State of Palestine
Palestine (Arabic: فلسطين, romanized: Filasṭīn), officially recognized as the State of Palestine[i] (Arabic: دولة فلسطين, romanized: Dawlat Filasṭīn) by the United Nations and other entities, is a de jure sovereign state in Western Asia officially governed by the Palestine Liberation Organization and claiming the West Bank and Gaza Strip with Jerusalem as the designated capital; in practice, however, only partial administrative control is held over the 167 "islands" in the West Bank, and Gaza is ruled by a rival government (Hamas).[iii] The entirety of territory claimed by the State of Palestine has been occupied since 1948, first by Egypt (Gaza Strip) and Jordan (West Bank) and then by Israel after the Six-Day War in 1967. Palestine has a population of 5,051,953 as of February 2020, ranked 121st in the world.
State of Palestine[i]
دولة فلسطين (Arabic)
Coat of arms
|Status||Partially recognized state, UN observer state|
Recognized by 138 UN member states
|Largest city||Gaza City|
|Government||Unitary semi-presidential republic|
• Prime Minister
• Speaker of Parliament
• Declaration of Independence
|15 November 1988|
|29 November 2012|
• Sovereignty dispute with Israel
|6,020 km2 (2,320 sq mi) (163rd)|
• Water (%)
• 2020 estimate
|731/km2 (1,893.3/sq mi)|
|GDP (PPP)||2018 estimate|
|$26.479 billion (–)|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2018 estimate|
|$14.616 billion (–)|
• Per capita
|HDI (2019)|| 0.708|
high · 115th
|Time zone||UTC+2 (Palestine Standard Time)|
• Summer (DST)
|UTC+3 (Palestine Summer Time)|
|ISO 3166 code||PS|
After World War II, in 1947, the UN adopted a Partition Plan for Mandatory Palestine recommending the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states and an internationalized Jerusalem. This partition plan was accepted by the Jews but rejected by the Arabs. The day after the establishment of a Jewish state in Eretz Israel, to be known as the State of Israel on 14 May 1948, neighboring Arab armies invaded the former British mandate and fought the Israeli forces. Later, the All-Palestine Government was established by the Arab League on 22 September 1948 to govern the Egyptian-controlled enclave in Gaza. It was soon recognized by all Arab League members except Transjordan. Though jurisdiction of the Government was declared to cover the whole of the former Mandatory Palestine, its effective jurisdiction was limited to the Gaza Strip. Israel later captured the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula from Egypt, the West Bank (including East Jerusalem) from Jordan, and the Golan Heights from Syria in June 1967 during the Six-Day War.
On 15 November 1988 in Algiers, Yasser Arafat, Chairman of the PLO, proclaimed the establishment of the State of Palestine. A year after the signing of the Oslo Accords in 1993, the Palestinian National Authority was formed to govern (in varying degrees) areas A and B in the West Bank, comprising 165 "islands", and the Gaza Strip. After Hamas became the PNA parliament's leading party in the most recent elections (2006), a conflict broke out between it and the Fatah party, leading to Gaza being taken over by Hamas in 2007 (two years after the Israeli disengagement).
The State of Palestine has been recognized by 138 of the 193 UN members and since 2012 has had a status of a non-member observer state in the United Nations. Palestine is a member of the Arab League, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, the G77, the International Olympic Committee, and other international bodies.
Although the concept of the Palestine region and its geographical extent has varied throughout history, it is now considered to be composed by the modern State of Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. General use of the term "Palestine" or related terms to the area at the southeast corner of the Mediterranean Sea beside Syria has historically been taking place since the times of Ancient Greece, with Herodotus being the first historian writing in the 5th century BC in The Histories of a "district of Syria, called Palaistine" in which Phoenicians interacted with other maritime peoples. The term "Palestine" (in Latin, Palæstina) is thought to have been a term coined by the Ancient Greeks for the area of land occupied by the Philistines, although there are other explanations.
This article uses the terms "Palestine", "State of Palestine", "occupied Palestinian territory" (oPt or OPT) interchangeably depending on context. Specifically, the term "occupied Palestinian territory" refers as a whole to the geographical area of the Palestinian territory occupied by Israel since 1967. In all cases, any references to land or territory refer to land claimed by the State of Palestine.
In 1947, the UN adopted a partition plan for a two-state solution in the remaining territory of the mandate. The plan was accepted by the Jewish leadership but rejected by the Arab leaders, and Britain refused to implement the plan. On the eve of final British withdrawal, the Jewish Agency for Israel declared the establishment of the State of Israel according to the proposed UN plan. The Arab Higher Committee did not declare a state of its own and instead, together with Transjordan, Egypt, and the other members of the Arab League of the time, commenced military action resulting in the 1948 Arab–Israeli War. During the war, Israel gained additional territories that were designated to be part of the Arab state under the UN plan. Egypt occupied the Gaza Strip and Transjordan occupied and then annexed the West Bank. Egypt initially supported the creation of an All-Palestine Government but disbanded it in 1959. Transjordan never recognized it and instead decided to incorporate the West Bank with its own territory to form Jordan. The annexation was ratified in 1950 but was rejected by the international community. The Six-Day War in 1967, when Israel fought against Egypt, Jordan, and Syria, ended with Israel occupying the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, besides other territories.
In 1964, when the West Bank was controlled by Jordan, the Palestine Liberation Organization was established there with the goal to confront Israel. The Palestinian National Charter of the PLO defines the boundaries of Palestine as the whole remaining territory of the mandate, including Israel. Following the Six-Day War, the PLO moved to Jordan, but later relocated to Lebanon after Black September in 1971.
The October 1974 Arab League summit designated the PLO as the "sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people" and reaffirmed "their right to establish an independent state of urgency." In November 1974, the PLO was recognized as competent on all matters concerning the question of Palestine by the UN General Assembly granting them observer status as a "non-state entity" at the UN. After the 1988 Declaration of Independence, the UN General Assembly officially acknowledged the proclamation and decided to use the designation "Palestine" instead of "Palestine Liberation Organization" in the UN. In spite of this decision, the PLO did not participate at the UN in its capacity of the State of Palestine's government.
In 1979, through the Camp David Accords, Egypt signaled an end to any claim of its own over the Gaza Strip. In July 1988, Jordan ceded its claims to the West Bank—with the exception of guardianship over Haram al-Sharif—to the PLO. In November 1988, the PLO legislature, while in exile, declared the establishment of the "State of Palestine". In the month following, it was quickly recognised by many states, including Egypt and Jordan. In the Palestinian Declaration of Independence, the State of Palestine is described as being established on the "Palestinian territory", without explicitly specifying further. Because of this, some of the countries that recognised the State of Palestine in their statements of recognition refer to the "1967 borders", thus recognizing as its territory only the occupied Palestinian territory, and not Israel. The UN membership application submitted by the State of Palestine also specified that it is based on the "1967 borders". During the negotiations of the Oslo Accords, the PLO recognised Israel's right to exist, and Israel recognised the PLO as representative of the Palestinian people. Between 1993 and 1998, the PLO made commitments to change the provisions of its Palestinian National Charter that are inconsistent with the aim for a two-state solution and peaceful coexistence with Israel.
