Richard B. Spencer

Richard Bertrand Spencer (born May 1978)[1] is an American neo-Nazi,[2][3] antisemitic conspiracy theorist, and white supremacist who is known for his activism on behalf of the alt-right movement in 2016 and 2017.[2][4] Spencer calls for the reconstitution of the European Union into a white racial empire, which he believes will replace the diverse European ethnic identities with one homogeneous "white identity".[5][6][7] The majority of European nations have banned Spencer and denounced his call for white racial empire.[8] Poland in particular has repeatedly sought to ban Spencer from Europe, citing Spencer's Nazi rhetoric and the Nazis' genocide of Slavic people during World War II.[9]

Richard B. Spencer
Spencer in 2016
Born
Richard Bertrand Spencer

1978 (age 4243)
Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.
EducationSt. Mark's School of Texas
Alma mater
OccupationAuthor, publisher
Known for
  • President and director of the National Policy Institute
  • Executive director of Washington Summit Publishers
  • Organizing the 2017 Unite the Right neo-Nazi demonstration in Charlottesville that caused one death and multiple injuries.
Political partyIndependent
Movement
Spouse(s)
Nina Kouprianova
(m. 2010; div. 2018)
Children2

Spencer is known for his public advocacy of violence against nonwhites. He has advocated for the enslavement of Haitians by whites, the ethnic cleansing of racial minorities from the United States, and the ethnic cleansing of Turks from Anatolia.[10] On the subject of neo-Nazism, Spencer has expressed admiration for the political tactics of American Nazi Party founder George Lincoln Rockwell.[11][12] He was a featured speaker at the August 2017 Unite the Right rally in Charlottesville, Virginia, among other neo-Nazi rallies that Spencer has headlined.[13]

Spencer's public persona was defined by his repeated, public use of Nazi rhetoric. In early 2016, Spencer was filmed giving the Nazi salute in a karaoke bar, and leaked footage also depicts Spencer giving the Sieg Heil salute to his supporters during the August 2017 Charlottesville rally.[14] After Donald Trump was elected president in 2016, Spencer urged his supporters to "party like it's 1933," the year Hitler came to power in Germany.[15] In the weeks following, Spencer quoted Nazi propaganda and denounced Jews.[16] At a conference Spencer held celebrating the election, Spencer cried: "Hail Trump, hail our people, hail victory!"; subsequently Mike Enoch led a number of Spencer's supporters in performing a Nazi salute and a chant similar to the Sieg Heil chant.[17][18] In early-to-mid 2017, when Spencer's following was at its height, his supporters would reportedly give him the Sieg Heil salute when he entered a room.[19]

Spencer has been involved in several legal issues. After the Unite the Right rally in Charlottesville, during which an alt-right supporter drove his car into a group of counter-protesters, killing one and injuring at least 19 others,[20][21][22] Spencer was sued for allegedly acting as a "gang boss" and inciting the killing.[23][24] Three supporters of Spencer were charged with attempted homicide following his October 2017 speech at the University of Florida.[25]

Early life

Richard Bertrand Spencer was born in 1978 in Boston, Massachusetts, the son of ophthalmologist Rand Spencer and Sherry Spencer (née Dickenhorst), the heiress to cotton farms in Louisiana.[26][27] He grew up in Preston Hollow, Dallas, Texas.[28] Spencer attended St. Mark's School of Texas, then Colgate University for one year before transferring to the University of Virginia.[26][28] In 2001, he received a Bachelor of Arts in English Literature and Music from the University of Virginia and, in 2003, a Master of Arts in the Humanities from the University of Chicago.[26][28] From the summer of 2005 into 2006, Spencer attended Vienna International Summer University.[28] From 2005 to 2007, he was a PhD student in Modern European intellectual history at Duke University. He joined the Duke Conservative Union, where he met future President Trump's senior policy advisor Stephen Miller.[26][28] His former website says he did not complete his PhD at Duke in order "to pursue a life of thought-crime".[28]

Activities

Early activities

From March to December 2007, Spencer was the assistant editor at The American Conservative magazine.[28] According to founding editor Scott McConnell, he was fired from The American Conservative because his views were considered too extreme.[29][28] Spencer spoke about the Duke lacrosse case and credits it with changing the course of his career.[30] From January 2008 to December 2009, he served as the executive editor of Taki's Magazine, a libertarian online magazine published by Taki Theodoracopulos.[31][28] He has claimed credit for coining the term alt-right in 2008 in order to differentiate himself from "mainstream American conservatism", although Paul Gottfried argues that both he and Spencer created the term.[32]

In March 2010, Spencer founded AlternativeRight.com, a website he edited until 2012.[33] In January 2011, he became the owner and executive director of Washington Summit Publishers.[28] In January 2011, Spencer became president and director of the National Policy Institute (NPI), a white supremacist think tank based in Virginia.[33] George Hawley, an assistant professor of political science at the University of Alabama, has described NPI as "rather obscure and marginalized" until Spencer became its president.[34]

Spencer was invited to speak at Vanderbilt University in 2010 and Providence College in 2011 by Youth for Western Civilization.[35][36] In 2012, he founded Radix Journal as a biannual publication of Washington Summit Publishers.[31][33] Contributions have included articles by Kevin B. MacDonald, Alex Kurtagić, and Samuel T. Francis.[33] He also hosts a weekly podcast, "Vanguard Radio."[33]

In 2014, Spencer was deported from Budapest, Hungary. Under terms of the Schengen Agreement, he was banned for three years from 26 countries in Europe after trying to organize the National Policy Institute Conference, a conference for white nationalists.[33][37][38]

Alt Right leader

On January 15, 2017, the day of Martin Luther King Jr.'s birthday, Spencer launched the AltRight Corporation and its website altright.com, another commentary website for alt-right members.[33] According to Spencer, the site is a populist and big tent site for members of the alt-right.[39] Swedish publisher Daniel Friberg of Arktos Media is co-founder and European editor of the site.[40] The Southern Poverty Law Center of the United States describes the common thread among contributors as antisemitism, rather than white nationalism or white supremacy in general.[41][42] Contributors to AltRight.com have included Henrik Palmgren and Jared Taylor.[43][44] On February 23, 2017, Spencer was removed from the Conservative Political Action Conference, where he was giving statements to the press. A CPAC spokesman said he was removed from the event because other members found him "repugnant".[45]

