.
On 9 October 2008, the company offered to acquire an additional 15% stake in Vodacom Group from Telkom. The finalised details of the agreement were announced on 6 November 2008. The agreement called for Telkom to sell 15 per cent of its 50 per cent stake in Vodacom to the group, and demerge the other 35 per cent to its shareholder. Meanwhile, Vodafone has agreed to make Vodacom its exclusive sub-Saharan Africa investment vehicle, as well as continuing to maintain the visibility of the Vodacom brand. The transaction closed in May/June 2009.
On 3 July 2008, Vodafone agreed to acquire a 70% stake in Ghana Telecom for $900 million. The acquisition was consummated on 17 August 2008. The same group-led consortium won the second fixed-line licence in Qatar on 15 September 2008.
On 23 September 2016, Vodafone extended its activities to Cameroon by signing a partnership with Afrimax, a 4G-LTE telecommunications operator in Africa. Vodafone Cameroon Launched a "Youth Program" in the Universities to support and encourage the Cameroonian students. The partnership ceased to operate in September 2017 following the withdrawal of its license by the government.
|United Arab Emirates|
|* Full control exercised by Vodafone Group|
In December 2007, a Vodafone Group-led consortium was awarded the second mobile phone licence in Qatar under the name "Vodafone Qatar". Vodafone Qatar is located at QSTP, the Qatar Science & Technology Park. Commercial operations officially began on 1 March 2009. In February 2018 Vodafone Europe agreed to sell their stake in the Qatar joint venture.
United Arab Emirates
On 28 January 2009, the group announced a partner network agreement with Du, the second-largest operator in the United Arab Emirates. The agreement involved co-operation on international clients, handset procurement, mobile broadband etc.
In January 2021 Vodafone obtained a license to establish and operate public telecommunications services in Oman. Vodafone will be the third operator in the Sultanate of Oman.
On 11 May 2008, Vodafone sealed a trade agreement with the Chilean Entel PCS Chile, in which Entel PCS has access to the equipment and international services of Vodafone, and Vodafone will be one of the trademarks of Entel for the wireless business. This step will give the Vodafone brand access to a market of over 15 million people, currently divided among two companies: Telefonica Movistar, and Entel PCS.
- United States
In the United States, Vodafone previously owned 45% of Verizon Wireless in a joint venture with Verizon Communications, the country's largest mobile carrier. Vodafone branding was not used, however, as the CDMA network was not compatible with the GSM 900/1800 MHz standard used by Vodafone's other networks and as Vodafone did not have management control over Verizon Wireless. On 2 September 2013 Vodafone announced the sale of its stake to Verizon Communications for around $130 billion.
In 2004, Vodafone made an unsuccessful bid for the entirety of AT&T Wireless; however, Cingular Wireless, at the time a joint venture of SBC Communications and BellSouth (both now part of AT&T Inc.), ultimately outbid Vodafone and took control of AT&T Wireless (the combined wireless carrier is now AT&T Mobility).
In 2013, Vodafone was considered for acquisition by U.S.-based AT&T. Ultimately, the deal did not move forward.
|South Korea||Sri Lanka||Taiwan||Thailand|
In 1999, J-Phone launched the J-sky mobile Internet service in response to DoCoMo's i-Mode service. It the became Japan's third-largest mobile operator and had introduced camera phones first in Japan. Vodafone then went on to acquire In December 2002 J-Phone's 3G network went live. On 1 October 2003, J-Phone became 'Vodafone Japan', and J-Phone's mobile internet service J-Sky became Vodafone Live!. In March 2006, Vodafone sold Vodafone Japan to SoftBank. In October 2006, SoftBank changed Vodafone Japan's name to 'SoftBank Mobile'. On 17 March 2006, Vodafone announced an agreement to sell all its interest in Vodafone Japan to SoftBank for £8.9 billion, of which £6.8 billion will be received in cash on closing of deal. Vodafone Japan later changed its name to SoftBank Mobile. In November 2010, Vodafone divested its remaining Softbank shares.
On 28 October 2005, the Company announced the acquisition of a 10 per cent stake in India's Bharti Enterprises, which operated the largest mobile phone network in India under the brand name Airtel. Then on 11 February 2007, the Company agreed to acquire a controlling interest of 67% in Hutch Essar for US$11.1 billion. At the same time, it agreed to sell back 5.6% of its Airtel stake to the Mittals; Vodafone would retain a 4.4% stake in Airtel. On 21 September 2007, Hutch was rebranded to Vodafone India. In May 2011, Vodafone Group Plc bought the remaining shares of Vodafone Essar from Essar Group Ltd for $5 billion. In October 2013, it was reported by Reuters that Vodafone planned to invest as much as $2 billion (£1.2 billion) to buy out minority shareholders in Vodafone India.
By late January 2017, Vodafone Group's unit in India and Idea Cellular Ltd were in preliminary talks to merge. And on 20 March 2017, Vodafone announced that it was merging its Indian business with Idea, India's third-largest network, to create the country's largest operator with almost 400 million customers, accounting for 35% of the Indian cellphone service market. Vodafone would own 45.1 percent of the new operator and Idea's parent company, the Aditya Birla Group, 26 percent. The deal valued Vodafone India at the equivalent of $12.6 billion and Idea Cellular at the equivalent of $11.02 billion. The deal would enable Vodafone to move its Indian subsidiary off its balance sheet, cutting the British group's net debt by the equivalent of almost $8.25 billion. The Telecom ministry (DoT) cleared the Vodofone–Idea merger on 9 July 2018. On 31 August 2018, Vodafone Idea became a legal entity and the largest telecom service provider in India. On 7 September 2020, Vodafone Idea unveiled its new brand identity, 'Vi' which involves the integration of the company's erstwhile separate brands 'Vodafone' and 'Idea' into one unified brand.
In December 2005, Vodafone won an auction to buy Turkey's second-largest mobile phone company, Telsim, for US$4.5 billion. Early in January 2007, Telsim in Turkey adopted Vodafone dual branding as Telsim Vodafone, and on 1 April 2007, became Vodafone Turkey. In addition, Vodafone Turkey also provides service in Northern Cyprus.
