The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, often informally known as the LDS Church or Mormon Church, is a nontrinitarian, Christian restorationist church that considers itself to be the restoration of the original church founded by Jesus Christ. The church is headquartered in the United States in Salt Lake City, Utah, and has established congregations and built temples worldwide. According to the church, it has over 16.5 million members and 51,000 full-time volunteer missionaries.[6] In 2012, the National Council of Churches ranked the church as the fourth-largest Christian denomination in the United States,[7] with over 6.5 million members there as of January 2018.[8] It is the largest denomination in the Latter Day Saint movement founded by Joseph Smith during the early 19th century period of religious revival known as the Second Great Awakening.

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
Official logo since 2020 featuring the Christus statue
ClassificationRestorationist
OrientationLatter Day Saint movement
ScriptureBible
Book of Mormon
Doctrine and Covenants
Pearl of Great Price
Theology
PolityHierarchical
Prophet–PresidentRussell M. Nelson
Region176 nations & territories
HeadquartersSalt Lake City, Utah, United States
FounderJoseph Smith[1]
OriginApril 6, 1830 (1830-04-06)[2] as Church of Christ
Fayette, New York, United States
SeparationsLDS denominations
Congregations31,136 (2020)[3]
Members16,565,036 (2019)[4]
Missionaries51,819 (2020)[3]
Aid organizationPhilanthropies
Tertiary institutions4[5]
Other name(s)
  • LDS Church
  • Mormon Church
Official websitechurchofjesuschrist.org

Church theology includes the Christian doctrine of salvation only through Jesus Christ,[9] and the substitutionary atonement of Jesus Christ.[10] The church has an open canon which includes four scriptural texts: the Bible, the Book of Mormon, the Doctrine and Covenants, and the Pearl of Great Price. Other than the Bible, the majority of the church's canon constitutes revelations received by Joseph Smith; these include commentary and exegesis about the Bible, texts described as lost parts of the Bible, and other works believed to be written by ancient prophets, including the Book of Mormon. Because of doctrinal differences, Catholic, Orthodox, and several Protestant churches consider the church to be distinct and separate from mainstream Christianity.[11]

Latter-day Saints believe that the church president is a modern-day "prophet, seer, and revelator" and that Jesus Christ, under the direction of God the Father, leads the church by revealing his will to its president. The president heads a hierarchical structure with various levels reaching down to local congregations, known as wards. Bishops, drawn from the laity, lead the wards. Male members may be ordained to the priesthood, provided they are living the standards of the church. Women are not ordained to the priesthood, but occupy leadership roles in some church organizations.[12]

Both men and women may serve as missionaries; the church maintains a large missionary program that proselytizes and conducts humanitarian services worldwide. Faithful members adhere to church laws of sexual purity, health, fasting, and Sabbath observance, and contribute ten percent of their income to the church in tithing. The church also teaches about sacred ordinances through which adherents make covenants with God, including baptism, confirmation, the sacrament[lower-alpha 1], priesthood ordination, endowment, and celestial marriage.[13]

History

The history of the church is typically divided into three broad time periods: (1) the early history during the lifetime of Joseph Smith, which is in common with all churches associated with the Latter Day Saint movement (2) a pioneer era under the leadership of Brigham Young and his 19th-century successors; and (3) a modern era beginning around the turn of the 20th century as Utah achieved statehood.[14][15]

Beginnings

Adherents believe that Joseph Smith was called to be a modern-day prophet through a visitation from God the Father and Jesus Christ[lower-alpha 2].

Joseph Smith formally organized the church as the Church of Christ, on April 6, 1830, in western New York.[16] Smith later changed the name to the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints after he stated he had received a revelation to do so.[17] Initial converts were drawn to the church in part because of the newly published Book of Mormon, a self-described chronicle of indigenous American prophets that Smith said he had translated from golden plates.[18]

Smith intended to establish the New Jerusalem in North America, called Zion.[19] In 1831, the church moved to Kirtland, Ohio,[lower-alpha 3][20] and began establishing an outpost in Jackson County, Missouri,[lower-alpha 4][21] where he planned to eventually move the church headquarters.[22] However, in 1833, Missouri settlers brutally expelled the Latter Day Saints from Jackson County.[23] The church attempted to recover the land through a paramilitary expedition, but did not succeed.[24] Nevertheless, the church flourished in Kirtland as Smith published new revelations and the church built the Kirtland Temple,[25] culminating in a dedication of the building similar to the day of Pentecost.[26] The Kirtland era ended in 1838, after a financial scandal rocked the church and caused widespread defections.[27] Smith regrouped with the remaining church in Far West, Missouri,[28] but tensions soon escalated into violent conflicts with the old Missouri settlers.[29] Believing the Saints to be in insurrection, the Missouri governor ordered that the Saints be "exterminated or driven from the State".[30] In 1839, the Saints converted a swampland on the banks of the Mississippi River into Nauvoo, Illinois, which became the church's new headquarters.[31]

Nauvoo grew rapidly as missionaries sent to Europe and elsewhere gained new converts who then flooded into Nauvoo.[32] Meanwhile, Smith introduced polygamy to his closest associates.[33] He also established ceremonies, which he stated the Lord had revealed to him, to allow righteous people to become gods[lower-alpha 5][34][35] in the afterlife,[36] and a secular institution to govern the Millennial kingdom.[37] He also introduced the church to a full accounting of his First Vision, in which two heavenly "personages" appeared to him at age 14.[lower-alpha 6] This vision would come to be regarded by the LDS Church as the most important event in human history since the resurrection of Jesus.[38] Church members believe Joseph Smith is the first modern-day prophet.[39]

On June 27, 1844, Smith and his brother, Hyrum, were killed by a mob in Carthage, Illinois,[40] while being held on charges of treason.[41] Because Hyrum was Joseph's designated successor,[42] their deaths caused a succession crisis,[43] and Brigham Young assumed leadership over the majority of Saints.[44] Young had been a close associate of Smith's and was the senior apostle of the Quorum of the Twelve.[45]

Other splinter groups followed other leaders around this time. These groups have no affiliation with the LDS Church,[46] however they share a common heritage in their early church history. Collectively, they are called the Latter Day Saint movement. The largest of these smaller groups is the Community of Christ[lower-alpha 7], based in Independence, Missouri, followed by The Church of Jesus Christ, based in Monongahela, Pennsylvania. Like the LDS Church, these faiths believe in Joseph Smith as a prophet and founder of their religion. They also accept the Book of Mormon, and most, but not all, accept at least some version of the Doctrine and Covenants. However, they tend to disagree to varying degrees with the LDS Church concerning doctrine and church leadership.

Pioneer era

Brigham Young led the LDS Church from 1844 until his death in 1877.

For two years after Smith's death, conflicts escalated between Mormons and other Illinois residents. Smith had predicted that the church would go to the West and be established in the tops of the Rocky Mountains.[47] Brigham Young took Smith's advice and led his followers, known in modern times as the Mormon pioneers, to Nebraska and then in 1847 to what became the Utah Territory.[48] As groups of settlers[lower-alpha 8] arrived over a period of years, LDS settlers branched out and colonized a large region now known as the Mormon Corridor.

Young incorporated the LDS Church as a legal entity, and initially governed both the church and the state as a theocratic leader. He also publicized the practice of plural marriage,[49] a form of polygamy.