White nationalist protesters clash with police during the Unite the Right rally in Charlottesville, Virginia

On May 13, 2017, he led a torch-lit protest in Charlottesville, Virginia, against the vote of the city council to remove a statue of Robert E. Lee, the commanding general of the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia during the American Civil War.[46] Spencer led the crowd in chants of "You will not replace us" and "Blood and soil".[47][48] Michael Signer, the mayor of Charlottesville, called the protest "horrific", and stated that it was either "profoundly ignorant" or intended to instill fear among minorities "in a way that hearkens back to the days of the KKK".[47][46][49]

In August 2017, Spencer was listed as an organizer on posters promoting the Charlottesville, Virginia, Unite the Right rally. It attracted counter-protesters, and violence broke out. One rightist drove his car into a group of counter-protesters, killing one woman and wounding 30 so severely they needed treatment at the hospital.[13] In November 2017, Twitter removed from Spencer's account the blue checkmark that, reported The Washington Post, "the company gives to prominent accounts to help readers ensure they are authentic". Spencer told The Post he was worried this would lead to Twitter banning people like him.[50] He later joined the social network Gab.[51]

In November 2019, Milo Yiannopolous released an audio recording allegedly of Spencer using racist slurs immediately after the 2017 Unite the Right rally. Spencer said he did not recall making the remarks, but did not deny the voice on the recording was his.[52] On the tape, Spencer is heard saying "Little fucking kikes. They get ruled by people like me. Little fucking octaroons. My ancestors fucking enslaved those little pieces of fucking shit."[52][53]

Public speaking

During a speech which Spencer gave in mid-November 2016 at an alt-right conference that was attended by approximately 200 people in Washington, D.C., Spencer quoted Nazi propaganda in the original German and denounced Jews.[16] Audience members cheered and gave the Nazi salute when he said, "Hail Trump, hail our people, hail victory!"[16][54] and extended his right arm with a glass to toast that victory.[55] Spencer later defended their conduct, stating that the Nazi salute was given in a spirit of "irony and exuberance".[56] It was later revealed that Spencer had given the Nazi salute at a karaoke bar in April 2016.[14] Additionally, in 2017 Spencer reportedly pressured followers to give him the Sieg Heil salute when he entered a room. Leaked texts between Spencer and Eli Mosley indicate that those who refused to give the Nazi salute to Spencer, such as Jason Kessler, were stigmatized within the movement.[19]

Groups and events which Spencer has spoken to include the Property and Freedom Society,[57] the American Renaissance conference,[58] and the HL Mencken Club.[59] In November 2016, an online petition to prevent Spencer from speaking at Texas A&M University on December 6, 2016, was signed by thousands of students, employees, and alumni.[60] A protest and a university-organized counter-event were held to coincide with Spencer's event.[61]

On January 20, 2017, Spencer attended the inauguration of Donald Trump. As he was giving an impromptu interview on a nearby street afterwards, a masked man punched Spencer in the face, then fled.[62][63] A video of the incident was posted online, leading to divergent views on whether the attack was appropriate.[64]

Shortly after the violent Unite the Right rally in Charlottesville, Virginia, in August 2017, the University of Florida denied Spencer's request for a September 2017 speaking opportunity, citing public safety grounds after opposition from students and locals of Gainesville, Florida.[65] Due to safety reasons, he was also denied speaking requests at Louisiana State University and Michigan State University in August 2017.[66][67] In September 2017, Cameron Padgett, who tried to book Spencer, sued MSU; he was represented by Kyle Bristow, an MSU alumnus.[68][69]

On August 16, during a television interview with Israeli Channel 2 anchor Danny Kushmaro, Spencer claimed that "Jews are vastly over-represented in... 'the establishment', that is, Ivy League educated people who really determine policy".[70] Viewing Israel as an exclusionary ethnic state,[71] he described his political position as "a white Zionist", who wants white people "to have a secure homeland for us and ourselves".[70] Spencer has repeatedly used this argument over the years in speeches and interviews.[72][73][74][75]

Spencer's National Policy Institute, David Duke, Stefan Molyneux, and American Renaissance magazine were among the white nationalist outlets banned by YouTube from their platform in late June 2020 for not following the platform's policies on hate speech.[76]

Public response

Speech at the University of Florida

After the University of Florida's August 2017 denial of Spencer's request to speak the following month, Floridian lawyer Gary Edinger threatened to sue the university for violating the First Amendment by prohibiting Spencer from speaking despite being a publicly funded institution. The university subsequently reached an agreement with Edinger allowing Spencer to speak on October 19, 2017.[77] Florida Governor Rick Scott declared a state of emergency for Alachua County on October 16, saying: "I find that the threat of a potential emergency is imminent" as a result of Spencer's appearance.[51][78]

On October 19, 2017, Spencer spoke at the Curtis M. Phillips Center for the Performing Arts on university grounds. In addition to Spencer, the speakers included Eli Mosley of Identity Evropa, a white supremacist group from California, and Mike Enoch, a white nationalist blogger.[79][80] The event's security costs reportedly amounted to an estimated $600,000.[81] It drew about 2,500 protestors, vastly outnumbering Spencer's supporters.[82][83]

The speech, which was Spencer's first public appearance after the Charlottesville rally, was disrupted by loud protests.[84][85][86] When drowned out by chants from the audience, he grew visibly frustrated, stating that the protestors were interfering with his freedom of speech. He added: "You are all engaged in what's known as the heckler's veto." According to Clay Calvert, director of the Marion B. Brechner First Amendment Project at the University of Florida College of Journalism and Communications, non-violent protesting, booing and suggesting that the speaker leave was not a heckler's veto in law. The speech and the concurrent protests were largely peaceful.[83][87]

Later that day, three of Spencer's supporters were arrested on felony charges following an alleged discharge of a firearm, directed at protestors leaving the event. The three suspects were residents of Texas who had traveled to Florida to hear Spencer speak. According to the Gainesville Police Department, they had shouted "Hail Hitler" and gave Nazi salutes immediately before the alleged attack. Authorities said that two of the suspects had known links to extremist groups.[88] The men had participated in the August 2017 Unite the Right rally, where Spencer had been scheduled to speak.[89][90] All three were charged with attempted homicide.[91]