On 3 November 2003, Singapore became a part of the community as M1 was signed as partner network. Then in April 2005, SmarTone changed the name of its brand to 'SmarTone-Vodafone', after both companies signed a Partner Network Agreement. In January 2006, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Sri Lanka were added to the Vodafone footprint as Vodafone Group signed a partner network agreement with Telekom Malaysia. On 6 February 2007, along with the partnership with Digicel Caribbean (see below), Samoa was added as a Partner Market. On 6 February 2007, Vodafone Group signed a three-year partnership agreement with Digicel Group. The agreement, which includes Digicel's sister operation in Samoa, will result to the offering of new roaming capabilities. The two groups will also become preferred roaming partners of each other.
On 10 February 2008, Vodafone announced the launching of M-Paisa mobile money transfer service on Roshan's (Afghanistan's largest GSM operator) network: Afghanistan was added to the Vodafone footprint.
In September 2011 it was announced that Vodafone and Smartone would not renew their partnership in the Hong Kong market. Vodafone instead entered into an agreement with Hutchison Telecom, who operate the 3 brand. In the same year, M1 also ended their partnership in Singapore.
In February 2013, Vodafone together with China Mobile participated in bidding for one of the two newly opened Myanmar Mobile licences.
|North Cyprus||Portugal||Lithuania||Luxembourg||North Macedonia|
Vodafone Hungary was formed as a subsidiary company in July 1999. The acquisition of Mannesmann AG, completed on 12 April 2000, created subsidiaries in Germany and Italy, and increased the Group's indirect holding in SFR. The Vodafone brand in Italy was introduced as Omnitel-Vodafone in 2001, which became the primary brand in 2002; finally the current name Vodafone Italia was introduced in 2003, dropping "Omnitel" altogether.
In 2001, the Company acquired Eircell, the largest wireless communications company in Ireland, from eircom. Eircell was subsequently rebranded as Vodafone Ireland. In February 2002, Radiolinja of Finland joined as a partner network and later changed its name to Elisa. Later that year, the company rebranded Japan's J-sky mobile internet service as Vodafone live!, and in December 2002 the Vodafone brand was introduced in the Estonian market following the signing of a Partner Network Agreement with Radiolinja (Eesti), which later changed its name to Elisa.
In January 2003, the company signed a group-wide partner agreement with mobilkom Austria and as a result Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia and Slovenia were added to the community. In April 2003, Og Vodafone was introduced in the Icelandic market. On 21 July 2003, Lithuania was added to the community, with the signing of a Partner Network Agreement with Bitė.
In February 2004, Vodafone signed Partner Network Agreements with Luxembourg's LuxGSM, and with Cyta of Cyprus. Cyta agreed to rename its mobile phone operations to Cytamobile-Vodafone. In April 2004, the Company acquired a British airtime provider, Singlepoint, for £405m from John Caudwell's Caudwell Group, adding approximately 1.5 million customers and sites in Stoke-on-Trent to existing sites in Newbury (HQ), Birmingham, Warrington and Banbury. In November 2004, Vodafone introduced 3G services into Europe.
On 28 October 2005, Connex in Romania was rebranded as Connex-Vodafone, and on 31 October 2005, the company reached an agreement to sell Vodafone Sweden to Telenor for approximately €1 billion. After the sale, Vodafone Sweden became a partner network.
In 2006, the Company rebranded its Stoke-on-Trent site as Stoke Premier Centre, a "centre of expertise" for the company dealing with customer care for its higher-value customers, technical support, sales and credit control. On 22 February 2006, the Company announced that it was extending its footprint to Bulgaria with the signing of Partner Network Agreement with Mobiltel, which is part of the mobilkom Austria group.
In April 2006, the Company announced that it had signed an extension to its Partner Network Agreement with BITE Group, enabling its Latvian subsidiary BITE Latvija to become the latest member of Vodafone's global partner community. On 30 May 2006, Vodafone announced the then-biggest loss in British corporate history (£14.9 billion), and plans to cut 400 jobs; it reported one-off costs of £23.5 billion due to the revaluation of its Mannesmann subsidiary. On 24 July 2006, the respected head of Vodafone Europe, Bill Morrow, quit unexpectedly, and on 25 August 2006, the Company announced the sale of its 25% stake in Belgium's Proximus for €2 billion. After the deal, Proximus remained part of the community as a Partner Network.
On 5 October 2006, Vodafone announced the first single-brand partnership with Og Vodafone which would operate under the name Vodafone Iceland, and on 19 December 2006, the Company announced the sale of its 25% stake in Switzerland's Swisscom for CHF4.25 billion (£1.8 billion). After the deal, Swisscom would still be part of the community as a Partner Network. In December 2006, the Company completed the acquisition of Aspective, an enterprise applications systems integrator in the UK, signalling Vodafone's intent to grow a significant presence and revenues in the information and communication technologies (ICT) marketplace.
On 1 May 2007, Vodafone added Jersey and Guernsey to the community, as Airtel was signed as Partner Network in both crown dependencies. In June 2007, Vodafone UK began optimising web pages accessed through Vodafone Live!, which was criticised by The Register for interfering with mobile commerce websites. On 1 August 2007, Vodafone Portugal launched Vodafone Messenger, a service with Windows Live Messenger and Yahoo! Messenger. At the end of 2007, Vodafone Germany was ranked 6th in Europe by subscriber numbers, whilst its Italian operation was listed as 10th. Vodafone UK was ranked 13th, whilst Spain was listed in 16th place.
On 17 April 2008, Vodafone extended its footprint to Serbia as Vip mobile was added to the community as a Partner Network, and on 20 May 2008, the Company added VIP Operator as a Partner Network, thereby extending the global footprint to the North Macedonia.
On 30 October 2008, the company announced a strategic, non-equity partnership with Mobile TeleSystems (MTS) group of Russia. The agreement adds Russia, Armenia, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan to the group's footprint.
On 20 March 2009, it was announced that the group's Luxembourg partner has been changed: the agreement with LuxGSM was not renewed in favour of Tango, the Luxembourg unit of another partner network, Belgacom of Belgium.
On 4 April 2011, Vodafone sold its 44% stake in SFR, the second largest operator in France, to Vivendi for €7.95 billion.
