Toyotomi Hideyoshi

Toyotomi Hideyoshi (豊臣 秀吉, 17 March 1537 – 18 September 1598) was a Japanese samurai and daimyo (feudal lord) of the late Sengoku period regarded as the second "Great Unifier" of Japan.[1][2]

Toyotomi Hideyoshi
豊臣秀吉
Emperor Chief Advisor
(Kampaku)
In office
August 6, 1585  February 10, 1592
Monarch
  • Ōgimachi
  • Go-Yōzei
Preceded byNijō Akizane
Succeeded byToyotomi Hidetsugu
Chancellor of the Realm
(Daijō Daijin)
In office
February 2, 1586  September 18, 1598
MonarchGo-Yōzei
Preceded byKonoe Sakihisa
Succeeded byTokugawa Ieyasu
Head of Toyotomi clan
In office
1584–1598
Succeeded byToyotomi Hideyori
Personal details
Born
Hiyoshi-maru (日吉丸)

March 17, 1537
Nakamura, Owari, Japan
Died(1598-09-18)September 18, 1598
(aged 61)
Fushimi Castle, Kyoto, Japan
NationalityJapanese
Spouse(s)
  • Nene
  • Yodo-dono
  • Kaihime
Children
  • Hashiba Hidekatsu (adopted son)
  • Toyotomi Tsurumatsu
  • Toyotomi Hideyori
MotherŌmandokoro
FatherKinoshita Yaemon
Relatives
  • Toyotomi Hidenaga
    (half-brother)
  • Asahi no kata
    (half-sister)
  • Toyotomi Hidetsugu
    (nephew)
  • Konoe Sakihisa
    (adopted father)
CultShinto
Other names
  • Kinoshita Tōkichirō (木下 藤吉郎)
  • Hashiba Hideyoshi (羽柴 秀吉)
Divine nameToyokuni Daimyōjin (豊国大明神)
Posthumous
dharma name
Kokutai-yūshō-in-den Reizan Shunryū Daikoji (国泰祐松院殿霊山俊龍大居士)
Signature
Military service
Allegiance
  • Oda clan
  • Toyotomi clan
  • Imperial Court
RankDaimyō, Kampaku, Daijō-daijin
Unit Toyotomi clan
Battles/warsSiege of Inabayama
Siege of Kanegasaki
Battle of Anegawa
Siege of Nagashima
Battle of Nagashino
Battle of Tedorigawa
Siege of Miki
Siege of Itami
Siege of Tottori
Siege of Takamatsu
Battle of Yamazaki
Battle of Shizugatake
Battle of Komaki and Nagakute
Negoro-ji Campaign
Toyama Campaign
Kyūshū campaign
Odawara Campaign
Korean Campaign
see below
Toyotomi Hideyoshi
Japanese name
Kanaとよとみ ひでよし or とよとみ の ひでよし
Kyūjitai豐臣 秀吉
Shinjitai豊臣 秀吉
Toyotomi clan Mon

Hideyoshi rose from a peasant background as a retainer of the prominent lord Oda Nobunaga to become one of the most powerful men in Japan. Hideyoshi succeeded Nobunaga after the Honnō-ji Incident in 1582 and continued Nobunaga's campaign to unite Japan that led to the closing of the Sengoku period. Hideyoshi became the de facto leader of Japan and acquired the prestigious positions of Chancellor of the Realm and Imperial Regent by the mid-1580s. Hideyoshi launched the Japanese invasions of Korea in 1592 to initial success, but eventual military stalemate damaged his prestige before his death in 1598. Hideyoshi's young son and successor Toyotomi Hideyori was displaced by Tokugawa Ieyasu at the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600 which would lead to the founding of the Tokugawa Shogunate.

Hideyoshi's rule covers most of the Azuchi–Momoyama period of Japan, partially named after his castle, Momoyama Castle. Hideyoshi left an influential and lasting legacy in Japan, including Osaka Castle, the Tokugawa class system, the restriction on the possession of weapons to the samurai, and the construction and restoration of many temples some of which are still visible in Kyoto.

Early life (1537–1558)

Nakamura Park in Nagoya, traditionally regarded as Hideyoshi's birthplace.

Very little is known for certain about Toyotomi Hideyoshi before 1570, when he begins to appear in surviving documents and letters. His autobiography starts in 1577, but in it, Hideyoshi spoke very little about his past.

According to tradition, Hideyoshi was born on 17 March 1537 in Nakamura, Owari Province (present-day Nakamura Ward, Nagoya), in the middle of the chaotic Sengoku period under the collapsed Ashikaga Shogunate. Hideyoshi had no traceable samurai lineage, and his father Kinoshita Yaemon was an ashigaru – a peasant employed by the samurai as a foot soldier.[3] Hideyoshi had no surname, and his childhood given name was Hiyoshi-maru (日吉丸) ("Bounty of the Sun") although variations exist. Yaemon died in 1543 when Hideyoshi was 7-years-old.[4]

Many legends describe Hideyoshi being sent to study at a temple as a young man, but he rejected temple life and went in search of adventure.[5] Under the name Kinoshita Tōkichirō (木下 藤吉郎), he first joined the Imagawa clan as a servant to a local ruler named Matsushita Yukitsuna (松下之綱). Hideyoshi traveled all the way to the lands of Imagawa Yoshimoto, the daimyo based in Suruga Province, and served there for a time, only to abscond with a sum of money entrusted to him by Matsushita Yukitsuna.

