Tear down this wall!
"Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall", also known as the Berlin Wall Speech, was a speech delivered by United States President Ronald Reagan in West Berlin on June 12, 1987. Reagan called for the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Mikhail Gorbachev, to open the Berlin Wall, which had separated West and East Berlin since 1961. The name is derived from a key line in the middle of the speech: "Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall!"
|Date||June 12, 1987|
|Also known as||Berlin Wall Speech|
33rd Governor of California
40th President of the United States
Part of a series on the
|History of Berlin|
|Margraviate of Brandenburg (1157–1806)|
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|Free State of Prussia (1918–1947)|
|Weimar Republic (1919–1933)|
|Nazi Germany (1933–1945)|
|West Germany and East Germany (1945–1990)|
|Federal Republic of Germany (1990–present)|
Though Reagan's speech received relatively little media coverage at the time, it became widely known after the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. In the post-Cold War era, it was often seen as one of the most memorable performances of an American president in Berlin after John F. Kennedy's "Ich bin ein Berliner" speech of 1963.
The "tear down this wall" speech was not the first time Reagan had addressed the issue of the Berlin Wall. In a visit to West Berlin in June 1982, he stated, "I'd like to ask the Soviet leaders one question [...] Why is the wall there?". In 1986, 25 years after the construction of the wall, in response to West German newspaper Bild-Zeitung asking when he thought the wall could be removed, Reagan said, "I call upon those responsible to dismantle it [today]".
On the day before Reagan's 1987 visit, 50,000 people had demonstrated against the presence of the American president in West Berlin. The city saw the largest police deployment in its history after World War II. During the visit itself, wide swaths of Berlin were closed off to prevent further anti-Reagan protests. The district of Kreuzberg, in particular, was targeted in this respect, with movement throughout this portion of the city in effect restrained completely (for instance the subway line 1 was shut down). About those demonstrators, Reagan said at the end of his speech: "I wonder if they ever asked themselves that if they should have the kind of government they apparently seek, no one would ever be able to do what they are doing again".
The speech drew controversy within the Reagan administration, with several senior staffers and aides advising against the phrase, saying anything that might cause further East-West tensions or potential embarrassment to Gorbachev, with whom President Reagan had built a good relationship, should be omitted. American officials in West Germany and presidential speechwriters, including Peter Robinson, thought otherwise. According to an account by Robinson, he traveled to West Germany to inspect potential speech venues, and gained an overall sense that the majority of West Berliners opposed the wall. Despite getting little support for suggesting Reagan demand the wall's removal, Robinson kept the phrase in the speech text. On Monday, May 18, 1987, President Reagan met with his speechwriters and responded to the speech by saying, "I thought it was a good, solid draft." White House Chief of Staff Howard Baker objected, saying it sounded "extreme" and "unpresidential", and Deputy U.S. National Security Advisor Colin Powell agreed. Nevertheless, Reagan liked the passage, saying, "I think we'll leave it in."
Chief speechwriter Anthony Dolan gives another account of the line's origins, however, attributing it directly to Reagan. In an article published in The Wall Street Journal in November 2009, Dolan gives a detailed account of how in an Oval Office meeting that was prior to Robinson's draft Reagan came up with the line on his own. He records impressions of his own reaction and Robinson's at the time. This led to a friendly exchange of letters between Robinson and Dolan over their differing accounts, which The Wall Street Journal published.
Arriving in Berlin on Friday, June 12, 1987, President and Mrs. Reagan were taken to the Reichstag, where they viewed the wall from a balcony. Reagan then made his speech at the Brandenburg Gate at 2:00 p.m., in front of two panes of bulletproof glass. Among the spectators were West German President Richard von Weizsäcker, Chancellor Helmut Kohl, and West Berlin Mayor Eberhard Diepgen. The current title of the speech comes from Reagan's rhetorical demand of Gorbachev and the Soviet Union:
We welcome change and openness; for we believe that freedom and security go together, that the advance of human liberty can only strengthen the cause of world peace. There is one sign the Soviets can make that would be unmistakable, that would advance dramatically the cause of freedom and peace. General Secretary Gorbachev, if you seek peace, if you seek prosperity for the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, if you seek liberalization, come here to this gate. Mr. Gorbachev, open this gate. Mr. Gorbachev... Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall!