After Israel took control of the West Bank from Jordan and Gaza Strip from Egypt, it began to establish Israeli settlements there. These were organised into Judea and Samaria district (West Bank) and Hof Aza Regional Council (Gaza Strip) in the Southern District. Administration of the Arab population of these territories was performed by the Israeli Civil Administration of the Coordinator of Government Activities in the Territories and by local municipal councils present since before the Israeli takeover. In 1980, Israel decided to freeze elections for these councils and to establish instead Village Leagues, whose officials were under Israeli influence. Later this model became ineffective for both Israel and the Palestinians, and the Village Leagues began to break up, with the last being the Hebron League, dissolved in February 1988.
In 1993, in the Oslo Accords, Israel acknowledged the PLO negotiating team as "representing the Palestinian people", in return for the PLO recognizing Israel's right to exist in peace, acceptance of UN Security Council resolutions 242 and 338, and its rejection of "violence and terrorism". As a result, in 1994 the PLO established the Palestinian National Authority (PNA or PA) territorial administration, that exercises some governmental functions[iii] in parts of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. In 2007, the Hamas takeover of Gaza Strip politically and territorially divided the Palestinians, with Abbas's Fatah left largely ruling the West Bank and recognized internationally as the official Palestinian Authority, while Hamas secured its control over the Gaza Strip. In April 2011, the Palestinian parties signed an agreement of reconciliation, but its implementation had stalled until a unity government was formed on 2 June 2014.
As envisioned in the Oslo Accords, Israel allowed the PLO to establish interim administrative institutions in the Palestinian territories, which came in the form of the PNA. It was given civilian control in Area B and civilian and security control in Area A, and remained without involvement in Area C. In 2005, following the implementation of Israel's unilateral disengagement plan, the PNA gained full control of the Gaza Strip with the exception of its borders, airspace, and territorial waters.[iii] Following the inter-Palestinian conflict in 2006, Hamas took over control of the Gaza Strip (it already had majority in the PLC), and Fatah took control of the West Bank. From 2007, the Gaza Strip was governed by Hamas, and the West Bank by Fatah.
The State of Palestine has been recognized by 138 of the 193 UN members and since 2012 has had a status of a non-member observer state in the United Nations.
On 29 November 2012, in a 138–9 vote (with 41 abstentions and 5 absences), the United Nations General Assembly passed resolution 67/19, upgrading Palestine from an "observer entity" to a "non-member observer state" within the United Nations system, which was described as recognition of the PLO's sovereignty. Palestine's new status is equivalent to that of the Holy See. The UN has permitted Palestine to title its representative office to the UN as "The Permanent Observer Mission of the State of Palestine to the United Nations", and Palestine has instructed its diplomats to officially represent "The State of Palestine"—no longer the Palestinian National Authority. On 17 December 2012, UN Chief of Protocol Yeocheol Yoon declared that "the designation of 'State of Palestine' shall be used by the Secretariat in all official United Nations documents", thus recognising the title 'State of Palestine' as the state's official name for all UN purposes; on 21 December 2012, a UN memorandum discussed appropriate terminology to be used following GA 67/19. It was noted therein that there was no legal impediment to using the designation Palestine to refer to the geographical area of the Palestinian territory. At the same time, it was explained that there was also no bar to the continued use of the term "Occupied Palestinian Territory including East Jerusalem" or such other terminology as might customarily be used by the Assembly. As of 31 July 2019, 138 (71.5%) of the 193 member states of the United Nations have recognised the State of Palestine. Many of the countries that do not recognise the State of Palestine nevertheless recognise the PLO as the "representative of the Palestinian people". The PLO's Executive Committee is empowered by the Palestinian National Council to perform the functions of government of the State of Palestine.
The areas claimed by the State of Palestine lie in the Levant. The Gaza Strip borders the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Egypt to the south, and Israel to the north and east. The West Bank is bordered by Jordan to the east, and Israel to the north, south, and west. Thus, the two enclaves constituting the area claimed by State of Palestine have no geographical border with one another, being separated by Israel. These areas would constitute the world's 163rd largest country by land area.
Palestine has a number of environmental issues; issues facing the Gaza Strip include desertification; salination of fresh water; sewage treatment; water-borne diseases; soil degradation; and depletion and contamination of underground water resources. In the West Bank, many of the same issues apply; although fresh water is much more plentiful, access is restricted by the ongoing dispute.
Temperatures in Palestine vary widely. The climate in the West Bank is mostly Mediterranean, slightly cooler at elevated areas compared with the shoreline, west to the area. In the east, the West Bank includes much of the Judean Desert including the western shoreline of the Dead Sea, characterised by dry and hot climate. Gaza has a hot semi-arid climate (Köppen: BSh) with mild winters and dry hot summers. Spring arrives around March–April and the hottest months are July and August, with the average high being 33 °C (91 °F). The coldest month is January with temperatures usually at 7 °C (45 °F). Rain is scarce and generally falls between November and March, with annual precipitation rates approximately at 4.57 inches (116 mm).
Government and politics
The State of Palestine consists of the following institutions that are associated with the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO):
- President of the State of Palestine[iv] – appointed by the Palestinian Central Council
- Palestinian National Council – the legislature that established the State of Palestine
- Executive Committee of the Palestine Liberation Organization – performs the functions of a government in exile, maintaining an extensive foreign-relations network
These should be distinguished from the President of the Palestinian National Authority, Palestinian Legislative Council (PLC) and PNA Cabinet, all of which are instead associated with the Palestinian National Authority.
The State of Palestine's founding document is the Palestinian Declaration of Independence, and it should be distinguished from the unrelated PLO Palestinian National Covenant and PNA Palestine Basic Law.
The State of Palestine is divided into sixteen administrative divisions.
|Name||Area (km2)||Population||Density (per km2)||Muhafazah (district capital)|
|Ramallah & Al-Bireh||855||348,110||407.1||Ramallah|
|Jericho & Al Aghwar||593||52,154||87.9||Jericho|
|Jerusalem||345||419,108a||1214.8a||Jerusalem (de Jure)|
|Deir Al-Balah||58||264,455||4559.6||Deir al-Balah|
|Khan Yunis||108||341,393||3161.0||Khan Yunis|
a. Data from Jerusalem includes occupied East Jerusalem with its Israeli population
The governorates in the West Bank are grouped into three areas per the Oslo II Accord. Area A forms 18% of the West Bank by area, and is administered by the Palestinian government. Area B forms 22% of the West Bank, and is under Palestinian civil control, and joint Israeli-Palestinian security control. Area C, except East Jerusalem, forms 60% of the West Bank, and is administered by the Israeli Civil Administration, except that the Palestinian government provides the education and medical services to the 150,000 Palestinians in the area. More than 99% of Area C is off limits to Palestinians. There are about 330,000 Israelis living in settlements in Area C, in the Judea and Samaria Area. Although Area C is under martial law, Israelis living there are judged in Israeli civil courts.
East Jerusalem (comprising the small pre-1967 Jordanian eastern-sector Jerusalem municipality together with a significant area of the pre-1967 West Bank demarcated by Israel in 1967) is administered as part of the Jerusalem District of Israel but is claimed by Palestine as part of the Jerusalem Governorate. It was effectively annexed by Israel in 1967, by application of Israeli law, jurisdiction and administration under a 1948 law amended for the purpose, this purported annexation being constitutionally reaffirmed (by implication) in Basic Law: Jerusalem 1980, but this annexation is not recognised by any other country. In 2010 of the 456,000 people in East Jerusalem, roughly 60% were Palestinians and 40% were Israelis. However, since the late 2000s, Israel's West Bank Security Barrier has effectively re-annexed tens of thousands of Palestinians bearing Israeli ID cards to the West Bank, leaving East Jerusalem within the barrier with a small Israeli majority.