Service under Nobunaga (1558–1582)

In 1558, Hideyoshi became an ashigaru for the powerful Oda clan, the rulers of his home province of Owari, now headed by the ambitious Oda Nobunaga.[5] Hideyoshi soon became one of Nobunaga's sandal-bearers, a position of relatively high status, and was present at the Battle of Okehazama in 1560 when Nobunaga defeated Imagawa Yoshimoto to become one of the most powerful warlords in the Sengoku period. According to his biographers, Hideyoshi supervised the repair of Kiyosu Castle, a claim described as "apocryphal", and managed the kitchen.[6]

In 1561, Hideyoshi married One, the adopted daughter of Asano Nagakatsu. Hideyoshi carried out repairs on Sunomata Castle with his younger half-brother, Hashiba Koichirō, along with Hachisuka Masakatsu, and Maeno Nagayasu. Hideyoshi's efforts were well-received because Sunomata was in enemy territory, and according to legend Hideyoshi constructed a fort in Sunomata overnight and discovered a secret route into Mount Inaba, after which much of the local garrison surrendered.[7]

100 Aspects of the Moon No.7, by Tsukioka Yoshitoshi: "Mount Inaba Moon" 1885, 12th month. The young Toyotomi Hideyoshi (then named Kinoshita Tōkichirō) leads a small group assaulting the castle on Mount Inaba

In 1564, Hideyoshi was very successful as a negotiator. He managed to convince, mostly with liberal bribes, a number of Mino warlords to desert the Saitō clan. Hideyoshi approached many Saitō clan samurai and convinced them to submit to Nobunaga, including the Saitō clan's strategist, Takenaka Shigeharu.

Nobunaga's easy victory at the siege of Inabayama Castle in 1567 was largely due to Hideyoshi's efforts,[8] and despite his peasant origins, in 1568 Hideyoshi became one of Nobunaga's most distinguished generals, eventually taking the name Hashiba Hideyoshi (羽柴 秀吉). The new surname included two characters, one each from Oda's right-hand men, Niwa Nagahide ( 長秀), Shibata Katsuie (田 勝家) and Akechi Mitsuhide (明智 光), Mori Yoshinari ()

In 1570, Hideyoshi protected Nobunaga's retreat from Azai-Asakura forces at Kanegasaki. Hideyoshi's rear-guard defense of his lord's escape is one of his fabled accomplishments under Nobunaga. Later in June 1570, at the Battle of Anegawa, Hideyoshi was assigned to lead Oda troops into open battle for the first time in which Oda Nobunaga allied with Tokugawa Ieyasu to lay siege to two fortresses of the Azai and Asakura clans.[6][9]

In 1573, after victorious campaigns against the Azai and Asakura, Nobunaga appointed Hideyoshi daimyo of three districts in the northern part of Ōmi Province. Initially, Hideyoshi based at the former Azai headquarters at Odani Castle but moved to Kunitomo and renamed the city "Nagahama" in tribute to Nobunaga. Hideyoshi later moved to the port at Imahama on Lake Biwa, where he began work on Imahama Castle and took control of the nearby Kunitomo firearms factory that had been established some years previously by the Azai and Asakura. Under Hideyoshi's administration, the factory's output of firearms increased dramatically.[10] Hideyoshi participated in the 1573 siege of Nagashima.[11]

In 1575, Hideyoshi fought in the Battle of Nagashino against Takeda.[12] In 1576, Nobunaga sent Hideyoshi to Himeji Castle to conquer the Chūgoku region from the Mori clan. Hideyoshi then fought in the Battle of Tedorigawa (1577), the siege of Miki (1578), the siege of Itami (1579), the siege of Tottori (1581) and the siege of Takamatsu (1582).[11]

Death of Nobunaga

On June 21, 1582, Oda Nobunaga and his eldest son Nobutada were killed in the Honnō-ji incident by the forces of the traitorous Akechi Mitsuhide. Their assassination in Honnō-ji temple in Kyoto ended Nobunaga's quest to consolidate centralised power in Japan under his authority.

Hideyoshi, seeking vengeance for the death of his lord, made peace with the Mōri clan and thirteen days later met Mitsuhide and defeated him at the Battle of Yamazaki, avenging his lord (Nobunaga) and taking Nobunaga's authority and power for himself.[11]:275–279

Rise to Power (1582–1585)

Japan around 1582

Construction of Osaka Castle

In 1582, Hideyoshi began construction of Osaka Castle. Built on the site of the temple Ishiyama Hongan-ji destroyed by Nobunaga,[13] the castle would become the last stronghold of the Toyotomi clan after Hideyoshi's death.[14]

Conflict with Katsuie

In 1583 Hideyoshi was in a very strong position. He summoned the powerful daimyos to Kiyosu so that they could determine Nobunaga's heir. Oda Nobukatsu and Oda Nobutaka quarreled, causing Hideyoshi to instead choose Nobunaga's grandson Samboshi, whose other name was Hidenobu.[15] Having won the support of the other two Oda elders, Niwa Nagahide and Ikeda Tsuneoki, Hideyoshi established Hidenobu's position, as well as his own influence in the Oda clan. He distributed Nobunaga's provinces among the generals and formed a council of four generals to help govern. Tension quickly escalated between Hideyoshi and Katsuie, and at the Battle of Shizugatake in the following year, Hideyoshi destroyed Katsuie's forces.[16] Hideyoshi had thus consolidated his own power, dealt with most of the Oda clan, and controlled 30 provinces.[8]:313–314 The famous kirishitan daimyo and samurai Dom Justo Takayama fought on his side at this epic battle.

