Quezon City

Quezon City (UK: /ˈkzɒn/, US: /ˈksɒn, -sɔːn, -sn/;[9][10][11][12] Tagalog: Lungsod Quezon locally [luŋˈsod ˈkɛson]), also known as the City of Quezon and Q.C. (read in Filipino as Kyusi),[13][14][15] is the former capital of the Philippines. It is the country's leading city in terms of commerce, entertainment, art, fashion, education, research, technology, politics, tourism, and sports. As the former national capital, Quezon City is the home to many national government offices, making it an important center in the context of Philippine politics and governance.

Quezon City

Lungsod Quezon
Highly urbanized city
Clockwise from top: Quezon Memorial Circle, Quezon City Hall, Eastwood City, Batasang Pambansa Complex, Santo Domingo Church, Smart Araneta Coliseum, University of the Philippines Diliman
Flag
Seal
Nickname(s): 
City of Stars[1][2]
   Quezon City in    Metro Manila
OpenStreetMap
Quezon City
Location within the Philippines
Coordinates: 14°38′N 121°02′E
CountryPhilippines
RegionNational Capital Region
Provincenone
Districts1st to 6th districts of Quezon City
Barangays142 (see Barangays)
Incorporated (city)12 October 1939
Highly Urbanized CityDecember 22, 1979
Named forManuel L. Quezon
Government
[3]
  TypeSangguniang Panlungsod
  MayorJoy Belmonte (HNP)
  Vice MayorGian Sotto (HNP)
  Representatives
List
  Council
Councilors
  Electorate1,330,118 voters (2019)
Area
  Total161.11 km2 (62.20 sq mi)
Elevation
67 m (220 ft)
Population
 (2020 census)[6]
  Total2,960,048
  Rank1st
  Density18,000/km2 (48,000/sq mi)
  Households
660,249
Demonym(s)Taga-QC
Economy
  Income classspecial city income class
  Poverty incidence3.31% (2015)[7]
  Revenue₱17,058,330,468.11 (2016)
Service provider
  ElectricityManila Electric Company (Meralco)
Time zoneUTC+8 (PST)
ZIP code
1100 to 1138[8]
PSGC
IDD:area code+63(0)2
Climate typetropical monsoon climate
Native languagesTagalog
Websitewww.quezoncity.gov.ph

It was founded on October 12, 1939, and was named for Manuel L. Quezon, the 2nd President of the Philippines. Several barrios were carved out from their mother town to form the city. It was intended to replace Manila as the national capital. The city was proclaimed as such in 1948, though a significant number of government buildings remained in Manila. Quezon City held status as the official capital until 1976[16] when a presidential decree was issued to reinstate and designate Manila as the capital and Metro Manila as the seat of government.[17] It is the home to 2,960,048 people according to the 2020 Census, making it the most populous city in the Philippines. The city lies on the hills located at the northeastern side of Metro Manila, the largest metropolitan area in the country.

Quezon City is a planned city, covering a total area of 161.11 square kilometres (62.20 sq mi),[5] making it the largest city in Metro Manila in terms of land area. It is politically subdivided into 142 barangays. The national government offices are mostly situated at the National Government Center on or around the Quezon Memorial Circle, and the Lower House of the Philippine Congress, located at the National Government Center II in Batasan Hills. Most of the city's northeastern part lies at the foothills of the Sierra Madre mountain range. Since its creation in 1939 up until 1951, the Mayor of Quezon City was appointed by the President of the Philippines. First set of locally elected individuals were elected the same year through Republic Act No. 537. The city's Six Congressional Districts represents the city in the Lower House of the Congress of the Philippines.

History

Commonwealth President Manuel L. Quezon, the 2nd President of the Philippines and the visionary behind the creation of Quezon City, which was named after him.

Before the creation of Quezon City, the land on where it will rise are part of several towns such as Caloocan, Marikina and San Juan.

In the 1930s, Manila's urban problems were apparent and problematic. It lacks public housing, where thousands of the city's residents live in congested informal settler communities, especially in the central districts of Binondo, Intramuros, Quiapo, San Nicolas and Tondo. There are also problems in sanitation and traffic congestion. The rise of slums in Manila gave rise to the development of its suburbs outside the city limits in the municipalities of Pasay, San Felipe Neri (renamed as Mandaluyong), San Francisco del Monte, San Pedro de Makati, and San Juan del Monte. These towns became favorable to the upper and middle-class who wanted to escape the congested city but has economic links to it.[18]

President Manuel L. Quezon, aware of the problem besetting Manila, initiated housing projects called Barrio Obrero (Worker's Community). These communities were established in various places in Manila such as Avenida Rizal, Sta. Cruz and Barrio Vitas, Tondo. However, the project failed miserably and these communities became slum areas.[18]

Alejandro Roces, Sr., a prominent Filipino author, was said to be influential in Quezon's vision to establish a new city. Quezon dreamt of a city where the common people can live and thrive. Roces suggested that a sizeable tract of land be purchased for this purpose. However, the government had no available fund except for 3 million in the hands of the National Development Company (NDC).[18]

In order to make Quezon's dream a reality and to mobilize funds for the land purchase, the People's Homesite Corporation (PHC) was created in October 14, 1938 as a subsidiary of NDC, with an initial capital of ₱2 million. Roces was the Chairman of the Board of PHC, and they immediately acquired the vast Diliman Estate of the Tuason family at a cost of 5 centavos per square meter. PHC conducted topographical and subdivision surveys, and then subdivided the lots and sell them to the target buyers at an affordable price. Its target users and beneficiaries are obviously Manila's working class, who are suffering from the shortage of affordable and decent housing in the capital. The service of the Metropolitan Waterworks system was extended to site. The Bureau of Public Works, then under Secretary Vicente Fragante, constructed the streets and highways within the property. Quezon also tapped Architect Juan M. Arellano to draft a design of the city.

Eight vast estates were acquired in order to create Quezon City: Diliman Estate 1,573.22 hectares (15.7322 km2), Santa Mesa Estate 861.79 hectares (8.6179 km2), Mandaluyong Estate 781.36 hectares (7.8136 km2), Magdalena Estate 764.48 hectares (7.6448 km2), Piedad Estate 743.84 hectares (7.4384 km2), Maysilo Estate 266.73 hectares (2.6673 km2) and the San Francisco Del Monte Estate 257.54 hectares (2.5754 km2). Quezon's goal to create a place for the working class coincided with the planned transfer of the University of the Philippines campus in Manila to a more suitable location, which became the precedents for the creation of Quezon City.[18]

The transfer of the University of the Philippines from Manila to Diliman was a precedent for the creation of Quezon City.