In the aftermath of the October 19 events, Ohio State University declined Spencer's request to allow him to speak on campus, citing "substantial risk to public safety". In response, a lawyer representing Spencer's associate and organizer of his speaking tour filed a lawsuit against the university.[92]

Opposition in Montana

The National Policy Institute think tank, AlternativeRight.com, and Radix Journal all use the same mailing address in Whitefish, Montana.[93]

In 2013, a dispute with neoconservative lobbyist Randy Scheunemann at Whitefish Mountain Resort in Montana drew public attention to Spencer and his political views.[94]

In 2014, a pro-tolerance group affiliated with the Montana Human Rights Network rallied against Spencer's residency in Whitefish. In response, the city council approved a non-discrimination resolution.[95]

In December 2016, Republican Representative Ryan Zinke, Republican Senator Steve Daines, Democratic Senator Jon Tester, Democratic Governor Steve Bullock and Republican Attorney General Tim Fox condemned a neo-Nazi march that had been planned for January 2017.[96] The community of Whitefish organized in opposition to the event, and the march never occurred.[97] Also in December 2016, Spencer announced he was considering an independent run for Montana's at-large congressional district in the 2017 special election, although he ultimately did not enter the race.[98][99][100]

European Union bans

European governments and media have responded to his visits. During his speaking tour in Hungary in 2014, Spencer was mocked by the Hungarian newspaper Népszabadság for his call for "a white Imperium" through a revival of the Roman Empire, and for his claim to be a "racial European", ideas that the newspaper called contrived and without any basis in European history.[101] In the aftermath of his visit, Hungarian Prime Minister Viktor Orbán pressed through legislative measures which banned his entry and condemned Spencer.[102] The government of Poland has also banned him from entering the country and condemned Spencer,[103] citing his Nazi rhetoric, the anti-Polish and anti-Slavic racism of the Nazis, and the Nazis' genocide of Slavic peoples during World War II.[9] In July 2018, Spencer was detained at Keflavík Airport in Reykjavík, Iceland en route to Sweden and was ordered by Polish officials to return to the United States; the successful effort of the Poles to ban Spencer from other parts of Europe arises from the Schengen Agreement.[104]

Views

White identity

Spencer believes in white pride and the unification of a pan-European "white race" in a "potential racial empire" resembling the Roman Empire.[5][6][7] In an interview with CNN, he was criticized for an apparent inconsistency or lack of clarity in his definition of white, with his interviewer saying that Spencer defined Syrians as white in the context of Steve Jobs's role in developing the iPhone, but described them as a non-white presence in Europe in the context of the Syrian refugee crisis.[105]

In 2013, the Anti-Defamation League called Spencer a "leader" in white supremacist circles, and said that after leaving The American Conservative, he rejected conservatism, because he believed its adherents "can't or won't represent explicitly white interests".[106]

While being interviewed by David Pakman, he was asked if he would condemn the Ku Klux Klan and Adolf Hitler, he refused by saying: "I'm not going to play this game", while stating that Hitler had "done things that I think are despicable", without elaborating on which things he was referring to.[107] Spencer also admires George Lincoln Rockwell, the founder of the American Nazi Party, for using "shock as a positive means to an end".[11]

In a 2016 interview for Time magazine, Spencer said he rejected white supremacy and the slavery of nonwhites, preferring to establish America as a white ethnostate.[108] He also advocates the creation of a white ethnostate in Europe that would be open to all "racial Europeans".[109][110][5][6][7] Jason Wilson in The Guardian has argued that Spencer and other white nationalists are appropriating some elements of socialist rhetoric to critique a "notion of capitalism centered on stereotypes of Jews".[111]

According to political scientist Tamir Bar-On, Spencer defends "racialist and anti-Semitic agendas" of the Old Right under a new metapolitical guise, acting as a cultural influencer rather than a direct political actor, and using various media outlets to "disseminate his views to ordinary people in an accessible manner".[112]

Ethno-nationalism

According to the Southern Poverty Law Center, Spencer has advocated for a white homeland for a "dispossessed white race", and called for "peaceful ethnic cleansing" to halt the "deconstruction" of what he describes as "white culture".[31][113][114] To this end he has supported what he has called "the creation of a White Ethno-State on the North American continent", an "ideal" that he has regarded as a "reconstitution of the Roman Empire".[109][110] Prior to the UK vote to leave the EU, Spencer expressed support for the multi-national bloc "as a potential racial empire" and an alternative to "American hegemony", stating that he has "always been highly skeptical of so-called 'Euro-Skeptics'".[115]

Nazi rhetoric

Spencer has made frequent use of Nazi rhetoric in his public speeches.[9] He called Donald Trump's 2016 presidential election "the victory of will", a phrase evoking the title of Leni Riefenstahl's Triumph of the Will (1935), a Nazi-era propaganda film.[16] Spencer urged his supporters to "party like it's 1933," the year Hitler came to power in Germany.[15] In the weeks following, Spencer quoted Nazi propaganda and denounced Jews.[16]

At a conference Spencer held celebrating Trump's election, he mentioned the "mainstream media" in those terms: "or perhaps we should refer to them in the original German: Lügenpresse", meaning 'lying press' or 'press of lies', a term frequently used by Joseph Goebbels in Nazi propaganda.[116][117] Spencer ended his speech with: "Hail Trump, hail our people, hail victory!", and a number of his supporters gave the Nazi salute and chanted in a similar fashion to the Sieg Heil chant.[17][18]

Donald Trump and Joe Biden

Spencer supported Donald Trump in the 2016 presidential election.[16] Following Trump's appointment of Steve Bannon as chief White House strategist and senior counselor, Spencer said Bannon would be in "the best possible position" to influence policy.[118]

In November 2018, however, Spencer told his followers: "The Trump moment is over, and it's time for us to move on." The Southern Poverty Law Center reported that, around the same time, the white nationalist movement as a whole was dissatisfied with Trump's presidency.[119]

In a July 2019 interview on CNN, he called Trump's tweet about four congresswomen (telling them to "go back" to where they came from) "racist". He believed Trump was practicing a "con game" in not clearly developing a white nationalist agenda as Trump "gives us nothing outside of racist tweets, and by racist tweets, I mean tweets that are meaningless and cheap".[120]