Conflict with Ieyasu

In 1584, Nobunaga's other son, Oda Nobukatsu, remained hostile to Hideyoshi. Nobukatsu allied himself with Tokugawa Ieyasu, and the two sides fought at the inconclusive Battle of Komaki and Nagakute. It ultimately resulted in a stalemate, although Hideyoshi's forces were delivered a heavy blow.[7] Ieyasu and Hideyoshi never actually fought against each other themselves but the former managed to check the advance of the latter's allies.[17] Finally, Hideyoshi made peace with Nobukatsu, ending the pretext for war between the Tokugawa and Hashiba clans. Hideyoshi sent Tokugawa Ieyasu his younger sister Asahi no kata and mother Ōmandokoro as hostages.

Toyotomi clan

Like Nobunaga before him, Hideyoshi never achieved the title of shōgun. Instead, he arranged to have himself adopted by Konoe Sakihisa, one of the noblest men belonging to the Fujiwara clan and secured a succession of high court titles Chancellor (Daijō-daijin), including, in 1585, the prestigious position of Imperial Regent (kampaku).[18] In 1586, Hideyoshi was formally given the new clan name Toyotomi (instead of Fujiwara) by the Imperial court.[7] He built a lavish palace, the Jurakudai, in 1587 and entertained the reigning Emperor, Emperor Go-Yōzei, the following year.[19]

Toyotomi Hideyoshi Battle Standards

Unification of Japan (1585–1592)

Hideyoshi's "Edict of expulsion of the Christian Padres" (吉利支丹伴天連追放令), 1587.
Letter from Duarte de Meneses, viceroy of Portuguese India, to Hideyoshi dated April 1588, concerning the suppression of Christians, a National Treasure of Japan[20][21]

Negoro-ji campaign

Afterwards in 1585, Hideyoshi launched the siege of Negoro-ji and subjugated Kii Province.[22] The Negoro-gumi, the warrior monks of Negoro-ji, were quite skilled in the use of firearms, and were devout followers of Shingi, a branch of the Shingon sect of Buddhism. They were allied with the Ikkō-ikki, and with Tokugawa Ieyasu, one of Toyotomi's chief rivals. In particular, they attracted Hideyoshi's ire for their support of Tokugawa in the Battle of Komaki and Nagakute the previous year. After attacking a number of other warrior monk outposts in the area, Hideyoshi's force turned to the monastery of Negoro-ji, attacking it from two sides. By this time, many of the Negoro-gumi had already fled to Ōta Castle. Later, Hideyoshi besieged Ōta Castle, The complex was set aflame, beginning with the residences of the priests, and Hideyoshi's samurai cut down monks as they escaped the blazing buildings.

Shikoku Campaign

In the 1585 invasion of Shikoku, Toyotomi forces seized and conquered Shikoku island, the smallest of Japan's four main islands, from Chōsokabe Motochika.[23] Toyotomi's forces arrived 113,000 strong under Toyotomi Hidenaga, Toyotomi Hidetsugu, Ukita Hideie and the Mōri clan's "Two Rivers", Kobayakawa Takakage and Kikkawa Motoharu. Opposing them were 40,000 men of Chōsokabe's. Despite the overwhelming size of Hideyoshi's army, and the suggestions of his advisors, Motochika chose to fight to defend his territories. The battles culminated in the siege of Ichinomiya Castle, which lasted for 26 days. Chōsokabe made a half-hearted attempt to relieve his castle from the siege, but surrendered in the end. He was allowed to keep Tosa Province, while the rest of Shikoku was divided among Hideyoshi's generals.

Toyama campaign

During the late summer of August 1585, Hideyoshi launched an attack on Etchū Province.[24] Toyotomi Hideyoshi carried out the siege of Toyama castle. However, the Toyama castle garrison was led by Sassa Narimasa, one of his former allies many years back. Hideyoshi led his army of around 100,000 soldiers against the 20,000 men of the Sassa Narimasa forces; in the end however, Narimasa's defense was shattered, opening the way to for Toyotomi supremacy over Etchū Province.

Kyushu Campaign

In 1586 Toyotomi Hideyoshi conquered Kyūshū, wresting control from the Shimazu clan.[25] Toyotomi Hidenaga, half-brother to Hideyoshi, landed to the south of Bungo on Kyūshū's eastern coast. Meanwhile, Hideyoshi took his own forces down a more westerly route, in Chikuzen Province. Later that year, with a total of 200,000 soldiers against the 30,000 men of the Shimazu forces, the two brothers would meet up in the Shimazu home province of Satsuma. They besieged Kagoshima castle, the Shimazu clan's home. The Shimazu surrendered, leaving Hideyoshi to return his attention to the Hōjō clan of Kantō, the last major clan to oppose him.

In 1587, Hideyoshi banished Christian missionaries from Kyūshū, to exert greater control over the Kirishitan daimyos.[26] However, since he did much trade with Europeans, individual Christians were overlooked unofficially.

In 1588, Hideyoshi forbade ordinary peasants from owning weapons and started a sword hunt to confiscate arms.[27] The swords were melted down to create a statue of the Buddha. This measure effectively stopped peasant revolts, and ensured greater stability at the expense of freedom of the individual daimyos.