In March 2013, the Spanish operations of Vodafone signed an agreement with Orange S.A. to co-invest €1 billion in the expansion of Spain's fibre-optic cable broadband network, which would enable Vodafone to reach an additional 6 million customers in Spain by 2017. On 24 June 2013, Vodafone announced it would be buying German cable company Kabel Deutschland. The takeover was valued at €7.7 billion, and was recommended over the bid of rival Liberty Global. In February 2014, Vodafone made an offer to acquire Spain's largest cable operator, ONO, for total consideration, including associated net debt acquired, of €7.2 billion.
In 2019, Vodafone Group created a legally separate organisation comprising its European mobile towers. At the same time it was reported that the mobile towers business could be valued at about £10 billion. The mobile towers business was named Vantage Towers on 24 July 2020. Vantage Towers is headquartered in Düsseldorf, Germany with towers infrastructure in Germany, Spain, Greece, Portugal, Czech Republic, Romania, Hungary, Italy and Ireland comprising a total of 68,000 towers.
|Papua New Guinea|
In October 1993 Vodafone Australia's network went live. In December 2004, Vodafone Australia agreed to deploy high-speed MPLS backbone network built by Lucent Worldwide Services using Juniper hardware. In October 2005, it began launching 3G technology in Australia. On 5 September 2008, Vodafone purchased Australia's largest bricks and mortar mobile phone retailer Crazy John's adding 115 retail stores to its local operations.
On 9 February 2009, Vodafone Australia announced a merger with 3/Hutchison via a joint venture company VHA Pty Ltd, which would offer products under the Vodafone brand. On 19 June 2009, Vodafone-Hutchison Australia (VHA) announced the end of its outsourcing of retail operations. VHA committed to buying back and managing its entire retail operation, including 208 Vodafone-branded retail outlets Australia-wide. This project was slated to be completed by 1 September 2009.
On 31 August 2009, VHA enabled an extended 900 MHz 3G UMTS network which functions outside their 2,100 MHz 3G network, boosting Vodafone's 3G population coverage from around 8% to around 94% on dual-band 900/2,100 MHz 3G UMTS devices.
In July 1994 Vodafone Fiji's network went live. In July 2014, Vodafone sold its 49% shareholding of Vodafone Fiji to The Fiji National Provident fund. Under the terms of the deal, Vodafone Fiji retained its branding under a Partner Market Agreement.
In July 1993, BellSouth New Zealand's network went live. In November 1998, Vodafone purchased BellSouth New Zealand, which later became Vodafone New Zealand. In August 2005, Vodafone launched 3G technology in New Zealand. On 9 October 2006, Vodafone New Zealand bought New Zealand's 3rd largest internet service provider, iHug. In October 2013, Vodafone began its rollout of 4G to provincial New Zealand, with the launch of the system in holiday hotspots around Coromandel. In 2019, Vodafone announced the sale of its New Zealand division to a consortium of investors; while Vodafone New Zealand is now independently owned, it retains a licensing agreement to continue use of the Vodafone name and logo in exchange for fee payments.
Vodafone Global Enterprise
Vodafone Global Enterprise is the business services division, and a wholly owned subsidiary of Vodafone Group. It was established in April 2007 to provide telecommunications and information technology services to large corporations.
The division offers integrated communications in cloud computing, unified communications and collaboration. Its services include domestic and international voice and data, machine-to-machine services, mobile email, mobile broadband, managed services, mobile payment and mobile recording.
In December 2011, it acquired the Reading-based Bluefish Communications Ltd, an ICT consultancy company. The acquired operations formed the nucleus of a new Unified Communications and Collaboration practice within VGE, working on cloud computing and professional services.
Vodafone Global Enterprise operates in over 65 countries, with "Northern Europe" (based in London, United Kingdom), "Central Europe", "Southern Europe and Africa", "Asia Pacific & Sub-Saharan Africa" (based in Singapore) and "Americas" geographical divisions. VGE's major customers include Deutsche Post, The Linde Group, Unilever, and Volkswagen Group.
Products and services
In October 2009, it launched Vodafone 360, a new internet service for the mobile, PC and Mac. This was discontinued in December 2011 after disappointing hardware sales. This was after the Director of Internet Services resigned in September 2010 tweeting "5 days before I leave Vodafone. Freedom beckons." In February 2010, Vodafone launched the world's cheapest mobile phone known as Vodafone 150, intended to sell for below $15 (£10) in the developing world. It was initially launched in India, Turkey and eight African countries including Lesotho, Kenya and Ghana.
Mobile money transfer services
By February 2008, the M-PESA money transfer system in Kenya had gained 1.6 million customers. By 2011 there were fourteen million M-Pesa accounts by which held 40 percent of the country's savings. Following M-PESA's success in Kenya, Vodafone announced that it was to extend the service to Afghanistan. The service here was launched on the Roshan network under the brand M-Paisa with a different focus to the Kenyan service. M-Paisa was targeted as a vehicle for microfinance institutions' (MFI) loan disbursements and repayments, alongside business-to-business applications such as salary disbursement. The Afghanistan launch was followed in April 2008 by the announcement of further a further launch of M-PESA in Tanzania, South Africa and India.
In November 2009, Vodafone announced the creation of a new business unit focused on the emerging market (the application of mobile communications and network technologies to healthcare). One of its early success stories is with the Novartis-led "SMS for Life" project in Tanzania, for which Vodafone developed and deployed a text-message based system that enables all of the country's 4,600 public health facilities to report their levels of anti-malarial medications so that stock level data can be viewed centrally in real-time, enabling timely re-supply of stock. During the SMS for Life pilot, which covered 129 health facilities over six months, stock-outs dropped from 26% to 0.8%, saving thousands of lives.
The Vodafone Foundation is a recognised charity which supports and initiates projects which use mobile technology to benefit the vulnerable, using the slogan "Connecting for Good". They often work in collaboration with other charitable groups. Below are some examples of their initiatives:
- DreamLab, a volunteer computing mobile app developed in cooperation with Imperial College London and used to research on cancer, COVID-19, and other diseases
- TECSOS – mobile phones have been adapted to allow victims of domestic violence to activate immediate contact with the emergency services if they are in danger
- Paediatric Epilepsy Remote Monitoring System – a monitoring system that allows physicians to remotely make patient observations
- Safe Taxi System – an initiative in Portugal that consists of technology that taxi drivers can use to alert police if they are in danger of being assaulted
- Learning with Vodafone Solution – technology that allows teachers in India to use graphical and multi-media content to enhance their teaching
- The World of Difference programme – successful applicants choose charities for which they work either full-time for two months or part-time for four months (minimum 15 hours a week). The charities are provided with £2,500, with each winner receiving the balance as a salary after NI and tax have been paid.