In 2020, following the assassination of Iranian general Qasem Soleimani, Spencer said that he regretted voting for Trump.[121] In August of that year, Spencer said that he planned to vote for Joe Biden and the straight Democratic ticket in the November election. "The MAGA/Alt-Right moment is over. I made mistakes; Trump is an obvious disaster; but mainly the paradigm contained flaws that we now are able to perceive. And it needs to end," Spencer wrote. "So be patient. We'll have another day in the sun. We need to recover and return in a new form." The Biden campaign renounced his support.[122][123]

Gender roles

During the 2016 United States presidential election, Spencer tweeted that women should not be allowed to make foreign policy.[124][125] He also stated in an interview with The Washington Post that his vision of America as a white ethnostate includes women returning to traditional roles as childbearers and homemakers.[126][127] In October 2017, when asked his opinion on American women having the right to vote, he said: "I don't necessarily think that that's a great thing" after stating that he was "not terribly excited" about voting in general.[125]

Spencer opposes same-sex marriage,[128] which he has described as "unnatural" and a "non-issue", commenting that "very few gay men will find the idea of monogamy to their liking".[129] Despite his opposition to same-sex marriage, Spencer barred people with anti-gay views from the National Policy Institute's annual conference in 2015.[130]

Health care

Spencer supports legal access to abortion, in part because he believes it would reduce the number of black and Hispanic people, which he says would be a "great boon" to white people.[26] Spencer also supports a national single-payer health care system because he believes it would benefit white people.[131][132]

Christianity

Spencer is an atheist,[133] although he also believes that the Christian church previously held some pragmatic value, because Spencer believes that it helped unify the white population of Europe. He opposes traditional Christian values as a moral code, due to the fact that Christianity is a universalizing religion, rather than an ethnic religion. Spencer references his views on Christianity as being influenced by the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche.[134][135][26] Citing Nietzsche's criticism of anti-Semitism and nationalism, Scott Galupo writing for The Week, Sean Illing for Vox, and Jordan Harris for The Courier-Journal have described Spencer's interpretation of Nietzsche's philosophy as incorrect.[136][137][134] Spencer's Radix Journal has promoted paganism, running titles such as "Why I am a pagan".[138] Spencer has also described himself as a "cultural Christian".[139]

Geopolitics

Spencer states he voted for Democrat John Kerry over incumbent Republican George W. Bush during the 2004 United States presidential election, because Bush stood for "the war".[140]

Spencer criticized President Trump's administration for escalating tensions between the U.S. and Iran. In January 2020, Spencer tweeted: "To the people of Iran, there are millions of Americans who do not want war, who do not hate you, and who respect your nation and its history. After our traitorous elite is brought to justice, we hope to achieve peace, reconciliation, and forgiveness."[121]

Spencer praised Israel's Jewish nation-state law,[141] saying: "Jews are, once again, at the vanguard, rethinking politics and sovereignty for the future, showing a path forward for Europeans."[142]

Spencer has advocated for the US pulling out of NATO, and called Russia the "sole white power in the world". His former partner, Nina Kouprianova, under her pen name Nina Byzantina referred to herself as a "Kremlin troll leader" and regularly aligned to Kremlin talking points, with ties to Aleksandr Dugin, a far-right ultranationalist Russian leader in the Eurasianism movement and writer of Foundations of Geopolitics. The webzine founded by Spencer in 2010, called Alternative Right, accepted direct contributor pieces from Dugin.[143] Kouprianova has translated several books written by Dugin.[144][145][146] The books were later published by Spencer's publishing house, Washington Summit Publishers.[147]

Libertarianism

In the late 2000s, Spencer was involved in the libertarian movement, supporting libertarian Republican presidential candidate Ron Paul[148] and hosting him at his discussion club, the Robert Taft Club.[26] Spencer later disavowed libertarianism as incompatible with white nationalism, and in 2017 he came into conflict with libertarians after reportedly attempting to "crash" an International Students for Liberty conference.[149]

Influences

According to political scientist Tamir Bar-On, "Spencer's key intellectual influences are largely those thinkers concerned with winning the 'cultural war' against egalitarianism, liberal democracy, capitalism, socialism, and multiculturalism," citing Nietzsche, the German Conservative Revolution (including Carl Schmitt, Ernst Jünger, and Martin Heidegger), French New Right theorists like Alain de Benoist and Guillaume Faye, along with other far-right figures such as Julius Evola, Francis Parker Yockey, Aleksandr Dugin, and "US right-wingers with a penchant for race-driven politics or anti-Semitism" like Sam Francis, Jared Taylor, and Kevin B. MacDonald.[150]

In June 2020, the federal magistrate judge presiding over a civil rights lawsuit that stemmed from the violence at the Unite the Right rally in 2017, allowed Spencer's lawyer, John DiNucci, to withdraw from the case, on the grounds that Spencer owed DiNucci a significant amount in legal fees, and also was not cooperating with him in preparing the case. Spencer will represent himself. At the time of DiNucci's withdrawal, Spencer also faced a $500 fine and two weeks in a county jail in Montana if he did not pay over $60,000 he owed to the guardian ad litem representing his children's interests in Spencer's ongoing divorce proceedings there.[151] Ultimately Spencer avoided going to jail after settling the debt.[152]

Personal life

In 2010, Spencer moved to Whitefish, Montana. He says he splits his time between Whitefish and Arlington, Virginia,[109][153] although he has said he has lived in Whitefish for over 10 years and considers it home.[154] As of 2017, Spencer was renting an apartment in Alexandria, Virginia.[155] He moved out in August 2018.[156] Prior to his marriage, Spencer's dating history included Asian women,[157] which he has said predates his white nationalism, though this evaluation is disputed.[158]

Spencer married Nina Kouprianova in 2010, with whom he has two children.[159] He separated from Kouprianova, a Russian-Canadian with Georgian roots,[160] in October 2016;[29] in April 2017, Spencer said he and his wife were not separated and were still together.[161]

In October 2018, Kouprianova accused him, in divorce documents, of multiple forms of abuse.[162][163][164] Kouprianova provided hours of recordings and text messages to the press in order to substantiate her allegations.[163] Court documents detailed emotional abuse, financial abuse, and violent physical abuse, including when Kouprianova was four months pregnant, and frequently in front of their children.[165] According to media reports, the recordings and text messages show Spencer telling his wife that he will "fucking break [her] nose," encouraging her to commit suicide, and apologizing for previous incidents of physical abuse.[166] A caregiver to the children testified in court about Spencer's abuses towards both her and Kouprianova.[166] Spencer denied all allegations made against him, and was not charged with a crime.[166]

