Vale S.A. (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈvali]) is a Brazilian multinational corporation engaged in metals and mining and one of the largest logistics operators in Brazil.
|Industry||Metals and Mining|
|Founded||1 June 1942 (as Companhia Vale do Rio Doce)|
Itabira, Minas Gerais, Brazil
|Founder||Vargas Era federal government of Brazil|
|Headquarters||Rio de Janeiro, Brazil|
|Eduardo Bartolomeo, Chief Executive Officer|
Luciano Siani, Chief Financial Officer
Iron ore pellets
|Revenue||US$ 34.0 billion (2017)|
|US$ 5.5 billion (2017)|
Number of employees
Vale, formerly Companhia Vale do Rio Doce (the Sweet River Valley Company, referring to the Doce River), is the largest producer of iron ore and nickel in the world. Vale also produces manganese, ferroalloys, copper, bauxite, potash, kaolin, and cobalt, currently operating nine hydroelectricity plants, and a large network of railroads, ships, and ports used to transport its products.
The company has had two catastrophic tailings dam failures in Brazil: Mariana, in 2015, and Brumadinho, in 2019; the Brumadinho dam disaster caused the company to lose its license to operate eight tailings dams in Minas Gerais, and its stock to lose nearly 25 percent in value.
Although the company's primary operations are in Brazil, Vale has operations in 30 countries, which are detailed below and on the company's website.
Iron ore: Vale is the world's largest iron ore producer. Sales of iron ore fines and pellets represented 65% of total company revenues in 2014. In 2014, Vale sold 256 million metric tonnes of iron ore fines and 44 million metric tonnes of iron ore pellets. Vale's Mariana Hub was the 9th largest iron ore mining center in the world in 2014, with an output of 39 million metric tonnes. Vale's Serra Sull / S11D is the largest mining reserve in the world. The company's iron ore mines are primarily in Brazil.
Nickel: Vale is the world's largest nickel producer. Sales of nickel represented 17% of total company revenues in 2014. In 2014, Vale sold 272,000 metric tonnes of nickel. The company owns nickel mines in Canada, Indonesia, New Caledonia, and Brazil. Tesla, Inc. is known to buy the majority of their Nickel from Vale.
Fertilizer products, primarily phosphates and nitrogen: Sales of fertilizer products represented 6% of total company revenues in 2014. In 2014, Vale sold 9 million metric tonnes of fertilizer products.
Copper: Sales of copper concentrate represented 4% of total company revenues in 2014. In 2014, Vale sold 353,000 metric tonnes of copper. The company owns copper mines in Brazil, Canada, Chile, and Zambia.
Manganese and alloys: Sales of manganese and alloys represented 1% of total company revenues in 2014. In 2014, Vale sold 2 million metric tonnes of manganese and alloys.
From 2000 to 2006, Vale invested more than $1.3 billion on the acquisition of over 361 locomotives and around 14,090 freight cars, those locomotives were primarily for iron ore transportation, but some were for regular cargo. Some of the locomotives purchased were secondhand for refurbishment but at least 55 of the locomotives acquired were new ones of the model EMD SD70M, each one costing about $2 million.
After those investments, Vale became the owner of over 800 locomotives and more than 35,000 freight cars.
- Vitória a Minas railroad - Vale operates under a 30-year contract this 905 km, 1,000 mm (3 ft 3+3⁄8 in) railroad, which is used to transport iron from the Iron Quadrangle in Minas Gerais to the Port of Tubarão in the state of Espírito Santo . The concession expires in 2027. This railroad also carried 1.1 million passengers in 2006.
- Carajás railroad - The concession of this 892 km, 1,600 mm (5 ft 3 in) gauge railroad also expires in 2027, it links Carajás iron ore mines in the state of Pará to Ponta da Madeira port terminal in the state of Maranhão. Vale operates a train of 3.2 km and 340 cars on this railroad.
- Ferrovia Centro-Atlântica - Vale controls this railroad through the subsidiary FCA. As it is shown on the Vale's operations map above, this 7,000 km, 1,000 mm (3 ft 3+3⁄8 in) railroad extends through 6 brazilian states, this railroad originally belonged to the RFFSA. Vale's concession of this railroad expires in 2026.