By 1857, tensions had again escalated between Mormons and other Americans, largely as a result of accusations involving polygamy and the theocratic rule of the Utah Territory by Young.[50] The Utah Mormon War ensued from 1857 to 1858, which resulted in the relatively peaceful invasion of Utah by the United States Army,[51] after which Young agreed to step down from power and be replaced by a non-Mormon territorial governor, Alfred Cumming.[52] Nevertheless, the LDS Church still wielded significant political power in the Utah Territory.[53]

At Young's death in 1877, he was followed by other church presidents, who resisted efforts by the United States Congress to outlaw Mormon polygamous marriages. In 1878, the United States Supreme Court, in Reynolds v. United States, decreed that "religious duty" to engage in plural marriage was not a valid defense to prosecutions for violating state laws against polygamy. Conflict between Mormons and the U.S. government escalated to the point that, in 1890, Congress disincorporated the LDS Church and seized most of its assets. Soon thereafter, church president Wilford Woodruff issued a manifesto that officially suspended the practice.[54] Although this manifesto did not dissolve existing plural marriages, so that families would not be split apart, no new polygamous marriages would be performed. Relations with the United States markedly improved after 1890, such that Utah was admitted as a U.S. state in 1896. Relations further improved after 1904, when church president Joseph F. Smith again disavowed polygamy before the United States Congress and issued a "Second Manifesto", calling for all plural marriages in the church to cease, as they were already against church doctrine since Woodruff issued the Manifesto. Eventually, the church adopted a policy of excommunicating its members found practicing polygamy and today actively distances itself from "fundamentalist" groups still practicing polygamy.[55] Some other, "fundamentalist" groups with relatively small memberships have broken off of the main Church body, primarily over disagreements about the continued practice of polygamy.

Modern times

An LDS Church meetinghouse in Kuopio, North Savonia, Finland
The Salt Lake Temple, which took 40 years to build, is one of the most iconic images of the church.

During the 20th century, the church grew substantially and became an international organization, due in part to the spread of missionaries around the globe. In 2000, the church reported 60,784 missionaries and global church membership stood at just over 11 million.[56] Worldwide membership surpassed 16 million in 2018. Slightly under half of church membership is within the United States.[57][lower-alpha 9][lower-alpha 10]

The church has become a strong and public champion of the nuclear family and at times played a prominent role in political matters, including opposition to MX Peacekeeper missile bases in Utah and Nevada,[61] the Equal Rights Amendment,[62] legalized gambling,[63] same-sex marriage,[64] and physician-assisted death.[65] Apart from issues that it considers to be ones of morality, however, the church maintains a position of political neutrality, but encourages its members to be politically active, to participate in elections, and to be knowledgeable about current political and social issues within their communities, states, and countries.[66]

A number of official changes have taken place to the organization during the modern era. One significant change was the ordination of men of black African descent to the priesthood in 1978, which reversed a policy originally instituted by Brigham Young in 1852.[67] There are also periodic changes in the structure and organization of the church, mainly to accommodate the organization's growth and increasing international presence. For example, since the early 1900s, the church has instituted a Priesthood Correlation Program to centralize church operations and bring them under a hierarchy of priesthood leaders. During the Great Depression, the church also began operating a church welfare system, and it has conducted numerous humanitarian efforts in cooperation with other religious organizations including Catholic Relief Services and Islamic Relief, as well as secular organizations such as the American Red Cross.

During the second half of the 20th century, the church has responded to various challenges to its doctrine and authority. Challenges have included rising secularization in the Western world, challenges to the correctness of the translation of the Book of Abraham, and primary documents forged by Mark Hofmann purporting to contradict important aspects of official early church history. Matters concerning its minority members have come to the forefront in this timeframe, such as its positions on homosexuality, women, and black people.

In August 2018, the church's president, Russell M. Nelson, asked members of the church and others to cease using the terms "LDS", "Mormon", and "Mormonism" to refer to the church, its membership, or its belief system, and instead to call the church by its full and official name.[68][69]

Teachings and practices

The LDS Church shares various teachings with other branches of Christianity. These include a belief in the Bible,[lower-alpha 11][70] the divinity of Jesus, and his atonement and resurrection. LDS theology also includes belief in the doctrine of salvation through Jesus alone, restorationism, millennialism, continuationism, conditional substitutionary atonement[10] or penal substitution,[71] and a form of apostolic succession. The practices of baptism by immersion, the eucharist[lower-alpha 12], and Sabbath observance are also held in common.[lower-alpha 13]

Nevertheless, the LDS Church differs from other churches within contemporary Christianity in other ways. Differences between the LDS Church and most of traditional Christianity include disagreement about the nature of God, belief in a theory of human salvation that includes three heavens,[lower-alpha 14][74] a doctrine of exaltation which includes the ability of humans to become gods and goddesses in the afterlife,[75] a belief in continuing revelation and an open scriptural canon, and unique ceremonies performed privately in LDS temples, such as the endowment and sealing ceremonies. Officially, some major Christian denominations view the LDS Church as standing apart from creedal Christianity.[76] However, Church members self-identify as Christians.[77]

Latter-day Saints believe in the resurrection of Jesus, as depicted in this replica of Bertel Thorvaldsen's Christus statue located in the North Visitors' Center on Temple Square in Salt Lake City.

The faith itself views other modern Christian faiths as having departed from true Christianity via a general apostasy and maintains that it is a restoration of 1st-century Christianity and the only true and authorized Christian church.[78] Church leaders assert it is the only true church and that other churches do not have the authority to act in Jesus' name.[79]

Nature of god

LDS Church theology includes the belief in a Godhead composed of God the Father, his son, Jesus Christ, and the Holy Ghost as three separate Persons who share a unity of purpose or will; however, they are viewed as three distinct Beings making one Godhead. This is in contrast with the predominant Christian view, which holds that God is a Trinity of three separate persons in one essence. The beliefs of the church also include the belief that God the Father and his son, Jesus Christ, are separate beings with bodies of flesh and bone, while the Holy Ghost lacks such a physical body.[80]

Cosmology and plan of salvation

A couple after their marriage in the Manti Utah Temple

The Mormon cosmology and plan of salvation include the doctrines of a pre-mortal life, three degrees of heaven, and exaltation.

According to these doctrines, every human spirit is a spiritual child of a Heavenly Father, and each has the potential to continue to learn, grow, and progress in the eternities, eventually achieving eternal life[lower-alpha 15], which is to become one with God in the same way that Jesus Christ is one with the Father, thus allowing the children of God to become divine beings - that is, gods - themselves.[81][82][83] This view on the doctrine of theosis is also referred to as becoming a "joint-heir with Christ".[75] The process by which this is accomplished is called exaltation, a doctrine which includes the reunification of the mortal family after the resurrection and the ability to have spirit children in the afterlife and inherit a portion of God's kingdom.[75][84] To obtain this state of godhood, the church teaches that one must have faith in Jesus Christ, repent of his or her sins, strive to keep the commandments faithfully, and participate in a sequence of ceremonial covenants called ordinances, which include baptism, receiving the gift of the Holy Ghost, the endowment, and celestial marriage.[85][86]

This latter ordinance, known as a sealing ceremony, reflects a singular LDS view with respect to families. According to LDS Church theology, men and women may be sealed to one another so that their marital bond continues into the eternities.[88] Children may also be sealed to their biological or adoptive parents to form permanent familial bonds, thus allowing all immediate and extended family relations to endure past death.[89] The most significant LDS ordinances may be performed via proxy in behalf of those who have died, such as baptism for the dead. The church teaches that all will have the opportunity to hear and accept or reject the gospel of Jesus Christ and the blessings that come to those who faithfully adhere to it, in this life or the next.[90]

Restorationism and prophetic leadership

The LDS Church teaches that, subsequent to the death of Jesus and his original apostles, his church, along with the authority to act in Jesus Christ's name and the church's attendant spiritual gifts, were lost, due to a combination of external persecutions and internal heresies.[91] The restoration—as represented by the church began by Joseph Smith—refers to a return of the authentic priesthood power, spiritual gifts, ordinances, living prophets and revelation of the primitive Church of Christ.[92][93][94] This restoration is associated with a number of events which are understood to have been necessary to re-establish the early Christian church found in the New Testament, and to prepare the earth for the Second Coming of Jesus.[95] In particular, Latter-day Saints believe that angels appeared to Joseph Smith and others and bestowed various priesthood authorities on them.