References

  1. Eguiliz, Laura (January 23, 2017). "El líder racista de "Poder Blanco" es golpeado en plena calle" [The racist leader of "White Power" is punched in the street]. TikiTakas (in Spanish). Retrieved January 11, 2021.
  2. Bar-On 2019, p. 225: "Spencer has been dubbed a 'neo-Nazi', 'white supremacist', and 'ethnic nationalist'."
  3. "Meet the white nationalist trying to ride the Trump train to lasting power".
  4. "Richard Spencer speaks at University of Florida today. Who is he?".
  5. "'Euro-Skepticism' Skepticism". March 12, 2017. Archived from the original on March 12, 2017.
  6. Thorpe, Nick (October 7, 2014). "Far right holds secret congress in Hungary". BBC News Online.
  7. "Poland to Richard Spencer: keep out". The Guardian. Associated Press. October 27, 2017.
  8. Holt, Jared (May 14, 2018). "Richard Spencer: U.S. Military Should Have Enslaved Haitians After Hurricane Instead Of Providing Relief". Right Wing Watch.
  9. Miller, Michael E. (December 16, 2018). "The shadow of an assassinated American Nazi commander hangs over Charlottesville". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 21, 2017.
  10. nbc29.com: "ADL Lists Kessler, Other 'Unite The Right' Speakers as White Supremacists", July 25, 2017
  11. Bernstein, Joseph (October 5, 2017). "Alt-White: How the Breitbart Machine Laundered Racist Hate". BuzzFeed.
  12. Cox, John Woodrow (November 22, 2016). "'Let's party like it's 1933': Inside the alt-right world of Richard Spencer". The Washington Post.
  13. Goldstein, Joseph (November 20, 2016). "Alt-Right Exults in Donald Trump's Election With a Salute: 'Heil Victory'". The New York Times.
  14. Bradner, Eric (November 22, 2016). "Alt-right leader: 'Hail Trump! Hail our people! Hail victory!'". CNN. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
  15. Goldstein, Joseph (November 20, 2016). "Alt-Right Gathering Exults in Trump Election With Nazi-Era Salute". The New York Times. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
  16. Andrew Marantz (2019). Antisocial: Online Extremists, Techno-Utopians, and the Hijacking of the American Conversation, pp. 330–331
  17. Almasy, Steve; Croffie, Kwegyirba; Park, Madison (August 15, 2017). "Teacher describes Charlottesville suspect as Nazi sympathizer". CNN. Archived from the original on August 13, 2017. Retrieved May 14, 2019.
  18. Wilson, Jason; Helmore, Edward; Swaine, Jon (August 12, 2017). "Charlottesville: man charged with murder after car rams counter-protesters at far-right event". The Guardian. Archived from the original on August 13, 2017.
  19. "Fields faces 5 additional felony charges related to Aug. 12 fatal crash". The Daily Progress. August 18, 2017.
  20. Smith, David (May 24, 2018). "Richard Spencer acted like gang boss, Charlottesville conspiracy trial hears". The Guardian.
  21. "Lawyers Sue White Supremacists Over Charlottesville Violence". NPR. March 16, 2018.
  22. Hayden, Michael Edison (October 27, 2017). "A planning document for an alt-right event in Florida shows links to an attempted murder suspect". Newsweek.
  23. Wood 2017.
  24. Bar-On 2019, pp. 224, 227.
  25. Bar-On 2019, p. 227.
  26. Harkinson, Josh (October 27, 2016). "Meet The Dapper White Nationalist Who Wins Even If Trump Loses". Mother Jones.
  27. Wiedeman, Reeves (April 14, 2017). "The Duke Lacrosse Scandal and the Birth of the Alt-Right". New York Magazine.
  28. "Alternative Right". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved November 22, 2016.
  29. Bar-On 2019, p. 226.
  30. Bar-On 2019, p. 228.
  31. Hawley, George (2017). Making Sense of the Alt-Right. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 59. ISBN 978-0231185127. OCLC 987742156. Despite the innocuous name, NPI has since its inception been a white-nationalist organization. The organization was rather obscure and marginalized until Spencer was chosen as its new president in 2011, at which point Alternative Right became an NPI initiative.
  32. "Richard Spencer: A Symbol Of The New White Supremacy". Anti-Defamation League. May 14, 2013. Retrieved August 20, 2017. In 2010 and 2011, leaders of the now defunct racist student group, Youth for Western Civilization, invited Spencer to speak at Vanderbilt University in Tennessee and Providence College in Rhode Island.
  33. Liebelson, Dana (October 15, 2016). "Man Who Held 'Better To Grab A P***y Than To Be One' Sign At Pro-Trump Rally Has Ties To White Nationalists". The Huffington Post. Retrieved August 20, 2017. In 2010, Saucier's group invited Richard Spencer, a white nationalist who has since become a prominent member of the pro-Trump "alt-Right", to speak.
  34. Gelin, Martin (November 13, 2014). "White Flight: America's white supremacists are ignored at home. So they are looking to start over with a little help from Europe's far right". Slate. Budapest, Hungary.
  35. Pintér, Sándor (September 29, 2014). "Minister of Interior bans racist conference". Website of the Hungarian Government.
  36. Wilson, Jason (January 25, 2017). "The weakening of the 'alt-right': how infighting and doxxing are taking a toll". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved February 22, 2017.
  37. Porter, Tom (March 3, 2017). "Meet Daniel Friberg, the Swedish mining tycoon bankrolling the alt-right's global media empire". International Business Times UK.
  38. "Richard Spencer and White Supremacists Aim for Bigger Platform With 'AltRight.com'". The Forward. Retrieved February 21, 2017.
  39. "Richard Spencer Launches 'Alt-Right' Website on Martin Luther King, Jr.'s, Birthday". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved February 21, 2017.
  40. "Arrests made as protesters clash at pro-Trump rally in Berkeley". www.msn.com. Archived from the original on May 19, 2017. Retrieved May 24, 2017.
  41. "Så vill Richard, 38, bygga en ny vit elit". Aftonbladet. Retrieved May 24, 2017.
  42. Bobic, Igor (February 23, 2017). "White Nationalist Richard Spencer Booted Out Of CPAC". Huffington Post. Retrieved February 24, 2017.