Representation of the State of Palestine is performed by the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO). In states that recognise the State of Palestine it maintains embassies. The Palestine Liberation Organization is represented in various international organizations as member, associate or observer. Because of inconclusiveness in sources in some cases it is impossible to distinguish whether the participation is executed by the PLO as representative of the State of Palestine, by the PLO as a non-state entity or by the PNA.
As of 31 July 2019, 138 (71.5%) of the 193 member states of the United Nations have recognised the State of Palestine. Many of the countries that do not recognise the State of Palestine nevertheless recognise the PLO as the "representative of the Palestinian people". The PLO's executive committee is empowered by the PNC to perform the functions of government of the State of Palestine.
On 29 November 2012, UN General Assembly resolution 67/19 passed, upgrading Palestine to "non-member observer state" status in the United Nations. The change in status was described as "de facto recognition of the sovereign state of Palestine".
On 3 October 2014, new Swedish Prime Minister Stefan Löfven used his inaugural address in parliament to announce that Sweden would recognise the state of Palestine. The official decision to do so was made on 30 October, making Sweden the first EU member state outside of the former communist bloc to recognise the state of Palestine. Most of the EU's 27 member states have refrained from recognising Palestinian statehood and those that do—such as Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia—did so before accession.
On 13 October 2014, the UK House of Commons voted by 274 to 12 in favour of recognising Palestine as a state. The House of Commons backed the move "as a contribution to securing a negotiated two-state solution"—although less than half of MPs took part in the vote. However, the UK government is not bound to do anything as a result of the vote: its current policy is that it "reserves the right to recognise a Palestinian state bilaterally at the moment of our choosing and when it can best help bring about peace".
On 2 December 2014, the French parliament voted by 331 to 151 in favour of urging their government to recognise Palestine as a state. The text, proposed by the ruling Socialists and backed by left-wing parties and some conservatives, asked the government to "use the recognition of a Palestinian state with the aim of resolving the conflict definitively".
On 31 December 2014, the United Nations Security Council voted down a resolution demanding the end of Israeli occupation and statehood by 2017. Eight members voted for the Resolution (Russia, China, France, Argentina, Chad, Chile, Jordan, Luxembourg), however following strenuous US and Israeli efforts to defeat the resolution, it did not get the minimum of nine votes needed to pass the resolution. Australia and the United States voted against the resolution, with five other nations abstaining.
On 16 January 2015, the International Criminal Court announced that, since Palestine was granted observer State status in the UN by the UNGA, it must be considered a "State" for the purposes of accession to the Rome Statute.
On 13 May 2015, the Vatican announced it was shifting recognition from the PLO to the State of Palestine, confirming recognition of Palestine as a state after the UN vote of 2012. Monsignor Antoine Camilleri, Vatican foreign minister, said the change was in line with the evolving position of the Holy See, which has referred unofficially to the State of Palestine since Pope Francis's visit to the Holy Land in May 2014.
On 23 December 2015, the UN General Assembly adopted a resolution demanding Palestinian sovereignty over the natural resources in the Palestinian territories under Israeli occupation. It called on Israel to desist from the exploitation, damage, cause of loss or depletion and endangerment of Palestinian natural resources, the right of Palestinians to seek restitution for extensive destruction. The motion was passed by 164 votes to 5, with Canada, Federated States of Micronesia, Israel, Marshall Islands, and the United States opposing.
Raising the flag at the UN
In August 2015, Palestine's representatives at the UN presented a draft resolution that would allow the non-member observer states Palestine and the Holy See to raise their flags at the United Nations headquarters. Initially, the Palestinians presented their initiative as a joint effort with the Holy See, which the Holy See denied.
In a letter to the Secretary General and the President of the General Assembly, Israel's Ambassador at the UN Ron Prosor called the step "another cynical misuse of the UN ... in order to score political points".
After the vote, which was passed by 119 votes to 8 with 45 countries abstaining, the US Ambassador Samantha Power said that "raising the Palestinian flag will not bring Israelis and Palestinians any closer together". US Department of State spokesman Mark Toner called it a "counterproductive" attempt to pursue statehood claims outside of a negotiated settlement.
At the ceremony itself, U.N. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon said the occasion was a "day of pride for the Palestinian people around the world, a day of hope", and declared "Now is the time to restore confidence by both Israelis and Palestinians for a peaceful settlement and, at last, the realization of two states for two peoples."
There are a wide variety of views regarding the status of the State of Palestine, both among the states of the international community and among legal scholars. The existence of a state of Palestine, although controversial, is a reality in the opinions of the states that have established bilateral diplomatic relations.
Law and security
The State of Palestine has a number of security forces, including a Civil Police Force, National Security Forces and Intelligence Services, with the function of maintaining security and protecting Palestinian citizens and the Palestinian State.
According to the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics, the State of Palestine had population of 4,420,549 people in 2013. Within an area of 6,020 square kilometres (2,320 sq mi), there is a population density of about 827 people per square kilometre. To put this in a wider context, the average population density of the world was 25 people per square kilometre as of 2017.
According to the Palestinian Ministry of Health (MOH), as of 2017, there were 743 primary health care centers in Palestine (583 in the West Bank and 160 in Gaza), and 81 hospitals (51 in the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, and 30 in Gaza).
Operating under the auspices of the World Health Organization (WHO), the Health Cluster for the occupied Palestinian territory (oPt) was established in 2009 and represents a partnership of over 70 local and international nongovernmental organisations and UN agencies providing a framework for health actors involved in the humanitarian response for the oPt. The Cluster is co-chaired by the MOH to ensure alignment with national policies and plans. The report of WHO Director-General of 1 May 2019 describes health sector conditions in the oPt identifying strategic priorities and current obstacles to their achievement pursuant to the country cooperation strategy for WHO and the Occupied Palestinian Territory 2017–2020.
The literacy rate of Palestine was 96.3% according to a 2014 report by the United Nations Development Programme, which is high by international standards. There is a gender difference in the population aged above 15 with 5.9% of women considered illiterate compared to 1.6% of men. Illiteracy among women has fallen from 20.3% in 1997 to less than 6% in 2014.
93% of Palestinians are Muslim, the vast majority of whom are followers of the Sunni branch of Islam, with a small minority of Ahmadiyya, and 15% being nondenominational Muslims. Palestinian Christians represent a significant minority of 6%, followed by much smaller religious communities, including Druze and Samaritans.
Tourism in the territory claimed by the State of Palestine refers to tourism in East Jerusalem, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. In 2010, 4.6 million people visited the Palestinian territories, compared to 2.6 million in 2009. Of that number, 2.2 million were foreign tourists while 2.7 million were domestic. Most tourists come for only a few hours or as part of a day trip itinerary. In the last quarter of 2012 over 150,000 guests stayed in West Bank hotels; 40% were European and 9% were from the United States and Canada. Lonely Planet travel guide writes that "the West Bank is not the easiest place in which to travel but the effort is richly rewarded." In 2013 Palestinian Authority Tourism minister Rula Ma'ay'a stated that her government aims to encourage international visits to Palestine, but the occupation is the main factor preventing the tourism sector from becoming a major income source to Palestinians. There are no visa conditions imposed on foreign nationals other than those imposed by the visa policy of Israel. Access to Jerusalem, the West Bank, and Gaza is completely controlled by the Government of Israel. Entry to the occupied Palestinian territories requires only a valid international passport.
The Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS) and the Ministry of Telecom and Information Technology said there were 4.2 million cellular mobile subscribers in Palestine compared to 2.6 million at the end of 2010 while the number of ADSL subscribers in Palestine increased to about 363 thousand by the end of 2019 from 119 thousand over the same period. 97% of Palestinian households have at least one cellular mobile line while at least one smartphone is owned by 86% of households (91% in the West Bank and 78% in Gaza Strip). About 80% of the Palestinian households have access to the internet in their homes and about a third have a computer. On 12 June 2020, the World Bank approved a US$15 million grant for the Technology for Youth and Jobs (TechStart) Project aiming to help the Palestinian IT sector upgrade the capabilities of firms and create more high-quality jobs. Kanthan Shankar, World Bank Country Director for West Bank and Gaza said "The IT sector has the potential to make a strong contribution to economic growth. It can offer opportunities to Palestinian youth, who constitute 30% of the population and suffer from acute unemployment."
Water supply and sanitation
Water supply and sanitation in the Palestinian territories are characterized by severe water shortage and are highly influenced by the Israeli occupation. The water resources of Palestine are fully controlled by Israel and the division of groundwater is subject to provisions in the Oslo II Accord.
Generally, the water quality is considerably worse in the Gaza strip when compared to the West Bank. About a third to half of the delivered water in the Palestinian territories is lost in the distribution network. The lasting blockade of the Gaza Strip and the Gaza War have caused severe damage to the infrastructure in the Gaza Strip. Concerning wastewater, the existing treatment plants do not have the capacity to treat all of the produced wastewater, causing severe water pollution. The development of the sector highly depends on external financing.
There are a number of newspapers, news agencies, and satellite television stations in the State of Palestine. Its news agencies include Ma'an News Agency, Wafa, Palestine News Network. Al-Aqsa TV, Al-Quds TV, Sanabel TV are its main satellite broadcasters.
- Flag of Palestine
- International recognition of the State of Palestine
- Israeli settlement
- Israeli-occupied territories
- Palestine (2011 book)
- Palestinian self-determination
- Water Rights in Israel-Palestine
|i.||^ Note that the name Palestine can commonly be interpreted as the entire territory of the former British Mandate, which today also incorporates Israel. The history was expressed by Mahmoud Abbas in his September 2011 speech to the United Nations: "... we agreed to establish the State of Palestine on only 22% of the territory of historical Palestine—on all the Palestinian Territory occupied by Israel in 1967." The name is also officially used as the short-form reference to the State of Palestine and this should be distinguished from other homonymous uses for the term including the Palestinian Authority, the Palestine Liberation Organization, and the subject of other proposals for the establishment of a Palestinian state.|
|ii.||^ The Palestinian Declaration of Independence proclaims the "establishment of the State of Palestine on our Palestinian territory with its capital Jerusalem (Al-Quds Ash-Sharif)." The same decision was taken also by the PLC in May 2002 when it approved the PNA Basic Law, which states unambiguously "Jerusalem is the Capital of Palestine". Ramallah is the administrative capital where government institutions and foreign representative offices are located. Jerusalem's final status awaits future negotiations between Israel and the Palestinian Authority (see "Negotiating Jerusalem". University of Maryland. Archived from the original on 14 May 2006. Retrieved 5 August 2009.). The United Nations and most countries do not accept Israel's annexation of East Jerusalem through the Jerusalem Law of 1980 (see Kellerman 1993, p. 140) and maintain their embassies to Israel in Tel Aviv (see The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency). The international community also does not recognize either Israeli or Palestinian sovereignty over Jerusalem.|
|iii.||^ Israel allows the PNA to execute some functions in the Palestinian territories, depending on the area classification. It maintains minimal interference (retaining control of borders: air, sea beyond internal waters, land) in the Gaza Strip (its interior and Egypt portion of the land border are under Hamas control), and varying degrees of interference elsewhere. See also Israeli-occupied territories.|
|iv.||^ So far both presidents of the State of Palestine, Yasser Arafat and his successor Mahmoud Abbas, were appointed beforehand as Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Palestine Liberation Organization, the committee performing the functions of State of Palestine government. See also Leaders of Palestinian institutions.|
|v.||^ The New Testament, taking up a term used once in the Tanakh (1 Samuel 13:19), speaks of a larger theologically-defined area, of which Palestine is a part, as the "land of Israel" (γῆ Ἰσραήλ) (Matthew 2:20–21), in a narrative paralleling that of the Book of Exodus.|
|vi.||^ Other writers, such as Strabo, referred to the region as Coele-Syria ("all Syria") around 10–20 CE.|
- "Palestine" (includes audio). nationalanthems.info. Archived from the original on 31 March 2014. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
- "Ban sends Palestinian application for UN membership to Security Council". United Nations News Centre. 23 September 2011. Archived from the original on 10 October 2015. Retrieved 11 September 2015.
- Bissio, Robert Remo, ed. (1995). The World: A Third World Guide 1995–96. Montevideo: Instituto del Tercer Mundo. p. 443. ISBN 978-0-85598-291-1.
- Lapidoth, Ruth (2011). "Jerusalem: Some Legal Issues" (PDF). The Jerusalem Institute for Israel Studies. p. 26. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 June 2014. Retrieved 5 June 2014.
The attitude of the Palestinians was expressed inter alia in 1988 and 2002. When the Palestine National Council proclaimed in November 1988 the establishment of a Palestinian State, it asserted that Jerusalem was its capital. In October 2002, the Palestinian Legislative Council adopted the Law on the Capital, which stipulates that Jerusalem is the capital of the Palestinian State, the main seat of its three branches of government. The State of Palestine is the sovereign of Jerusalem and of its holy places. Any statute or agreement that diminishes the rights of the Palestinian State in Jerusalem is invalid. This statute can be amended only with the consent of two-thirds of the members of the Legislative Council. The 2003 Basic Law also asserts that Jerusalem is the capital of the State of Palestine.Reprinted from: Wolfrum, Rüdiger (ed.) (online 2008, print 2011). The Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law. Oxford University Press.
- "Declaration of Independence (1988) (UN Doc)". State of Palestine Permanent Observer Mission to the United Nations. United Nations. 18 November 1988. Archived from the original on 8 June 2014. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
- Miskin, Maayana (5 December 2012). "PA Weighs 'State of Palestine' Passport". israelnationalnews.com. Arutz Sheva. Archived from the original on 7 December 2012. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
A senior PA official revealed the plans in an interview with Al-Quds newspaper. The change to 'state' status is important because it shows that 'the state of Palestine is occupied,' he said.
- "State of Palestine name change shows limitations". AP. 17 January 2013. Archived from the original on 10 January 2013.
Israel remains in charge of territories the world says should one day make up that state.
- "Table 3, Population by sex, annual rate of population increase, surface area and density" (PDF). Demographic Yearbook. United Nations Statistics Division. 2012. Archived from the original on 15 October 2017. Retrieved 28 January 2018.
- "The World Factbook: Middle East: West Bank". cia.gov. Central Intelligence Agency. 7 April 2014. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
- "The World Factbook: Middle East: Gaza Strip". cia.gov. Central Intelligence Agency. 12 May 2014. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
- "State of Palestine Population". Worldometers. Worldometers. Retrieved 19 December 2020.