Odawara campaign

In 1590, Hideyoshi carried out the siege of Odawara against the Hōjō clan in the Kantō region.[28] With 220,000 men, the massive army of Toyotomi Hideyoshi surrounded Odawara Castle and its 82,000-strong Hōjō garrison, in what has been called "the most unconventional siege lines in samurai history". The samurai were entertained by everything from concubines, prostitutes, and musicians to acrobats, fire-eaters, and jugglers. The defenders slept on the ramparts with their arquebuses and armor; despite their smaller numbers, they discouraged Hideyoshi from attacking. After three months the Hōjō surrendered, losing the will to fight after the sudden appearance of Ishigakiyama Ichiya Castle.

This eliminated the last resistance to Hideyoshi's authority. His victory signified the end of the Sengoku period. During the siege, Hideyoshi offered Ieyasu the eight Hōjō-ruled provinces in the Kantō region, in exchange for the submission of Ieyasu's five provinces. Ieyasu accepted this proposal.

Death of Sen no Rikyū

In February 1591, Hideyoshi ordered Sen no Rikyū to commit suicide, likely in one of his angry outbursts.[29] Rikyū had been a trusted retainer and master of the tea ceremony under both Hideyoshi and Nobunaga. Under Hideyoshi's patronage, Rikyū made significant changes to the aesthetics of the tea ceremony that had a lasting influence over many aspects of Japanese culture. Even after Rikyū's death, Hideyoshi is said to have built his many construction projects based upon aesthetics promoted by Rikyū, perhaps suggesting that he regretted his actions.

Following Rikyū's death, Hideyoshi turned his attention from tea ceremony to Noh, which he had been studying since becoming Imperial Regent. During his brief stay in Nagoya Castle in what is today Saga Prefecture, on Kyūshū, Hideyoshi memorised the shite (lead role) parts of ten Noh plays, which he then performed, forcing various daimyos to accompany him onstage as the waki (secondary, accompanying role). He even performed before the emperor.[30]

Kunohe rebellion

The Kunohe rebellion was an insurrection in the Sengoku period of Japan, that occurred in Mutsu Province from 13 March to 4 September 1591.

Kunohe Masazane, a claimant to daimyo of the Nanbu clan, launched a rebellion against his rival Nanbu Nobunao which spread across Mutsu Province. Nobunao was backed by Toyotomi Hideyoshi, who along with Tokugawa Ieyasu sent a large army into the Tōhoku region in mid-1591 which quickly defeated the rebels. Hideyoshi's army arrived at Kunohe Castle in early September. Masazane was outnumbered and surrendered Kunohe Castle but he and the castle defenders were executed. The Kunohe rebellion was the final battle in Toyotomi Hideyoshi's campaigns during the Sengoku period and completed the unification of Japan.[31]

Korean campaign (1592–1598)

Taikō

The future stability of the Toyotomi dynasty after Hideyoshi's eventual death was put in doubt with the death of his son Tsurumatsu in September 1591. The three-year-old was his only child. When his half-brother Hidenaga died shortly after, Hideyoshi named his nephew Hidetsugu his heir, adopting him in January 1592. Hideyoshi resigned as kampaku to take the title of taikō (retired regent). Hidetsugu succeeded him as kampaku.

Toyotomi Hideyoshi's armor

With Hideyoshi's health beginning to falter, but still yearning for some accomplishment to solidify his legacy, he adopted Oda Nobunaga's dream of a Japanese conquest of China and launched the conquest of the Ming dynasty by way of Korea (at the time known as Koryu or Joseon).[32]

Hideyoshi had been communicating with the Koreans since 1587 requesting unmolested passage into China. As an ally of Ming China, the Joseon government of the time at first refused talks entirely, and in April and July 1591 also refused demands that Japanese troops be allowed to march through Korea. The government of Joseon was concerned that allowing Japanese troops to march through Korea (Joseon) would mean that masses of Ming Chinese troops would battle Hideyoshi's troops on Korean soil before they could reach China, putting Korean security at risk. In August 1591, Hideyoshi ordered preparations for an invasion of Korea to begin.

First campaign against Korea

In the first campaign, Hideyoshi appointed Ukita Hideie as field marshal, and had him go to the Korean peninsula in April 1592. Konishi Yukinaga occupied Seoul, which was the capital of the Joseon dynasty of Korea, on June 19. After Seoul fell easily, Japanese commanders held a war council in June in Seoul and determined targets of subjugation called Hachidokuniwari (literally, dividing the country into eight routes). Each targeted province was attacked by one of the army's eight divisions:

  • Pyeongan by the First Division led by Konishi Yukinaga.
  • Hamgyong by the Second Division led by Katō Kiyomasa.
  • Hwanghae by the Third Division led by Kuroda Nagamasa.
  • Gangwon by the Fourth Division led by Mōri Katsunaga.
  • Chungcheong by the Fifth Division led by Fukushima Masanori.
  • Jeolla by the Sixth Division led by Kobayakawa Takakage.
  • Gyeongsang by the Seventh Division led by Mōri Terumoto.
  • Gyeonggi by the Eighth Division led by Ukita Hideie.