As early as 1928, the University of the Philippines (UP) plans to expand by adding more academic units and constructing new buildings. The university experienced increase in enrollment and its planned expansion is hampered by its small campus in Manila.[19] The revised Burnham Plan of Manila envisioned the new campus to be located just outside Manila's city limits at 'the heights behind Manila'. The UP Board of Regents informed Quezon of their desire to relocate the campus and he was supportive of the idea. Furthermore, he wanted the facilities in the Manila campus to be used for government purposes. In 1939, Quezon urged the National Assembly to enact UP's relocation and on June 8, 1939, Commonwealth Act 442 was passed, enacting the transfer of UP outside of Manila. A portion of Mariquina Estate, which was adjacent to Magdalena Estate, was chosen as the new site with an approximate area of 600 hectares. Additional land from the Diliman Estate were also added as part of the new university campus.[18]

With the development of the People's Homesite Corporation housing in the Diliman Estate and the creation of the new UP Campus, the creation of Quezon City was justified. On October 12, 1939, Commonwealth Act No. 502, also known as the Charter of Quezon City, was passed by the National Assembly, which created Quezon City. Surprisingly, Quezon allowed the bill to lapse into law because he did not sign it. The city was originally to be known as Balintawak City according to the first bill filed by Ramon P. Mitra Sr., but Assemblymen Narciso Ramos and Eugenio Perez, both from Pangasinan, amended and successfully lobbied the assembly to name the city after the Quezon.[20]

Several barrios from different towns were carved out to correspond to the estates that PHC bought for the creation of Quezon City. The new city has an area of 7,355 hectares (73.55 km2), and the barrios and sitios that were taken for its creation were the following: Bagubantay (Bago Bantay), Balingasa, Balintauac (Balintawak), Kaingin, Kangkong, Loma (La Loma), Malamig, Matalahib, Masambong, San Isidro, San Jose, Santol and Tatalon, were taken from Caloocan;[21] Cubao, Diliman, Kamuning, New Manila, Roxas, and San Francisco del Monte were taken from San Juan; Balara, Barranca (Barangka), Jesus de la Peña, Krus na Ligas, Tanong and the site of the new UP Campus were taken from Marikina; and, the barrios and sitios of Libis, and Ogong (Ugong Norte) from Pasig. Commonwealth Act No. 659, enacted on June 21, 1941, changed the cities boundaries. Under this law, the area of Wack Wack Golf and Country Club were to be reverted back to Mandaluyong, and the barrios of lower Barranca and Jesus de la Peña were reverted back to Marikina. However, Camp Crame was taken out of San Juan and was given to Quezon City.[18]

On 1939, in the year the city was established, it had a population of 39,103 people. The city in its early days was predominantly rural, but Quezon asked American Architect William Parsons to craft a master plan for the newly-created city. Parsons was the one who advise Quezon to locate the National Government Center in Diliman instead of Wallace Field (now Rizal Park), due to the possibility of naval bombardment from Manila Bay. Unfortunately, he died on December 1939 and his partner Harry T. Frost took over and become the lead planner. Frost arrived on the Philippines on May 1, 1940 and became the architectural adviser of the Philippine Commonwealth government. Together with Juan M. Arellano, Alpheus D. Williams, and Welton Becket, they created the Master Plan for Quezon City which was approved by the Philippine government in 1941. The Frost Plan featured wide avenues, large open spaces and roundabouts at major intersections. The plan for major thoroughfares made by Louis Croft for the Greater Manila Area served as the backbone for the Plan of Quezon City. The center of the city was a 400-hectare quadrangle formed by four avenues — North, West, South and East — which was designed to be the location of the National Government of the Philippines. At the northeast corner of the Quadrangle was a large roundabout, a 25-hectare elliptical site, were the proposed Capitol Building is envisioned to rise.[18]

To make the city accessible, Quezon ordered Luzon Bus Lines to ply from Kamuning towards Tutuban in Divisoria, Manila to provide transport for the city's residents. However, the fare was not affordable to minimum wage earners. Because of the city's unaffordable housing prices and lack of transportation for low income earners, the goal of creating mass housing for the working class was not met. Instead, those who opt to live in Quezon City were middle-class households such as in Kamuning, whose residents petitioned to rename it from Barrio Obrero (Worker's Community) to Kamuning (a type of tree that grows abundantly in the area) because its residents were not Obreros (Workers).[18]

The Philippine Exposition in 1941 was held on the newly established Quezon City, but participants were limited to locals because of the increasing turbulence at the beginning of the Second World War.[18] Eventually, parts of Manila were bombed by the Japanese Imperial Forces on December 1941, bringing the war to the Philippines. On January 1, 1942, President Quezon issued an executive order as an emergency measure to form the City of Greater Manila, with Jorge Vargas as its designated mayor.[22] It merge the cities of Manila and Quezon City with the towns of Caloocan, Las Piñas, Malabon, Mariquina, Muntinlupa, Navotas, San Pedro de Macati, San Felipe Neri, Parañaque, Pasay, Pasig, San Juan del Monte, and the Taguig–Pateros area. The mayors of these towns and cities serves as the vice mayor of their respective localities and were under Jorge Vargas. The City of Greater Manila will be the basis for the formation of Metro Manila in 1975.

When the Imperial Japanese forces occupied the Philippines in 1942 during World War II, the City of Greater Manila were reorganized by Japanese authorities into twelve districts, two of which were formed by dividing Quezon City: Balintawak which consisted of San Francisco del Monte, Galas, and La Loma; and Diliman which consisted of Diliman proper, Cubao, and the University District. In 1945, combined Filipino and American troops under the United States Army, Philippine Commonwealth Army, and Philippine Constabulary, with help from recognized guerrilla units, liberated and recaptured Quezon City in a few months, expelling Imperial Japanese forces. Heavy fighting occurred near Novaliches, which at that time was in Caloocan, and New Manila which was a strongpoint. Smaller actions were fought at Barrio Talipapa and the University District. Toward the end of the Battle of Manila, President Sergio Osmeña dissolved the Greater Manila Complex, which included the Japanese-created districts of Balintawak and Diliman which had been formed from the prewar Quezon City.

Territories ceded by Caloocan to form Quezon City.
  Existing territorial boundaries.
  Detached by Commonwealth Act 502 (1939).
  Novaliches area. Detached by Republic Act 392 (1949).