- "World Bank, International Comparison Program database: GDP, PPP (current international $)" (PDF). Data World Bank. Retrieved 29 July 2020.
- "GDP per capita, PPP (current international $) – West Bank and Gaza | Data". data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 29 July 2020.
- "GDP (current US$) – West Bank and Gaza | Data". data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 29 July 2020.
- "GDP per capita (current US$) – West Bank and Gaza | Data". data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 29 July 2020.
- "GINI Index: West Bank and Gaza". The World Bank: Data. Archived from the original on 8 June 2014. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
- Human Development Report 2020 The Next Frontier: Human Development and the Anthropocene (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. pp. 343–346. ISBN 978-92-1-126442-5. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
- According to Article 4 of the 1994 Paris Protocol Archived 1 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine. The Protocol allows the Palestinian Authority to adopt multiple currencies. In the West Bank, the Israeli new sheqel and Jordanian dinar are widely accepted; while in the Gaza Strip, the Israeli new sheqel and Egyptian pound are widely accepted.
- Eqeiq, Amal (1 May 2019). [/jps/article/48/3/26/55117/From-Haifa-to-Ramallah-and-Back-New-Old "From Haifa to Ramallah (and Back): New/Old Palestinian Literary Topography"] Check
|url=value (help). Journal of Palestine Studies. 48 (3): 26–42. doi:10.1525/jps.2019.48.3.26. ISSN 0377-919X. Retrieved 22 November 2020.
- Al Zoughbi, Basheer (November 2011). "The de jure State of Palestine under Belligerent Occupation: Application for Admission to the United Nations" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 August 2016. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
- Falk, Palma (30 November 2012). "Is Palestine now a state?". CBS News. Archived from the original on 14 August 2016. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
- Tahhan, Zena. "The Naksa: How Israel occupied the whole of Palestine in 1967". www.aljazeera.com. Archived from the original on 28 December 2018. Retrieved 28 December 2018.
- "State of Palestine Population (2020) – Worldometer". www.worldometers.info. Retrieved 1 February 2020.
- "Resolution 181 (II). Future government of Palestine". United Nations. 29 November 1947. Archived from the original on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
- "Declaration of Establishment of State of Israel". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 14 May 1948. Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 8 April 2012.
- Brenner, Michael; Frisch, Shelley (April 2003). Zionism: A Brief History. Markus Wiener Publishers. p. 184.
- "Zionist Leaders: David Ben-Gurion 1886–1973". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on 13 November 2011. Retrieved 13 July 2011.
- The Arab-Israeli War of 1948 (US Department of State, Office of the Historian) Archived 16 June 2017 at the Wayback Machine"Arab forces joining the Palestinian Arabs in attacking territory in the former Palestinian mandate."
- Yoav Gelber, Palestine 1948, 2006 – Chap. 8 "The Arab Regular Armies' Invasion of Palestine".
- Gelber, Y. Palestine, 1948. pp. 177–78
- "Israel defies UN after vote on Palestine with plans for 3,000 new homes in the West Bank". The Independent. 1 December 2012. Archived from the original on 18 October 2017. Retrieved 15 September 2017.
- Charbonneau, Louis (29 November 2012). "Palestinians win implicit U.N. recognition of sovereign state". Reuters. Thomson Reuters. Archived from the original on 5 June 2014. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
- Lederer, Edith M (30 November 2012). "Live Stream: Palestine asks United Nations for a 'birth certificate' ahead of vote". www.3news.com. New Zealand: MediaWorks TV. Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
- Rubin, 1999, The World Encyclopedia of Contemporary Theatre: The Arab World, p. 186, at Google Books
- Nur Masalha (15 August 2018). Palestine: A Four Thousand Year History. Zed Books Limited. p. 22. ISBN 978-1-78699-273-4.
- Herodotus, Volume 4. p. 21. 1806. Rev. William Beloe translation.
- Ancient History Encyclopædia, Mark, Joshua J., "Palestine"
- "Common Country Analysis 2016: Leave No One Behind: A Perspective on Vulnerability and Structural Disadvantage in Palestine" (PDF). United Nations Country Team Occupied Palestinian Territory. 2016. p. 9.
- al Madfai, Madiha Rashid (1993). Jordan, the United States and the Middle East Peace Process, 1974–1991. Cambridge Middle East Library. 28. Cambridge University Press. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-521-41523-1.
- United Nations General Assembly Session 29 Resolution 3237 (XXIX). 2296th plenary meeting. Observer status for the Palestine Liberation Organization A/RES/3237(XXIX) 22 November 1974. Retrieved 10 June 2014.
- Geldenhuys, Deon (1990). Isolated States: A Comparative Analysis. Cambridge Studies in International Relations. 15. Cambridge University Press. p. 155. ISBN 978-0-521-40268-2.
- United Nations General Assembly Session 43 Resolution 43/117. 75th plenary meeting. Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees A/RES/43/117 8 December 1988. Retrieved 10 June 2014.
- Hillier, Tim (1998). Sourcebook on Public International Law (Cavendish Publishing sourcebook series ed.). Cavendish Publishing. p. 205. ISBN 978-1-84314-380-2. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
- United Nations General Assembly Session 55 Agenda item 36. 54th plenary meeting. Bethlehem 2000 Draft resolution (A/55/L.3) A/55/PV.54 page 10. Al-Kidwa, Nasser Palestine (in Arabic). 7 November 2000 at 3 p.m. Retrieved 10 June 2014. "Moreover, we are confident that in the near future we will truly be able to join the international community, represented in the Organization as Palestine, the State that encompasses Bethlehem."
- "40 Years Of Israeli Occupation". arij.org. Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 19 January 2011.
- Murphy, Kim (10 September 1993). "Israel and PLO, in Historic Bid for Peace, Agree to Mutual Recognition : Mideast: After decades of conflict, accord underscores both sides' readiness to coexist. Arafat reaffirms the renunciation of violence in strong terms". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 23 April 2010. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
- United Nations General Assembly Session 52 Resolution 52/250. Participation of Palestine in the work of the United Nations A/RES/52/250 13 July 1998.
- "Written Statement Submitted by Palestine" (PDF). International Court of Justice (ICJ). 30 January 2004. pp. 44–49. Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 February 2009. Retrieved 8 June 2014, in "Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory (Index)". International Court of Justice. 10 December 2003. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 October 2012. Retrieved 8 June 2014, referred to the ICJ by United Nations General Assembly Resolution ES-10/14. Agenda item 5. Tenth emergency special session; 23rd plenary meeting. Illegal Israeli actions in Occupied East Jerusalem and the rest of the Occupied Palestinian Territory A/RES/ES/10/14 12 December 2003. Retrieved 10 June 2014.
- "Hamas leader's Tunisia visit angers Palestinian officials". Al Arabiya News. Agence France-Presse (AFP). 7 January 2012. Archived from the original on 8 January 2012. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
- "Palestinian unity government sworn in by Mahmoud Abbas". BBC News Middle East. BBC. 2 June 2014. Archived from the original on 3 June 2014. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
- "United Nations Sixty-seventh General Assembly: General Assembly Plenary, 44th & 45th Meetings (PM & Night). GA/11317: General Assembly Votes Overwhelmingly to Accord Palestine 'Non-Member Observer State' Status in United Nations". un.org. United Nations. 29 November 2012. Archived from the original on 30 November 2012. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
- "General Assembly grants Palestine non-member observer State status at UN". United Nations News Centre. 29 November 2012. Archived from the original on 2 January 2013. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
- United Nations General Assembly Session 67 Agenda item 37. Question of Palestine A/67/L.28 26 November 2012. Retrieved 11 June 2014. and United Nations General Assembly Session 67 Resolution 67/19. Status of Palestine in the United Nations A/RES/67/19 29 November 2012. Retrieved 11 June 2014.