In only four months, Hideyoshi's forces had a route into Manchuria and occupied much of Korea. The Korean king Seonjo of Joseon escaped to Uiju and requested military intervention from China. In 1593, the Wanli Emperor of Ming China sent an army under general Li Rusong to block the planned Japanese invasion of China and recapture the Korean peninsula. The Ming army of 43,000 soldiers headed by Li Ru-song proceeded to attack Pyongyang. On January 7, 1593, the Ming relief forces under Li recaptured Pyongyang and surrounded Seoul, but Kobayakawa Takakage, Ukita Hideie, Tachibana Muneshige and Kikkawa Hiroie won the Battle of Byeokjegwan in the suburbs of Seoul. At the end of the first campaign, Japan's entire navy was destroyed by Admiral Yi Sun-sin of Korea whose base was located in a part of Korea the Japanese could not control. This, in effect, put an end to Japan's dream of conquering China as the Koreans simply destroyed Japan's ability to re-supply their troops who were bogged down in Seoul.

Succession dispute

Toyotomi Hideyori

The birth of Hideyoshi's second son in 1593, Hideyori, created a potential succession problem. To avoid it, Hideyoshi exiled his nephew and heir Hidetsugu to Mount Kōya and then ordered him to commit suicide in August 1595. Hidetsugu's family members who did not follow his example were then murdered in Kyoto, including 31 women and several children.[33]

Twenty-six martyrs of Japan

In January 1597, Toyotomi Hideyoshi had twenty-six Christians arrested as an example to Japanese who wanted to convert to Christianity. They are known as the Twenty-six Martyrs of Japan. They included five European Franciscan missionaries, one Mexican Franciscan missionary, three Japanese Jesuits and seventeen Japanese laymen including three young boys. They were tortured, mutilated, and paraded through towns across Japan. On February 5, they were executed in Nagasaki by public crucifixion.[34]

The 26 Christian martyrs of Nagasaki, 18–19th-century, Choir of La Recoleta, Cuzco

Second campaign against Korea

After several years of negotiations (broken off because envoys of both sides falsely reported to their masters that the opposition had surrendered), Hideyoshi appointed Kobayakawa Hideaki to lead a renewed invasion of Korea, but their efforts on the peninsula met with less success than the first invasion. Japanese troops remained pinned down in Gyeongsang Province. In June 1598, the Japanese forces turned back several Chinese offensives in Suncheon and Sacheon, but they were unable to make further progress as the Ming army prepared for a final assault. While Hideyoshi's battle at Sacheon was a major Japanese victory, all three parties to the war were exhausted. He told his commander in Korea, "Don't let my soldiers become spirits in a foreign land."[2]

Death

Houkokubyo (Mausoleum of Toyotomi Hideyoshi) Higashiyama-ku, Kyoto

Toyotomi Hideyoshi died on September 18, 1598. He was delirious, with Sansom asserting that he was babbling of the distribution of fiefs. His last words, delivered to his closest daimyos and generals, were "I depend upon you for everything. I have no other thoughts to leave behind. It is sad to part from you." His death was kept secret by the Council of Five Elders to preserve morale, and they ordered the Japanese forces in Korea to withdraw back to Japan. Because of his failure to capture Korea, Hideyoshi's forces were unable to invade China. Rather than strengthen his position, the military expeditions left his clan's coffers and fighting strength depleted, his vassals at odds over responsibility for the failure, and the clans that were loyal to the Toyotomi name weakened. The Tokugawa government later not only prohibited any further military expeditions to the Asian mainland but closed Japan to nearly all foreigners during the years of the Tokugawa shogunate. It was not until the late 19th century that Japan again fought a war against China through Korea, using much the same route that Hideyoshi's invasion force had used.

After his death, the other members of the Council of Five Regents were unable to keep the ambitions of Tokugawa Ieyasu in check. Two of Hideyoshi's top generals, Katō Kiyomasa and Fukushima Masanori, had fought bravely during the war but returned to find the Toyotomi clan castellan Ishida Mitsunari in power. He held the generals in contempt, and they sided with Tokugawa Ieyasu. Hideyoshi's underage son and designated successor Hideyori lost the power his father once held, and Tokugawa Ieyasu was declared shōgun following the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600.

Family

  • Father: Kinoshita Yaemon (d. 1543)
  • Mother: Ōmandokoro (1513–1592)
  • Adopted father: Konoe Sakihisa
  • Siblings:
    • Toyotomi Hidenaga
    • Tomo, married Soeda Jinbae
    • Asahi no kata

Wives and concubines

Hideyoshi sitting with his wives and concubines
  • Wife Nene, or One, later Kōdai-in.
  • Minami-dono, daughter of Yamana Toyokuni
  • Yodo-dono, or Chacha, later Daikōin, daughter of Azai Nagamasa
  • Minami no Tsubone, daughter of Yamana Toyokuni
  • Matsu no Maru-dono or Kyōgoku Tatsuko, daughter of Kyōgoku Takayoshi
  • Kaga-dono or Maahime, daughter of Maeda Toshiie
  • Kaihime, daughter of Narita Ujinaga
  • Sonnomaru-dono, adopted daughter of Gamō Ujisato, daughter of Oda Nobunaga
  • Kusu no Tsubone, later Hokoin, daughter of Azai Nagamasa
  • Sanjo-dono or Tora, daughter of Gamō Katahide
  • Himeji-dono, daughter of Oda Nobukane
  • Hirozawa no Tsubone, daughter of Kunimitsu Kyosho
  • Ōshima or Shimako, later Gekkein, daughter of Ashikaga Yorizumi
  • Anrunkin or Otane no Kata
  • Ofuku, later Enyu-in, daughter of Miura Noto no Kami and mother of Ukita Hideie