Sir Gerald Whent, at that time an Executive with Racal Electronics plc, was responsible for the bid for a UK Cellular Network licence. The Mobile Telecoms division was de-merged, and was floated on the London Stock Exchange in October 1988 and Sir Gerald became Chief Executive of Racal Telecom plc. Over the next few years the company grew to become the UK's market leader, changing its name to Vodafone Group plc in the process.
Sir Christopher Gent took over as Chief Executive in January 1997, after Sir Gerald's retirement. Gent was responsible for transforming Vodafone from a small UK operator into the global operator, through the merger with the American AirTouch and the takeover of Germany's Mannesmann.
Arun Sarin was the driving force behind the Company's move into emerging markets such as Asia and Africa, through the purchases such as that of Turkish operator Telsim, and a majority stake in Hutchison Essar in India.
|Sir Gerald Whent||October 1988 – December 1996|
|Sir Christopher Gent||January 1997 – July 2003|
|Arun Sarin||July 2003 – July 2008|
|Vittorio Colao||July 2008 – September 2018|
|Nick Read||Since October 2018|
|Year ended 31 March||Turnover €m||Profit before tax €m||Profit for the year €m||Basic eps (pence)|
In September 2010, an investigation by Private Eye magazine revealed certain details of Vodafone's tax avoidance activities. It was reported that Vodafone routed the acquisition of Mannesmann through a Luxembourg subsidiary, set up to avoid paying tax on the deal, and continued to place its profits in Luxembourg. Following a long legal struggle with HMRC (during which a senior HMRC official, John Connors, switched sides to become head of tax at Vodafone), it was eventually agreed that Vodafone would pay £1.25 billion related to the acquisition. Based on Vodafone's accounts, experts have estimated the potential tax bill written off as a result of the negotiations was over £6 billion.
The news of this legal tax avoidance sparked angry protests, beginning in October 2010, outside Vodafone shops across the UK, organised under the banner of UK Uncut. The protests caused the closure of various stores across the UK.
In 2011, Private Eye magazine and The Bureau of Investigative Journalism alleged that Vodafone's Swiss branches were run by a single part-time bookkeeper. The report claimed hardly any business was done from there, indicating that the main purpose of the Zug office was tax avoidance. The report claimed the money was borrowed from the Swiss branch of the Luxembourg company, allowing it to take advantage of Luxembourg's laws, which exempts foreign branches of companies from tax, and Swiss laws, which almost completely exempt local branches of foreign companies. According to the expose, this would have otherwise generated a British tax bill of a little over £2 billion. It said Vodafone publishes a single, combined set of accounts for its Luxembourg subsidiaries and their Swiss branches. For the one company, profits worth £1.6 billion were taxed at less than 1% in 2011, and the profits are likely to have been attributed to Switzerland. In its response to these allegations, Vodafone has said the Swiss branch has not been involved in Vodafone's global financing for a number of years. It is, therefore, irrelevant in respect to global financing arrangements.
Vodafone was also assessed a US$2.5 billion tax over its acquisition of Hutchison Whampoa's Indian assets in 2007, a demand that it contests. In January 2012, the highest Indian court ruled that Vodafone is not liable for taxes and penalties of up to £2.8 billion. However, in February 2016 India's tax department sent Vodafone a renewed tax notice of £1.4bn. Following the siding of the Indian court with Vodafone in 2012, the government changed the law to allow firms to be retrospectively taxed. In September 2020, an international arbitration tribunal sided with Vodafone and ruled that India's efforts to claim past taxes was in violation of fair treatment under the bilateral investment protection pact between India and the Netherland. India was asked by the tribunal to stop its efforts to claim the tax dues.
Communications blackout during the Arab Spring
Vodafone was implicated in the violent suppression of pro-democracy protests in Egypt's 2011 demonstrations. On 27 January, Vodafone, responsible for much of Egypt's telecommunication infrastructure, shut off all voice and data services for Egyptian citizens and businesses at the request of the Egyptian Government under Hosni Mubarak. On 28 January 2011, Vodafone complied with Egyptian government instructions to suspend Internet service "in selected areas" during a period of anti-Mubarak protests. The company issued a statement that "Under Egyptian legislation, the authorities have the right to issue such an order and we are obliged to comply with it." Vodafone also received public and media criticism for allowing the authorities to send mass pro-government messages via SMS over their network during the protests. One such message requested that "honest and loyal men" should "confront the traitors and criminals". Vodafone later issued a statement asserting that they had no choice but to allow the messages to be broadcast, and that they had complained to the Egyptian authorities about the practice. The Daily Telegraph of the UK reported, "The Egyptian government's action is unprecedented in the history of the internet." US-based Internet intelligence firm Renesys stated, "in an action unprecedented in Internet history, the Egyptian government appears to have ordered service providers to shut down all international connections to the Internet." Vodafone Group CEO Vittorio Colao said the company was obliged by law to comply with the instructions of the Egyptian government. At the company's annual general meeting, on 26 June, the campaign groups Access and FairPensions asked Vodafone to endorse a plan to prevent the company facing similar demands in the future.
Poor customer service
In Australia, particularly towards the end of 2010, Vodafone was heavily criticised due to allegations of poor customer service and severe technical inadequacies, which earned them their nickname "Vodafail" – a website of the same name still exists. In response, they have developed a "new" network, and now provide a 30-day satisfaction guarantee.
Unlimited roaming costs on stolen phones
Vodafone UK, in common with other operators, has been criticised for holding customers on regular monthly billed contracts liable for almost unlimited roaming costs when their phones are stolen abroad, despite being seemingly able to limit costs of pay-as-you-go contracts.
Breaches of consumer protection rules
In October 2016, Vodafone was fined a record £4.6m by Ofcom for "serious" breaches of consumer protection rules.
In October 2017, Citizens Advice undertook a mystery shopping exercise which found that Vodafone, along with EE and Three, were not reducing customers' bills after fixed deals finished which meant that they were paying an extra £22 a month on average.