  43. "Mayor: Torch-lit protest in Charlottesville, Va. "harkens back to the days of the KKK"". Retrieved May 15, 2017.
  44. Hayden, Michael Edison (May 14, 2017). "Mayor of Charlottesville calls pro-Confederate rallies 'horrific'". ABC News. Charlottesville, Virginia. Retrieved May 15, 2017.
  45. "White nationalist Richard Spencer leads torch-bearing protesters defending Lee statue". Washington Post. Retrieved May 15, 2017.
  46. "Richard Spencer Leads Group Protesting Sale Of Confederate Statue". NPR.org. Retrieved May 15, 2017.
  47. Rosenberg, Eli. "Twitter was slammed for verifying a white nationalist. It just took away his blue check mark". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 18, 2017.
  48. Wamsley, Laurel (October 17, 2017). "Florida's Governor Declares State Of Emergency Ahead Of Richard Spencer Speech". NPR. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
  49. Wilson, Jason (November 4, 2019). "White supremacist Richard Spencer makes racist slurs on tape leaked by rival". The Guardian. Retrieved November 4, 2019.
  50. Ross, Alexander Reid (November 6, 2019). "After Richard Spencer's anti-Semitic Tirade, Will the U.S. Media Now Stop Glamorizing Well-dressed White Nationalists?". Haaretz. Retrieved February 2, 2020.
  51. Lombroso, Daniel; Appelbaum, Yoni (November 21, 2016). "'Hail Trump!': White Nationalists Salute the President-Elect" (Includes excerpted video). The Atlantic. Retrieved January 23, 2017.
  52. Chaitin, Daniel (February 18, 2017). "Libertarians clash with Richard Spencer in DC". Washington Examiner.
  53. Barajas, Joshua. "Nazi salutes 'done in a spirit of irony and exuberance', alt-right leader says". PBS NewsHour. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
  54. Southern Poverty Law Center, "PayPal Co-Founder Peter Thiel to Address White Nationalist-Friendly "Property and Freedom Society" Conference in September", June 9, 2016.
  55. Spencer, Richard (April 5, 2013). "American Renaissance Conference: Facing the Future as a Minority". The National Policy Institute. Archived from the original on January 5, 2014.
  56. Spencer, Richard (May 6, 2013). "Richard Spencer kicks off the Fourth Annual HLMC Meeting". The Mencken Club.
  57. Mangan, Katherine (November 28, 2016). "Richard Spencer, White Supremacist, Describes Goals of His 'Danger Tour' to College Campuses". The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved November 29, 2016.
  58. Jaschik, Scott (December 7, 2016). "Protests Greet White Supremacist at Texas A&M". Inside Higher Ed. Retrieved December 8, 2016.
  59. "Watch White Nationalist Richard Spencer Get Punched". Time. January 20, 2017. Retrieved January 21, 2017.
  60. Murphy, Paul P. "White nationalist Richard Spencer punched during interview". CNN. Retrieved January 21, 2017.
  61. Stack, Liam. "Attack on Alt-Right Leader Has Internet Asking: Is It O.K. to Punch a Nazi?". The New York Times. Retrieved January 22, 2017.
  62. Strange, Deborah (August 16, 2017). "UF denies white nationalist Richard Spencer a campus platform". The Gainesville Sun. Retrieved August 18, 2017.
  63. Jaschik, Scott (August 18, 2017). "Michigan State, LSU Reject Supremacist Speaker". Inside Higher Ed. Retrieved August 18, 2017.
  64. Ballard, Mark (August 17, 2017). "White nationalist Richard Spencer is 'not welcome' on LSU campus, university president says". The Advocate. Retrieved August 18, 2017.
  65. Roll, Nick (September 5, 2017). "Richard Spencer's Group Sues Michigan State U". Inside Higher Ed. Retrieved September 6, 2017.
  66. Jesse, David (September 3, 2017). "MSU sued by Richard Spencer's white supremacist group for refusing space on campus". Detroit Free Press. Retrieved September 6, 2017.
  67. "White nationalist Richard Spencer tells Israelis that Jews are 'over-represented'". The Times of Israel. August 17, 2017. Archived from the original on August 19, 2018. Alt-right leader describes himself as a 'white Zionist', saying he wants a secure homeland for 'my people' like the Jews have in Israel
  68. Thrall, Nathan (August 14, 2018). "BDS: how a controversial non-violent movement has transformed the Israeli-Palestinian debate". The Guardian.
  69. Kaplan Sommer, Allison (October 10, 2017). "White nationalist Richard Spencer gives Israel as example of ethno-state he wants in U.S." Haaretz.
  70. Hoff, Kurt (January 16, 2017). "The 'Alt-Right' Hates the Jews. But It Also Loves Them – and Israel". The Forward.
  71. "White nationalist Richard Spencer backs Israel's contentious nation-state law". Haaretz. July 22, 2018.
  72. Robinson, Nathan J. (November 7, 2017). "Why Israel Is Richard Spencer's Favorite Argument". Current Affairs. In particular, many come unprepared to deal with Spencer’s favorite argument: the Israel comparison.
  73. Yurieff, Kaya (June 29, 2020). "YouTube removes Richard Spencer and David Duke a year after saying it would ban supremacists". CNN. Retrieved June 30, 2020.
  74. Hartocollis, Anemona (October 17, 2017). "University of Florida Braces for Richard Spencer". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
  75. Rozsa, Lori; Svrugla, Susan (October 16, 2017). "Florida governor declares state of emergency in advance of Richard Spencer event". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on October 16, 2017. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
  76. "Richard Spencer gets drowned out by boos at UF speech" (video). wfla.com. October 19, 2017.
  77. "'Go home, racist!' Richard Spencer shouted down at University of Florida speech", USA Today
  78. "White supremacist Richard Spencer faces barrage of protest at Florida speech", The Guardian"
  79. "Richard Spencer Shouted Down in Florida, Cuts his Speech Short", Newsweek
  80. "Behind-scenes logistics at protest let officers control chaos", The Gainesville Sun
  81. Shelbourne, Mallory (October 19, 2017). "White nationalist Richard Spencer speech ends amid protests". The Hill. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