Children

Hashiba Hidekatsu (Ishimatsumaru)
  • Hashiba Hidekatsu (Ishimatsumaru) (1570–1576) by Minami-dono
  • Daughter (name unknown)
Tsurumatsu
  • Toyotomi Tsurumatsu (1589–1591) by Yodo-dono
  • Toyotomi Hideyori by Yodo-dono

Adopted sons

  • Hashiba Hidekatsu (Tsugaru), fourth son of Oda Nobunaga
  • Oda Nobutaka, later Toyotomi Takahiro (1576–1602), seventh son of Oda Nobunaga
  • Oda Nobuyoshi, later Toyotomi Musashi (1573–1615), eighth son of Oda Nobunaga
  • Oda Nobuyoshi (d. 1609), tenth son of Oda Nobunaga
  • Ukita Hideie, son of Ukita Naoie
  • Toyotomi Hidetsugu, first son of Hideyoshi's sister Tomo with Miyoshi Kazumichi
  • Toyotomi Hidekatsu (1569–1592), second son of Hideyoshi's sister Tomo with Miyoshi Kazumichi
  • Toyotomi Hideyasu (1579–1595), Third son of Hideyoshi's sister Tomo with Miyoshi Kazumichi
  • Yūki Hideyasu, Tokugawa Ieyasu's second son
  • Ikeda Nagayoshi, third son of Ikeda Nobuteru
  • Kobayakawa Hideaki, Hideyoshi's nephew from his wife Nene's family.
  • Prince Hachijō Toshihito, sixth son of Prince Masahito

Adopted daughters

  • Gohime (1574–1634), daughter of Maeda Toshiie and married Ukita Hideie
  • O-hime (1585–1591), daughter of Oda Nobukatsu and married Tokugawa Hidetada
  • Oeyo, daughter of Azai Nagamasa and married Saji Kazunari, Toyotomi Hidekatsu, Tokugawa Hidetada
  • Konoe Sakiko, daughter of Konoe Sakihisa and married Emperor Go-Yōzei
  • Chikurin-in, daughter of Ōtani Yoshitsugu and married to Sanada Yukimura. They had two sons, Sanada Daisuke and Sanada Daihachi, and some daughters. Known as Akihime and Riyohime
  • Toyotomi Sadako (1592–1658), daughter of Toyotomi Hidekatsu with Oeyo, later became the adopted daughter of Tokugawa Hidetada and married Kujō Yukiie
  • Daizen-in, daughter of Toyotomi Hidenaga and married Mōri Hidemoto
  • Kikuhime, daughter of Toyotomi Hidenaga and married Toyotomi Hideyasu
  • Maeda Kikuhime (1578–1584), daughter of Maeda Toshiie

Grandchildren

  • Toyotomi Kunimatsu
  • Tenshuni (天秀尼) (1609–1645)

Cultural legacy

A replicated Osaka Castle has been created on the site of Hideyoshi's great donjon. The iconic castle has become a symbol of Osaka's re-emergence as a great city after its devastation in World War II.

Toyotomi Hideyoshi changed Japanese society in many ways. These include the imposition of a rigid class structure, restrictions on travel, and surveys of land and production.[35]

Class reforms affected commoners and warriors. During the Sengoku period, it had become common for peasants to become warriors, or for samurai to farm due to the constant uncertainty caused by the lack of centralised government and always tentative peace. Upon taking control, Hideyoshi decreed that all peasants be disarmed completely.[36] Conversely, he required samurai to leave the land and take up residence in the castle towns.[37][38] This solidified the social class system for the next 300 years.

Furthermore, he ordered comprehensive surveys and a complete census of Japan. Once this was done and all citizens were registered, he required all Japanese to stay in their respective han (fiefs) unless they obtained official permission to go elsewhere. This ensured order in a period when bandits still roamed the countryside and peace was still new. The land surveys formed the basis for systematic taxation.[39]

In 1590, Hideyoshi completed construction of the Osaka Castle, the largest and most formidable in all Japan, to guard the western approaches to Kyoto. In that same year, Hideyoshi banned "unfree labour" or slavery in Japan,[40] but forms of contract and indentured labour persisted alongside the period penal codes' forced labour.[41]

Hideyoshi also influenced the material culture of Japan. He lavished time and money on the Japanese tea ceremony, collecting implements, sponsoring lavish social events, and patronizing acclaimed masters. As interest in the tea ceremony rose among the ruling class, so too did the demand for fine ceramic implements, and during the course of the Korean campaigns, not only were large quantities of prized ceramic ware confiscated, many Korean artisans were forcibly relocated to Japan.[42]

Inspired by the dazzling Golden Pavilion in Kyoto, he had the Golden Tea Room constructed, which was covered with gold leaf and lined inside with red gossamer. Using this mobile innovation, he was able to practice the tea ceremony wherever he went, powerfully projecting his unrivalled power and status upon his arrival.[43]

Politically, he set up a governmental system that balanced out the most powerful Japanese warlords (or daimyos). A council was created to include the most influential lords. At the same time, a regent was designated to be in command.

Just before his death, Hideyoshi hoped to set up a system stable enough to survive until his son grew old enough to become the next leader.[44] A Council of Five Elders (五大老, go-tairō) was formed, consisting of the five most powerful daimyos. Following the death of Maeda Toshiie, however, Tokugawa Ieyasu began to secure alliances, including political marriages (which had been forbidden by Hideyoshi). Eventually, the pro-Toyotomi forces fought against the Tokugawa in the Battle of Sekigahara. Ieyasu won and received the title of Seii-Tai Shōgun two years later.

