University Grants Commission (India)

The University Grants Commission of India (UGC India) is a statutory body set up by the Department of Higher Education, Ministry of Education, Government of India in accordance to the UGC Act 1956[2] and is charged with coordination, determination and maintenance of standards of higher education. It provides recognition to universities in India, and disbursements of funds to such recognized universities and colleges. The headquarters are in New Delhi, and it has six regional centres in Pune, Bhopal, Kolkata, Hyderabad, Guwahati and Bangalore.[3][4] A proposal to replace it with another new regulatory body called HECI is under consideration by the Government of India. The UGC provides doctoral scholarships to all those who clear JRF in the National Eligibility Test. On an average, each year 725 crore (US$100 million) is spent on doctoral and post-doctoral fellowships by the commission. [5]

University Grants Commission
Crest of the University Grants Commission
AbbreviationUGC
Formation28 December 1953 (1953-12-28)
HeadquartersNew Delhi
Location
Chairman
D.P. Singh
Parent organization
Department of Higher Education, Ministry of Education, Government of India
Budget
4,693 crore (US$660 million) (2021–2022)[1]
Websiteugc.ac.in

History

The UGC was first formed in 1945 to oversee the work of the three Central Universities of Aligarh, Banaras and Delhi. Its responsibility was extended in 1947 to cover all Indian universities.[6]

In August 1949 a recommendation was made to reconstitute the UGC along similar lines to the University Grants Committee of the United Kingdom. This recommendation was made by the University Education Commission of 1948-1949 which was set up under the chairmanship of S. Radhakrishnan "to report on Indian university education and suggest improvements and extensions".[7][8] In 1952 the government decided that all grants to universities and higher learning institutions should be handled by the UGC. Subsequently, an inauguration was held on 28 December 1953 by Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, the Minister of Education, Natural Resources and Scientific Research.

In November 1956 the UGC became a statutory body upon the passing of the "University Grants Commission Act, 1956" by the Indian Parliament.[2]

In 1994 and 1995 the UGC decentralised its operations by setting up six regional centres at Pune, Hyderabad, Kolkata, Bhopal, Guwahati and Bangalore.[9] The head office of the UGC is located at Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg in New Delhi, with two additional bureaus operating from 35, Feroze Shah Road and the South Campus of University of Delhi as well.[10]

In December 2015 the Indian government set a National Institutional of Ranking Framework under UGC which will rank all educational institutes by April 2016.[11]

In December 2017 D.P. Singh, former director of National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC), was appointed chairman for a period of five years, replacing UGC member Virander Singh Chauhan, who officiated the position since the retirement of Ved Prakash in April 2017.[12]

Types of universities

The types of universities regulated by the UGC include:

  • Central universities, or Union universities, are established by an act of parliament and are under the purview of the Department of Higher Education in the Ministry of Education.[13] As of 12 December 2018, The list of central universities published by the UGC includes 49 central universities.[14]
  • State universities are run by the state government of each of the states and territories of India and are usually established by a local legislative assembly act. As of 6 October 2017, the UGC lists 370 state universities.[15] The oldest establishment date listed by the UGC is 1857, shared by the University of Mumbai, the University of Madras and the University of Calcutta. Most State Universities are affiliating universities in that they administer many affiliated colleges (many located in very small towns) that typically offer a range of undergraduate courses, but may also offer post-graduate courses. More established colleges may even offer Ph.D. programs in some departments with the approval of the affiliating university.
  • Deemed university, or "Deemed to be University", is a status of autonomy granted by the Department of Higher Education on the advice of the UGC, under Section 3 of the UGC Act.[16] As of 6 October 2017, the UGC lists 123 deemed universities.[17] According to this list, the first institute to be granted deemed university status was Indian Institute of Science, which was granted this status on 12 May 1958. In many cases, the same listing by the UGC covers several institutes. For example, the listing for Homi Bhabha National Institute covers the Institute of Mathematical Sciences, the Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research and other institutes.[18]
  • Private universities are approved by the UGC. They can grant degrees but they are not allowed to have off-campus affiliated colleges. As of 6 October 2017, the UGC list of private universities lists 282 universities.[19]

The University Grants Commission (UGC) has also released the list of 24 fake universities operating in India. UGC has said that these 24 self-styled, unrecognized institutions functioning in contravention of the UGC Act have been declared as fake and are not entitled to confer any degrees.[20]

Professional councils

UGC, along with CSIR currently conducts NET for appointments of teachers in colleges and universities.[21] It has made NET qualification mandatory for teaching at graduation level and at post-graduation level since July 2009. However, those with Ph.D are given five percent relaxation.

