Taoyuan, Taiwan

Taoyuan[upper-roman 1] is a special municipality in northwestern Taiwan, neighboring New Taipei City, Hsinchu County, and Yilan County. Taoyuan District is the seat of the municipal government and which, along with Zhongli District, forms a large metropolitan area. Taoyuan developed from a satellite city of Taipei metropolitan area to become the fourth-largest metropolitan area, and fifth-largest populated city in Taiwan. Since commuting to the Taipei metropolitan area is easy, Taoyuan has witnessed the fastest population growth of all cities in Taiwan in the past few decades.[6]

Taoyuan City

Special municipality
From left to right, top to bottom: China Airlines passenger plane at Taoyuan International Airport, Taoyuan district, Yong'an Fishing Port, HSR Taoyuan Station, Baroque architecture on Daxi Old Street, Shihmen Reservoir, Little Wulai Waterfall
Coordinates: 24°59′28.6″N 121°18′51.58″E
Country Republic of China (Taiwan)
SeatTaoyuan District
  • Taoyuan
  • Zhongli
  • Daxi
  • Yangmei
  • Luzhu
  • Dayuan
  • Guishan
  • Bade
  • Longtan
  • Pingzhen
  • Xinwu
  • Guanyin
  • Fuxing
  • Taoyuan City Government
  • Taoyuan City Council
  MayorCheng Wen-tsan (DPP)
  Deputy MayorChiu Tai-san[1]
  Special municipality1,220.95 km2 (471.41 sq mi)
1,140 km2 (440 sq mi)
Area rank14 of 22
 (October 2019)[4]
  Special municipality2,245,059
  Rank5 of 22
  Density1,800/km2 (4,800/sq mi)
  Urban density7,500/km2 (19,000/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+8 (National Standard Time)
Postal code
ISO 3166 codeTW-TAO
BirdFormosan blue magpie (Urocissa caerulea)
FlowerPeach blossom
TreePeach tree
Websitewww.tycg.gov.tw/eng/ (in English)
  1. Refers to the Taipei-Taoyuan urban area.
Taoyuan City
Traditional Chinese桃園
Simplified Chinese桃园

"Taoyuan" means "peach garden" in Chinese, since the area used to have many peach trees. The city is home to many industrial parks and tech company headquarters. Taoyuan International Airport, which serves the capital, Taipei and the rest of northern Taiwan, is located in this city.


Early history

In ancient times, the Taoyuan plateau was the home of the Taiwanese plains aborigines. In prehistory, the Ketagalan people settled in Nankan. In the early years of Dutch colonization, Spanish colonization, and Zheng He of the Ming Dynasty, there were no large-scale cultivation or industrial activities. During the Qing era, a number of people from Fujian Province and Guangdong province began to immigrate into present-day Taoyuan to develop and farm the land. They planted peach trees, which, when fully bloomed in spring, were so beautiful that the people named the land Toahong (Chinese: 桃仔園; pinyin: Táozǐyuán; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Thô-á-hn̂g; lit. 'peach orchard').

Empire of Japan

Taoyuan Station during Japanese rule

In November 1901, during Japanese era, a local administrative office, Toshien Chō (Japanese: 桃仔園廳), was established in the area, and renamed Tōen Chō (桃園廳) in 1905. In 1920, the Tōen area was incorporated into Shinchiku Prefecture.

During the Japanese era, the staged migration policy caused Taoyuan to develop into a city with a variety of cultures. For example, temples and worship paths (currently the Taoyuan Martyrs Shrine) symbolized cultural systems. Butokuden (武德殿) were used to represent military systems, and the old Taoyuan City Office signified political systems.

Republic of China

After the return of Taiwan from Japan to the Republic of China on 25 October 1945, the present day-area of Taoyuan City was incorporated under Hsinchu County. In 1950, Taoyuan County was established by separating it from Hsinchu County. On 21 April 1971, Taoyuan City was made the county seat of Taoyuan County. It had 6 cities, 1 urban township and 6 rural townships.

In June 2009, the Executive Yuan approved the plan to upgrade Taoyuan from a county to a special municipality.[7] On 25 December 2014, Taoyuan County was upgraded into a special municipality of Taoyuan City (桃園市).