Hideyoshi is commemorated at several Toyokuni Shrines scattered over Japan.

Ieyasu left in place the majority of Hideyoshi's decrees and built his shogunate upon them. This ensured that Hideyoshi's cultural legacy remained. In a letter to his wife, Hideyoshi wrote:

I mean to do glorious deeds and I am ready for a long siege, with provisions and gold and silver in plenty, so as to return in triumph and leave a great name behind me. I desire you to understand this and to tell it to everybody.[45]

Names

Because of his low birth with no family name, to the eventual achievement of Imperial Regent, the highest title of Imperial nobility, Toyotomi Hideyoshi had quite a few names throughout his life. At birth, he was given the name Hiyoshi-Maru (日吉丸). At genpuku, he took the name Kinoshita Tōkichirō (木下 藤吉郎). Later, he was given the surname Hashiba and the honorary court office Chikuzen no Kami; as a result, he was styled Hashiba Chikuzen no Kami Hideyoshi (羽柴筑前守秀吉). His surname remained Hashiba even as he was granted the new Uji or sei ( or , clan name) Toyotomi by the Emperor.

The Toyotomi Uji was simultaneously granted to a number of Hideyoshi's chosen allies, who adopted the new Uji "豐臣朝臣/豊臣朝臣" (Toyotomi no ason, courtier of Toyotomi).

His full name was Hashiba Tōkichirō Toyotomi No Ason Hideyoshi (羽柴藤吉郎豐臣朝臣秀吉) in formal documents.

The Catholic sources of the time referred to him as Cuambacondono[46] (from kampaku and the honorific -dono) and "emperor Taicosama"[46] (from taikō, a retired kampaku (see Sesshō and Kampaku), and the honorific -sama).

Toyotomi Hideyoshi had been given the nickname Kozaru, meaning "little monkey", from his lord Oda Nobunaga because his facial features and skinny form resembled that of a monkey. He was also known as the "bald rat" or a "naked mole rat".

Literature

Hideyoshi is depicted by Eiji Yoshikawa in the novel series Taiko Ki.

In The 39 Clues series, Hideyoshi is a member of the Tomas branch of the Cahill family, the son of Thomas Cahill.

Movies

Hideyoshi appears in the film Taikoki (1922).

Hideyoshi appeared in Castle of Owls (1963) with Ryutaro Otomo as an Iga ninja hired to assassinate Toyotomi Hideyoshi.

Hideyoshi appeared in the famous Shinobi No-Mono series (1962-1967) with Raizo Ichikawa.

Hideyoshi also appeared in the movie Sanada Yukimura no Bōryaku (1979). His role is played by Ichiro Ogura.

Hideyoshi is played by Asao Koike in Shogun's Ninja (1980). Hideyoshi sends Shiranui Shōgen to an Iga ninja clan in search of the Momochi clan's hidden gold.

In the fantasy film Goemon (2009), Hideyoshi (played by Eiji Okuda) is depicted as an evil warlord.

The television movie Taikoki (1987) is a biography of Hideyoshi.

Hideyoshi appears in the television movie Oda Nobunaga (1992).

In the 1949 Mexican hagiographic film Philip of Jesus, Luis Aceves Castañeda plays a character corresponding to Hideyoshi but named "Emperor Iroyoshi Taikosama".

TV series

Toyotomi Hideyoshi tenka wo toru! (1995- ).

In Dokugan-ryu Masamune (1987- ), Hideyoshi is portrayed by Shintaro Katsu.

In the KBS1 television series Immortal Admiral Yi Sun-sin (2004–2005), Hideyoshi is portrayed by Lee Hyo-jung.

Video games

In Onimusha, an action horror video game series by Capcom, Hideoyoshi is one of the main antagonists. Similar to his real life counterpart, he makes small appearances during the first three games as a servant of Oda Nobunaga before becoming the main antagonist and ruler of Japan in the fourth game.

In the video game Nioh, Toyotomi Hideyoshi does not appear, but is mentioned by other characters and portrayed as a tyrant who committed a number of atrocities during his rule. Nioh 2 later reveals that Toyotomi Hideyoshi is an identity shared by two individuals, the player character Hide and an ambitious merchant-warrior Kinoshita Tōkichirō, and that Tōkichirō's crimes when he usurped the identity of Hideyoshi for himself was in fact committed by the antagonist Kashin Koji possessing his body.

Manga

Hyouge Mono (へうげもの, lit. "Jocular Fellow") is a Japanese manga written and illustrated by Yoshihiro Yamada. It was adapted into an anime series in 2011, and includes a fictional depiction of Toyotomi Hideyoshi's life.

In the Sengoku Basara game series and anime, he is described as a brutally strong man who killed his own wife to harden his heart, then raised an army to conquer Japan with conscripts and forced draftees. He is armed only with gauntlets, is large in physique, and is so strong that he can deflect a hail of arrows with a wave of his hand and drain a part of the Seto Inland Sea to defeat Chosokabe Motochika. Many of his subordinates and allies, such as Takenaka Hanbei and Ishida Mitsunari, are also major characters in the series.

Anime

In the Netflix anime series Great Pretender (2020), Hideyoshi is referenced many times by Laurent Thierry, one of the central protagonists of the series.