  82. Heim, Joe; Rozsa, Lori; Hauslohner, Abigail; Svrluga, Susan (October 19, 2017). "'Go home, Spencer!' Protesters disrupt white nationalist's speech at the University of Florida". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on November 3, 2017. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
  83. Dearen, Jason (October 19, 2017). "White nationalist Spencer drowned out by protesters". The Seattle Times. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
  84. "Richard Spencer UF speech", The News-Press
  85. "3 Men Arrested After Shooting at Richard Spencer's University of Florida Speech", Time
  86. "White supremacist supporters of Richard Spencer open fire on counter-protesters".
  87. "Three Texas Men Arrested Following Richard Spencer's University Speech", Anti-Defamation League blog
  88. Deborah Strange, Three supporters of white nationalist Richard Spencer arrested after shot fired at Florida venue, Gainesville Sun (October 20, 2017).
  89. "Ohio State sued over refusal to let white nationalist Richard Spencer speak". ABC News. Associated Press. October 22, 2017. Archived from the original on October 23, 2017.
  90. Sakariassen, Alex (May 13, 2013). "Rachel Maddow calls out white "nationalist" nonprofit in Flathead". Missoula Independent. Archived from the original on November 22, 2016. Segment, "Our People", starts at 2:13
  91. Baldwin, Matt (November 25, 2014). "Fight at Whitefish Mountain resort gets national spotlight". Whitefish Pilot.
  92. Desch, Heidi (December 2, 2014). "Council takes stand in support of diversity". Whitefish Pilot.
  93. Coffman, Keith; Johnson, Eric M. (December 27, 2016). "Montana Lawmakers Unite To Denounce Neo-Nazi Rally Plans". Forward. Retrieved December 29, 2016.
  94. Beckett, Lois (February 5, 2017). "How Richard Spencer's home town weathered a neo-Nazi 'troll storm'". The Guardian. Retrieved July 11, 2017.
  95. Lee, Kurtis (December 20, 2016). "White nationalist Richard Spencer considers a run for Montana congressional seat". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved January 25, 2018.
  96. Vielma, Antonio José (December 16, 2016). "White nationalist Richard Spencer considering running for Congress". CNBC. Retrieved January 25, 2018.
  97. Downs, Caleb (December 20, 2016). "White nationalist Richard Spencer 'seriously considering' run for Congress if Montana seat vacated". The Dallas Morning News. Retrieved January 25, 2018.
  98. László, Szőcs (October 3, 2014). "Itt vannak a fajvédők, de a Jobbikot nem szeretik" [Here are the racists, but Jobbik doesn't like it]. Népszabadság (in Hungarian).
  99. Brian, Paul (October 13, 2014). "The Bumbling Bigots of Budapest". Foreign Policy.
  100. "Neo-Nazi Richard Spencer 'banned from 26 European countries'". The Independent. London. November 23, 2017.
  101. Michel, Casey (July 5, 2018). "Richard Spencer learns about strong borders, barred from European travel". ThinkProgress. Retrieved July 8, 2018.
  102. "CNN.com – Transcripts". transcripts.cnn.com.
  103. "Richard Spencer: A Symbol Of The New White Supremacy". Anti-Defamation League. May 14, 2013. Archived from the original on June 25, 2013. Retrieved July 23, 2013.
  104. "Richard Spencer". The David Pakman Show. Retrieved January 3, 2020.
  105. Altman, Alex (April 14, 2016). "The Billionaire and the Bigots: How Donald Trump's Campaign Brought White Nationalists Out of the Shadows". Time.
  106. Scott, Tristan (November 26, 2014). "Who is Richard Spencer?". Flathead Beacon.
  107. Spencer, Richard B. (September 28, 2016). "Facing the Future As a Minority". Radix Journal. Archived from the original on March 12, 2017. Retrieved March 11, 2017.
  108. Wilson, Jason (August 20, 2017). "Socialism, fascist-style: hostility to capitalism plus extreme racism". The Guardian. Retrieved October 26, 2018.
  109. Bar-On 2019, pp. 225–226, 228.
  110. Kirchick, James (October 18, 2014). "A Racist's Crazy Ski Resort Smackdown". The Daily Beast.
  111. Graham, Chris (November 22, 2016). "Nazi salutes and white supremacism: Who is Richard Spencer, the 'racist academic' behind the 'Alt right' movement". The Daily Telegraph.
  112. Spencer, Richard B. (May 25, 2016). "'Euro-Skepticism' Skepticism". Radix Journal. Archived from the original on March 12, 2017. Retrieved March 11, 2017.
  113. Appelbaum, Yoni; Lombroso, Daniel (November 21, 2016). "'Hail Trump!': Video of White Nationalists Cheering the President-Elect". The Atlantic. Retrieved June 15, 2020.
  114. Marantz, Andrew (2019). Antisocial: Online Extremists, Techno-Utopians, and the Hijacking of the American Conversation. Penguin. ISBN 978-0525522270.
  115. The Editorial Board (November 15, 2016). "Steve 'Turn On the Hate' Bannon, in the White House". The New York Times.
  116. "Are white nationalists turning on Trump?". Southern Poverty Law Center. November 27, 2018.
  117. Yee, Lawrence (July 17, 2019). "White Supremacist Richard Spencer Rejects Trump Tweets as 'Meaningless' on CNN". TheWrap. Retrieved August 4, 2020.
  118. Palmer, Ewan (January 9, 2020). "Donald Trump Loses Support of White Nationalist Richard Spencer Over Iran Fallout". Newsweek. Retrieved August 24, 2020.
  119. Palmer, Ewan (August 24, 2020). "Richard Spencer Backs Joe Biden, Says 'MAGA/Alt-Right Moment is Over'". Newsweek. Retrieved August 24, 2020.
  120. Shonam, Seth (August 24, 2020). "'Absolutely repugnant': Biden's campaign forcefully disavows an endorsement from neo-Nazi Richard Spencer". Business Insider. Retrieved August 24, 2020.
  121. Bowman, Emma (August 20, 2017). "The Women Behind The 'Alt-Right'". NPR. Retrieved October 15, 2017.
  122. Hayden, Michael Edison (October 14, 2017). "'Alt-Right' leader Richard Spencer isn't sure if women should be allowed to vote". Newsweek. Retrieved October 15, 2017.
  123. Cox, John Woodrow (November 22, 2016). "'Let's party like it's 1933': Inside the alt-right world of Richard Spencer". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Archived from the original on November 22, 2016. Retrieved October 15, 2017.