Map of northern Taoyuan (labeled Ōsono) (1944)

Taoyuan is located approximately 40 km (25 mi) southwest of Taipei, in northern Taiwan, and occupies 1,220 km2 (470 sq mi). It is made up of low-lying plains, interconnected mountains and plateaus. Its shape has a long and narrow southeast-to-northwest trend, with the southeast in the Xueshan Range and the far end on the shores of the Taiwan Strait.

There are many irrigation ponds at Taoyuan Plateau, which caused Taoyuan to earn the nickname "Thousand-pond Township" (千塘之鄉).[8]


Taoyuan has a humid subtropical climate, with mild to warm winters and hot summers, typical of northern Taiwan.

(The climate data of Taipei City is shown below for reference due to the city's proximity to Taipei.)

Climate data for Taipei (19812010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 19.1
Daily mean °C (°F) 16.1
Average low °C (°F) 13.9
Average rainfall mm (inches) 83.2
Average rainy days (≥ 0.1) 14.1 14.6 15.5 14.9 14.8 15.5 12.3 14 13.8 11.9 12.4 11.7 165.5
Average relative humidity (%) 78.5 80.6 79.5 77.8 76.6 77.3 73 74.1 75.8 75.3 75.4 75.4 76.6
Mean monthly sunshine hours 80.6 71.3 89.6 92.6 113.7 121.7 179 188.9 153.7 124 99.4 90.7 1,405.2
Source: Central Weather Bureau[9]

Ethnic composition

Historical population
1985 1,211,249    
1990 1,355,175+11.9%
1995 1,524,127+12.5%
2000 1,732,617+13.7%
2005 1,911,161+10.3%
2010 2,002,060+4.8%
2015 2,105,780+5.2%
2020 2,252,835+7.0%
Source:"Populations by city and country in Taiwan". Ministry of the Interior Population Census.
Year 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990
Population 1,093,621 1,129,576 1,160,709 1,189,752 1,211,249 1,232,209 1,259,503 1,288,626 1,320,359 1,355,175
Year 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
Population 1,385,165 1,415,546 1,448,186 1,483,955 1,524,127 1,570,456 1,614,471 1,650,984 1,691,292 1,732,617
Year 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Population 1,762,963 1,792,603 1,822,075 1,853,029 1,880,316 1,911,161 1,934,968 1,958,686 1,978,782 2,002,060
Year 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Population 2,013,305 2,030,161 2,044,023 2,058,328 2,105,780 2,147,763 2,188,017 2,220,872 2,249,037 2,245,162


As of most of the cities and urban towns of Taiwan, Minnan people (Hoklos) are one of the largest ethnic groups of Taoyuan, most of whom live in northern Taoyuan (北桃園) which comprises the northern districts of Taoyuan, including Taoyuan city centre, Bade, Daxi, Dayuan, Guishan and Luzhu, and the city seat of government, Taoyuan District citycentre.


The Hakka are the second-largest ethnic group in the city after the Minnan ethnicity (Hoklo) who won against the Hakkas in clan wars moved to the poor mountainous regions in southern Taoyuan, most of the Hakka peasants live in the rural peasant village areas of southern Taoyuan (南桃園), which includes Zhongli, Pingzhen, Yangmei, Longtan, Guanyin and Xinwu districts. With more than 785,000 Hakka people, Taoyuan hosts the largest Hakka population among all of Taiwan's administrative divisions.


After the Chinese Civil War, many people from mainland China (unaffectionately referred to as "Waishengren") settled in the then-Taoyuan County after the retreat of the nationalist government in 1949. Most of them live in military dependents' villages in Zhongli, Pingzhen and Guishan. Longgang is well known for its immigrants from Yunnan, featuring many Yunnan-style restaurants.


Most Taiwanese aborigines in the city live in Fuxing District, with most of them belonging to the Atayal people.


Taoyuan is one of the Taiwan's top industrial and technological cities. High-tech companies including Quanta, MiTAC, Inotera, Nanya Technology, HTC, CPT and AU Optronics have all opted to build or expand their factories in Taoyuan. Taoyuan has now become a bastion of electronics and semiconductor manufacturing. Over 200 of Taiwan's top 500 manufacturing companies have factories in Taoyuan. Taoyuan has also led Taiwan in terms of industrial output for nine straight years.