Documentary

In the Netflix documentary series Age of Samurai: Battle for Japan (2021), Hideyoshi is portrayed by Masami Kosaka. The show depicts his life and rise to power.

Honours

  • Senior First Rank (August 18, 1915; posthumous)

See also

  • People of the Sengoku period in popular culture#Toyotomi Hideyoshi
  • Tokugawa Ieyasu
  • Itsukushima's Senjokaku Hall
  • Dom Justo Takayama
  • Shogun
  • Daimyo
  • Samurai

Notes

  1. Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Ōmi" in Japan Encyclopedia, pp. 993–994, p. 993, at Google Books
  2. Richard Holmes, The World Atlas of Warfare: Military Innovations that Changed the Course of History, Viking Press 1988. p. 68.
  3. Berry 1982, p. 8
  4. Turnbull, Stephen (2010). Toyotomi Hideyoshi. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. p. 6. ISBN 9781846039607.
  5. Turnbull, Stephen R. (1977). The Samurai: A Military History. New York: MacMillan Publishing Co. p. 142.
  6. Berry 1982, p. 38
  7. Berry 1982, p. 179
  8. Sansom, George (1961). A History of Japan, 1334–1615. Stanford University Press. p. 278. ISBN 978-0804705257.
  9. Turnbull, Stephen (1987). Battles of the Samurai. Arms and Armour Press. p. 62. ISBN 978-0853688266.
  10. Berry 1982, p. 54
  11. Turnbull, Stephen (2000). The Samurai Sourcebook. London: Cassell & Co. pp. 87, 223–224, 228, 230–232. ISBN 978-1854095237.
  12. Turnbull, Stephen (1977). The Samurai. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc. pp. 156–160. ISBN 9780026205405.
  13. Berry 1982, p. 64
  14. Turnbull, Stephen (2006). Osaka 1615: The Last Battle of the Samurai. London: Bloomsbury Publishing PLC.
  15. Berry 1982, p. 74
  16. Berry 1982, p. 78
  17. Shogun : the life of Tokugawa Ieyasu, A.L Sadler
  18. Berry 1982, pp. 168–181
  19. Berry 1982, pp. 184–186
  20. "Kondō" (in Japanese). Hōryū-ji. Archived from the original on 2010-01-11. Retrieved 2009-11-23.
  21. 五重塔 (in Japanese). Hōryū-ji. Archived from the original on 2010-01-11. Retrieved 2009-11-23.
  22. Berry 1982, pp. 85–86
  23. Berry 1982, p. 83
  24. Berry 1982, p. 84
  25. Berry 1982, pp. 87–93
  26. Berry 1982, pp. 91–93
  27. Berry 1982, pp. 102–106
  28. Berry 1982, pp. 93–96
  29. Berry 1982, pp. 223–225
  30. Ichikawa, Danjūrō XII. Danjūrō no kabuki annai (團十郎の歌舞伎案内, "Danjūrō's Guide to Kabuki"). Tokyo: PHP Shinsho, 2008. pp. 139–140.
  31. Turnbull, Stephen (1998). The Samurai Sourcebook. London: Cassell & Co. p. 241. ISBN 9781854095237.
  32. Berry 1982, p. 208
  33. Berry 1982, pp. 217–223
  34. "Martyrs List". Twenty-Six Martyrs Museum. Archived from the original on 2010-02-14. Retrieved 2010-01-11.
  35. Elisonas, Jurgis (2003), "Toyotomi Hideyoshi", Oxford Art Online, Oxford University Press, doi:10.1093/gao/9781884446054.article.t085944
  36. Jansen, Marius. (2000). The Making of Modern Japan, p. 23.
  37. Berry 1982, pp. 106–107
  38. Jansen, pp. 21–22.
  39. Berry 1982, pp. 111–118
  40. Lewis, James Bryant. (2003). Frontier Contact Between Choson Korea and Tokugawa Japan, pp. 31–32.
  41. "Bateren-tsuiho-rei" (the Purge Directive Order to the Jesuits) Article 10
  42. Takeuchi, Rizō. (1985). Nihonshi shōjiten, pp. 274–275; Jansen, p. 27.
  43. 大阪観光局© (2018-01-29). "Osaka Castle". OSAKA-INFO. Retrieved 2020-11-12.
  44. 豊臣秀吉の遺言状 Archived 2008-09-19 at the Wayback Machine
  45. Sansom, George. (1943). Japan. A Short Cultural History, p. 410.
  46. Trujillo Dennis, Ana (2013). "I.a. Rutas, viaje y encuentros entre Japón y España". Lacas namban: Huellas de Japón en España: IV centenario de la embajada Keichô (in Spanish). Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte. p. 46. ISBN 978-84-616-4625-8.

References

  • Berry, Mary Elizabeth. (1982). Hideyoshi. Cambridge: Harvard UP, ISBN 9780674390256; OCLC 8195691
  • Haboush, JaHyun Kim. (2016) The Great East Asian War and the Birth of the Korean Nation (2016) excerpt
  • Jansen, Marius B. (2000). The Making of Modern Japan. Cambridge: Harvard UP. ISBN 9780674003347; OCLC 44090600
  • Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth. (2005). Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5; OCLC 58053128
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Konoe Sakihisa
Kampaku
1585–1591
Succeeded by
Toyotomi Hidetsugu
Government offices
Preceded by
Fujiwara no Sakihisa
Daijō Daijin
1585–1591
Succeeded by
Tokugawa Ieyasu
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