  124. Paquette, Danielle (November 25, 2016). "The alt-right isn't only about white supremacy. It's about white male supremacy". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Archived from the original on November 26, 2016. Retrieved October 15, 2017.
  125. Spencer, Richard B. (August 5, 2010). "The Inevitability of Gay Marriage". Radix Journal. Archived from the original on November 23, 2016.
  126. Spencer, Richard (June 26, 2013). "The End of the "Culture War"". The National Policy Institute. Archived from the original on August 17, 2013.
  127. Falvey, Rose (August 18, 2016). "Some White Nationalists Continue to Court the LGBT Community". Southern Poverty Law Center.
  128. Matthews, Dylan (April 4, 2017). "Why the alt-right loves single-payer health care". Vox.
  129. Minkowitz, Donna (December 8, 2017). "The Racist Right Looks Left". The Nation. ISSN 0027-8378. Retrieved January 19, 2018.
  130. Spencer, Richard. "The Alt Right and Secular Humanism". AltRight.com. Archived from the original on May 27, 2017. Retrieved January 28, 2017. McAfee: Are you religious? Do you support the Separation of Church and State? Spencer: I'm an atheist.
  131. Harris, Jordan. "Alt-right rejects Christian values as moral guide". The Courier-Journal. Retrieved February 16, 2018.
  132. McLaren, Brian. "The 'Alt-Right' Has Created Alt-Christianity". Time. Retrieved February 16, 2018.
  133. Galupo, Scott (May 22, 2017). "The troubling rise of Bad Nietzsche". The Week. Retrieved February 16, 2018.
  134. Illing, Sean (January 12, 2018). "The alt-right is drunk on bad readings of Nietzsche. The Nazis were too". Vox. Retrieved February 16, 2018.
  135. Beinart, Peter. "America's Empty-Church Problem". The Atlantic. Retrieved February 17, 2018.
  136. Spencer, Richard. "'We're Not Going Anywhere:' Watch Roland Martin Challenge White Nationalist Richard Spencer". YouTube.com. Retrieved May 5, 2017. Martin: Are you a Christian? Spencer: I'm an cultural Christian.
  137. "'Alt-Right' leader Richard Spencer has voted for Democrats in the past, including John Kerry". The Dallas News. October 19, 2017.
  138. "White Supremacist Richard Spencer Is a Fan of Israel's Nation-State Law". Newsweek. July 27, 2018.
  139. "White Nationalist Richard Spencer Backs Israel's Contentious Nation-state Law". Haaretz. July 22, 2018.
  140. "'A model for civilization': Putin's Russia has emerged as 'a beacon for nationalists' and the American alt-right". Business Insider. December 10, 2016.
  141. Gessen, Masha (2017). The Future is History: How Totalitarianism Reclaimed Russia. Penguin. p. 482. ISBN 978-1594634536.
  142. Posner, Sarah (October 18, 2016). "Meet the Alt-Right 'Spokesman' Who's Thrilled With Trump's Rise". Rolling Stone. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
  143. Ebel, Francesca (August 16, 2017). "Charlottesville's alt-right leaders have a passion for Vladimir Putin". Newsweek. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
  144. Shekhovtsov, Anton (2017). Russia and the Western Far Right: Tango Noir. Routledge. ISBN 978-1317199953.
  145. Lewis, Matt (August 23, 2017). "The Insidious Libertarian-to-Alt-Right Pipeline". The Daily Beast. Retrieved October 26, 2018.
  146. "Richard Spencer attempted to crash a Libertarian conference and was shown the door". Salon. February 21, 2017. Retrieved October 26, 2018.
  147. Bar-On 2019, pp. 226–227.
  148. Associated Press (June 22, 2020) "White Nationalist Richard Spencer Loses Lawyer in Lawsuit" U.S. News and World Report
  149. https://www.usnews.com/news/us/articles/2020-06-24/white-nationalist-leader-avoids-jail-over-unpaid-legal-fees
  150. Spencer, Richard B. (December 2, 2014). "Defending free expression". Whitefish Pilot.
  151. Spencer, Richard B. (November 26, 2014). "Skiing With The Enemy". Radix Journal. Archived from the original on June 6, 2017.
  152. Feldman, Ari (August 3, 2017). "Can Opponents Push 'Alt-Right' Leader Richard Spencer Out Of His Virginia Home?". The Forward. Retrieved August 4, 2017.
  153. Beaujon, Andrew & Olsen, Kim (August 10, 2018). "Report: Richard Spencer Has Left Old Town Alexandria". The Washingtonian. Retrieved February 1, 2019.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  154. "The Alt-Right's Asian Fetish". The New York Times. January 6, 2018.
  155. Harkinson, Josh (October 27, 2018). "Meet the white nationalist trying to ride the Trump train to lasting power". Mother Jones. Retrieved October 26, 2018.
  156. Beckett, Lois (October 23, 2018). "White nationalist Richard Spencer accused of physical abuse by wife". The Guardian. Retrieved October 26, 2018.
  157. Richard Spencer's Russian Wife Talks Trump, Utopia: Full Interview By Diana Bruk • 09/19/17
  158. Spencer, Richard. "Richard Spencer's Full Q&A at Auburn University". YouTube.com. Retrieved June 4, 2017. Audience Member: Your ex-wife is a Russian American and you have a child together. Please explain that. Spencer: She's not my ex-wife. Audience Member: Or you're separated, right? Spencer: No. Audience Member: Okay, so the thing I said is that you are separated or whatever. So you're still together? Spencer: Yes
  159. Palmer, Ewan (October 24, 2018). "White Nationalist Richard Spencer Accused of Physical Abuse by Wife, Attacking Her While Pregnant." Newsweek.com. Retrieved January 26, 2019.
  160. Oppenheim, Maya (January 15, 2019). "Richard Spencer's wife details years of alleged domestic violence against her". The Independent. London. Retrieved November 28, 2020.
  161. "Alt-Right Leader Richard Spencer Proves He's as Heinous as You Think". GQ. January 14, 2019.
  162. "White Nationalist Richard Spencer's Wife Says He Physically Abused Her". NBCNews. Associated Press. October 24, 2018. Retrieved January 26, 2019.
  163. Lenz, Lyz (January 13, 2019). "You Should Care That Richard Spencer's Wife Says He Abused Her". HuffPost.

Bibliography

This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.