On July 17, 1948, President Elpidio Quirino signed Republic Act No. 333 into law, making Quezon City the capital of the Philippines. The Act created the Capital City Planning Commission, which was tasked to develop and implement a masterplan for the city. As the capital, the city was expanded northwards, and the barrios of Baesa, Bagbag, Banlat, Kabuyao, Novaliches Proper (Bayan/Poblacion), Pasong Putik, Pasong Tamo, Pugad Lawin, San Bartolome, and Talipapa in Novaliches were taken from Caloocan. This territorial changes caused the division of Caloocan into two non-contiguous parts.[5][23] Quezon City was formally inaugurated as the capital on October 12, 1949. President Quirino laid the cornerstone on the proposed Capitol Building at Constitution Hills.[5]

On June 16, 1950, the Quezon City Charter was revised by Republic Act No. 537, changing the city's boundaries to an area of 153.59 km2 (59 sq mi). Exactly six years after on June 16, 1956, more revisions to the city's territory were made by Republic Act No. 1575, which defined its area as 151.06 km2 (58 sq mi). However, according to the 1995 GIS graphical plot, the city's total area is 161.11 km2 (62.20 sq mi), making it the largest Local Government Unit in Metro Manila in terms of land area.[24][5]

On November 7, 1975, the promulgation of Presidential Decree No. 824 of President Ferdinand Marcos established Metro Manila.[25][26][27] Quezon City became one of Metro Manila's 17 cities and municipalities. The next year, Presidential Decree No. 940 transferred the capital back to Manila on June 24, 1976.[28] On March 31, 1978, President Marcos ordered the transfer of the remains of President Quezon from Manila North Cemetery to the completed Quezon Memorial Monument within Elliptical Road.[29][30] On February 22, 1986, the Quezon City portion of the Epifanio de los Santos Avenue (between Camp Crame and Camp Aguinaldo) became the venue of the bloodless People Power Revolution that overthrew Marcos.

On February 23, 1998, Republic Act. No. 8535 was signed by President Fidel Ramos.[26][27] The Act provided for the creation of the City of Novaliches comprising the 15 northernmost barangays of Quezon City.[31] However, in the succeeding plebiscite on October 23, 1999, an overwhelming majority of Quezon City residents rejected the secession of Novaliches.

Quezon City is the first local government in the Philippines with a computerized real estate assessment and payment system. The city government developed a database system in 2015 that contains around 400,000 property units with capability to record payments.[26][27]

Geography

Elevation map of Quezon City. The drop in elevation along the eastern border of the city follows the length of the West Valley Fault.

Quezon City occupies an area of 161.11 km2 (62.20 sq mi), according to the 1995 GIS graphical plot, making it the Local Government Unit in Metro Manila in terms of land area.[24] Since its creation in 1939, the city's boundary were revised four times; the final revision was made thru Republic Act No. 1575, which placed the city's territory at 151.06 square kilometres (58.32 sq mi).[5] Meanwhile, the Philippine Statistics Authority placed the city's land area at 171.71 square kilometres (66.30 sq mi). According to the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology and Geoscience Australia on their study earthquake impact and risk assessment on the Greater Metropolitan Manila Area, the total area of Quezon City is at 165.33 km2 (64 sq mi).[32][33]

Quezon City is bounded by San Jose del Monte to the north, Marikina, San Mateo and Rodriguez to the east, Pasig to the southeast, Mandaluyong and San Juan to the south, Manila to the southwest, and Caloocan and Valenzuela to the west and northwest. The city lies on the Guadalupe Plateau, a relatively high plateau at the northeast of the metropolis situated between the lowlands of Manila to the southwest and the Marikina River Valley to the east. The southern portion is drained by the narrow San Juan River and its tributaries to Pasig River, while running in the northern portions of the city is the Tullahan River. The West Valley Fault traverses the eastern border of the city.

Climate

Quezon City features a tropical monsoon climate (Köppen climate classification Am), with prominent dry season from December to April, in which in turn, divided into cool and warm dry seasons, and a prolonged wet season from May to November that brings heavy rains in some areas.

Climate data for Science Garden, Quezon City (1981–2010, extremes 1961–2012)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 34.7
(94.5)
35.6
(96.1)
36.8
(98.2)
38.0
(100.4)
38.5
(101.3)
38.0
(100.4)
36.2
(97.2)
35.8
(96.4)
35.4
(95.7)
35.4
(95.7)
35.0
(95.0)
34.7
(94.5)
38.5
(101.3)
Average high °C (°F) 30.6
(87.1)
31.7
(89.1)
33.4
(92.1)
35.0
(95.0)
34.7
(94.5)
33.1
(91.6)
31.9
(89.4)
31.3
(88.3)
31.6
(88.9)
31.6
(88.9)
31.4
(88.5)
30.5
(86.9)
32.2
(90.0)
Daily mean °C (°F) 25.7
(78.3)
26.3
(79.3)
27.8
(82.0)
29.4
(84.9)
29.7
(85.5)
28.8
(83.8)
28.0
(82.4)
27.8
(82.0)
27.8
(82.0)
27.6
(81.7)
27.1
(80.8)
26.0
(78.8)
27.7
(81.9)
Average low °C (°F) 20.8
(69.4)
20.9
(69.6)
22.1
(71.8)
23.7
(74.7)
24.7
(76.5)
24.6
(76.3)
24.1
(75.4)
24.2
(75.6)
24.0
(75.2)
23.5
(74.3)
22.7
(72.9)
21.6
(70.9)
23.1
(73.6)
Record low °C (°F) 15.5
(59.9)
15.1
(59.2)
14.9
(58.8)
17.2
(63.0)
17.8
(64.0)
18.1
(64.6)
17.7
(63.9)
17.8
(64.0)
20.0
(68.0)
18.6
(65.5)
15.6
(60.1)
15.1
(59.2)
14.9
(58.8)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 18.5
(0.73)
14.6
(0.57)
24.8
(0.98)
40.4
(1.59)
186.7
(7.35)
316.5
(12.46)
493.3
(19.42)
504.2
(19.85)
451.2
(17.76)
296.6
(11.68)
148.8
(5.86)
78.7
(3.10)
2,574.4
(101.35)
Average rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm) 4 3 4 5 12 18 22 23 22 18 14 8 153
Average relative humidity (%) 76 73 69 67 72 79 83 84 84 83 82 79 78
Source: PAGASA[34][35]