In June 2014, Vodafone revealed information about their and other telecommunication operators' 'direct access systems', content data and metadata interception programmes globally.
In March 2019, the Indian investigation agency CBI filed a plea in the Supreme Court against Vodafone and Airtel alleging non cooperation in the Saradha chitfund scam. The court listed the matter for a hearing on 8 April 2019.
- "Annual Report 2020" (PDF). Vodafone Group Plc. Retrieved 27 February 2021.
- "Vodafone moves world HQ to London". BBC News. 24 June 2009. Retrieved 10 January 2011.
- "Where we operate". Vodafone. Retrieved 17 November 2020.
- "Vodafone Global Enterprise". Vodafone Group plc. Retrieved 11 January 2016.
- "UK – About Us – History – 1982". Vodafone Group. Archived from the original on 20 July 2012.
- "Origin of Vodafone". theoriginof.com. Archived from the original on 6 January 2016. Retrieved 13 July 2012.
- "History of Racal electronics plc". fundinguniverse.com. Retrieved 13 July 2012.
- "History of Vodafone". celtnet.org.uk. Retrieved 13 July 2012.
- Wilson, Richard (19 February 2009). "Obituary: Sir Ernest Harrison". electronicsweekly.com. Retrieved 29 June 2010.
- Hultens, Staffan and Molleryd, Bengt (28 June 2000), "Entrepreneurs, Innovations and Market Processes in the Evolution of the Swedish Mobile Telecommunications Industry". Retrieved 9 September 2013
- "Cellular Telephone System, Written Answers by Mr. Butcher to House of Commons (Vol 34 cc211-3W)". 16 December 1982. Retrieved 10 September 2013.
- "Racal Calls up Vodafone". Electronics and Power. 30 (4): 268. 1984. doi:10.1049/ep.1984.0137.
- "The rapid rise of Vodafone". BBC News. 4 February 2000. Retrieved 27 May 2010.
- "Vodafone Group Public Ltd Co". Retrieved 2 April 2007.
- Eadie, Alison (30 December 1986). "Racal pays £110 million to own Vodafone". The Times. Times Newspapers.
- "Shares in Racal Telecom". The Guardian. Guardian Newspapers. 27 October 1988.
- "Racal's Key Milestones". salbu.co.za. Retrieved 13 July 2012.
- Wise, Deborah (16 September 1991). "Vodafone's solo debut could boost share price". The Guardian. Guardian Newspapers.
- Cane, Alan (10 July 1996). "Companies and Finance: UK: Vodafone acquires Talkland in Pounds 60m deal". Financial Times. p. 22.
- Reguly, Eric (20 November 1996). "Vodafone pockets Peoples Phone". The Times. Times Newspapers.
- "News Digest: Vodafone snaps up Astec". Investors Chronicle. 7 February 1997. p. 55.
- "Sir Christopher Gent". The Guardian. 27 May 2003. Retrieved 3 May 2021.
- "Vodafone logo". Famous logos. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- Hasell, Nick (30 June 1999). "Scramble for Vodafone as blue chips retreat". The Times. Times Newspapers.
- "Vodafone AirTouch Considers Making a Bid for Mannesmann". Wall Street Journal. 11 November 1999. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- Krause, Reinhardt (8 June 1999). "Vodafone's Quest Begins With AirTouch Alliance". Investor's Business Daily. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 4 April 2007.
- "Making airwaves". Financial Times. 22 September 1999.
- "Bell Atlantic and GTE Chairmen Praise FCC Merger Approval". Verizon. 16 June 2000. Retrieved 10 January 2014.
- "Mannesmann rejects Vodafone bid". BBC News. 14 November 1999. Retrieved 6 April 2007.
- "Vodafone seals Mannesmann merger". BBC News. 3 February 2000. Retrieved 6 April 2007.
- "Vodafone seals Mannesmann merger". BBC. 11 February 2000. Retrieved 26 December 2008.
- "Timeline to Vodafone's $130 Billion Verizon Deal". Cellular News. 2 September 2013. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- TDC forms roaming partnership with Vodafone Reuters, 17 December 2001
- McLaren seal deal with Vodafone BBC, 14 December 2005
- Collantine, Keith (14 March 2013). "McLaren to lose Vodafone title sponsorship". F1 Fanatic. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
- "Vodafone acquires Bluefish Communications". Bloomberg. 1 December 2011. Retrieved 9 June 2012.
- Browning, Jonathan; Campbell, Matthew (23 April 2012). "Vodafone Agrees to Buy Cable & Wireless for $1.7 Billion". Bloomberg. Retrieved 9 June 2012.
- "Vodafone One Step Closer To Completing Deal After CWW Shareholder Approval". Nasdaq.com. Retrieved 11 December 2012.
- Browning, Jonathan (18 June 2012). "Vodafone Gets Approval for C&W Bid as Orbis Drops Opposition". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved 11 December 2012.
- Peston, Robert (2 September 2013). "Vodafone sells Verizon stake for $130bn". BBC News. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
- "Vodafone sets end date for 3G as Project Spring ends". Mobileeurope.co.uk. 17 May 2016. Retrieved 6 August 2017.
- Leila Abboud and Paul Sandle (2 September 2013). "Vodafone's Project Spring to pressure competitors". Reuters. Retrieved 6 August 2017.
- Frangoul, Anmar (7 June 2017). "Vodafone introduces new rules to stop its ads appearing alongside fake news and hate speech". Cnbc.com. Retrieved 5 August 2017.
- Titcomb, James (21 January 2020). "Vodafone hangs up on Libra in latest blow to Facebook's cryptocurrency". The Telegraph.
- "About Vodafone Egypt". Vodafone Egypt. Retrieved 26 June 2020.
- "Vodafone and Telecom Egypt announce new strategic partnership". Investegate. 8 November 2006. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- "It's Official: STC to acquire 55 percent stake in Vodafone Egypt for $2.39 billion". menabytes. 29 January 2020. Retrieved 29 January 2020.
- "Vodafone set to stay in Egypt after STC deal collapses". Reuters. 21 December 2020. Retrieved 6 February 2021.