- Vale also has a stake in railway operators in Mozambique and Malawi via the Nacala Logistics Corridor.
On February 5, 2019, the state court of the Province of Minas Gerais ordered Vale to halt use of eight of its tailings dams, including the Laranjeiras dam at Brucutu.
- Port of Tubarão - Vale owns and operates this port located in Vitória, Brazil in the state of Espirito Santo. It's the largest iron ore embarking port in the world. Around 80 million metric tons of iron ore (30% of the company's annual production) are shipped through this port.
- Ponta da Madeira - Located in the state of Maranhão, it ships around 70 million metric tons mostly of iron ore, but also of manganese and copper for the company; it is being upgraded for the S11D project
- Port of Sepetiba - Vale operates two maritime terminals in the Port of Sepetiba area located in the state of Rio de Janeiro, together they ship around 60 million metric tons of iron ore.
- Samarco mine – a joint-venture with BHP and the site of the Mariana dam disaster on 5 November 2015.
- Feijão mine – site of the Brumadinho dam disaster on 25 January 2019.
Vale also operates port terminals in the state of Sergipe and two others in the state of Espirito Santo.
- Teluk Rubiah Maritime Terminal (TRMT), a state of the art maritime terminal in the state of Perak, operates as a distribution centre for iron ore in the Asia Pacific region.
Vale has also entered the shipping business by ordering 35 Very Large Ore Carriers (VLOC) to transport iron ore between South America and Asia. These 362-metre (1,188 ft), 400,000 DWT ships are the longest and largest dry bulk carriers in the world. The first ship, Vale Brasil, was delivered in March 2011.
Vale's energy business is focused at power production to fulfill the needs of its mining operations, as well as supplying the general Brazilian power grid. In 2005 it consumed 16.9 TWh of electrical power, accounting for 4.4% of Brazil's total consumption in that year.
Vale has participation in 8 hydroelectric plants, with 7 of these located in the state of Minas Gerais. Vale's investment in hydroelectric power plants totals $880 million. The company also plans to build a 600 MW thermoeletric power plant in the state of Pará.
|Name||Location||Production Capacity||Vale's Ownership||Vale's Investment||Start of Operations|
|Aimorés||Minas Gerais||330 MW||51%||$141 million||July 2005|
|Candonga||Minas Gerais||140 MW||50%||$46 million||September 2004|
|Capim Branco I||Minas Gerais||240 MW||48.42%||$90 million||February 2006|
|Capim Branco II||Minas Gerais||210 MW||48.42%||$90 million||May 2007|
|Estreito||Tocantins||1,087 MW||30%||$355 million||August 2009|
|Funil||Minas Gerais||180 MW||51%||$49 million||December 2002|
|Igarapava||Minas Gerais||210 MW||38.15%||$88.1 million||January 1999|
|Porto Estrela||Minas Gerais||112 MW||33.33%%||$20 million||September 2001|
Vale also operates hydroelectric plants in Canada and Indonesia.
Founded as Companhia Vale do Rio Doce (widely known as CVRD prior to 2007) (in English, "Doce River Valley Company") was founded in Itabira, Minas Gerais, by the Brazilian Federal Government on 1 June 1942.
The 1950s marked Companhia Vale do Rio Doce's entry into the global iron ore market, after the company's mine-railroad-port complex was modernized and iron ore prices doubled. At first, sales were mostly to the United States, but exports to Europe increased over the course of the decade.
In 1966, the company inaugurated in Espirito Santo the Port of Tubarão, which was to become the most important port for CVRD and is still used to export iron ore mined from the Iron Quadrangle in Minas Gerais.
In 1985, Vale started to explore the Carajás Mine in the state of Pará just after the 1,600 mm (5 ft 3 in) gauge Carajás railroad was opened.
In March 2017, Vale SA choose a commodities industry veteran, Fabio Schvartsman as chief executive officer. Schvartsman was CEO of Klabin SA, Brazil's largest paper and cardboard producer, for the past six years.