The church is led by a president, who is considered a "prophet, seer, and revelator." He is considered the only person who is authorized to receive revelation from God on behalf of the whole world or entire church. The church teaches that he is infallible when speaking on behalf of God. In modern practice, however, authoritative declarations with broad doctrinal implications are typically issued by joint statement of the First Presidency (of which the president is a part), and the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles.

Word of Wisdom

The LDS faithful observe a dietary code called the Word of Wisdom, in which they abstain from the consumption of alcohol, coffee, tea, and tobacco. The Word of Wisdom also encourages the consumption of herbs, moderate consumption of meat, and consumption of grains.[14]

When the revelation was first received in 1833 by Joseph Smith, the church considered it only advice; violation did not restrict church membership. During the 1890s, though, church leaders started emphasizing the Word of Wisdom more. In 1921, church president Heber J. Grant made obeying the Word of Wisdom a requirement to enter the temple. From that time, Church leadership has emphasized the forbidding of coffee, tea, tobacco, and alcohol, but not the other guidelines concerning meat, grains, and herbs.[14]

Law of chastity

Latter-day Saints follow a moral code called the law of chastity, which prohibits adultery, homosexual behavior, and sexual relations outside of marriage.[96][97] As part of the law of chastity, the church condemns pornography in any form and considers masturbation to be immoral.[98]

Tithing and other donations

LDS faithful donate a ten-percent tithe on their annual income, for the operations of the church, including construction of temples, meetinghouses, and other buildings, and other church uses.[99] Faithful members also fast[lower-alpha 16] on the first Sunday of each month for at least two consecutive meals. They donate at least the cost of the two skipped meals as a fast offering, which the church uses to assist the poor and needy and expand its humanitarian efforts.[100]

Missionary service

Missionaries typically commit to 18–24 months of full-time service.

All able LDS young men are expected to serve a two-year, full-time proselytizing mission.[101][102] Missionaries do not choose where they serve or the language in which they will proselytize, and are expected to fund their missions themselves or with the aid of their families. Prospective male missionaries must be at least 18 years old and no older than 25, not yet married, have completed secondary school, and meet certain criteria for physical fitness and spiritual worthiness. Missionary service is not compulsory, nor is it required for young men to retain their church membership.

Unmarried women 19 years and older may also serve as missionaries,[103] generally for a term of 18 months. However, the LDS Church emphasizes that women are not under the same expectation to serve as male members are, and may serve solely as a personal decision. There is no maximum age for missionary service for women.[104]

Retired couples are also encouraged to serve missions, and may serve 6-, 12-, 18-, or 23-month terms.[105] Unlike younger missionaries, these senior missionaries may serve in non-proselytizing capacities such as humanitarian aid workers or family history specialists. Other men and women who desire to serve a mission, but may not be able to perform full-time service in another state or country due to health issues, may serve in a non-proselyting mission. They might assist at Temple Square in Salt Lake City or aid in the seminary system in schools.[106]

All proselyting missionaries are organized geographically into administrative areas called missions. The efforts in each mission are directed by an older adult male mission president. As of July 2020, there were 407 missions of the church.[107]

Weekly meetings

Meetings for worship and study are held at meetinghouses, which are typically utilitarian in character.[14] The main focus of Sunday worship is the Sacrament meeting, where the Sacrament is passed to Church members. Also included are meetings for Sunday School, and separate instructional meetings based on age and gender, including Relief Society for adult women.

Church congregations are organized geographically. Members are generally expected to attend the congregation with their assigned geographical area; however, some geographical areas also provide separate congregations for young single adults[lower-alpha 17], older single adults,[lower-alpha 18][108] or for speakers of alternate languages. For Sunday services, the church is grouped into either larger[lower-alpha 19] congregations known as wards, or smaller congregations known as branches. Regional church organizations, encompassing multiple congregations, include stakes, missions, districts, and areas.

Social events and gatherings

Additional meetings are also held at the meetinghouse. Church officers may conduct leadership meetings or host training sessions and classes. The ward or branch community may schedule social activities at the meetinghouse, including dances, dinners, holiday parties and musical presentations. The church's Young Men and Young Women organizations meet at the meetinghouse once a week, where the youth participate in activities. In 2020, the church implemented a new initiative for children and youth worldwide, which replaced all other programs as of January 1 of that year.[109]

Temple worship

  Countries and territories with at least one LDS temple
  Countries and territories with no LDS temple, but with organized congregations and/or missionaries
  Countries and territories with no official LDS presence

According to church teaching and doctrine, temples are buildings dedicated to be a House of the Lord. In them, Church members perform ordinances that are considered the most sacred in the Church, including initiatories, endowments, and marriages or sealings. Baptisms for the dead[lower-alpha 20] are performed in the temples as well. Temples are considered by church members to be the most sacred structures on earth. Operating temples are not open to the public - only Church members who pass periodic interviews with ecclesiastical leaders are permitted to enter.[15][110] Church members generally do not share details about temple ordinances with outsiders, or even converse about them outside the temple itself.[110] As of April 2021, there are 160 operating temples located throughout the world.[111]

Sources of doctrine

The written canon of the LDS Church is referred to as its standard works.

The theology of the LDS Church consists of a combination of biblical doctrines with modern revelations and other commentary by LDS leaders, particularly Joseph Smith. The most authoritative sources of theology are the faith's canon of four religious texts, called the "standard works". Included in the standard works are the Bible, the Book of Mormon, the Doctrine and Covenants, and the Pearl of Great Price.

The Book of Mormon is a foundational sacred text for the Church, whose members are commonly called "Mormons," after the book itself. The LDS Church teaches that the Angel Moroni told Smith about golden plates containing the record, guided him to find them buried in the Hill Cumorah, and provided him the means of translating them from Reformed Egyptian. It claims to give a history of former inhabitants of the American continent. The Book of Mormon is extremely important to contemporary Latter-day Saints, who consider it the most perfect book on earth.[112]

The Bible, also part of the church's canon, is believed to be "the word of God as far as it is translated correctly".[113] Most often, the church uses the Authorized King James Version.[114] Two extended portions of the Joseph Smith Translation of the Bible have been canonized and are thus considered authoritative.[lower-alpha 21] Other revelations from Smith are found in the Doctrine and Covenants, and in the Pearl of Great Price.[110]

Another source of authoritative doctrine is the pronouncements of the current Apostles and members of the First Presidency. The church teaches that the First Presidency and the Quorum of Twelve Apostles are prophets[116] and that their teachings are generally given under inspiration from God through the Holy Spirit. Members of the church regularly acknowledge them formally as prophets, seers, and revelators [lower-alpha 22]; this is done publicly twice a year at the church's worldwide general conference.[116]

In addition to doctrine given by the Church as a whole, individual members of the church believe that they can also receive personal revelation from God in conducting their lives.[117]

Organization and structure

The church teaches that it is a continuation of the Church of Christ established in 1830 by Joseph Smith. This original church underwent several name changes during the 1830s, being called the Church of Jesus Christ, the Church of God,[118] and then in 1834, the name was officially changed to the Church of the Latter Day Saints.[119] In April 1838, the name was officially changed to the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints.[120] After Smith died, Brigham Young and the largest body of Smith's followers incorporated the LDS Church in 1851 by legislation of the State of Deseret under the name "The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints",[121] which included a hyphenated "Latter-day" and a British-style lower-case d.[122]

In 1887, the LDS Church was legally dissolved in the United States by the Edmunds–Tucker Act because of the church's practice of polygamy.[123] In the United States, the church continues to operate as an unincorporated entity.[124] Common informal names for the church include the LDS Church, the Latter-day Saints, and the Mormons. The term Mormon Church is in common use,[125] but the church began discouraging its use in the late 20th century.[126] The church requests that the official name be used when possible or, if necessary, shortened to "the Church" or "the Church of Jesus Christ".[127]

Tax-exempt corporations of the LDS Church include the Corporation of the Presiding Bishop of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints,[128] a corporation sole which was organized in 1916 under the laws of the state of Utah to acquire, hold, and dispose of real property; the Corporation of the President of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints,[129] which was established in 1923 in Utah to receive and manage money and church donations; and Intellectual Reserve, Inc., which was incorporated in 1997 to hold the church's copyrights, trademarks, and other intellectual property.[130] Non-tax-exempt corporations of the church include Bonneville International and the Deseret News.