- "Agreement with Vodacom". Investegate. 3 November 2004. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- Vodacom focuses on data as profit drops after debut Reuters, 19 May 2009
- "Vodafone to acquire an additional 15% stake in Vodacom Group". My Broadband. 6 November 2008. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- "Vodacom makes strong debut on JSE". Mail and Guardian. 18 May 2009. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- "Vodacom rebrands, turns 'red and simple". Biz Community. 4 April 2011. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- "Vodafone buys 70% stake in Ghana mobile firm". The Guardian. 3 July 2008. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- "GT rebranded to vodafone". Modern Ghana. 16 April 2009. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- "Access: Inserting human right into telecoms one company at a time". Daily News Egypt. 21 August 2011. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- Newsdesk, Concord. "Vodafone Cameroun launches the implementation of its "Youth Program"". Cameroon Concord. Retrieved 22 December 2016.
- Kiki, Bandy (12 November 2017). "Vodafone ends operations in Cameroon following withdrawal of license". Kinnaka's Blog. Retrieved 31 May 2020.
- "Vodafone Extends Partner Community With Second MTC Agreement". 29 December 2003. Archived from the original on 15 April 2017. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- "It's Time to hang up on Vodafone Qatar". Bold Mag. 31 July 2012. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- "Vodafone Qatar network fully restored, says company". Gulf Times. 25 July 2017. Retrieved 25 July 2017.
- "Vodafone Europe agrees to sell stake in Qatar joint venture for €301m". Irish Times. 27 February 2018. Retrieved 24 June 2018.
- "Vodafone Qatar Premieres the Region's First 5G MiFi® Mobile Hotspot from Inseego". Business Wire. Retrieved 25 November 2019.
- "Vodafone signs deal in UAE". Mobile News. 28 January 2009. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- "Vodafone gets license to become the third operator in Oman". Zawya. 5 January 2021. Retrieved 3 March 2021.
- "Vodafone gets green light to operate in Oman". Itp.net. 6 January 2021. Retrieved 3 March 2021.
- "Vodafone enters Chile via Entel partnership". Telecoms. 13 May 2008. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- "Vodafone sets up M2M brand in Brazil". Telecoms. 6 August 2013. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- "Vodafone confirms Verizon stake sale". BBC News. 2 September 2013. Retrieved 2 September 2013.
- "Vodafone weighs AT&T Wireless bid". CNN. 9 February 2004. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- Thomas, Daniel (3 December 2013). "Should AT&T buy Vodafone?". Telecoms Correspondent. Financial Times. Retrieved 11 March 2017.
- Bienenstock, Robin (3 September 2013). "VIDEO: Vodafone Seen to Become Takeover Target for AT&T". Bloomberg News. Retrieved 11 March 2017.
- Thomson, Amy (27 January 2014). "AT&T Gives Up Right to Bid for Vodafone Within Six Month". Technology Dept. Retrieved 11 March 2017.
- Vodafone to make J-Phone offer BBC, 16 September 2001
- "SoftBank turnaround program for Vodafone-Japan". Euro technology. 21 May 2006. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- Sonne, Paul (10 November 2010). "Vodafone to Sell Back Softbank Interests for $5 Billion". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 4 August 2013.
- "Vodafone returns to India with a 10% stake in Bharti". The Guardian. 29 October 2005. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- "Vodafone acquires Hutchison Essar stake". FT. 8 May 2007. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- "Vodafone unleashes media blitzkrieg to re-brand Hutch". 26 September 2007. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- Smith, George. (1 July 2011) Vodafone, Essar Said to Split $785 million Tax Bill in India. Bloomberg. Retrieved 8 July 2011.
- Vodafone plans $2 billion investment to raise stake in Indian unit – FT | Reuters. Uk.reuters.com (7 October 2013). Retrieved on 8 December 2013.
- Purnell, Newley; Woo, Stu (30 January 2017), Vodafone in Talks to Merge Indian Unit With Idea Cellular, New York City: Wall Street Journal, retrieved 31 January 2017
- Vodafone's Indian unit and Idea Cellular announce merger, BBC News, 20 March 2017. Retrieved: 20 March 2017
- Vodafone forced to merge India unit amid price war, Aliya Ram and Simon Mundy, Financial Times, London, 20 March 2017. Retrieved: 20 March 2017
- "Telecom Ministry clears Vodafone – Idea merger with conditions". Business Standard. 9 July 2018.
- "Vodafone Idea re-brands itself 'Vi'". The Indian Express. 7 September 2020. Retrieved 7 September 2020.
- Vodafone Idea Limited, Vi. "Vodafone and Idea brands are now "Vi"" (PDF).
- "Vodafone Idea rebrands itself, to go by brand name Vi". Zee News. 7 September 2020. Retrieved 7 September 2020.
- "Vodafone buys Turkish mobile firm". BBC News. 31 December 2005. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- "Vodafone Turkey rebranding". Total Tele. 30 March 2007. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- "Vodafone to link up with mobile firm in Far East". 4 November 2003. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- "Launch of SmarTone-Vodafone – a new brand" (PDF). SmarTone. 27 April 2005. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- "Vodafone, Digicel in roaming partnership". Telecom Paper. 6 February 2007. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- "Vodafone launches a mobile money transfer system in Afghanistan". Plus World. 28 February 2008. Archived from the original on 15 April 2017. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- "Dtac partners with Vodafone". Telecom Paper. 26 March 2009. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- "Vodafone expands into Azerbaijan with Azerfon". Telecom Paper. 23 July 2009. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- "Chunghwa and Vodafone sign partnership agreement". Tele Geography. 12 November 2009. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- "Vodafone to partner Hutchison|HongKong Business|chinadaily.com.cn". www.chinadaily.com.cn. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
- "SmarTone, M1 dropping Vodafone marketing partnerships at end of year". www.telegeography.com. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
- "Vodafone, China Mobile eye Myanmar". Investvine.com. 5 April 2013. Retrieved 5 April 2013.
- "Vinaphone, Vodafone ink cooperation deal". TeleGeography. 2 September 2014. Retrieved 2 September 2014.
- "Vodafone Hungary's company history". Vodafone.hu. Archived from the original on 8 August 2012. Retrieved 24 February 2017.