Privatization in 1997
In May 1997, despite protests by Vale employees and some politicians, the Brazilian Government auctioned a 41.73% interest in the company, which was sold for R$3.34 billion (US$3.13 billion). The largest interest purchased was a 16.3% stake purchased by Brazilian steel company Companhia Siderúrgica Nacional.
Sale of wood pulp businesses
Sale of steel businesses
In 2006, the company sold 5,362,928 shares in Usiminas for or R$378.6 million. In 2007, the company sold the majority of its stake in Usiminas. In 2009, the company sold its remaining stake in Usiminas.
Acquisitions of Brazilian iron ore companies
Acquisition of Caemi and acquisition and partial disposition of MBR
On 1 April 2000, Vale offered to pay Mitsui US$277 million for 50% of the common shares and US$150 million for 40% of the preferred stock in Caemi. Caemi owned MBR, Brazil's second largest iron ore producer, mining over 60 million tonnes per year.
Also in 2007, Vale announced that it will lease the shares of MBR that it did not already own from their 7 Japanese shareholders for a 30-year period. The agreement required the company to pay a total of US$60.5 million in 2007 and US$48.1 million annually for a 30-year period and gave it total control of MBR.
In 2005, Vale acquired Canico Resource, owner of a nickel mine in Brazil, after increasing its offer to $865 million.
In October 2006, Vale acquired Canadian-based nickel producer Inco, for $18.9 billion, including $17.7 billion in cash and the assumption of $1.2 billion in debt. To gain approval from Canadian authorities, Vale promised to continue investments in Canada and not layoff people for 3 years after closing.
In 2014, Vale announced the sale of coal assets in Mozambique to Mitsui in a $950 million transaction.
On 26 November 2015, Vale announced that it planned to reduce its budget for capital expenditures from US$8 billion in 2015 to US$6.2 billion in 2016, with further reductions to US$4–5 billion by 2018.
On 5 November 2015, the Mariana dam disaster caused 19 deaths and massive environmental contamination when a tailings dam collapsed at the Samarco mining site, co-owned by Vale and BHP Billiton. Heavy metal contamination of the Doce River caused water emergencies in many downstream cities which depend on the river for drinking water. Activities at the mine were suspended, and the companies agreed to pay compensation of R$4.4 billion (US$1.55 billion).
On 25 January 2019, the Brumadinho dam disaster occurred at the Córrego do Feijão mine in the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais, releasing 3 billion gallons of mine waste, in a wave of red iron ore which destroyed the mine's cafeteria, where many workers were present and lost their lives, and which flooded the town of Brumadinho. Reports varied in the wake of the disaster: The Wall Street Journal reported, on February 10, 2019, that "the disaster killed at least 157 people"; National Public Radio had reported that, as of February 1, 205 remained missing. 192 were rescued alive after the tailings dam collapsed. Though not as environmentally devastating as the 2015 collapse, the 2019 disaster caused more human deaths.
In January 2012, Vale received the "people's choice" Public Eye Award as the corporation with the most "contempt for the environment and human rights" in the world. Vale received 25,000 votes, with the Belo Monte Dam cited as a reason.
Following the 2019 disaster, BBC News reported that "Correspondents say the alarm system the company had installed to warn residents of any risk did not go off."
- Vale's Performance in 2015
- Vale: Leadership
- Vale 2014 Form 20-F Annual Report
- Vale: The pride of Brazil becomes its most hated company, by Daniel Gallas South America business correspondent, BBC News, British Broadcasting Corporation,British Broadcasting Corporation, January 30, 2019. Retrieved February 10, 2019.
- Vale 2014 Form 20-F Annual Report
- "Vale ordered to halt operations at Brucutu", by Kelsey Rolfe, CIM magazine, Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum, February 04, 2019. Retrieved February 10, 2019.
- "Vale Loses License at Dam That Caused Iron Ore Force Majeure", by R.T. Watson, Bloomberg News, February 5, 2019. Retrieved February 10, 2019.
- "Vale Denied Having ‘Upstream’ Dams Ahead of Deadly Accident", The Wall Street Journal, by Paul Kiernan, Alistair MacDonald and Rhiannon Hoyle, February 10, 2019. Retrieved February 10, 2019.