City districts

Skyline of North EDSA, featuring SM City North EDSA.
Tandang Sora National Shrine in Balintawak is dedicated to Melchora Aquino, who was a prominent figure in the Philippine Revolution.
Historic Socorro Water Towers in Socorro, Cubao which has been converted as the Socorro Barangay Hall.
Balete Drive in New Manila is known in Filipino folklore as a haunted place, where a white lady purportedly appears.
  • Cubao: Located at the southern part of the city, Cubao is the home of the 35-hectare Araneta City, a mixed-use township development that contains prominent shopping malls such as Ali Mall, Farmers Plaza and Gateway Mall and iconic landmarks such as the Smart Araneta Coliseum. The Cubao Cathedral is the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Cubao. Cubao is also known as Project 4.
  • Diliman: Diliman is located at the center of Quezon City, the place where the city was originally established. Named for the Tagalog word for the medicinal fern species Stenochlaena palustris,[36][37] Diliman is where numerous national government offices are located, as well as prominent colleges and universities such as the University of the Philippines Diliman, FEU–FERN College, and New Era University. The Diliman Quadrangle, which is bounded by the North, West, South (Timog) and East Avenues is known for its massive hospitals and government edifices, bars, nightlife, and media. Several streets in South Triangle and Laging Handa were named in honor of the 22 Boy Scouts who died in the plane crash en route to joining the 11th World Scout Jamboree. A memorial stands in the center of the roundabout at the intersection of Timog and Tomas Morato Avenues. The place was known as the Scout Area. Major commercial broadcasting media and television networks such as ABS-CBN have their headquarters here. PTV, RPN, IBC, and PBS also hold headquarters in Diliman.
  • La Loma: La Loma is located the southwestern portion of the city. It has five barangays along the vicinity of its main streets: N.S. Amoranto Avenue (Retiro) and A. Bonifacio Avenue. The district is famed as the birthplace of many popular Filipino culinary figures and establishments especially devoted to the lechon. The nearby La Loma Cemetery is named after this place.
  • New Manila: New Manila is named after the City of Manila, since most of its residents are affluent families from the city who wished to escape the stress of living in the capital. It was formerly a part of San Juan before being carved out from its mother town to form Quezon City. Among its notable residents are the Hemady-Ysmael Family, the original landowner of New Manila, and Dona Narcisa de Leon, the matriarch of LVN Studios. It is also the birthplace of Eraño Manalo, the Second Executive Minister of Iglesia ni Cristo.[38] New Manila is also known for Balete Drive, which a haunted place according to Filipino folklore where the spirit of a white lady haunts the road seeking help from passing drivers.
  • Novaliches: Novaliches is the largest district in Quezon City, which made up almost all the northern portion of the city after Batasan Hills. It contains the La Mesa Watershed Reservation and its Dam and Reservoir where most of Metro Manila's water supply came from. It was originally a part of Caloocan before being incorporated to Quezon City in 1948, when the latter was declared as the capital. Before the place was incorporated to Quezon City in 1948, Novaliches was already in the maps as early as 1864, having been organized by the Spanish as early as 1855, from the haciendas of Tala, Malinta, Piedad, and Maysilo. By 1856, it was its own municipality before being absorbed by Caloocan in 1901. Novaliches is is still known by its historical boundaries. The whole of North Caloocan up to the banks of the Marilao River bordering Bulacan to the north, parts of the historic Polo section of Valenzuela to the west, and parts of San Jose del Monte, Bulacan to the upper reaches of Tungkung Mangga and the old Tala Leprosarium in the northeast and east, are still referred to as within the old enclave of Novaliches that many residents consider to this day.
  • Project 1: Also known as Barangay Roxas or Roxas District.
  • Projects 2: Made up of barangays Quirino 2-A, Quirino 2-B and Quirino 2-C.
  • Project 3: Made up of barangays Quirino 3-A, Amihan, Claro and Duyan-Duyan.
  • Project 5: Also known as Barangay E. Rodriguez.
  • Project 6: Project 6 in Diliman is an affluent barangay which is known for hospitals such as the Philippine Children's Medical Center (PCMC) and the Veterans Memorial Medical Center (VMMC), as well as the home of Philippine Science High School Main Campus. The Office of the Ombudsman and the Ninoy Aquino Parks and Wildlife Center are located here.
  • Project 7: Project 7 is made up of barangays Bungad and Veterans Village.
  • Project 8: Project 8 is made up of barangays Bahay Toro, Baesa and Sangandaan.
  • San Francisco del Monte: San Francisco del Monte was founded as a pueblo by Saint Pedro Bautista in 1590, is considered as Quezon City's oldest district. The original land area of the old town was approximately 2.5 square kilometers (1.0 sq mi), including parts of Project 7 and 8 and Timog Avenue. It is bounded by West Avenue on the east, Epifanio De Los Santos Avenue on the north, Quezon Avenue on the south, and Araneta Avenue on the west. It was originally a part of San Juan, before it was carved out of its mother town to form Quezon City. The district is made up of barangays San Antonio, Paraiso, Paltok, Mariblo, Masambong, Manresa, Damayan and Del Monte. SFDM featured a hilly topography with lush vegetation and mineral springs, in the midst of which the old Santuario de San Pedro Bautista was built as a retreat and monastery for Franciscan friars. The headquarters of IBC is located here.
  • Santa Mesa Heights: Santa Mesa Heights is an affluent neighborhood where many middle-class and upper-middle-class families reside. It is mostly residential. It is the home to the National Shrine of Our Lady of Lourdes and the National Shrine ofOur Lady of La Naval. Prominent Catholic educational institutions such as the Angelicum College, Lourdes School of Quezon City, and St. Theresa's College of Quezon City are located here. During the Commonwealth Period, Santa Mesa Heights was considered as the ideal site for universities, located just outside the suburban city limits of Manila.

Architecture

The Quezon Memorial Shrine is the symbol of the city. It stood on the site on where the Capitol Building is supposed to be built. The shrine contains the mausoleum which houses the tomb of Manuel L. Quezon.
The Philippine Heart Center was designed in Brutalist style by Ar. Jorge Ramos.