In August 2018, church president Russell M. Nelson asked members of the church and others to cease using the terms "LDS", "Mormon", and "Mormonism" to refer to the church, its membership, or its belief system, and instead to call the church by its full and official name.[68][69] Subsequent to this announcement, the church's premier vocal ensemble, the Mormon Tabernacle Choir, was officially renamed and became the "Tabernacle Choir at Temple Square".[131] Reaction to the name change policy has been mixed.[132]

Priesthood hierarchy

Russell M. Nelson, current President of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.

The LDS Church is organized in a hierarchical priesthood structure administered by men. Latter-day Saints believe that Jesus leads the church through revelation and has chosen a single man, called "the Prophet" or President of the Church, as his spokesman on the earth. While there have been exceptions in the past, he and two counselors are normally ordained apostles and form the First Presidency, the presiding body of the church; twelve other apostles form the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles.[133] When a president dies, his successor is invariably the most senior member of the Quorum of the Twelve[lower-alpha 23], who reconstitutes a new First Presidency.[133] Following the death of church president Thomas S. Monson on January 2, 2018, senior apostle Russell M. Nelson was named president on January 14.[134] These men, and the other male members of the church-wide leadership [lower-alpha 24] are called general authorities. They exercise both ecclesiastical and administrative leadership over the church and direct the efforts of regional leaders down to the local level. General authorities and mission presidents work full-time and typically receive stipends from church funds or investments.[135]

Twice each year[lower-alpha 25], general authorities address the worldwide church through general conference, which includes five two-hour sessions over the course of two days. General conference sessions are translated into as many as 80 languages and are broadcast from the 21,000-seat Conference Center in Salt Lake City.[136] In addition to general conference, general authorities speak to church members in local congregations throughout the world; they also frequently speak to youth[137] and young adults[138] in special broadcasts and at the Church Educational System schools, such as Brigham Young University.[139]

At the local level, the church leadership are drawn from the laity and work on a part-time volunteer basis without stipend.[140]Like all members, they are asked to donate a tithe of 10 percent of their income to the church.[lower-alpha 26] Members volunteer general custodial work for local church facilities.[141][142]

Interior of the Conference Center where the church holds its General Conferences twice a year.

All males who are living the standards of the church are generally considered for the priesthood and are ordained to the priesthood as early as age 11.[143][144] Ordination occurs by a ceremony where hands are laid on the head of the one ordained. The priesthood is divided into three Aaronic priesthood quorums for young men 11 and up, and a Melchizedek priesthood quorum for men 18 and up.[145][146]

Programs and organizations

Under the leadership of the priesthood hierarchy are five organizations that fill various roles in the church: Relief Society, [lower-alpha 27][147] the Young Men and Young Women organizations[lower-alpha 28], Primary[lower-alpha 29], and Sunday School.[lower-alpha 30] Women serve as presidents and counselors in the presidencies of the Relief Society, Young Women, and Primary, while men serve as presidents and counselors of the Young Men and Sunday School.[148] The church also operates several programs and organizations in the fields of proselytizing, education, and church welfare such as LDS Humanitarian Services. Many of these organizations and programs are coordinated by the Priesthood Correlation Program, which is designed to provide a systematic approach to maintain worldwide consistency, orthodoxy, and control of the church's ordinances, doctrines, organizations, meetings, materials, and other programs and activities.[149]

The carillon tower at Brigham Young University, one of several educational institutions sponsored by the church

The church operates a Church Educational System which includes Brigham Young University[lower-alpha 31], BYU–Idaho, BYU–Hawaii, and Ensign College. The church also operates Institutes of Religion near the campuses of many colleges and universities. For high-school aged youth, the church operates a four-year Seminary program, which provides religious classes for students to supplement their secular education.[14] The church also sponsors a low-interest educational loan program known as the Perpetual Education Fund, which provides educational opportunities to students from developing nations.[5]

The church's Family History Library is the world's largest library dedicated to genealogical research

The church's welfare system, initiated in 1930 during the Great Depression, provides aid to the poor. Leaders ask members to fast once a month and donate the money they would have spent on those meals to help the needy, in what is called a fast offering.[14] Money from the program is used to operate Bishop's storehouses, which package and store food at low cost. Distribution of funds and food is administered by local bishops. The church also distributes money through its LDS Philanthropies division to disaster victims worldwide.[150]

Other church programs and departments include Family Services, which provides assistance with adoption, marital and family counseling, psychotherapy, and addiction counseling; the LDS Church History Department, which collects church history and records; and the Family History Department, which administers the church's large family history efforts, including FamilySearch, the world's largest family history library and organization.[151] Other facilities owned and operated by the Church include the Church History Library and the Granite Mountain Records Vault.

For over 100 years, the church was also a major sponsor of Scouting programs for boys, particularly in the United States. The LDS Church was the largest chartered organization in the Boy Scouts of America, having joined the Boy Scouts of America as its first charter organization in 1913.[152] In 2020, the church ended its relationship with the BSA and began an alternate, religion-centered youth program.[153] Prior to leaving the Scouting program, LDS Scouts made up nearly 20 percent of all enrolled Boy Scouts,[154] more than any other church.[155]

Finances

Although the church has not released church-wide financial statements since 1959, in 1997, Time magazine called it one of the world's wealthiest churches per capita.[156] In a June 2011 cover story, Newsweek stated that the LDS Church "resembles a sanctified multinational corporation—the General Electric of American religion, with global ambitions and an estimated net worth of $30 billion".[157] Its for-profit, non-profit, and educational subsidiary entities are audited by an independent accounting firm: as of 2007, some done by Deloitte & Touche.[158][159] In addition, the church employs an independent audit department that provides its certification at each annual general conference that church contributions are collected and spent in accordance with church policy.[160]

The church receives significant funds from tithes and fast offerings. According to the church, tithing and fast offering money is devoted to ecclesiastical purposes and not used in for-profit ventures.[161]

The church has also invested in for-profit business and real estate ventures such as Bonneville International, Deseret Book Company, City Creek Center, and cattle ranches in Utah, Florida, Nebraska, Canada and other locations.[162]

It has been estimated that the LDS Church received $33-billion in donations from its members in 2010 and, during the decade of the 2010s to net about $15-billion gains per year. According to estimates by Bloomberg Businessweek, the LDS Church's net worth was $40 billion as of 2012.[163]

In December 2019, a whistleblower alleged the church holds over $100 billion in investment funds through its investment management company, Ensign Peak Advisors; that it failed to use the funds for charitable purposes and instead used them in for-profit ventures; and that it misled contributors and the public about the usage and extent of those funds. According to the whistleblower, applicable law requires the funds be used for religious, educational or other charitable purposes for the fund to maintain its tax-exempt status.[165] Other commentators have argued that such expenditures may not be legally required as claimed.[166] In response to the allegations, the church's First Presidency stated that "the Church complies with all applicable law governing our donations, investments, taxes, and reserves," and that "a portion" of funds received by the church are "methodically safeguarded through wise financial management and the building of a prudent reserve for the future".[167]

Culture

Due to the differences in lifestyle promoted by church doctrine and history, members of the church have developed a distinct culture. Some scholars have even argued that church members form a distinctive ethnic group.[168] It is primarily concentrated in the Intermountain West. Many of the church's more distinctive practices follow from their adherence to the Word of Wisdom, which includes abstinence from tobacco, alcohol, coffee, and tea. As a result, areas of the world with a high concentration of LDS members may practice these restrictions societally. They sometimes come into conflict with local retail businesses that serve non-members.[169][170]

Media and arts

The culture has created substantial business opportunities for independent LDS media. Such communities include cinema, fiction, websites, and graphical art such as photography and paintings. The church owns a chain of bookstores called Deseret Book, which provide a channel through which publications are sold; titles include The Work and the Glory and The Other Side of Heaven. BYU TV, the church-sponsored television station, also airs on several networks. The church also produces several pageants annually depicting various events of the primitive and modern-day church. Its Easter pageant Jesus the Christ has been identified as the "largest annual outdoor Easter pageant in the world".[171]

The Tabernacle Choir at Temple Square has received a Grammy Award, three Emmy Awards, two Peabody Awards, and the National Medal of Arts.