- "Mercado vê valor de até R$ 858 bi para Vale na bolsa com explosão do minério". CNN (in Portuguese). 3 May 2021.
- Vale: Across the World
- Cecilia Jamasmie (25 February 2016). "Vale posts record loss, to sell core assets". Mining.com.
- Vladimir Basov (17 September 2015). "True giants of mining: World's top 10 iron ore mines". Mining.com.
- "CVRD-controlled Carajas Railway received 12 new SD70M locomotives from Electro-Motive Diesel in December to handle growing traffic". International Railway Journal. 2006. Archived from the original on 28 September 2008.
- EMD: JT2CWR Archived 15 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine
- "Ferrovia Centro Atlântica". Archived from the original on 10 September 2001. Retrieved 27 September 2012.
- "Railway Gazette: Mining drives African rail plans". Retrieved 2 November 2010.
- Porto e Negócios Archived 14 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine
- News Article Archived 17 November 2007 at the Wayback Machine
- Safari, Maryam; Bicudo, de Castro Vincent; Steccolini, Ileana (1 January 2020). "The interplay between home and host logics of accountability in multinational corporations (MNCs): the case of the Fundão dam disaster". Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal. ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print): 1761–1789. doi:10.1108/AAAJ-03-2019-3912. ISSN 0951-3574.
- Brazilian mining group’s giant ore carrier soon to enter service. Mining Weekly, 13 May 2011. Retrieved 2011-08-26.
- SEC Info - Companhia Vale do Rio Doce, et al. - 20-F - For 12/31/05
- A CVRD Anuncia a Construção de uma Térmica a Carvão - Adriano Pires: O Globo Online
- "As CVRD changes name to Vale, iron ore pre-talks begin". Mineweb. 30 November 2007. Archived from the original on 30 March 2016. Retrieved 18 March 2016.
- Vale History Book: Chapter 1
- Vale History Book: Chapter 3
- Vale History Book 5
- Alan Riding (19 May 1985). "Mining for Profits in the Jungles of Brazil". New York Times.
- "First ship loaded at Ponta da Madeira: a special Monday in Vale's history" (Press release). 15 January 2016.
- "Vale taps veteran executive Schvartsman as new CEO". Reuters. 28 March 2017. Retrieved 28 March 2017.
- "Brazil Awards Big Mining Stake To Group Bidding $3.13 Billion". New York Times. 7 May 1997.
- "CVRD Concludes the Sale of CENIBRA" (Press release). PRNewswire. 14 September 2001.
- "CVRD Sells its Last Pulp and Paper Assets" (Press release). PRNewswire. 10 June 2002.
- "CVRD Divests AÇOMINAS" (Press release). 7 December 2000.
- "Cross Shareholding Unwinding: CVRD Sells Its CSN Stake" (Press release). PRNewswire. 15 March 2001.
- "CVRD Divests Its Stake in CST" (Press release). PRNewswire. 28 June 2004.
- "Ternium Purchases CVRD's Ownership Stake in Siderar" (Press release). Business Wire. 28 December 2006.
- "CVRD Restructures Its Investment in Usiminas" (Press release). PRNewswire. 6 November 2006.
- "Brazilian mining giant Vale do Rio Doce share offer seen yielding R$1.93 billion". 17 April 2007.
- "Vale sells its stake in Usiminas". Steel Orbis. 17 April 2009.
- "CVRD Acquired SOCOIMEX" (Press release). 15 May 2000.
- "Acquisition of SAMITRI" (Press release). 30 May 2000.
- "CVRD Negotiates the Acquisition of FERTECO" (Press release). 12 April 2001.
- "CVRD to Invest US$ 6.3 Billion in 2007" (Press release). PRNewswire. 26 January 2007.
- Matthew Flynn (15 April 2003). "CVRD's Caemi purchase might face conditions". BN Americas.
- "Commission clears merger between Brazilian iron ore producers subject to undertakings". European Commission. 30 October 2001.
- "CVRD in $426m iron-ore acquisition". Mining Weekly. 5 September 2003.
- "CVRD Announces Stock Merger With Caemi" (Press release). PRNewswire. 23 January 2006.