Quezon City is known for its eclectic mix of architecture that shows a wide range of styles spanning different historical and cultural periods. The Quezon Memorial Shrine is the symbol of the city and is designed in Art Deco style. Government edifices in the city have Brutalist or contemporary style, which contrasts the buildings in Manila that reflects the Spanish and American colonial period style. Most of the government buildings in the city were constructed during the term of President Ferdinand Marcos, and most of them were associated with the "edifice complex" of the Marcoses.[39]

Master Plans

In 1938, President Manuel L. Quezon made a decision to push for a new capital city. Manila was getting crowded, and his military advisors reportedly told him that Manila, being by the bay, was an easy target for bombing by naval guns in case of attack.[26][27] The new city will be located at least 15 km (9 mi) away from Manila Bay, which is beyond the reach of naval guns. Quezon contacted William E. Parsons, an American architect and planner, who had been the consulting architect for the islands early in the American colonial period. Parsons came over in the summer of 1939 and helped select the Diliman (Tuason) estate as the site for the new city. Unfortunately, he died later that year, leaving his partner Harry Frost to take over. Frost collaborated with Juan Arellano, engineer A.D. Williams, and landscape architect and planner Louis Croft to craft a grand master plan for the new capital. The plan was approved by the Philippine authorities in 1941.[26][27]

The core of the new city was to be a 400-hectare (990-acre) Central Park, about the size of New York's Central Park, and defined by the North, South (Timog), East and West Avenues. On one corner of the proposed Diliman Quadrangle was delineated a 25-hectare (62-acre) elliptical site. This was the planned location of a large Capitol Building to house the Philippine Legislature and ancillary structures for the offices of representatives.[26][27] On either side of the giant ellipse were supposed to have been the new Malacañang Palace on North Avenue (site of the present-day Veterans Memorial Hospital), and the Supreme Court Complex along East Avenue (now the site of East Avenue Medical Center). The three branches of government were to be finally and efficiently located in close proximity to each other.[26][27]

Demographics

Population census of Quezon City
YearPop.±% p.a.
1939 39,013    
1948 107,977+11.98%
1960 397,990+11.48%
1970 754,452+6.60%
1975 956,864+4.88%
1980 1,165,865+4.03%
1990 1,669,776+3.66%
1995 1,989,419+3.34%
2000 2,173,831+1.92%
2007 2,679,450+2.93%
2010 2,761,720+1.11%
2015 2,936,116+1.17%
2020 2,960,048+0.16%
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority[6][40][41][42][43]

According to the 2020 Census, the population of the city was 2,960,048, making it the most populous city in the Philippines. As of the 2015 Census, the population of Quezon City comprises 22.80% or ¼ of Metro Manila's population. From a population of 39,013 people when the city was established in 1939, it tremendously grew and reached the one million mark in 1980 with a population of 1,165,865. It reached another milestone when the population reached the two million mark in 2000 with a population of 2,173,931. The city's population density is at 18,222 person per km2, lower than Metro Manila's population density at 20,247 person per km2.[44]

As of 2015, the average size of a household in Quezon City is 4.3 members. It has a generally young population with an average of 28 years. Females comprise 50.71% (1,488,765) while males comprise 49.29% (1,447,351). The child and youth alone (0-30 years old) constituted more than half (58.78% or 1,725,832) of the city's total population.[44]

Religion

The iconic National Shrine of Our Lady of Mount Carmel in Broadway Avenue, New Manila.
The Central Temple of Iglesia ni Cristo (INC), the third largest religion in the city.

Religion in Quezon City[44]

  Catholicism (86.25%)
  Protestantism (5.63%)
  Iglesia ni Cristo (4.62%)
  Islam (1.1%)
  Other / non-affiliated (2.4%)

Quezon City is predominantly Roman Catholic city, which made up about 86.25% of its population. It was followed by various Protestant faiths, which have seen a significant increase in membership over recent decades and are well represented in Quezon City.[45][46] The third largest religion is Iglesia ni Cristo, whose Central Temple and main office is located along Commonwealth Avenue in New Era. A significant population of Quezon City belongs to the Islamic faith, the fourth largest religion in the city.

Alternative incarnations of Christianity are promoting their version of faith in the Philippines. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has the Manila Philippines Temple and the Missionary Training Center located at Temple Drive Greenmeadows Subdivision of the city. Jesus Is Lord Church (JIL), a Christian megachurch, has many branches in the city. The Iglesia Filipina Independiente (Aglipayan Church) has three parishes located in the city, the Parish of the Crucified Lord in Apolonio Samson, Parish of the Holy Cross inside the UP Diliman Campus and the Parish of the Resurrection in Balingasa. The Kingdom of Jesus Christ, The Name Above Every Name of Apollo C. Quiboloy is located at Novaliches (Central Office), EDSA–Cubao, Muñoz, and Fairview. The biggest concentration of the Jesus Miracle Crusade of Evangelist Wilde E. Almeda is also located in the city. The Philippine Branch office of the Jehovah's Witnesses is located along Roosevelt Avenue. The seat of the Presiding Bishop, the Cathedral of Sts. Mary and John of the Episcopal Church, the national offices of the United Church of Christ in the Philippines, the National Council of Churches in the Philippines as well as a number of Protestant seminaries are located in the city. The headquarters of the UCKG HelpCenter (Universal Church of the Kingdom of God) is located at the former Quezon Theater building. The headquarters of Bread of Life Ministries International is a Christian megachurch located in its own ministry center on Mother Ignacia Ave. in scout area. New Life NorthMetro, A satellite church of ANLCC (Alabang Newlife Christian Center) is located in Cinema 6, 4th level of Trinoma Mall. The Church So Blessed, also a Christian church, is located in Commonwealth Avenue. People of Grace Fellowship is another Christian church located in Kamuning Road, corner Judge Jimenez. Members Church of God International (Ang Dating Daan) are also established in the city. Nichiren Buddhists are also established in the city, with many thousands of adherents attending worship services at Soka Gakkai International (SGI) Philippines headquarters at Quezon Memorial Circle.

Poverty, housing and urban slums

As of 2013, there are 196,818 informal settler families in the city living in 151,890 structures. 48,927 of these families live along waterways, danger areas, or right of ways.[54]

Quezon City is currently implementing its City Shelter Plan, covering 36 socialized housing projects. The Social Housing Finance Corporation (SHFC), under its Community Mortgage Program (CMP), has built in-city housing projects such as the Ernestville Home Owners Association (HOA), Inc. Project in Novaliches and the Bistekville communities which is a joint-venture project with city. The Bistekville housing project for the city's informal settlers is the flagship housing project of the city, whose main beneficiaries are those who live on waterways and danger areas. As of 2018, Quezon City has 37 Bistekville projects with 7,184 beneficiaries.[55] Additionally, there are 960 housing units built by the National Housing Authority (NHA) in barangay Holy Spirit.[56]

Economy

Araneta City is Cubao.