Notable members of the church in the media and arts include: Donnie Osmond,[172] an American singer, dancer, and actor; Orson Scott Card,[173] author of Ender's Game; Stephenie Meyer,[174] author of the Twilight series; and Glenn Beck,[175] a conservative radio host, television producer, and author. Notable Church-related productions include Murder Among the Mormons, a 2021 Netflix documentary;[176] and The Book of Mormon, a big-budget musical about Mormon missionaries that received 9 Tony Awards.[177]

Home and family

Mormons place high values on marriage and family and kinship ties. Large, close-knit, nuclear families are considered ideal.[12] In 1995, the church's First Presidency and Quorum of the Twelve issued "The Family: A Proclamation to the World", which stresses the importance of the family. The proclamation defined marriage as a union between one man and one woman, and stated that the family unit is "central to the Creator's plan for the eternal destiny of His children." The document further says that "gender is an essential characteristic of individual premortal, mortal, and eternal identity and purpose," that the father and mother have differing but equal roles in raising children, and that successful marriages and families, founded upon the teachings of Jesus Christ, can last eternally.[178] The proclamation also promoted the traditional roles of husband and wife as essential to maintaining the strength of the family unit. The proclamation came, in part, as a response to national concerns in the United States about traditional family values and same-sex marriages.[179]

LDS Church members are encouraged to set aside one evening a week, typically Monday, to spend together in what is called "Family Home Evening." Family Home Evenings typically consist of gathering as a family to study gospel principles, and participate in family activities. Daily family prayer is also encouraged.[14]

Political involvement

The LDS Church takes no partisan role in politics, stating that it will not "endorse, promote or oppose political parties, candidates or platforms; allow its church buildings, membership lists or other resources to be used for partisan political purposes; attempt to direct its members as to which candidate or party they should give their votes to ... or attempt to direct or dictate to a government leader".[66] While the church takes an apolitical approach to candidates, it encourages its members to play an active role as responsible citizens in their communities, including becoming informed about issues and voting in elections.[66]

A 2012 Pew Center on Religion and Public Life survey indicates that 74 percent of U.S. members lean towards the Republican Party.[180] Some liberal members say they feel that they have to defend their worthiness due to political differences.[181]

The official church stance on staying out of politics does not include if there are instances of what church leaders deem to be moral issues, or issues the Church "believes ... directly affect [its] interests."[66] It has previously opposed same-sex marriage in California Prop 8, supported a gay rights bill in Salt Lake City which bans discrimination against homosexual persons in housing and employment,[182][183] opposed gambling, opposed storage of nuclear waste in Utah,[184][185] and supported the Utah Compact. It also opposed a ballot initiative legalizing medicinal marijuana in Utah,[186] but supported a possible alternative to it.[lower-alpha 32] In 2019 and 2021, the church stated its opposition to the Equality Act, which would prohibit discrimination in the United States on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity, but supports alternate legislation that it says would protect both LGBTQ rights and religious freedom.[187]

In the 116th United States Congress, there are 10 LDS Church members, including all six members of Utah's congressional delegation. Eight are Republicans and two are Democrats.[188] Utah's current governor, Spencer Cox, is also a church member.[189] Church member and current U.S. Senator Mitt Romney was the Republican Party's nominee in the U.S. 2012 presidential election. Jon Huntsman Jr. sought the Republican nomination until his withdrawal in early 2012.[190]

In 2016, following Donald Trump's proposed Muslim travel ban, many LDS Church members – who are one of the most consistently Republican voting groups – formed a significant faction of traditional Republican voters skeptical of Trump, with just 11% support in Utah. These voters saw parallels between Trumps anti-immigrant and anti-Islam rhetoric and the past persecution of Mormons in the United States.[191][192] However, by January 2018, many church members in Utah had expressed their support for Trump, in particular his policies on land and anti-environmentalism. His approval rating was 61%, higher than any other religious group.[193]

Demographics

Pew 2014 U.S. Religious Landscape Study[194] Mormons (U.S.) U.S. Avg.
Married 66% 49%
Divorced or separated 7% 11%
Have children under 18 41% 31%
Attendance at religious services (weekly or more) 77% 40%

The church reports a worldwide membership of 16 million;[195] this figure is based on the church's own membership records.[lower-alpha 33] According to these statistics, the church is the fourth largest religious body in the United States.[200][201][202] Although the church does not release attendance figures to the public, researchers estimate that attendance at weekly LDS worship services globally is around 4 million.[58] Members living in the U.S. and Canada constitute 46 percent of membership, Latin America 38 percent, and members in the rest of the world 16 percent.[203] The 2012 Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life survey, conducted by Princeton Survey Research Associates International, found that approximately 2 percent of the U.S. adult population self-identified as Mormon.[194]

LDS Church membership is concentrated geographically in the Intermountain West, in a specific region known as the Mormon corridor. The Mormon corridor was originally settled by Mormon pioneers in the mid- to late- 1800's. LDS Church influence in the area - both cultural and political - is considered relatively strong.

After interviewing and polling thousands of youth across America, evangelical statistician Christian Smith wrote in 2005, "in general comparisons among major U.S. religious traditions using a variety of sociological measures of religious vitality and salience ... it is Mormon teenagers who are sociologically faring the best."[204]

Humanitarian services

U.S. Navy sailors moving LDS Church-donated humanitarian supplies to Beirut, Lebanon, in 2006

The LDS Church provides worldwide humanitarian service.[205][206] The church's welfare and humanitarian efforts are coordinated by LDS Philanthropies (LDSP), a church department under the direction of the Presiding Bishopric.[150] Welfare efforts, originally initiated during the Great Depression, provide aid for the poor, financed by donations from church members. LDSP is also responsible for philanthropic donations to the LDS Church and other affiliated charities, such as the Church History Library, the Church Educational System, the Perpetual Education Fund, the Polynesian Cultural Center, the Tabernacle Choir at Temple Square, and efforts dedicated to providing funds for LDS missionaries and temple construction. Donations are also used to operate bishop's storehouses, which package and store food for the poor at low cost, and provide other local services.[207] As of 2016, the Church reports it has spent a total of $1.2 billion on humanitarian aid over the last 30 years.[208]

The church also distributes money and aid to disaster victims worldwide.[209] In 2005, the church partnered with Catholic Relief Services to provide aid to Niger.[210] In 2010, it partnered with Islamic Relief to help victims of flooding in Pakistan.[211] LDS Charities increased food production during the COVID-19 pandemic and donated healthcare supplies to 16 countries affected by the crisis.[212][213][214][215][216]

Controversy and criticism

Early criticism

The LDS Church has been subject to criticism and sometimes discrimination since its early years in New York and Pennsylvania. In the late 1820s, criticism centered on the claim by Joseph Smith to have been led to a set of gold plates from which the Book of Mormon was reputedly translated.

In the 1830s, the greatest criticism was for Smith's handling of a banking failure in Kirtland, Ohio. After the Mormons migrated west, there was fear and suspicion about the LDS Church's political and military power in Missouri, culminating in the 1838 Mormon War and the Mormon Extermination Order (Missouri Executive Order 44) by Governor Lilburn Boggs. In the 1840s, criticism of the church centered on its theocratic aspirations in Nauvoo, Illinois. Criticism of the practice of plural marriage and other doctrines taught by Smith were published in the Nauvoo Expositor. Opposition led to a series of events culminating in the death of Smith and his brother while jailed in 1844.