- "Palestine: What is in a name (change)?". Aljazeera Inside Story. Aljazeera. 8 January 2013. Archived from the original on 9 January 2013. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
- Hume, Tim; Fantz, Ashley (30 November 2012). "Palestinian United Nations bid explained". CNN International Edition: Middle East. Cable News Network (CNN). Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
- "Website of the State of Palestine's Permanent Observer Mission to the United Nations". Archived from the original on 31 January 2013.
- Gharib, Ali (20 December 2012). "U.N. Adds New Name: "State of Palestine"". The Daily Beast. Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. Retrieved 10 January 2013.
- O'Brien, Patricia (21 December 2012). "Issues related to General assembly resolution 67/19 on the status of Palestine in the United nations" (PDF). United Nations. Retrieved 22 November 2019.
- Christmas Message from H.E. President Mahmoud Abbas Archived 3 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine, Christmas 2012: "133 countries that took the courageous step of recognizing the State of Palestine on the 1967 borders."
- Sayigh, Yezid (1999). Armed Struggle and the Search for State: The Palestinian National Movement, 1949–1993 (illustrated ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 624. ISBN 978-0-19-829643-0. "The Palestinian National Council also empowered the central council to form a government-in-exile when appropriate, and the executive committee to perform the functions of government until such time as a government-in-exile was established."
- "UNdata | country profile | State of Palestine". data.un.org.
- "State of Palestine Population (2020) – Worldometer". www.worldometers.info.
- "Search". www.alhaq.org.
- Dinerstein, Eric; et al. (2017). "An Ecoregion-Based Approach to Protecting Half the Terrestrial Realm". BioScience. 67 (6): 534–545. doi:10.1093/biosci/bix014. ISSN 0006-3568. PMC 5451287. PMID 28608869.
- "Gaza". Global Security. Retrieved 25 January 2009.
- "Monthly Averages for Gaza, Gaza Strip". MSN Weather. Archived from the original on 10 February 2009. Retrieved 15 January 2009.
- Government of the Dominican Republic (15 July 2009). "Comunicado Conjunto para Establecimiento Relaciones Diplomaticas entre la Republica Dominican y el Estado de Palestina" [Joint Communique on the Establishment of Diplomatic Relations between the Dominican Republic and the State of Palestine] (PDF) (in Spanish, English, and Arabic). Dominican Republic Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 August 2011. Retrieved 15 June 2014.
Presidente del Estado de Palestina [President of the State of Palestine].
- PLO Body Elects Abbas 'President of Palestine' Archived 1 September 2017 at the Wayback Machine 25 November 2008. Agence France-Presse (via MIFTAH). Retrieved 12 August 2017. "'I announce that the PLO Central Council has elected Mahmud Abbas president of the State of Palestine. He takes on this role from this day, November 23, 2008,' the body's chairman Salem al-Zaanun told reporters."
- Executive Board of UNESCO (12 May 1989). "Hundred and Thirty-First Session – Item 9.4 of the Provisional Agenda – Request for the Admission of the State of Palestine to UNESCO as a Member State" (PDF). UNESCO. p. 18, Annex II. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 July 2011. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
A government-in-exile, having no effective control in the territory and not having had previous control, ... .
- "Palestinian National Council (PNC)". European Institute for Research on Mediterranean and Euro-Arab Cooperation. Medea Institute. Archived from the original on 6 August 2011. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
The Palestinian National Council (PNC), Parliament in exile of the Palestinian people, is the most important institution of the Palestinian Liberation Organisation (PLO). The PNC elects the Executive Committee of the organization which makes up the leadership between sessions.
- "Palestine". GeoHive. Johan van der Heyden. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 3 October 2015.
- Zahriyeh, Ehab (4 July 2014). "Maps: The occupation of the West Bank". Al Jazeera America. Al Jazeera Media Network. Archived from the original on 16 July 2014. Retrieved 8 August 2014.
- Gvirtzman, Haim. "Maps of Israeli Interests in Judea and Samaria". Bar-Ilan University. Archived from the original on 11 January 2014. Retrieved 8 August 2014.
- West Bank and Gaza – Area C and the future of the Palestinian economy (Report). World Bank Group. 2 October 2013. p. 4. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 August 2014. Retrieved 8 August 2014.
- "Group: Israel Controls 42% of West Bank". CBS News. CBS Interactive. Associated Press. 6 July 2010. Archived from the original on 8 August 2014. Retrieved 8 August 2014.
- Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 9 of the Convention (PDF) (Report). UN Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination. 9 March 2012. p. 6. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 July 2014. Retrieved 8 August 2014.
- Kelly, Tobias (May 2009). Von Benda-Beckmann, Franz; Von Benda-Beckmann, Keebet; Eckert, Julia M. (eds.). Laws of Suspicion:Legal Status, Space and the Impossibility of Separation in the Israeli-occupied West Bank. Rules of Law and Laws of Ruling: On the Governance of Law. Ashgate Publishing. p. 91. ISBN 978-0-7546-7239-5.
- Jerusalem, Facts and Trends 2009/2010 (PDF) (Report). Jerusalem Institute for Israel Studies. 2010. p. 11. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 July 2014. Retrieved 8 August 2014.
- UNGA, 15 December 1988; Resolution 43/177. Question of Palestine Archived 19 July 2017 at the Wayback Machine (doc.nr. A/RES/43/177)
- Beaumont, Peter (3 October 2014). "Sweden to recognise state of Palestine". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 15 October 2014. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- "Sweden officially recognises state of Palestine". The Guardian. 30 October 2014. Archived from the original on 30 October 2014. Retrieved 31 October 2014.
- Wallström, Minister for Foreign Affairs, Margot (30 October 2014). "Sweden today decides to recognise the State of Palestine". Dagens Nyheter. Stockholm. Archived from the original on 16 April 2015. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
- "House of Commons – Parliamentary Debates" (PDF). Parliament of the United Kingdom. 13 October 2014. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 October 2017. Retrieved 28 January 2018.
- "MPs back Palestinian statehood alongside Israel". BBC News. BBC. 14 October 2014. Archived from the original on 14 October 2014. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- "French parliament votes for recognition of Palestinian state". Uk. Reuters. Reuters. 2 December 2014. Archived from the original on 26 December 2014. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
- Peter Beaumont. "US and Israeli intervention led UN to reject Palestinian resolution". the Guardian. Archived from the original on 12 March 2017. Retrieved 16 December 2016.
- "UNSC rejects resolution on Palestinian state". Al Jazeera. 31 December 2014. Archived from the original on 30 December 2014. Retrieved 31 December 2014.
- "UN Security Council rejects Palestinian resolution". BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation. 31 December 2014. Archived from the original on 31 December 2014. Retrieved 31 December 2014.
- "UN security council rejects Palestinian statehood bid". The Guardian. Associated Press. 31 December 2014. Archived from the original on 31 December 2014. Retrieved 31 December 2014.
- "Palestine opens first W Europe embassy in Sweden". PressTV. PressTV. 10 February 2015. Archived from the original on 26 April 2015. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
- "The Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court, Fatou Bensouda, opens a preliminary examination of the situation in Palestine". ICC. 16 January 2015. Retrieved 20 September 2019.