There are now 29 (registered) industrial areas with 3,696 ha (9,130 acres) of non-urban industrial land and 3,131 ha (7,740 acres) of urban industrial land. There are over 6,827 ha (16,870 acres) of land available for factories and industrial use in the city, representing the fact that Taoyuan's development bureau is based on industry and commerce. There are also 9 sites (57 ha; 140 acres) for mixed industrial-commercial use, the most of any county and city in Taiwan.[10]

On 26 March 2010, China Airlines moved into its new headquarters on the grounds of Taipei Taoyuan International Airport and in Dayuan Township in Taoyuan County (now Dayuan District, Taoyuan).[11][12] EVA Air maintains its headquarters in Luzhu District.[13] Evergreen Airlines Services Corporation, Evergreen Aviation Technologies Corp., and Evergreen Air Cargo Services Corporation, subsidiaries of Evergreen Group, are headquartered in Dayuan.[14][15][16]

On 25 December 2016, The Asia Silicon Valley Development Agency (ASVDA) was inaugurated in northern Taoyuan City, in a governmental effort to foster innovation, promote the Internet of Things (IoT) sector and attract top-class technology talent. The Asian Silicon Valley project aimed to transform Taiwan into an R&D hub for the IoT sector as well as a global center of entrepreneurship.[17]


Taoyuan City Administrative Divisions
Population density map of Taoyuan City

Taoyuan City is divided into 12 municipal districts and 1 mountain indigenous district.[18][19][20] The city government is located within Taoyuan District.

TypeNameChineseTaiwaneseHakkaFormosanArea (km2)Population
District Bade八德Pat-tekPat-tet33.71187,848
Fuxing復興Ho̍k-hengFu̍k-hîn PyasanAtayal350.7810,932

Colors indicate the common language status of Hakka and Formosan languages within each division.

Prior to its upgrade to become municipality on 25 December 2014, Taoyuan County used to have 6 county-administered cities (Bade, Luzhu, Pingzhen, Taoyuan, Yangmei, Zhongli), 1 urban township (Daxi), 5 rural townships (Dayuan, Guanyin, Guishan, Longtan, Xinwu), and 1 Mountain indigenous township (Fuxing).


Overview of downtown Taoyuan

Shimen Reservoir

Shihmen Reservoir is one of Taiwan's major reservoirs. Once the largest water conservancy project in Southeast Asia, visitors may find many restaurants open near the reservoir serving fresh reservoir fish delicacies. There is also a three-kilometre-long (1.9 mi) bikeway surrounding the back pond. Shimen Reservoir provides almost all of the water in Taoyuan, as well as to New Taipei City's Xinzhuang, Banqiao, and Linkou districts.

Daxi Old Street

Daxi Old Street is one of the more famous Taiwanese old streets. It used to be a bustling hub for camphor and the tea trade, filled with diverse stores with façades designed in a Baroque style. The street also has the Daxi Wood Art Ecomuseum, which includes buildings such as Daxi Butokuden and Lee Teng-fan's Ancient Residence.

Cihu Mausoleum

Cihu Mausoleum is the final resting place of the former president of the Republic of China, Chiang Kai-shek.

Window on China Theme Park

The Window on China Theme Park is one of Taiwan's earliest theme parks, established in 1984. The park consists of three areas: Mini World, Water Park, and Amusement Park. The park features numerous small-scale replicas of many famous world landmarks.


Lalashan is one of Taiwan's "natural protection zones," including 500- to 2,800-year-old divine trees and the "No. 5 Divine Tree," which predates Confucius.

Furen Temple

Furen Temple was established in 1813, and located along Daxi Old Street in Daxi District.

Tianhou Temple

Tianhou Temple was established in 1826, and is located in Xinwu District. The temple built a bronze statue of Mazu in 2002, which is the 2nd-tallest statue of Mazu in Taiwan and the 3rd-tallest in the world.

Taoyuan Martyrs' Shrine

Taoyuan Martyrs' Shrine is one of the best-kept Shinto shrines outside Japan.

Longgang Mosque

The Longgang Mosque in Zhongli District is Taiwan's fifth mosque. It was originally built in 1967 to serve an area with many Taiwanese Muslims.

Taoyuan Aquarium X PARK

X PARK is a public aquarium operated by Yokohama Hakkeijima. The Taiwanese sea-themed tank "Formosa" is popular.