Later on in his speech, President Reagan said, "As I looked out a moment ago from the Reichstag, that embodiment of German unity, I noticed words crudely spray-painted upon the wall, perhaps by a young Berliner, 'This wall will fall. Beliefs become reality.' Yes, across Europe, this wall will fall. For it cannot withstand faith; it cannot withstand truth. The wall cannot withstand freedom."
Another highlight of the speech was Reagan's call to end the arms race with his reference to the Soviets' SS-20 nuclear weapons, and the possibility "not merely of limiting the growth of arms, but of eliminating, for the first time, an entire class of nuclear weapons from the face of the earth."
Response and legacy
The speech received "relatively little coverage from the media", Time magazine wrote 20 years later. John Kornblum, senior US diplomat in Berlin at the time of Reagan's speech, and US Ambassador to Germany from 1997 to 2001, said "[The speech] wasn't really elevated to its current status until 1989, after the wall came down." East Germany's communist rulers were not impressed, dismissing the speech as "an absurd demonstration by a cold warrior", as later recalled by Politburo member Günter Schabowski. The Soviet press agency TASS accused Reagan of giving an "openly provocative, war-mongering speech."
Former West German Chancellor Helmut Kohl said he would never forget standing near Reagan when he challenged Gorbachev to tear down the Berlin Wall. "He was a stroke of luck for the world, especially for Europe."
In an interview, Reagan claimed that the East German police did not allow people to come close to the wall, which prevented the citizens from experiencing the speech at all. The fact that West German police acted in a similar way has, however seldom, been noted in accounts such as these.
Peter Robinson, the White House speech writer who drafted the address, said that the phrase "tear down this wall" was inspired by a conversation with Ingeborg Elz of West Berlin; in a conversation with Robinson, Elz remarked, "If this man Gorbachev is serious with his talk of Glasnost and perestroika he can prove it by getting rid of this wall."
In a 2012 article in The Atlantic, Liam Hoare pointed to the many reasons for the tendency for American media to focus on the significance of this particular speech, without weighing the complexity of the events as they unfolded in both East and West Germany and the Soviet Union.
Author James Mann disagreed with both critics like Hoare, who saw Reagan's speech as having no real effect, and those who praised the speech as key to shaking Soviet confidence. In a 2007 opinion article in The New York Times, he put the speech in the context of previous Reagan overtures to the Soviet Union, such as the Reykjavik summit of the previous year, which had very nearly resulted in an agreement to eliminate American and Soviet nuclear weapons entirely. He characterized the speech as a way for Reagan to assuage his right-wing critics that he was still tough on communism, while also extending a renewed invitation to Gorbachev to work together to create "the vastly more relaxed climate in which the Soviets sat on their hands when the wall came down." Mann claimed that Reagan "wasn't trying to land a knockout blow on the Soviet regime, nor was he engaging in mere political theater. He was instead doing something else on that damp day in Berlin 20 years [before Mann's article] – he was helping to set the terms for the end of the cold war."
- Reagan making the speech
- West Berlin mayor Eberhard Diepgen watching the speech
- A section of the wall mentioned in the speech.
- Reagan's cue card with the most famous part of the speech
- Evil Empire speech
- Ich bin ein Berliner
- Speeches and debates of Ronald Reagan
- "Ronald Reagan speech, Tear Down This Wall". USAF Air University. Retrieved October 27, 2015.
- Daum, Andreas (2008). Kennedy in Berlin. New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 8, 200, 209‒11.
- Reagan, Ronald (June 11, 1982). Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Ronald Reagan, 1982. Remarks on Arrival in Berlin. ISBN 9781623769345. Retrieved October 27, 2015.