- 'PLO: Vatican accord with Palestine a contribution to justice,' Archived 18 May 2015 at the Wayback Machine Ma'an News Agency 14 May 2015.:"The Holy See has identified the State of Palestine as such since the vote" by the UN general assembly to recognize it in November 2012, Vatican spokesman Federico Lombardi told AFP.
- "Vatican recognizes state of Palestine in new treaty". bigstory.ap.org. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 13 May 2015. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
- 'UN adopts resolution on Palestinian sovereignty over natural resources,' Archived 23 December 2015 at the Wayback Machine Ma'an News Agency 23 December 2015.
- UN backs raising Palestinian flag at NY headquarters Archived 27 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine. i24news and AFP, 9 September 2015
- Response:Palestinian Attempt to Raise Flag at UNHQ Archived 21 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Permanent Mission of Israel to the United Nations, 1 September 2015.
- "Historic raising of Palestinian flag at United Nations". CNN. 30 September 2015. Retrieved 1 June 2019.
- "Palestinian flag raised at UN in New York". BBC News. 30 September 2015. Retrieved 1 June 2019.
- "Palestinian flag to be raised at United Nations for the first time". The Independent. 30 September 2015. Retrieved 1 June 2019.
- U.N. General Assembly approves Palestinian request to fly its flag Archived 19 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine. Louis Charbonneau, Reuters, 10 September 2015
- UN strongly approves Palestinian proposal to raise flag Archived 12 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Al Jazeera, 11 September 2015
- "Palestinian Flag Raised at the United Nations for the First Time". Newsweek. 30 September 2015. Retrieved 1 June 2019.
- Segal, Jerome M., Chapter 9, "The State of Palestine, The Question of Existence", in Philosophical perspectives on the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, Tomis Kapitan editor, M.E. Sharpe, 1997, ISBN 1-56324-878-6.
- Boyle, Francis A. Creation of the State of Palestine; 1 Eur. J. Int'l L. 301 (1990)
- Kearney, Michael and Denayer, Stijn, Al-Haq Position Paper on Issues Arising from the Palestinian Authority's Submission of a Declaration to the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court Under Article 12(3) of the Rome Statute (24 December 2009), para 43.a.
- Dugard, John (22 July 2009; Op-Ed essay). "Take the Case" Archived 22 July 2016 at the Wayback Machine. The New York Times. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
- ""World Population prospects – Population division"". population.un.org. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
- ""Overall total population" – World Population Prospects: The 2019 Revision" (xslx). population.un.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
- "Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics". State of Palestine. Archived from the original on 10 June 2015. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- "Which countries are most densely populated?". Our World in Data.
- "Overview of Public Health in Palestine". Palestinian National Institute of Public Health. 2018. Retrieved 24 November 2019.
- "WHO | About Us". WHO.
- "Health Cluster OPT". healthclusteropt.org.
- "Health conditions in the occupied Palestinian territory, including east Jerusalem, and in the occupied Syrian Golan" (PDF). WHO. 1 May 2019. Retrieved 24 November 2019.
- "Country cooperation strategy for WHO and the Occupied Palestinian Territory 2017–2020" (PDF). WHO. 2017. Retrieved 24 November 2019.
- "Education (2014)" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. United Nations. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 March 2017. Retrieved 30 January 2017.
- "Are all Palestinians Muslim?". Institute for Middle East Understanding. Archived from the original on 13 April 2014. Retrieved 16 April 2014.
- Lybarger, 2007, p. 114.
- "PA's Moderate Muslims Face Threats". Israel National News. 31 May 2010. Archived from the original on 26 April 2014. Retrieved 26 April 2014.
- "Religious Identity Among Muslims". Pewforum.org. Archived from the original on 26 December 2016. Retrieved 6 July 2016.
- Louis J. Salome (2010). Violence, Veils and Bloodlines: Reporting from War Zones. McFarland. pp. 77–. ISBN 978-0-7864-5584-3.
- "PCBS: Marked increase in West Bank tourism in 2010". M'aan. 26 September 2011. Archived from the original on 18 June 2013. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
- Imtiaz Muqbil; Sana Muqbil (11 March 2013). "Europeans Dominate Visitor Arrivals to Palestine in 2012". Travel-impact-newswire.com. Archived from the original on 29 August 2016. Retrieved 6 July 2016.
- Israel and the Palestinian Territories. p. 254. Lonely Planet Publications. 2012
- "Tourism in Palestine an Act of Solidarity, says Minister of Tourism". Archived from the original on 12 August 2017. Retrieved 12 August 2017.
- "Entering and Exiting Jerusalem, The west Bank, and Gaza". Archived from the original on 18 March 2014. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
- "4.2 million cellular mobile subscriptions in Palestine, says Bureau of Statistics". WAFA. 17 May 2020. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
- "US$15 Million Investment in Information Technology to Boost High-Skilled Jobs for Palestinian Youth". WAFA. 15 June 2020. Retrieved 15 June 2020.
- "Palestine Monetary Authority: Starting to Provide Electronic Payment Services in Palestine". PNN. May 2020. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
- United Nations (3 September 2009). "Gaza water crisis prompts UN call for immediate opening of crossings". Archived from the original on 8 June 2010. Retrieved 25 November 2009.
- "Gaza Strip Water and Sanitation Situation". Worldbank. 2009. Archived from the original on 22 February 2018.
- Fatta, D. (2005). "Urban Wastewater Treatment and Reclamation for Agricultural Irrigation: The situation in Morocco and Palestine". The Environmentalist. 24 (4): 227–236. doi:10.1007/s10669-005-0998-x. S2CID 85346288.
- Assaf, Karen (2004). "Water as a human right: The understanding of water in Palestine" (PDF). Boell.de. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 September 2015.
- "Full transcript of Abbas speech at UN General Assembly". Haaretz.com. 23 September 2011. Archived from the original on 30 September 2011. Retrieved 1 October 2011.
- Baroud, Ramzy (2004). Kogan Page (ed.). Middle East Review (27th ed.). London: Kogan Page. p. 161. ISBN 978-0-7494-4066-4.
- "2002 Basic Law". The Palestinian Basic Law. Archived from the original on 16 March 2010. Retrieved 2 August 2010.
- Tobias Kelly, "Laws of Suspicion: Legal Status, Space and the Impossibility of Separation in the Israeli-occupied West Bank", Franz von Benda-Beckmann, Keebet von Benda-Beckmann, Julia M. Eckert (eds.) Rules of Law and Laws of Ruling: On the Governance of Law, Ashgate Publishing 2009, pp. 83–99
- Israel's control of the airspace and the territorial waters of the Gaza Strip Archived 5 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
- Map of Gaza fishing limits, "security zones" Archived 26 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
- Israel's Disengagement Plan: Renewing the Peace Process Archived 2 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine: "Israel will guard the perimeter of the Gaza Strip, continue to control Gaza air space, and continue to patrol the sea off the Gaza coast. ... Israel will continue to maintain its essential military presence to prevent arms smuggling along the border between the Gaza Strip and Egypt (Philadelphi Route), until the security situation and cooperation with Egypt permit an alternative security arrangement."
- "Israel: 'Disengagement' Will Not End Gaza Occupation". Human Rights Watch. 29 October 2004. Archived from the original on 1 November 2008. Retrieved 16 July 2010.