Quezon City is a hub for business and commerce, as a center for banking and finance, retailing, transportation, tourism, real estate, entertainment, new media, traditional media, telecommunications, advertising, legal services, accountancy, healthcare, insurance, theater, fashion, and the arts in the Philippines. The National Competitiveness Council of the Philippines which annually publishes the Cities and Municipalities Competitiveness Index (CMCI), ranks the cities, municipalities and provinces of the country according to their economic dynamism, government efficiency and infrastructure. Quezon City was the Most Competitive City in the country from 2015 to 2019 assuring that the city is consistently one of the best place to live in and do business. It earned the Hall of Fame Award in 2020 for its consecutive top performance.[57] There are about 86,000 registered business in the city.[58] As of 2019, Quezon City is the second richest city in the Philippines after Makati. The city's total asset stood at ₱96.4 billion,[59][60] while it has the biggest liability at ₱21.624 billion.[60]

Information and communications technology

Eastwood City in Libis is the home to country's first and largest cyberpark.

Quezon City bills itself as the ICT capital of the Philippines.[61] The city has 33 ICT parks according to PEZA, which includes the Eastwood City Cyberpark in Libis, the first and largest IT Park in the country.[62]

The Department of Information and Communications Technology of the Philippines has its headquarters in the city.

Media and entertainment

The GMA Network Center in Diliman is the headquarters of GMA Network.

Quezon City is known as the " Entertainment Capital of the Philippines"[61] and the "City of Stars", since it is where major studios located and most Filipino actors and actresses reside.[62] To support the film industry, the city established the Quezon City Film Development Commission (QCFDC). The city also holds its own film festival, the QCinema International Film Festival, every October or November and showcases local and international films, documentaries, and short films, and gives grants to their creators.[63][64][65]

Quezon City is home to the Philippines' major broadcasting networks. There are 11 local television networks, 6 cable TV, 7 AM radio stations, and 4 FM radio stations in the city.[5] Major commercial broadcast network in the Philippines such as ABS-CBN and GMA Network have their headquarters in the city. From 1992-2013, TV5 had its headquarters in the city. It moved to Mandaluyong in 2013. Its transmitter in Novaliches is still being used and operated by the network.[66] State-owned media and television network such as IBC and PTV also have their headquarters in the city.

Religious broadcasting companies in the city include CEBSI (formerly CBS), DZCE-TV and EBC (Net 25), which are all affiliated with Iglesia ni Cristo. UNTV is another religious broadcasting network affiliated with Members Church of God International. Major broadcasting facilities in the city include the Net 25 Tower, the tallest communications tower in the Philippines standing at 907 feet (276 m), GMA's Tower of Power (777 ft (236.8 m)), ABS-CBN's Millennium Transmitter (720 ft (219.5 m)), the ABS-CBN's ELJ Communications Center, GMA Network Center, and the UNTV Broadcast Center. Formerly, the Broadcast City in Matandang Balara was once home to Banahaw Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), Radio Philippines Network (RPN) and Intercontinental Broadcasting Corporation (IBC).

Government

Quezon City Hall, the seat of city government.
Joy Belmonte, the city mayor.

Quezon City is classified as a Special City (according to its income)[67][68] and a Highly Urbanized City (HUC). The mayor is the chief executive, and is a member of the Metro Manila Council. The mayor is assisted by the vice mayor, who serves as the presiding officer of the 24-member Quezon City Council. The members of the City Council are elected as representatives of the four councilor districts within the city, and the municipal presidents of the Liga ng mga Barangay and Sangguniang Kabataan.

The current mayor is Maria Josefina Tanya "Joy" Go Belmonte Alimurung, who previously served as the city's vice mayor. The vice mayor is Gian Sotto, the son of Senate President Tito Sotto and actress Helen Gamboa. The mayor and the vice mayor are term-limited by up to 3 terms, with each term lasting for 3 years. The mayor serves as the executive head that leads all the city's department in executing city ordinances and improving public services. The vice mayor, who serves a concurrent position as the presiding officer of the City Council, oversees the formulation and enactment passed by the council.

The city observes regular and non-working holidays of the Philippines. The Quezon City Day, which was celebrated annually on August 19 by both Quezon City and Quezon Province to commemorate the birth of Manuel L. Quezon, is a special non-working holiday.[69]

The Quezon City Pride Council is the first LGBT council which imposes gender-based policies and programs for the city. It was established on March 25, 2013, and was a first of its kind in the Philippines.[70]

Barangays and congressional districts

Left:Barangays of Quezon City.
Right: The six legislative districts of Quezon City.

Quezon City is politically subdivided into 142 barangays. These barangays are grouped into six congressional districts, with each district being represented by a congressman in the House of Representatives. Each congressional district has six City Councilors. The number of barangays per district is: District I, 37; District II, 5; District III, 37; District IV, 38; District V, 14; and District VI, 11; Although District II has the fewest barangays, it is the biggest in land area, including the Novaliches Reservoir.

  • District I (2015 population: 409,962)[71] covers barangays Alicia, Bagong Pag-asa, Bahay Toro, Balingasa, Bungad, Damar, Damayan, Del Monte, Katipunan, Mariblo, Masambong, N.S. Amoranto (Gintong Silahis), Nayong Kanluran, Paang Bundok, Pag-ibig sa Nayon, Paltok, Paraiso, Phil-Am, Ramon Magsaysay, Salvacion, San Antonio, San Isidro Labrador, San Jose, Santa Cruz, Santa Teresita, Santo Cristo, Talayan, Veterans Village and West Triangle. It has an area of 19.59 km2 (7.56 sq mi).[72]
  • District II (2015 population: 688,773)[71] covers barangays Bagong Silangan, Batasan Hills, Commonwealth, Holy Spirit and Payatas. It is the most populous district in the country from 1987-2013, before it was partitioned and its northern part became the 5th District and its western part became the 6th District.
  • District III (2015 population: 324,669)[71] covers barangays Amihan, Bagumbuhay, Bagumbayan, Bayanihan, Blue Ridge A, Blue Ridge B, Camp Aguinaldo, Claro, Dioquino Zobel, Duyan-Duyan, E. Rodriguez, East Kamias, Escopa I, Escopa II, Escopa III, Escopa IV, Libis, Loyola Heights, Mangga, Marilag, Masagana, Matandang Balara, Milagrosa, Pansol, Quirino 2-A, Quirino 2-B, Quirino 2-C, Quirino 3-A, Saint Ignatius, San Roque, Silangan, Socorro, Tagumpay, Ugong Norte, Villa Maria Clara, West Kamias and White Plains.
  • District IV (2015 population: 446,122)[71] covers barangays Bagong Lipunan ng Crame, Botocan, Central, Kristong Hari, Damayang Lagi, Doña Aurora, Doña Imelda, Doña Josefa, Don Manuel, East Triangle, Horseshoe, Immaculate Conception, Kalusugan, Kamuning, Kaunlaran, Krus na Ligas, Laging Handa, Malaya, Mariana, Obrero, Old Capitol Site, Paligsahan, Pinyahan, Pinagkaisahan, Roxas, Sacred Heart, San Isidro Galas, San Martin de Porres, San Vicente, Santo Niño, Santol, Sikatuna Village, South Triangle, Tatalon, Teachers Village East, Teachers Village West, U.P. Campus, U.P. Village and Valencia.
  • District V (2015 population: 535,798)[71] covers barangays Bagbag, Capri, Fairview, Greater Lagro, Gulod, Kaligayahan, Nagkaisang Nayon, North Fairview, Novaliches Proper, Pasong Putik Proper, San Agustin, San Bartolome, Santa Lucia and Santa Monica. It is more commonly known as Novaliches.
  • District VI (2015 population: 531,592)[71] covers barangays Apolonio Samson, Baesa, Balon-Bato, Culiat, New Era, Pasong Tamo, Sangandaan, Sauyo, Talipapa, Tandang Sora and Unang Sigaw.