- "Omnitel: l'ingresso della Olivetti nella telefonia mobile". Olivetti. Archived from the original on 2 February 2012. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- Vodafone buys Eircell in £2.4bn all-share deal The Telegraph, 22 December 2000
- "Vodafone, Radiolinja sign second partner contract". Telecom Paper. 14 February 2002. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- "Radiolinja Eesti signs partner agreement with Vodafone". Telecom Paper. 3 December 2002. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- "Vodafone signs network agreement with Mobilkom Austria". Tele Geography. 7 January 2003. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- "Vodafone's global mobile services available in Iceland". Telecom Paper. 17 April 2003. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- "Vodafone signs Partner Network Agreement with Bite". Telecom Paper. 21 July 2003. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- "LUXGSM, Vodafone sign Partner Network Agreement". Telecom Paper. 16 February 2004. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- "Cyta Mobile buddies up with Vodafone". Tele Geography. 23 February 2004. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- "Vodafone snaps up Singlepoint". BBC. 11 August 2003. Retrieved 31 October 2019.
- "Vodafone launches 3G in UK". The Guardian. 10 November 2004. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- "Vodafone's Romanian, Czech cellco purchases finalised". Tele Geography. 1 June 2005. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- "Duální branding Oskar – Vodafone". Marketing and Media. 4 July 2005. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- "Connex-Vodafone: "impreuna" cu McCann Erickson". Ad Players. 30 November 2005. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- "Vodafone sells Swedish arm". The Local. 31 October 2005. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- "Vodafone call centre set to close". BBC. 27 September 2005. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- "Mobiltel becomes Vodafone partner". Tele Geography. 23 February 2006. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- "Vodafone, BITE Latvija sign co-branding agreement". Telecom Paper. 11 April 2006. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- "Record £14.9bn loss at Vodafone". BBC. 30 May 2006. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- "Bill Morrow, Vodafone's Turnaround Guru, Walks Away". Cellular-News. 24 July 2006. Retrieved 9 November 2007.
- "Vodafone to sell Proximus stake". FT. 25 August 2006. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- "First Single Brand Ptnrship". Trust.net. 5 October 2016. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- "Vodafone sells Swisscom Mobile stake". FT. 19 December 2006. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- "Vodafone buys in to enterprise mobility". The Register. 22 November 2006. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- "Jersey & Guernsey Airtel to launch as Airtel-Vodafone". Tele Geography. 2 May 2007. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- Ray, Bill (6 June 2007). "Vodafone Live 'improvements' kill mCommerce". The Register. Retrieved 28 February 2019.
- "Vodafone Portugal launches Yahoo! Messenger service". Telecom Paper. 13 August 2007. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- "European Mobile Market – Europe's Top 50 Mobile Network Operators by Subscribers". Telecomsmarketresearch.com. Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 8 July 2011.
- "VIP Mobile, Vodafone sign strategic partnership". Telecom Paper. 17 April 2008. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- "Vodafone inks partnership deal with Macedonia's VIP Mobile". Tele Geography. 21 May 2008. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- "MTS and Vodafone". Marketwatch. 30 October 2008. Retrieved 9 November 2008.
- Vodafone signs partner market agreement with Tango. Efytimes.com (23 March 2009). Retrieved 8 July 2011.
- Bawden, Tom. "Vodafone sells SFR stake to Vivendi". The Guardian. Retrieved 21 March 2015.
- "Frankfurt Business Media". cfo-insight.com. Archived from the original on 12 January 2015. Retrieved 21 March 2015.
- "Vodafone agrees 7.7bn-euro deal to buy Kabel Deutschland". BBC News. 24 June 2013. Retrieved 24 June 2013.
- Kate Holton and Robert Hetz (10 February 2014). "Vodafone bids for Spanish cable operator Ono". Reuters.
- MTS Ukraine to operate under Vodafone brand, Interfax Ukraine (16 October 2015)
- Avery, Greg; Harden, Mark (31 December 2016). "Liberty Global Completes $3.7B Netherlands Joint-Venture Deal With Vodafone". Denver Business Journal. Retrieved 24 February 2017.
- "Vodafone rated worst mobile provider by Which? survey". BBC. 24 April 2018. Retrieved 28 April 2018.
- Williams, Christopher; O'Dwyer, Michael (26 July 2019). "Vodafone soars on mast spin-off plan". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 24 July 2020.
- O'Dwyer, Michael (24 July 2020). "Vodafone to float European towers division next year". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 24 July 2020.
- "Vodafone spins off telco tower assets as Vantage Towers". www.datacenterdynamics.com. Retrieved 1 August 2020.
- "Vodafone hands London a Brexit blow as it floats business in Frankfurt". Evening Standard. 24 July 2020. Retrieved 1 August 2020.
- "About Us". Vodafone Cook Islands. Retrieved 9 February 2021.
- "Vodafone Australia 3G Core Data Network". 3g.co.uk. 2 December 2004. Retrieved 8 July 2008.
- "Vodafone to start up 3G services in October 2005". Telecom Paper. 15 April 2005. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- Guan, Lilia (6 September 2008). "Vodafone buys Crazy John's". Itnews.com.au. Retrieved 8 July 2011.
- "Merger of Vodafone & Hutchison in Australia will strengthen local mobile competition". Frost and Sullivan. 16 February 2009. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- "VHA to buy back outsourced Vodafone-branded stores". Telecom Paper. 22 June 2009. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- "Vodafone boosts 3G coverage to 94%". Tele Geography. 1 September 2009. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- "Implementation of Scheme of Arrangement" (PDF). Australian Securities Exchange. 13 July 2020.
- 2014. "Acquisition – Vodafone Fiji Becomes 100% Locally-owned". Fiji Sun. Retrieved 23 July 2017.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
- "Busy signals bountiful at Vodafone". NZ Herald. 30 June 2000. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- "Vodafone buys ihug for $41 million". Computer World. 9 October 2006. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- Vodafone brings 4G to Coromandel holiday hotspots | Scoop News. Scoop.co.nz (24 October 2013). Retrieved on 8 December 2013.
- "Vodafone Group completes sale of Vodafone New Zealand". Vodafone.com. 31 July 2019. Retrieved 3 February 2021.
- "Vodafone sells New Zealand arm for $2.2bn". France 24. 13 May 2019. Retrieved 3 February 2021.