- Gold, Dore (26 August 2005). "Legal Acrobatics: The Palestinian Claim that Gaza Is Still 'Occupied' Even After Israel Withdraws". Jerusalem Issue Brief. Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. 5 (3). Archived from the original on 21 June 2010. Retrieved 16 July 2010.
- Bell, Abraham (28 January 2008). "International Law and Gaza: The Assault on Israel's Right to Self-Defense". Jerusalem Issue Brief. Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. 7 (29). Archived from the original on 21 June 2010. Retrieved 16 July 2010.
- Transcript (22 January 2008). "Address by FM Livni to the 8th Herzliya Conference". Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on 26 October 2011. Retrieved 26 September 2011.
- Salih, Zak M. (17 November 2005). "Panelists Disagree Over Gaza's Occupation Status". University of Virginia School of Law. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 26 September 2011.
- Whitelam 1996, pp. 40–42. sfn error: no target: CITEREFWhitelam1996 (help)
- Masalha 2007, p. 32. sfn error: no target: CITEREFMasalha2007 (help)
- Saldarini 1994, pp. 28–29. sfn error: no target: CITEREFSaldarini1994 (help)
- Goldberg 2001, p. 147: "The parallels between this narrative and that of Exodus continue to be drawn. Like Pharaoh before him, Herod, having been frustrated in his original efforts, now seeks to achieve his objectives by implementing a program of infanticide. As a result, here—as in Exodus—rescuing the hero's life from the clutches of the evil king necessitates a sudden flight to another country. And finally, in perhaps the most vivid parallel of all, the present narrative uses virtually the same words of the earlier one to provide the information that the coast is clear for the herds safe return: here, in Matthew 2:20, "go [back]… for those who sought the Childs life are dead; there, in Exodus 4:19, go back… for all the men who sought your life are dead." sfn error: no target: CITEREFGoldberg2001 (help)
- Feldman 1996, pp. 557–58. sfn error: no target: CITEREFFeldman1996 (help)
- Bercovitch, Jacob; Zartman, I. William (2008). Bercovitch, Jacob; Kremenyuk, Victor; Zartman, I. William (eds.). The SAGE Handbook of Conflict Resolution (illustrated ed.). SAGE Publications. ISBN 978-1-4129-2192-3.
- Brownlie, Ian; Goodwin-Gill, Guy S.; Talmon, Stefan; Jennings, Robert (1999). The Reality of International Law: Essays in Honour of Ian Brownlie (illustrated, reprint ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-826837-6.
- Gerson, Allan (1978). Israel, the West Bank and International Law. London: Frank Cass. ISBN 978-0-7146-3091-5.
- Grant, Thomas D. (1999). The Recognition of States: Law and Practice in Debate and Evolution. ISBN 978-0-275-96350-7.
- Hillier, Tim (1998). Sourcebook on Public International Law (illustrated ed.). Routledge. ISBN 978-1-85941-050-9.
- Kassim, Anis F. (1997). The Palestine Yearbook of International Law 1989 (illustrated ed.). Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. ISBN 978-90-411-0342-0. p. 49 p. 279 p. 291 p. 294
- Kellerman, Aharo n (1993). Society and Settlement: Jewish Land of Israel in the Twentieth Century. Albany, New York. p. 352. ISBN 978-0-7914-1295-4.
- Kogan Page (2004). Middle East Review (27th, illustrated ed.). Kogan Page. ISBN 978-0-7494-4066-4.
- Le More, Anne (2008). International Assistance to the Palestinians After Oslo: Political Guilt, Wasted Money (illustrated ed.). ISBN 978-0-415-45385-1.
- Osmańczyk, Edmund Jan; Mango, Anthony (2003). Encyclopedia of the United Nations and International Agreements (3rd ed.). Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-415-93921-8.
- Quigley, John B. (2005). The Case for Palestine: An International Law Perspective (2nd, revised ed.). Duke University Press. ISBN 978-0-8223-3539-9.
- Rubin, Don (1999). The World Encyclopedia of Contemporary Theatre: The Arab World (illustrated, reprint ed.). Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-415-05932-9.
- Sayigh, Yezid (1999). Armed Struggle and the Search for State: The Palestinian National Movement, 1949–1993 (illustrated ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-829643-0.
- Segal, Jerome M. (1997). Tomis Kapitan (ed.). Philosophical Perspectives on the Israeli–Palestinian Conflict (illustrated ed.). M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 978-1-56324-878-8.
- Silverburg, Sanford R. (2002). Palestine and International Law: Essays on Politics and Economics. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company. ISBN 978-0-7864-1191-7.
- Takkenberg, Alex (1998). The Status of Palestinian Refugees in International Law (illustrated ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-826590-0.
- Talmon, Stefan (1998). Recognition of Governments in International Law: With Particular Reference to Governments in Exile (illustrated ed.). ISBN 978-0-19-826573-3.
- Europa World Year Book 2. 2004. ISBN 978-1-85743-255-8.
- The Middle East and North Africa 2004 (50th, illustrated ed.). Routledge. 2004. ISBN 978-1-85743-184-1.
- Arzt, Donna E. (1997). Refugees into Citizens: Palestinians and the End of the Arab-Israeli Conflict (illustrated ed.). Council on Foreign Relations. ISBN 978-0-87609-194-4.
- Fowler, Michael; Bunck, Julie Marie (1995). Law, Power, and the Sovereign State: The Evolution and Application of the Concept of Sovereignty. ISBN 978-0-271-01471-5.
- Peters, Joel (1992). Israel and Africa: The Problematic Friendship (illustrated ed.). I.B.Tauris. ISBN 978-1-870915-10-6.
- Shatz, Adam, "We Are Conquerors" (review of Tom Segev, A State at Any Cost: The Life of David Ben-Gurion, Head of Zeus, 2019, 804 pp., ISBN 978-1-78954-462-6), London Review of Books, vol. 41, no. 20 (24 October 2019), pp. 37–38, 40–42. "Segev's biography... shows how central exclusionary nationalism, war and racism were to Ben-Gurion's vision of the Jewish homeland in Palestine, and how contemptuous he was not only of the Arabs but of Jewish life outside Zion. [Liberal Jews] may look at the state that Ben-Gurion built, and ask if the cost has been worth it." (p. 42 of Shatz's review.)
- Taylor & Francis Group; Dean, Lucy (2003). The Middle East and North Africa 2004: 2004 (illustrated ed.). Routledge. ISBN 978-1-85743-184-1.
- Tessler, Mark A. (1994). A History of the Israeli–Palestinian Conflict (2nd, illustrated ed.). Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-35848-6.
- Watson, Geoffrey R. (2000). The Oslo Accords: International Law and the Israeli–Palestinian Peace Agreements (illustrated ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-829891-5.
- Status of Palestine in the United Nations (A/RES/67/19) Full Text
- Cross, Tony (24 September 2011). "After Abbas's UN Bid Are Palestinians Closer To Having a State?". Radio France Internationale. Retrieved 2011-9-28.
- Recognition of a Palestinian state Premature Legally Invalid and Undermining any Bona Fide Negotiation Process
- Political Statement accompanying Palestinian Declaration of Independence
- Permanent Observer Mission of Palestine to the United Nations
- The Historic Compromise: The Palestinian Declaration of Independence and the Twenty-Year Struggle for a Two-State Solution
- International Recognition of a Unilaterally Declared Palestinian State: Legal and Policy Dilemmas, by Tal Becker