Protesters in front of the Newport Beach California Temple voicing their opposition to the church's support of Prop 8

As the church began openly practicing plural marriage under Brigham Young during the second half of the 19th century, the church became the target of nationwide criticism for that practice, as well as for the church's theocratic aspirations in the Utah Territory. Young introduced policies in 1852 that discriminated against black men and women of African descent which were not reversed until 1978.[217] Beginning in 1857, the church also came under significant media criticism after the Mountain Meadows massacre in southern Utah.[218][219][220]

Modern criticism

Academic critics have questioned the legitimacy of Smith as a prophet as well as the historical authenticity of the Book of Mormon and the Book of Abraham. Criticism has expanded to include claims of historical revisionism, homophobia, racism, and sexist policies. Notable 20th-century critics include Jerald and Sandra Tanner and historian Fawn Brodie. Evangelical Christians continue to argue that Smith was either fraudulent or delusional.

The church's views on sexual minorities have also received criticism such as its 2008 requests by top leaders to adherents to donate time and money in the campaign for California's Proposition 8 against same-sex marriage which sparked heated debate and protest by gay-rights organizations and others.[221][222][223] In 2009 the church expressed support for a Salt Lake City ordinance protecting gay and lesbian people against discrimination in employment and housing, but wanted an exception for religious institutions from this ordinance.[224] Further controversy resulted in November 2015, when the church changed its guidance to lay leaders about same-sex unions and about minor children living in the home of a parent in a same-sex relationship, whether natural or adopted.[225][226] In April 2019, the church reversed this policy, citing efforts to be more accepting to people of all kinds of backgrounds.[227][228]

Jewish groups, including the American Gathering of Jewish Holocaust Survivors, criticized the LDS Church in 1995 after discovering that vicarious baptisms for the dead for victims of the Holocaust had been performed by members of the church.[229][230] After that criticism, church leaders put a policy in place to stop the practice, with an exception for baptisms specifically requested or approved by victims' relatives.[231] Jewish organizations again criticized the church in 2002, 2004, 2008, and 2012[232][233] stating that the church failed to honor the 1995 agreement.[231] The LDS Church says it has put institutional safeguards in place to avoid the submission of the names of Holocaust victims not related to Mormon members, but that the sheer number of names submitted makes policing the database of names impractical.[229]

Due to doctrinal differences, the LDS Church is considered to be distinct and separate from mainstream Christianity by several Catholic, Orthodox, and Protestant churches, which express differences with one another but consider each other's churches to be Christian.[11][234]

The church's lack of transparency about its finances has drawn criticism from commentators who consider the church's practices too secretive.[235][236][237] The disclosure of the $100 billion church-controlled fund has led to criticism that the church's wealth may be excessive.[238]

Responses

Mormon apologetics organizations, such as the Foundation for Apologetic Information & Research (FAIR) and the Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies (FARMS), have been founded to counter criticisms of the church and its leaders. Most of the apologetic work focuses on providing and discussing evidence supporting the claims of Smith and the Book of Mormon. Scholars and authors such as Hugh Nibley,[239] Daniel C. Peterson,[240] John Gee, John L. Sorenson, Terryl Givens, and James E. Talmage are well-known apologists within the church.

See also

  • Christianity in the United States
  • Index of articles related to The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
  • List of missions of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
  • List of temples of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
  • Mormon (word)
  • Mormonism and Islam
  • Mormonism and Judaism
  • Outline of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

Notes

  1. equivalent to the Eucharist or holy communion
  2. among other events
  3. defined by Smith as "the eastern boundary of Zion"
  4. defined by Smith as Zion's "center place"
  5. joint heirs with Christ, see theosis
  6. In this account, the personages in question are strongly implied - though never expressly stated - to be God the Father and his Son, Jesus Christ.
  7. previously known as the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints
  8. over 60,000
  9. However, it is estimated based on demographic studies that approximately one-third of the total worldwide membership - about 4.5 million people as of 2014 - are regularly attending churchgoers.[58][59]
  10. The church cautions against overemphasis of growth statistics for comparison with other churches because relevant factors—including activity rates and death rates, methodology used in registering or counting members, what factors constitute membership, and geographical variations—are rarely accounted for in the comparisons.[60]
  11. subject to an acknowledgement that it is imperfect
  12. referred to as the sacrament
  13. However, the Catholic Church considers doctrinal differences between the two groups to be so great that it will not accept a prior LDS baptism as evidence of Christian initiation, as it will baptism by other Christian groups, such as the Eastern Orthodox and Protestant churches.[72] The LDS Church, in its turn, does not accept baptisms performed in any other churches, as it teaches that baptism is only valid when it is conducted through proper priesthood authority.[73]
  14. referred to as "degrees of glory", its interpretation of I Cor. 15:35 et seq.
  15. which Latter-day Saints view as distinct from immortality
  16. that is, abstain from food and drink
  17. between the ages of 18 and 30
  18. those aged 31 to 45
  19. 150 to 400 people
  20. as well as other temple ordinances on behalf of the dead[14]
  21. Joseph Smith–Matthew and the Book of Moses, containing translations and revelatory expansions of Matthew 24 and Genesis 1–7, respectively, are contained in the Pearl of Great Price. Additionally, over 600[115] of the more doctrinally significant verses from the translation are included as excerpts in the current LDS Church edition of the KJV.
  22. This formal, public acknowledgment is known as “sustaining”
  23. the one who has been an apostle the longest
  24. including the first two Quorums of Seventy and the Presiding Bishopric
  25. in April and October
  26. An exception to that rule is for LDS missionaries, who work at the local level and are paid basic living expenses from a fund that receives contributions from their families or home congregations. However, prospective missionaries are encouraged to contribute the cost of their missions to this fund themselves when possible.
  27. The Relife Society is a women's organization, founded in 1842 in Nauvoo, Illinois, and with the motto "Charity Never Faileth". The organization today includes more than 5 million women in more than 165 countries.
  28. for adolescents ages 12 to 18
  29. an organization for children up to age 12
  30. which provides a variety of Sunday classes for adolescents and adults
  31. and its associated Jerusalem Center
  32. Jack N. Gerard, a general authority who serves as the executive director of the church's Public Affairs Department stated, "The Church does not object to the medicinal use of marijuana, if doctor-prescribed, in dosage form, through a licensed pharmacy." "Coalition Seeks Safe and Compassionate Alternative to Utah's Medical Marijuana Initiative". www.mormonnewsroom.org. August 23, 2018. Retrieved November 15, 2018.
  33. The church's definition of "membership" includes all persons who were ever baptized, or whose parents were members while the person was under the age of eight (called "members of record"),[196] who have neither been excommunicated nor asked to have their names removed from church records[197] with approximately 8.3 million residing outside the United States, as of December 2011.[198][199]