- Reagan, Ronald (August 7, 1986). Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Ronald Reagan, 1986. Written Responses to Questions Submitted by Bild-Zeitung of the Federal Republic of Germany. ISBN 9781623769499. Retrieved October 27, 2015.
- Daum. Kennedy in Berlin. pp. 209‒10.
- van Bebber, Werner (June 10, 2007). "Cowboy und Indianer". der Tagesspiegel. Retrieved January 23, 2015. (in German)
- Walsh, Kenneth 2T (June 2007). "Seizing the Moment". U.S. News & World Report. pp. 39–41. Archived from the original on June 14, 2007. Retrieved June 27, 2007.
- Dolan, Anthony (November 2009). "Four Little Words". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved June 10, 2012.
- Robinson, Peter (November 2009). "Looking Again at Reagan and 'Tear Down This Wall'". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved June 10, 2012.
- Dolan, Anthony (November 2009). "Speechwriters' Shouts of Joy in Reagan's Oval Office". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved June 10, 2012.
- "Ronald Reagan's Famous "Tear Down This Wall" Speech Turns 20". Deutsche Welle. June 12, 2007. Retrieved November 8, 2014.
- Boyd, Gerald M. (June 13, 1987). "Raze Berlin Wall, Reagan Urges Soviet". The New York Times. Retrieved February 9, 2008.
- "Remarks on East-West Relations at the Brandenburg Gate in West Berlin". Ronald Reagan Presidential Library. Retrieved May 29, 2011.
- Ratnesar, Romesh (June 11, 2007). "20 Years After 'Tear Down This Wall'". Time. Retrieved November 15, 2020.
- "Reagan's 'tear down this wall' speech turns 20". USA Today. June 12, 2007. Retrieved February 19, 2008.
- Jason Keyser (June 7, 2004). "Reagan remembered worldwide for his role in ending Cold War division". USA Today.
- Robinson, Peter (Summer 2007). "'Tear Down This Wall': How Top Advisers Opposed Reagan's Challenge to Gorbachev – But Lost". National Archives.
- Hoare, Liam (September 20, 2012). "Let's Please Stop Crediting Ronald Reagan for the Fall of the Berlin Wall". The Atlantic.
- Mann, James (June 10, 2007). "Tear Down That Myth". The New York Times. Retrieved May 1, 2017.
- Melissa Eddy (November 8, 2019). "President Reagan Returns to Berlin, this time in Bronze". New York Times. Retrieved November 10, 2019.
- Robinson, Peter. It's My Party: A Republican's Messy Love Affair with the GOP. (2000), hardcover, Warner Books, ISBN 0-446-52665-7
- Ambassador John C. Kornblum: "Reagan's Brandenburg Concerto", The American Interest, May–June 2007
- Ratnesar, Romesh. "Tear Down This Wall: A City, a President, and the Speech that Ended the Cold War" (2009)
- Daum, Andreas W. "America's Berlin, 1945‒2000: Between Myths and Visions". In Frank Trommler (ed.), Berlin: The New Capital in the East. Washington, DC: Johns Hopkins University, 2000, pp. 49–73, online.
- Daum, Andreas W. Kennedy in Berlin. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1987 Ronald Reagan speech in Berlin.|
|Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
- Full text and audio MP3 of the speech at AmericanRhetoric.com
- Full video of President Reagan delivering the speech at the Brandenburg Gate, courtesy of the Reagan Foundation.
- Ronald Reagan Signed and Inscribed Photograph at the Berlin Wall Shapell Manuscript Foundation
- Reagan speechwriter Peter Robinson reflecting on the speech before the Commonwealth Club of California in 2004.
- Image of text at National Archives site
- "Tear Down This Wall" How Top Advisers Opposed Reagan's Challenge to Gorbachev—But Lost by Peter Robinson
- A film clip of president Ronald Reagan's speech at the Berlin wall (June 12, 1987) is available at the Internet Archive