National government

The DILG-NAPOLCOM Center is the headquarters of the Department of the Interior and Local Government.
BSP Security Plant Complex along East Avenue in NGC I.
Main office of the Social Security System.

As the former capital, the city is the home to numerous government departments, agencies and institutions. The House of Representatives of the Philippines (Lower House), as well as the Departments of Agrarian Reform, Agriculture, Environment and Natural Resources, Human Settlements and Urban Development, Information and Communications Technology, Interior and Local Government, National Defense and Social Welfare and Development calls the city home. Independent constitutional bodies such as the Commission on Audit and the Office of the Ombudsman, as well as special courts such as the Court of Tax Appeals and the Sandiganbayan are located in the city.

There are two National Government Centers (NGC) in the city. National Government Center I (NGC I) is located at Diliman Quadrangle, which is bounded by the North, South, East and West Avenues. The proposed Capitol Building of the Philippines is supposed to rise at the site of the Quezon Memorial Circle, while the Executive Mansion was planned to be constructed at the present-day Veterans Memorial Medical Center (VMMC) and the Supreme Court was supposed to rise at the present-day East Avenue Medical Center (EAMC). This is where the main offices of the Departments of Agrarian Reform, Agriculture, Environment and Natural Resources and Human Settlements and Urban Development (including the National Housing Authority) are located. Other government agencies located at NGC I are the Bureau of Internal Revenue, BSP Security Plan Complex, Land Registration Authority, Land Transportation Office, Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA), Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA) and the Social Security System (SSS).

National Government Center II is located along Commonwealth Avenue, Batasan Hills. It is where the Batasang Pambansa Complex is located. The Commission on Audit (COA), Public Attorney's Office (PAO) and the Sandiganbayan are located here.

Sports

Smart Araneta Coliseum

Sports in Quezon City have a long and distinguished history. Quezon City is the home to notable sporting and recreational venues such as the Amoranto Sports Complex, Quezon City Sports Club and the Smart Araneta Coliseum. The prominent boxing fight between Muhammad Ali and Joe Frazier, which was known as Thrilla in Manila" was held at the Araneta Coliseum. It was renamed as the "Philippine Coliseum" for the event and the match was watched by over 1 billion viewers worldwide.

The city's, and in general the country's main sport is basketball, and most barangays have a basketball court or at least a makeshift basketball court, with court markings drawn on the streets. Larger barangays have covered courts where inter-barangay leagues are held every summer (April to May).

Quezon City is notable for its golf courses, such as the Veterans Memorial Golf Club and Camp Aguinaldo Golf Club, which operates on golf-courses owned by the national government. The Capitol Hills Golf & Country Club in Matandang Balara is a privately-owned exclusive 18 hole golf course situated at the hills overlooking Marikina Valley. In the early days after the creation of the city, Greenhills was considered as part of it along with Wack Wack Golf and Country Club, but the golf course was reverted back to Mandaluyong.

The city is the home of the Philippine Basketball Association.

The Quezon City Capitals, the city's professional men's basketball team, plays at the Maharlika Pilipinas Basketball League.

Quezon City will host some matches in the 2023 FIBA Basketball World Cup at the Smart Araneta Coliseum.

Healthcare

The Quezon City Health Department is responsible for the public health of the city. Its headquarters is located at the Batasan Social Hygiene Clinic Building along IBP Road, Batasan Hills. There are 60 goverment and privately-owned hospitals in the city.[61] At present, there are three city-owned and controlled hospitals: the Quezon City General Hospital in Bahay Toro (Project 8), Novaliches District Hospital in San Bartolome, Novaliches and the Rosario Maclang Bautista General Hospital in Batasan Hills. Another city-owned hospital, the Visayas Avenue Medical Center is currently under-construction.[73]

St. Luke's Medical Center – Quezon City (SLMC) is regarded as one of the best private hospitals in the country.

There are several hospitals operated by the national government such as the East Avenue Medical Center (EAMC), Quirino Memorial Medical Center and the 55 ha (140 acres) Veterans Memorial Medical Center (VMMC), which is operated by the Department of National Defense. The national government also operates several specialty hospitals in the city such as the Lung Center of the Philippines, National Kidney and Transplant Institute (NKTI), Philippine Heart Center and the Philippine Orthopedic Center. There are two government-owned children's hospital in the city: the Philippine Children's Medical Center along Quezon Avenue, and the National Children's Hospital in E. Rodriguez Sr. Avenue. The Armed Forces of the Philippines operates the V. Luna General Hospital (AFP Medical Center).

The city's healthcare is also provided by non-profit corporations, such as the Quezon Institute. There are numerous privately-owned hospitals in the city, such as the Ace Medical Center, Bernardino General Hospital, Capitol Medical Center, Commonwealth Hospital and Medical Center, De Los Santos Medical Center, Diliman Doctor's Hospital, the Far Eastern University – Nicanor Reyes Medical Foundation Medical Center, J. P. Sioson General Hospital, St. Luke's Medical Center – Quezon City, UERM Memorial Hospital, United Doctors Medical Center, Villarosa Hospital and the World Citi Medical Center.

Education

The National Science Complex (NSC) within the University of the Philippines Diliman.