References

  1. "American Prohet:Joseph Smith". PBS Utah. Retrieved May 26, 2021. On April 6, 1830, Joseph Smith organized The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and became its first president.
  2. Green, Doyle L. (January 1971). "April 6, 1830: The Day the Church Was Organized". Ensign. Intellectual Reserve, Inc. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
  3. "2020 Statistical Report for the April 2021 Conference". Intellectual Reserve, Inc. April 3, 2021. Retrieved April 25, 2020.
  4. "Latter-day Saint membership increased this much in 2019, according to new church statistical report". April 4, 2020. Archived from the original on April 5, 2020. Retrieved April 4, 2020.
  5. "Topic: Education", MormonNewsroom.org, LDS Church, May 24, 2011, archived from the original on June 27, 2019, retrieved September 23, 2014
  6. "2019 Statistical Report for 2020 April Conference". newsroom.churchofjesuschrist.org. Intellectual Reserve, Inc. April 4, 2020. Archived from the original on June 29, 2019. Retrieved February 15, 2021.
  7. "National Council of Churches News: Church giving drops $1.2 billion reports 2012 Yearbook of Churches", ncccusa.org, National Council of Churches, March 20, 2012, archived from the original on August 24, 2013, retrieved June 30, 2014
  8. "LDS Statistics and Church Facts | Total Church Membership". MormonNewsroom.org. Intellectual Reserve, Inc. Archived from the original on June 28, 2019. Retrieved September 13, 2018.
  9. "For salvation cometh to none such except it be through repentance and faith on the Lord Jesus Christ." Book of Mormon, Mosiah 3:12
  10. "Salvation and Atonement". BBC - Religions. October 5, 2009. Retrieved April 23, 2021.
  11. Kennedy, John W. (February 2004), "Winning them softly", Christianity Today, 48 (2), archived from the original on October 14, 2006, retrieved October 7, 2006
  12. Mormons. Encyclopedia of World Cultures. May 23, 2018. Retrieved April 25, 2021.
  13. Van Beek, Wouter. Covenants. Encyclopedia of Mormonism. Retrieved May 1, 2021.
  14. Embry, Jesse L. "Mormons". Gale Encyclopedia of Multicultural America. Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved April 13, 2021.
  15. Hansen, Klaus. "Mormonism". Encyclopedia of Religion. Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved April 13, 2021.
  16. Scholars and eyewitnesses disagree whether the church was organized in Manchester, New York at the Smith log home, or in Fayette at the home of Peter Whitmer. Bushman 2005, p. 109; Marquardt 2005, pp. 223–23 (arguing that organization in Manchester is most consistent with eye-witness statements). The LDS Church officially favors organization in Fayette.Lloyd, R. Scott (May 22, 2009), "'Major discovery' discussed at Mormon History Association Conference", LDS Church News, LDS Church, archived from the original on March 27, 2019, retrieved September 23, 2014
  17. Doctrine and Covenants 115:4.
  18. Book of Mormon, "Introduction".
  19. Bushman 2005, p. 122; LDS D&C 57:1–3; LDS D&C 84:4: "the city New Jerusalem shall be built by the gathering of the saints, beginning at [Jackson County, Missouri], even the place of the temple, which temple shall be reared in this generation".
  20. Brodie 1971, p. 97 (citing letter by Smith to Kirtland converts, quoted in Howe 1833, p. 111). In 1834, Smith designated Kirtland as one of the "stakes" of Zion, referring to the tent–stakes metaphor of Isaiah 54:2.
  21. Smith et al. 1835, p. 154; Bushman 2005, p. 162; Brodie 1971, p. 109.
  22. Smith said in 1831 that God intended the Mormons to "retain a strong hold in the land of Kirtland, for the space of five years". (Doctrine and Covenants 64:21).
  23. Bushman 2005, pp. 222–27; Brodie 1971, p. 137 (noting that the brutality of the Jackson Countians aroused sympathy for the Mormons and was almost universally deplored by the media).
  24. Brodie 1971, pp. 141, 146–59; Bushman 2005, p. 322.
  25. Brodie 1971, p. 101; Arrington 1992, p. 21 (by summer of 1835, there were 1500 to 2000 Saints in Kirtland); Desert Morning News 2008 Church Almanac p. 655 (from 1831 to 1838, church membership grew from 680 to 17,881).
  26. Bushman 2005, pp. 310–19; Brodie 1971, p. 178.
  27. Bushman 2005, pp. 328–38; Brooke 1994, p. 221 ("Ultimately, the rituals and visions dedicating the Kirtland temple were not sufficient to hold the church together in the face of a mounting series of internal disputes.")
  28. Roberts 1905, p. 24 (referring to the Far West church as the "church in Zion"); Bushman 2005, p. 345 (The revelation calling Far West "Zion" had the effect of "implying that Far West was to take the place of Independence".)
  29. Bushman 2005, pp. 357–364; Brodie 1971, pp. 227–30; Remini 2002, p. 134; Quinn 1994, pp. 97–98.
  30. Bushman 2005, p. 367 (Boggs' executive order stated that the Mormon community had "made war upon the people of this State" and that "the Mormons must be treated as enemies, and must be exterminated or driven from the State if necessary for the public peace"). In 1976, Missouri issued a formal apology for this unconstitutional order (Bushman 2005, p. 398).
  31. Bushman 2005, pp. 383–84.
  32. Bushman 2005, p. 409; Brodie 1971, pp. 258, 264–65.
  33. Brodie 1971, pp. 334–36; Bushman 2005, pp. 437, 644.
  34. LDS D&C 132:18–20
  35. Kimball, Spencer W. (October 1975), "The Lord's Plan for Men and Women", Ensign
  36. Widmer 2000, p. 119 (Smith echoed the words of Paul that faithful saints may become co-heirs with Jesus Romans 8:17); Roberts 1909, pp. 502–03; Bushman 2005, pp. 497–98 (the second anointing provided a conditional guarantee that those persons who were pure and faithful would be exalted, even if they sinned, if they were sealed by the Holy Spirit of promise).
  37. Quinn 1994, pp. 120–22; Bushman 2005, pp. 519–21 (describing the Council of Fifty noting that Smith prophesied "the entire overthrow of this nation in a few years", at which time the Kingdom of God would be prepared to lead)
  38. "Mission of the Prophet Joseph Smith – First Vision: This Is My Beloved Son. Hear Him!", JosephSmith.net, LDS Church, archived from the original on October 21, 2014, retrieved September 23, 2014; Allen 1966, p. 29 (belief in the First Vision now considered second in importance only to belief in the divinity of Jesus.); Hinckley, Gordon B. (November 1998), "What Are People Asking about Us?", Ensign, [N]othing we teach, nothing we live by is of greater importance than this initial declaration.
  39. Lyon, Stephanie J. (2013). "Psychotherapy and the Mormon Faith". Journal of Religion and Health. 52 (2): 622–630. doi:10.1007/s10943-013-9677-2. ISSN 0022-4197. PMID 23337975. S2CID 29536957.
  40. Garr, Cannon & Cowan 2000, p. 824; Brodie 1971, pp. 393–94; Bushman 2005.
  41. Many local Illinoisans were uneasy with Mormon power, and their unease was fanned by the local media after Smith suppressed a newspaper containing an exposé regarding plural marriage, theocracy, and other sensitive and oft-misinterpreted issues. The suppression resulted in Smith being arrested, tried, and acquitted for "inciting a riot". On June 25, Joseph let himself be arrested and tried for the riot charges again, this time in Carthage, the county seat, where he was incarcerated without bail on a new charge of treason. Bentley, Joseph I. (1992), "Smith, Joseph: Legal Trials of Joseph Smith", in Ludlow, Daniel H (ed.), Encyclopedia of Mormonism, New York: Macmillan Publishing, pp. 1346–1348, ISBN 0-02-879602-0, OCLC 24502140
  42. Young, Brigham (October 15, 1844), "none", Times and Seasons, 5, p. 683, Did Joseph Smith ordain any man to take his place. He did. Who was it? It was Hyrum, but Hyrum fell a martyr before Joseph did. If Hyrum had lived he would have acted for Joseph.
  43. Quinn 1994, p. 143; Brodie 1971, p. 398.
  44. Bushman 2005, pp. 556–57.
  45. Smith's position as Prophet and President of the Church was originally left vacant, but later filled when the apostles could regroup based on the principle that the most senior apostle would always be the next President of the Church. As a result, Young, and any other senior apostle of the Quorum of the Twelve, would be ordained as church president as a matter of course upon the death of the former president, subject to unanimous agreement of the Quorum of the Twelve.
  46. Quinn 1994, pp. 198–211.
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  49. The Mormon doctrine of plural wives was officially announced by one of the Twelve Apostles Orson Pratt and Smith's successor Brigham Young in a special conference of the elders of the church assembled in the Salt Lake Tabernacle on August 28, 1852, and reprinted in an extra edition of the Deseret News Only a small percentage of church leaders participated in plural marriage believing it was a part of a restitution of ancient Priesthood blessings and a commandment of god to raise up a righteous generation. At the time, it was not barred by statute within the United States."Minutes of conference: a special conference of the elders of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints assembled in the Tabernacle, Great Salt Lake City, August 28th, 1852, 10 o'clock, a.m., pursuant to public notice". Deseret News Extra. September 14, 1852. p. 14.. See also: The 1850s: Official sanction in the LDS Church
  50. See Tullidge, Edward, History of Salt Lake City, 132-35 (Original from the University of Michigan, 1886).
  51. The most notable instance of violence during this war was the tragic Mountain Meadows massacre, in which leaders of a local Mormon militia, contrary to top church leaders orders, ordered the massacre of a civilian emigrant party who had the misfortune of traveling through Utah during the escalating military tensions. The Mormons feared the mobs which murdered their families at the Haun's mill massacre and other illegal thefts of land, and murders which had plagued them back east.
  52. To combat the notion that rank-and-file Mormons were unhappy under Young's leadership, Cumming noted that he had offered to help any leave the territory who desired. Of the 50,000 inhabitants of the territory of Utah, the underwhelming response—56 men, 33 women, and 71 children, most of whom stated they left for economic reasons—impressed Cumming, as did the fact that Mormon leaders contributed supplies to the emigrants. Cumming to [Secretary of State Lewis Cass], written by Thomas Kane, May 2, 1858, BYU Special Collections.
  53. Firmage, Edwin Brown; Mangrum, Richard Collin (2002), Zion in the Courts: A Legal History of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 1830–1900, U. of Illinois Press, p. 140, ISBN 0-252-06980-3
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  55. Hinckley, Gordon B. (November 1998), "What Are People Asking About Us?", Ensign: 70, If any of our members are found to be practicing plural marriage, they are excommunicated, the most serious penalty the Church can impose. Not only are those so involved in direct violation of the civil law, they are in violation of the law of this Church.
  56. Watson, F. Michael (May 2001), "Statistical Report, 2000", Ensign: 22
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Bibliography