Accreditation for higher learning over universities under the aegis of University Grants Commission is overseen by following fifteen autonomous statutory institutions:[22][23]

  • All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE)
  • Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR)
  • Bar Council of India (BCI)
  • National Council for Teacher Education (NCTE)
  • Rehabilitation Council of India (RCI)
  • Medical Council of India (MCI)/National Medical Commission (NMC)
  • Pharmacy Council of India (PCI)
  • Indian Nursing Council (INC)
  • Dental Council of India (DCI)
  • Central Council of Homoeopathy (CCH)
  • Central Council of Indian Medicine (CCIM)
  • National Council for Rural Institutes (NCRI)
  • Council of Architecture
  • Various State Councils of Higher Education (SCHE)

Future

In 2009, the Union Minister of Human Resource Development, Kapil Sibal made known the government of India's plans to consider the closing down of the UGC and the related body All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE), in favour of a higher regulatory body with more sweeping powers.[24] This goal, proposed by the Higher Education and Research (HE&R) Bill, 2011, intends to replace the UGC with a National Commission for Higher Education & Research (NCHER) "for determination, coordination, maintenance and continued enhancement of standards of higher education and research".[25] The bill proposes absorbing the UGC and other academic agencies into this new organisation. Those agencies involved in medicine and law would be exempt from this merger "to set minimum standards for medical and legal education leading to professional practice".[26] The bill has received opposition from the local governments of the Indian states of Bihar, Kerala, Punjab, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal, but has received general support.[25]

On 27 June 2018, the Ministry of Human Resource Development announced its plans to repeal the UGC Act, 1956. A bill was expected to be introduced in the 2018 monsoon session of the Parliament, which if passed would have led to the dissolution of the UGC. The bill also stipulated formation of a new body, the Higher Education Commission of India (HECI).[27][28] This form of the bill was ultimately dropped in the face of strong political opposition, and was reworked in 2019 in order to gain political consensus.[29] As of mid-2020 the UGC continues to remain in existence. Ministry of Human Resource Development, MHRD, was renamed as 'Ministry of Education'.[30]

See also

  • List of autonomous higher education institutes in India
  • List of universities in India

References

  1. https://www.indiabudget.gov.in/doc/eb/sbe59.pdf
  2. "UGC Act-1956" (PDF). mhrd.gov.in/. Secretary, University Grants Commission. Retrieved 1 February 2016.
  3. "University Grants commission ::UGC Regional Offices". www.ugc.ac.in.
  4. University Grants Commission Govt. of India (india.gov.in).
  5. https://www.ugc.ac.in/mrp/paper/MRP-MAJOR-LIBR-2013-16308-PAPER.pdf
  6. "University Grants Commission - Genesis". University Grants Commission. Retrieved 16 May 2016.
  7. "Introduction to the university education commission of 1948". Krishna Kanta Handiqui State Open University. Retrieved 16 May 2016.
  8. Denny. "University Education Commission 1948-49 in India". YourArticleLibrary. Retrieved 16 May 2016.
  9. "About Western Regional Office". University Grants Commission. Retrieved 16 May 2016.
  10. "About Eastern Regional Office". University Grants Commission. Retrieved 16 May 2016.
  11. "New ranking system portal goes online, UGC tells all varsities to register". The Times of India. 24 November 2015. Retrieved 27 October 2018.
  12. "UGC appoints NAAC Director DP Singh as its new chairman". The Indian Express. 23 December 2017. Retrieved 25 December 2017.
  13. "Central Universities". mhrd.gov.in. Ministry of Education. Archived from the original on 3 March 2012. Retrieved 13 March 2012.
  14. "Consolidated list of Central Universities as on 12.12.2018" (PDF). UGC. 12 December 2018. Retrieved 13 January 2019.
  15. "List of State Universities as on 06.10.2017" (PDF). University Grants Commission. 6 October 2017. Retrieved 30 October 2017.
  16. "Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology (IISST) Thiruvanathapuram Declared as Deemed to be University". Union Human Resource Development Ministry, Press Information Bureau. 14 July 2008. Retrieved 3 September 2011.
  17. "List of Institutions of higher education which have been declared as Deemed to be Universities as on 06.10.2017" (PDF). University Grants Commission. 6 October 2017. Retrieved 30 October 2017.
  18. "Listing of Homi Bhabha National Institute as deemed university". ugc.ac.in. University Grants Commission. Retrieved 13 September 2011.
  19. "State-wise List of Private Universities as on 6.10.2017" (PDF). www.ugc.ac.in. University Grants Commission. 6 October 2017. Retrieved 30 October 2017.
  20. "UGC releases list of 24 fake universities". ugc.ac.in (Press release). University Grants Commission. 7 October 2020. Retrieved 7 October 2020.
  21. "CSIR UGC 2013".
  22. "Higher education in India". Department of Higher Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India. Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 16 November 2009.
  23. "Professional Councils". University Grants Commission. Retrieved 2 July 2016.
  24. "UGC, AICTE to be scrapped: Sibal". iGovernment.in. Archived from the original on 9 October 2011. Retrieved 29 November 2011.
  25. Reporter, BS (6 March 2013). "States oppose national panel for higher education and research". Business Standard. Retrieved 10 December 2013.
  26. TNN (5 October 2013). "Major push to change the face of higher education". Times of India. Retrieved 10 December 2013.
  27. Vishnoi, Anubhuti (28 June 2018). "Modi government to dissolve UGC, set up new Higher Education Commission". The Economic Times. Retrieved 28 June 2018.
  28. IANS (28 June 2018). "HRD Ministry to replace UGC with Higher Education Commission of India". Business Standard India. Retrieved 28 June 2018.
  29. Vishnoi, Anubhuti (27 September 2019). "Government reworks Higher Education Bill to gain political consensus". The Economic Times. Retrieved 9 May 2020.
  30. "Ministry of Human Resource Development, MHRD, officially renamed as 'Ministry of Education'". DNA India. 18 August 2020.
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