The Schools Divisions Office of Quezon City (SDO) oversees the 97 public elementary schools and 46 public high schools within the city. The number of students enrolled in public schools across the city has increased overtime from an initial population of 20,593 elementary pupils and 310 high school students in 1950, it has grown to 258,201 elementary pupils and 143,462 high school students in the School Year 2013-14.[74] With its large student population, Quezon City has the most number of public schools in the Philippines.[75] As of 2015, five of the city's elementary schools and four of its high schools are among the 15 most populous public schools in the Philippines.[76] The Quezon City Science High School (QueSci) was designated as the Regional Science High School for the National Capital Region since 1998. The city is the home of the Philippine Science High School, the top science school in the Philippines operated by the Department of Science and Technology.

The Quezon City Science Interactive Center is regarded as the first of its kind science interactive center in the Philippines. The Quezon City Public Library (QCPL) operates 20 branches throughout the city, with its Main Library located within the Quezon City Hall Complex.

Higher education

Ateneo de Manila University, regarded as the best private university in the Philippines.

Quezon City, along with Manila, is the center for education in the Philippines. There are two state universities within the city limits: the University of the Philippines Diliman (UPD) and the Polytechnic University of the Philippines Quezon City (PUPQC). The city-run Quezon City University (QCU) has established three campuses around the city: San Bartolome, San Francisco and Batasan Hills.

Private universities include the AMA Computer University, Central Colleges of the Philippines (CCP), Far Eastern University – FERN College, Kalayaan College, National College of Business and Arts (NCBA), the Technological Institute of the Philippines (TIP).

Quezon City hosts prestigious Catholic educational institutions such as the Ateneo de Manila University (AdMU), Immaculate Heart of Mary College, St. Paul University Quezon City, Saint Pedro Poveda College, Siena College of Quezon City and the UST Angelicum College. It is also the home to other sectarian colleges and universities such as the Evanglical Grace Christian College, Episcopalian-run Trinity University of Asia, and the Iglesia ni Cristo founded New Era University (NEU).

The presence of medical schools has made Quezon City a center of healthcare and medical education. These include Our Lady of Fátima University, FEU Nicanor Reyes Medical Foundation, St. Luke's College of Medicine, Capitol Medical Center Colleges, De Los Santos - STI College, and the University of the East Ramon Magsaysay Memorial Medical Center (UERMMMC).

Infrastructure

Transportation

EDSA near Kamuning Station.

Transportation in the city are purely-land based. As of 2006, the MMDA Traffic Operation Center revealed that private transport dominates with 82.49% of the total volume while public transport such as buses, and jeepneys and taxis made up 13.72%, followed by industrial/commercial vehicles (such as trucks and vans) at 3.79%.[77] Skyway is the only elevated expressway passing through Quezon City, serving as a tolled connector between the North and South Luzon Expressways. The upcoming Southeast Metro Manila Expressway (C-6 Expressway) will parts of Quezon City and will have its northern terminus at Batasan Hills.

Famous modes of transportation in the city to get around are the jeepney, city buses and the UV Express, which followed fixed routes for a set price. All types of public road transport plying Quezon City are privately owned and operated under government-issued franchises.

Railway systems

EDSA-Aurora Boulevard crossing, showing the viaducts of LRT-2 and MRT-3. An LRT-2 train is seen passing above.

Quezon City is served by LRT Line 1 (LRT-1), LRT Line 2 (LRT-2), and the MRT Line 3 (MRT-3). LRT-1 runs along the northern portion of EDSA (AH26/C-4), and ending at the North Triangle Common Station where it connects to Lines 1, 7 and the Subway. LRT-2 runs through Aurora Boulevard (R-6/N59/N180), connecting Quezon City to Manila, San Juan, Marikina, Pasig, Cainta and Antipolo. MRT-3 runs through EDSA (AH26/C-4), linking Quezon City to the cities of Mandaluyong, Makati and Pasay. Railway lines that are under-construction within the city are the MRT Line 4 (MRT-4), MRT Line 7 (MRT-7) and the Metro Manila Subway (MMS). The North Triangle Common Station, which will link Lines 1, 3 and the Subway, is currently under-construction at the intersection of EDSA and North Avenue.

Air

The city is served by the Ninoy Aquino International Airport and Clark International Airport. In the future, it will also be served by the upcoming New Manila International Airport. All are located outside the city limits.

Water supply, power and telecommunications

La Mesa Ecopark in the La Mesa Watershed Reservation, which also contains the La Mesa Dam and Reservoir.

Water services is provided by Maynilad Water Services for the west and northern part of the city and Manila Water for the southeastern part. The Novaliches-Balara Aqueduct 4 (NBAQ4), constructed by Manila Water, is the largest water supply infrastructure project in Metro Manila.[78] NBAQ4 measures 7.30-km long and 3.10-m in diameter, and the aqueduct has a capacity of 1,000 MLD (millions of liter per day).[79] The La Mesa Dam and Reservoir is situated at the northernmost part of the city, covering an area of more than 27 square kilometers (10 sq mi). The reservoir contains the La Mesa Watershed and Ecopark.

Electric services are provided by Meralco, the sole electric power distributor in Metro Manila. As of December 2009, Meralco has a total of 512,255 customers within the city: 461,645 (90.1%) residential, 49,082 (9.6%) commercial, and 1,110 (0.2%) industrial. Street lights have 418 accounts.[5][80]

With the liberalization of the telecommunications industry, the city benefitted by having more firms that offer telephone and internet services. At present, there are five telecommunication companies operating in the city: PLDT, Bayantel, Digitel, Multimedia and Eastern Telecommunications Services, Inc.[5]

Domestic solid waste

Payatas dumpsite in 2007. It was permanently closed in 2017.

The Payatas dumpsite was the largest landfill in Metro Manila. It was established in the 1970s on the barangay of the same, located at the northeast part of Quezon City. The area where the landfill is situated used to be a ravine surrounded by farming villages and rice paddies.[81] When the Smokey Mountain in Tondo, Manila was closed in 1995, people who resided and worked as scavengers there migrated to the Payatas dumpsite, establishing a squatter colony around the dumpsite. On July 10, 2000, the deadly Payatas landslide occurred, when large heaps of garbage dump collapsed on a nearby informal settlers community and burned, killing 218-700 people.[82] Following the tragic collapse, Republic Act No. 9003 or the Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000 was passed, which mandates the closure of open dumpsites in the Philippines by 2004 and controlled dumpsites by 2006.[83] In 2004, the Payatas dumpsite was reconfigured as a controlled disposal facility but it was closed down in December 2010.[84] A separate dumpsite was established near the old open dumpsite in January 2011.[85][84] The newer dumpsite closed in December 2017.[83]

Sister cities

Asia

Americas


International relations

Consulates

Country Type Ref.
Cyprus Consular agency [96]

See also

References

Citations

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Bibliography

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