- "Vodafone Global Enterprise profile – LinkedIn". LinkedIn. Retrieved 9 June 2012.
- "Vodafone Group Plc VOD Launch of Standard Global Ser". Bloomberg. 18 March 2009. Retrieved 9 June 2012.
- "Bloomberg Business week – Company Overview of Vodafone Global Enterprise". Retrieved 9 June 2012.
- "Products and solutions by type". Vodafone Global Enterprise. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- "Net Knives- Knives Online Company". Yahoo!. 1 December 2011. Retrieved 9 June 2012.
- "Vodafone Group's Vodafone Global Enterprise Acquires Bluefish Communications". RTT. 1 December 2011. Retrieved 9 June 2012.
- "Vodafone Global Enterprise – Management Team". Vodafone. Retrieved 9 June 2012.
- "Deutsche Post DHL builds wide area network with Vodafone". Computer Weekly. 12 March 2010. Retrieved 2 August 2012.
- "The Linde Group selects Vodafone to provide global managed mobile services". Computer Weekly. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2 August 2012.
- "Unilever chooses Vodafone for mobile management". Computer Weekly. 14 December 2010. Retrieved 2 August 2012.
- "VW chooses mobile giant". This is Staffordshire. 18 July 2012. Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 2 August 2012.
- Ray, Bill (18 October 2011). "Vodafone turns its back on '360". The Register. Retrieved 28 September 2012.
- Ray, Bill. "Vodafone's 360-man walks". The Register. Retrieved 28 September 2012.
- "Vodafone launch 'world's cheapest phone'" (stm). BBC. Retrieved 1 October 2005.
- "Safaricom and Vodafone launch M-PESA, a new mobile payment service". Archived from the original on 16 October 2010. Retrieved 16 October 2010.
- M-PESA Reaches 1.6 Million Customers in 12 Months
- Saylor, Michael (2012). The Mobile Wave: How Mobile Intelligence Will Change Everything. Perseus Books/Vanguard Press. p. 202; 304. ISBN 978-1593157203.
- Vodafone and Roshan Launch First Mobile Money Transfer Service in Afghanistan
- "M-PESA launched in South Africa". 1 September 2010.
- "HDFC Bank and Vodafone launch Indian M-PESA". Banking and Payments Asia. 1 December 2011. Archived from the original on 10 January 2012.
- Sarah, Clark (27 February 2012). "Vodafone to roll out mobile payments with Visa". NFC World. Retrieved 28 September 2012.
- Vodafone: Not when but how for wireless health Mobihealthnews, 1 December 2009
- "SMS for life: Tanzania Pilot Project Report" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 11 December 2012.
- "Vodafone Foundation". Retrieved 13 December 2016.
- "500 people win a place on the Vodafone World of Difference programme" (PDF). Vodafone UK. 19 December 2011. Retrieved 13 December 2016.
- King, Ian (5 October 2017). "Is Vodafone's new ad campaign a little too clever?". Sky News. Retrieved 18 November 2018.
- Cowe, Roger (29 May 2002). "Sir Gerald Whent". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- "Sir Christopher's biggest regret". The Telegraph. 20 February 2003. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- "Arun Sarin conferred Honorary knighthood". Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- Wearden, Graeme (27 May 2008). "Vittorio Colao: from Brescia to the top of Vodafone". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- "BRITAIN'S £6BN VODAFONE BILL". Private Eye. Archived from the original on 27 October 2010. Retrieved 11 November 2010.
- "UK Uncut protesters blockade Vodafone stores across country". The Guardian. 15 June 2014.
- "Vodafone: Undercover investigation exposes Swiss branches: TBIJ". Thebureauinvestigates.com. Retrieved 15 May 2012.
- "Vodafone not liable for up to $4.4bn of India penalties". BBC News. 20 January 2012. Retrieved 20 January 2012.
- "Vodafone given $2.5bn Indian tax bill deadline". BBC News. 22 October 2010. Retrieved 31 March 2011.
- "India sends renewed £1.4bn tax notice to Vodafone". BBC News. Retrieved 27 March 2016.
- "Vodafone Scores a Victory in $3 Billion Tax Dispute With India". www.msn.com. Retrieved 25 September 2020.
- "Egypt Internet users report major network disruptions". Reuters. 27 January 2011.
- "Vodafone CEO Explains Egypt Phone Cutoff". The Wall Street Journal. 28 January 2011.
- R.G., Salter (1 March 2011). "Vodafone: Egypt forced us to send text messages". Yahoo News. ISBN 9781466641983.
- Williams, Christopher (28 January 2011). "How Egypt shut down the internet". The Daily Telegraph. London.
- Cowie, James (27 January 2011). "Egypt Leaves the Internet". Renesys.com. Archived from the original on 28 January 2011. Retrieved 8 July 2011.
- "Egypt's Web, Mobile Communications Severed". The Wall Street Journal. 28 January 2011.
- Financial Times, 25 July 2011, Andrew Parker, "Vodafone faces pressure over Egypt protests"
- Riley, Tess (28 July 2011). "Shedding light on Vodafone's digital darkness". New Statesman. Retrieved 18 January 2017.
- Moses, Asher. "Vodafone customers seething over dropped calls, slow data". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 11 December 2012.
- "Network guarantee – Vodafone Australia". Vodafone.com.au. Retrieved 11 December 2012.
- "Which? survey reveals customers' least favourite mobile network". BBC News. 23 April 2019. Retrieved 24 April 2019.
- Brignall, Miles. "Vodafone customer's £15,000 billing nightmare after mobile phone theft". The Guardian. Retrieved 21 March 2015.
- "Vodafone fined £4.6m by Ofcom for breaking customer rules". BBC News. 26 October 2016. Retrieved 18 January 2017.
- "Mobile phone networks overcharging loyal customers by up to £38 a month - Home". Citizensadvice.org.uk. 14 June 2017. Retrieved 15 January 2018.
- Garside, Juliette (6 June 2014). "Vodafone reveals existence of secret wires that allow state surveillance". Guardian. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
- "Saradha case: Supreme Court seeks reply from Vodafone, Airtel on CBI plea". Mint. 29 March 2019. Retrieved 29 March 2019.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Vodafone.|
- Business data for Vodafone Group Plc:
- Vodafone companies grouped at OpenCorporates