Government and politics

Taoyuan City Government
Taoyuan City Council


Cheng Wen-tsan, the incumbent Mayor of Taoyuan.

In 2001, Eric Chu of the Kuomintang defeated Democratic Progressive Party incumbent Peng Shao-Chin in the race for Taoyuan County magistrate. Peng had inherited the magistrate position after Annette Lu vacated the post to serve as vice president. Chu ran for re-election in 2005 and defeated DPP challenger Pao-Ching Cheng, CEO of the Taiwan Salt Company.

In 2009, John Wu of the KMT defeated his DPP opponent, Cheng Wen-tsan and became the Magistrate of Taoyuan County.

After the upgrade of Taoyuan County to Taoyuan City, Cheng Wen-tsan of the DPP won the 2014 Taoyuan City mayoralty election, on 29 November 2014, and became the city's first mayor, starting 25 December 2014.[21]

1996 presidential election

A majority of Taoyuan County residents voted for eventual winner Lee Teng-hui and vice president Lien Chan.

2000 presidential election

Party Candidate Votes Percentage
President Vice President
Independent James Soong Chang Chau-Hsiung 413,370 43.83%
Kuomintang Lien Chan Vincent Siew 208,881 22.15%
New Party Li Ao Elmer Fung 1,140 0.12%
Independent Hsu Hsin-Liang Josephine Chu 20,581 2.18%
Democratic Progressive Party Chen Shui-Bian Annette Lu 299,120 31.72%

2004 Presidential election

Party Candidate Votes Percentage
President Vice President
Democratic Progressive Party Chen Shui-Bian Annette Lu 448,770 44.68%
Kuomintang Lien Chan James Soong 555,688 55.32%

2008 presidential election

Party Candidate Votes Percentage
President Vice President
Democratic Progressive Party Frank Hsieh Su Tseng-Chang 379,416 35.36%
Kuomintang Ma Ying-jeou Vincent Siew 693,602 64.64%

2012 presidential election

Party Candidate Votes Percentage
President Vice President
Democratic Progressive Party Tsai Ing-Wen Su Jia-chyuan 445,308 39.85%
Kuomintang Ma Ying-jeou Wu Den-yih 639,151 57.20%
Independent (or seen as PFP) James Soong Lin Ruey-shiung 32,927 2.95%

2016 presidential election

Party Candidate Votes Percentage
President Vice President
Democratic Progressive Party Tsai Ing-Wen Chen Chien-jen 547,573 51.03%
Kuomintang Eric Chu Wang Ju-hsuan 369,013 34.39
People First Party James Soong Hsu Hsin-ying 156,518 14.59

2020 presidential election

Party Candidate Votes Percentage
President Vice President
Democratic Progressive Party Tsai Ing-Wen William Lai 718,260 54.78%
Kuomintang Han Kuo-yu Chang San-cheng 529,749 40.40%
People First Party James Soong Sandra Yu 63,132 4.81%


National Central University
National Defense University
Army Academy R.O.C.

Public universities

  • Central Police University
  • National Central University
  • National Defense University
  • National Taiwan Sport University

Private universities

  • Chang Gung University
  • Chien Hsin University of Science and Technology
  • Chung Yuan Christian University
  • Kainan University
  • Lunghwa University of Science and Technology
  • Vanung University
  • Yuan Ze University

Military Academies

  • Army Academy R.O.C.
  • Republic of China Army Communication, Electronics and Information School
  • Republic of China Army Chemical School
  • Republic of China Army Logistics School
  • Republic of China Military Police School

Public high schools

  • The Affiliated Jhongli Senior High School of National Central University[22]
  • Taoyuan Municipal Nei Li Senior High School
  • Taoyuan Municipal Taoyuan Senior High School
  • Taoyuan Municipal Yang Mei Senior High School
  • Taoyuan Municipal Yang Ming Senior High School
  • Taoyuan Municipal Wu-Ling Senior High School
  • Taoyuan Municipal Dasi Senior High School
  • Taoyuan Municipal Dayuan International Senior High School[23]
  • Taoyuan Municipal Nankan Senior High School
  • Taoyuan Municipal Pingjen Senior High School
  • Taoyuan Municipal Shoushan Senior High School
  • Taoyuan Municipal Yungfong Senior High School
  • Taoyuan Municipal Xinwu High School
  • Taoyuan Municipal Longtan Senior High School
  • Taoyuan Municipal Guanyin High School

Industry and environment

A former RCA facility is located in the city. The RCA facility is the source of significant trichloroethylene contamination.