  • Allen, James B. (1966), "The Significance of Joseph Smith's First Vision in Mormon Thought", Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought, 1 (3), archived from the original on June 13, 2011.
  • Anderson, Richard Lloyd (1989), Investigating the Book of Mormon Witnesses, Salt Lake City, Utah: Deseret Book Company, ISBN 0-87579-242-1
  • Brodie, Fawn M. (1971). No Man Knows My History: The Life of Joseph Smith (2nd ed.). New York: Knopf. ISBN 978-0-394-46967-6.
  • Bushman, Claudia L. (2006), Contemporary Mormonism: Latter-day Saints in Modern America, Westport, Connecticut: Praeger Publishers, ISBN 0-275-98933-X, OCLC 61178156
  • Bushman, Richard Lyman (2005). Joseph Smith: Rough Stone Rolling. New York: Knopf. ISBN 978-1-4000-4270-8.
  • Bushman, Richard (2008), Mormonism: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-531030-6
  • Garr, Arnold K.; Cannon, Donald Q.; Cowan, Richard (2000), Encyclopedia of Latter-Day Saint History, Salt Lake City, Utah: Deseret Book Company, ISBN 1-57345-822-8
  • LDS Church (2006), Church Handbook of Instructions, Salt Lake City, Utah: LDS Church (published only to certain clergy—not generally available to church members or the public).
  • LDS Church (2008b), 2008 Church Almanac, Deseret Morning News, ISBN 978-1-59038-900-3
  • Newell, Coke (2001), Latter Days: An Insider's Guide to Mormonism, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, St. Martin's Griffin, ISBN 0-312-28043-2
  • Ostling, Richard; Ostling, Joan K. (2000), Mormon America: The Power and the Promise (1st ed.), HarperSanFrancisco, ISBN 0-06-066372-3
  • Parry, Donald W.; Peterson, Daniel C.; Welch, John W., eds. (2002), Echos and Evidences of the Book of Mormon, Provo, Utah: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies, ISBN 0-934893-72-1
  • Quinn, D. Michael (1994). The Mormon Hierarchy: Origins of Power. Salt Lake City: Signature Books. ISBN 978-1-56085-056-4.
  • Reynolds, Noel B.; Tate, Charles D., eds. (1982), Book of Mormon Authorship: New Light on Ancient Origins, Provo, Utah: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies, ISBN 0-934893-18-7
  • Riess, Jana; Bigelow, Christopher Kimball (2005), Mormonism For Dummies, For Dummies, ISBN 0-7645-7195-8
  • Robinson, Stephen E. (1992), Are Mormons Christians?, Bookcraft, Inc., ISBN 0-88494-784-X
  • Shipps, Jan (1987), Mormonism: The Story of a New Religious Tradition, University of Illinois Press, ISBN 0-252-01417-0
  • Shipps, Jan (2000), Sojourner in the Promised Land: Forty Years Among the Mormons, University of Illinois Press, ISBN 0-252-02590-3
  • Smith, Joseph, Jr. (March 1, 1842), "Church History [Wentworth Letter]", Times and Seasons, 3 (9): 706–710.
  • Smith, Joseph, Jr.; Cowdery, Oliver; Rigdon, Sidney; Williams, Frederick G., eds. (1835), Doctrine and Covenants of the Church of the Latter Day Saints: Carefully Selected from the Revelations of God, Kirtland, Ohio: F. G. Williams & Co, OCLC 18137804. See Doctrine and Covenants.
  • Smith, Joseph Fielding, ed. (1976), Teachings of the Prophet Joseph Smith, (index and concordance by Robert J. Matthews), Deseret Book Company, ISBN 0-87747-665-9
  • Williams, Drew (2003), The Complete Idiot's Guide to Understanding Mormonism, Alpha, ISBN 0-02-864491-3

Further reading

  • Williams, Drew (2003), The Complete Idiot's Guide to Understanding Mormonism, Alpha, ISBN 0-02-864491-3
  • Shipps, Jan (2000), Sojourner in the Promised Land: Forty Years Among the Mormons, University of Illinois Press, ISBN 0-252-02590-3
  • Shipps, Jan (1987), Mormonism: The Story of a New Religious Tradition, University of Illinois Press, ISBN 0-252-01417-0
  • Ostling, Richard; Ostling, Joan K. (2000), Mormon America: The Power and the Promise (1st ed.), HarperSanFrancisco, ISBN 0-06-066372-3
  • Riess, Jana; Bigelow, Christopher Kimball (2005), Mormonism For Dummies, For Dummies, ISBN 0-7645-7195-8
  • Newell, Coke (2001), Latter Days: An Insider's Guide to Mormonism, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, St. Martin's Griffin, ISBN 0-312-28043-2
  • Stark, Rodney (2005), The Rise of Mormonism, Columbia University Press, ISBN 0-231-13634-X
  • Prince, Gregory (2005), David O. McKay and the Rise of Modern Mormonism, University of Utah Press, ISBN 0-87480-822-7
  • Foreman, Grant (1935), Missionaries of the Latter Day Saints Church in Indian Territory, Createspace, ISBN 978-1533469199
  • Winder, Michael (2007), Presidents and Prophets, Covenant Communications, ISBN 978-1-59811-452-2
  • Kidd, Clark (1998), A Convert's Guide to Mormon Life: A Guidebook for New Members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Deseret Book Company, ISBN 1-57008-520-X
  • Eliason, Eric (2001), Mormons and Mormonism: an introduction to an American world religion, University of Illinois Press, ISBN 0-252-06912-9
  • Millet, Robert (2007), The vision of Mormonism: pressing the boundaries of Christianity, Paragon House, ISBN 978-1-55778-868-9
  • Neilson, Reid (2008), Global Mormonism in the 21st Century, Brigham Young University, ISBN 978-0-8425-2696-8, archived from the original on January 6, 2015, retrieved February 8, 2015
  • Shuster, Eric (2010), The Biblical Roots of Mormonism, Cedar Fort, Inc., ISBN 978-1-59955-406-8

Official church websites

Other sites

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