- "Mitsui to Sell Shares in EBM to CVRD". Mitsui. 2 May 2007. Archived from the original on 26 March 2016. Retrieved 18 March 2016.
- "CVRD seeking synergies with MBR". BN Americas. 2 May 2007.
- "Vale announces the sale of a minority stake of MBR" (Press release). 30 June 2015.
- "Acquisition of the Sossego Project Confirms CVRD Copper Strategy" (Press release). PRNewswire. 25 October 2001.
- "CVRD Successfully Completes Take-Over Bid for Canico" (Press release). PRNewswire. 9 December 2005.
- "Canico accepts sweetened CVRD offer". The Globe and Mail. 12 November 2005.
- "CVRD Announces Proposed All-Cash Offer to Acquire Inco" (Press release). PRNewswire. 11 August 2006.
- "CVRD obtains Investment Canada Act approval" (Press release). Vale. 18 October 2006.
- "CVRD concludes acquisition of AMCI Holdings Australia" (Press release). 20 April 2007.
- "Vale launches public offer to acquire Paranapanema" (Press release). 29 July 2010.
- Fernanda de Biagio (29 July 2010). "Vale offers to buy Paranapanema for US$1.14bn". BN Americas.
- Fernanda de Biagio (30 September 2010). "VVale concludes acquisition of Mosaic stake in Fosfertil for US$1.03bn". BN Americas.
- "Vale acquires Fosfertil shares" (Press release). 28 January 2010.
- "Vale mine death plea disappoints union". CBC. 19 September 2013.
- "Hydro-Vale aluminium transaction to be completed today" (Press release). Norsk Hydro. 28 February 2011. Archived from the original on 4 February 2013.
- Vale sells ferromanganese units to Glencore for $160 mln, Reuters, 11 July 2012
- "Vale of Brazil Sells Coal Stake to Mitsui & Co. for About $950 Million". New York Times. 9 December 2014.
- "ICL Completes Acquisition Of 100% Of Fosbrasil S.A" (Press release). PRNewswire. 22 December 2014.
- "Silver Wheaton Acquires Additional Gold Stream From Vale's Salobo Mine" (Press release). PRNewswire. 2 March 2015.
- "Norsk Hydro: Hydro enters LoI with Vale to raise MRN ownership to 45%" (Press release). Globe Newswire. 9 October 2015.
- Vale presents strategic planning for 2016 in London
- "BHP Billiton reaches $1.55bn settlement with Brazil over dam collapse". Australian Associated Press. 2 March 2016. Retrieved 20 March 2016 – via The Guardian.
- "Court Orders Vale To Stop Using Tailings Dams As Death Toll Climbs Above 120", by Vanessa Roma, February 4, 2019. Retrieved February 10, 2019.
- Phillips, Dom (26 January 2019). "Hundreds feared dead as Brazil dam collapse releases mud tide". The Observer. ISSN 0029-7712. Retrieved 26 January 2019.
- Andreoni, Manuela; Darlington, Shasta (26 January 2019). "With Hundreds Missing Following Burst Brazil Dam, a Frantic Search for Survivors". The New York Times.
- Chaudhuri, Saabira (27 January 2012). "Public Eye award singles out Brazilian mining company, Barclays". The Guardian.
- "Brazil dam: Startling pictures of Brumadinho collapse", BBC News, British Broadcasting Corporation, February 1, 2019. Retrieved February 10, 2019.
- "Vale dam disaster: $7bn compensation for 270 killed". BBC News. 4 February 2021. Retrieved 4 February 2021.
- (in French) Michel Braudeau, « Mourir dans l'or à Serra Pelada », in Le rêve amazonien, éditions Gallimard, 2004 (ISBN 2-07-077049-4).
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Vale (company).|
- The company's home page in Portuguese
- The company's home page in English
- Rheebu Nuu - indigenous group attempting to halt CVRD's mining projects in the South Pacific
- Eyewitness Survivor Account and video. "Brumadinho: novas imagens revelam detalhes da tragédia, Jornol O Globo, February 1, 2019. Retrieved February 10, 2019.