Taoyuan International Baseball Field.

The Taoyuan International Baseball Stadium is home to the Rakuten Monkeys of the Chinese Professional Baseball League (CPBL).

The Taoyuan County Stadium, built in 1993, is a multi-use stadium used mostly for football matches that also has an athletics track. The stadium has a capacity of 30,000 spectators.[24] It is within walking distance southwest from Taoyuan Senior High School Station of the Taiwan Railway Administration.

The Taoyuan Arena, also built in 1993, is an indoor sporting arena located in Taoyuan District. The concept of its roof structure was based on the bicycle structure, the outer ring (to bear pressure) and inner tire (to bear tensile strength) of the bicycle wheels are connected by cable wires. It occupies an area of 1.5 hectares (3.7 acres) with a capacity of 15,000 spectators.[25] It is used to host indoor sporting events, such as basketball and volleyball.

The then-Taoyuan County is also the birthplace of Taiwanese professional golfer Yani Tseng and taekwondo athlete Chu Mu-Yen.


TRA Taoyuan Station
THSR Taoyuan Station
Taoyuan International Airport
The Skytrain shuttles passengers between Terminals 1 and 2, Taoyuan International Airport.


Taiwan Railways Administration Western Line(Taoyuan - Neili - Zhongli - Puxin - Yangmei - Fugang)
Taoyuan Taolin Railroad[26] (Linkou Line)
The Taoyuan Taolin Railroad is a railway branch line in Taiwan run by the Taiwan Railway Administration. It is located in Taoyuan and New Taipei City.
  • Taiwan High Speed Rail
Taoyuan Station is located at the Qingpu (青埔) area, in Zhongli District.

Mass Rapid Transit

The rapid transit system of the city is Taoyuan Metro and is operational since April 2017.

  • Lines and stations of the Taoyuan MRT System:
LineTerminiLength (km)Total
Length (km)
Taoyuan Airport MRT TaipeiSanchong4.153.5In operation
SanchongHuanbei47.4In operation
HuanbeiZhongli2.04Under construction
Blue Airport Terminal 2Huanbei1725.4In operation
HuanbeiZhongli2.04Under construction
Red FengmingZhongli15.9529.3Under construction
Green BadeDayuan27.227.2Under construction
Orange Main LineShanzaidingHuiji Jr High22.7Planning
Longtan LineShanzaidingLongtanPlanning
Brown Taolin LineTaoyuanShanbi12.524.5Planning
Huilong LineTaoyuanHuilong12Planning
New Taipei Metro:
Blue-Sanying Line
DingpuYingtao Fude14.2918.17Under Construction
Yingtao FudeDa'nan3.88Planning


National Highway No. 1 and 3 are nearby and connect via local highways to the city itself. National Highway No. 2 connects to Taoyuan International Airport. Bridges in the city are Luofu Bridge.


  • Taoyuan Bus Co.[27] (in Chinese)
  • Zhongli Bus Co.[28]


Taipei Taoyuan International Airport at Dayuan District is the largest airport in Taiwan. It serves as the main international hub for China Airlines and EVA Air. Taipei Taoyuan handled a total of 25,114,418 passengers in 2010. It is the fifteenth-busiest air freight hub in the world and thirteenth-busiest airport by international passenger traffic. Taipei Taoyuan International Airport currently has two terminals which are connected by two, short people movers. A third terminal is planned, and a rapid transit system currently under construction will link the terminals together underground.

International relations

Twin towns – Sister cities

  • Aur Atoll, Marshall Islands (2018)
  • Hartford County, Connecticut, United States (1982)
  • Alameda County, California, United States (1977)
  • Miaoli City, Taiwan (2006)
  • Dallas County, Texas, United States (2007)
  • Incheon, South Korea (2009)
  • Ramat Gan, Israel (2016)
  • Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia (2017)[29][30]
  • Grenoble, France (2018)
  • Miyazaki, Miyazaki, Japan (2018)
  • Narita, Chiba, Japan (2016)

See also

  • Taoyuan–Zhongli metropolitan area
  • Taoyuan International Airport


Words in native languages


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