Providence, Rhode Island

Providence is the capital and most populous city of the state of Rhode Island and is one of the oldest cities in the United States.[7] It was founded in 1636 by Roger Williams, a Reformed Baptist theologian and religious exile from the Massachusetts Bay Colony. He named the area in honor of "God's merciful Providence" which he believed was responsible for revealing such a haven for him and his followers. The city is situated at the mouth of the Providence River at the head of Narragansett Bay.

Providence, Rhode Island
State capital city
City of Providence
From top, left to right: Downtown Providence skyline and the Providence River, Weybosset Street and the Providence Performing Arts Center, University Hall at Brown University, the Crawford Street Bridge and Financial District, DePasquale Square in Federal Hill, Rhode Island State House
The Creative Capital, the Renaissance City, the Divine City, PVD, Prov
"What Cheer?"[lower-alpha 1]
Location in Providence County and the state of Rhode Island.
Location within Rhode Island
Location within the United States
Coordinates: 41°49′25″N 71°25′20″W
Country United States
State Rhode Island
RegionNew England
Incorporated (town)June 1636
Incorporated (city)November 5, 1832
Founded byRoger Williams
  MayorJorge Elorza (D)
  BodyProvidence City Council
  State capital city20.58 sq mi (53.31 km2)
  Land18.41 sq mi (47.67 km2)
  Water2.18 sq mi (5.64 km2)
75 ft (23 m)
  State capital city178,042
  RankUS: 134th
  Density9,773.06/sq mi (3,773.43/km2)
1,190,956 (US: 39th)
1,604,291 (US: 38th)
Time zoneUTC−5 (Eastern Time Zone)
  Summer (DST)UTC−4 (EDT)
ZIP Codes
02901–02912, 02918-02919, 02940
Area code401
FIPS code44-59000[5]
GNIS feature ID1219851[6]
Major highways
Commuter Rail MBTA Commuter Rail

Providence was one of the first cities in the country to industrialize and became noted for its textile manufacturing and subsequent machine tool, jewelry, and silverware industries.[8][9] Today, the city of Providence is home to eight hospitals and seven institutions of higher learning which have shifted the city's economy into service industries, though it still retains some manufacturing activity.

With an estimated population of 179,883, Providence is the third-most-populous city in New England after Boston and Worcester, Massachusetts.[10][11]


The First Baptist Church in America is the oldest Baptist congregation in America. It was founded 1638, though the present building was occupied in 1776.


Providence was settled in June 1636 by Puritan theologian Roger Williams and grew into one of the original Thirteen Colonies. As a minister in the Massachusetts Bay Colony, Williams had advocated for the separation of church and state and condemned colonists' confiscation of land from Native Americans. For these "diverse, new, and dangerous opinions," he was convicted of sedition and heresy and banished from the colony. Williams and others established a settlement in Rumford, Rhode Island.[12][13] The group later moved down the Seekonk River, around the point now known as Fox Point and up the Providence River to the confluence of the Moshassuck and Woonasquatucket Rivers. Here they established a new settlement they termed "Providence Plantations."

Unlike Salem and Boston, Providence lacked a royal charter. The settlers thus organized themselves, allotting tracts on the eastern side of the Providence River in 1638. Roughly six acres each, these home lots extended from Towne Street (now South Main Street) to Hope Street.[14]

In 1652, Providence prohibited African and African American slavery for periods of longer than 10 years. This statute constituted the first anti-slavery law in the United States, though there is no evidence the prohibition was ever enforced.[15]

In March of 1676, Providence Plantations was burned to the ground by the Narragansetts as part of King Philip's War. Later in the year, the Rhode Island legislature formally rebuked the other colonies for provoking the war.[16]

In 1770, Brown University moved to Providence from nearby Warren. At the time, the college was known as Rhode Island College and occupied a single building on College Hill. The college's choice to relocate to Providence as opposed to Newport symbolized a larger shift away from the latter city's commercial and political dominance over the state.[17][18]

Revolutionary War

Providence residents were among the first Patriots to spill blood in the lead-up to the American Revolutionary War during the Gaspee Affair of 1772,[12] and Rhode Island was the first of the Thirteen Colonies to renounce its allegiance to the British Crown on May 4, 1776.[19] It was also the last of the Thirteen States to ratify the United States Constitution on May 29, 1790, once assurances were made that a Bill of Rights would become part of the Constitution.[20]

19th Century

Market Square was the center of civic life in the 19th Century, and Market House was home to the city council before Providence City Hall was built.[21]
City Hall was built in 1878

Following the war, Providence was the nation's ninth-largest city[lower-alpha 2][12] with 7,614 people. The economy shifted from maritime endeavors to manufacturing, in particular machinery, tools, silverware, jewelry, and textiles. By the start of the 20th century, Providence hosted some of the largest manufacturing plants in the country, including Brown & Sharpe, Nicholson File, and Gorham Manufacturing Company.

Providence residents ratified a city charter in 1831 as the population passed 17,000.[12] The seat of city government was located in the Market House[22] in Market Square from 1832 to 1878, which was the geographic and social center of the city. The city offices soon outgrew this building, and the City Council resolved to create a permanent municipal building in 1845.[22] The city offices moved into Providence City Hall in 1878.

Local politics split over slavery during the American Civil War, as many had ties to Southern cotton and the slave trade. Despite ambivalence concerning the war, the number of military volunteers routinely exceeded quota, and the city's manufacturing proved invaluable to the Union. Providence thrived after the war, and waves of immigrants brought the population from 54,595 in 1865 to 175,597 by 1900.[12]

20th Century

By the early 1900s, Providence was one of the wealthiest cities in the United States.[23] Immigrant labor powered one of the nation's largest industrial manufacturing centers.[23] Providence was a major manufacturer of industrial products, from steam engines to precision tools to silverware, screws, and textiles. Giant companies were based in or near Providence, such as Brown & Sharpe, the Corliss Steam Engine Company, Babcock & Wilcox, the Grinnell Corporation, the Gorham Manufacturing Company, Nicholson File, and the Fruit of the Loom textile company.[23]

From 1975 until 1982, $606 million of local and national community development funds were invested throughout the city. In the 1990s, the city pushed for revitalization, realigning the north-south railroad tracks, removing the huge rail viaduct that separated Downtown from the capitol building, uncovering and moving the rivers (which had been covered by paved bridges) to create Waterplace Park and river walks along the rivers' banks, and constructing the Fleet Skating Rink (now the Alex and Ani City Center)[24] and the Providence Place Mall.[12]

21st Century

In the early 2000s, Providence developed an economic development plan that outlined a planned shift to a knowledge economy. These efforts involved the rebranding of the formerly industrial Jewelry District as a new "Knowledge District"[25]

Despite new investment, poverty remains an entrenched problem. Approximately 27.9 percent of the city population is living below the poverty line.[26] Recent increases in real estate values further exacerbate problems for those at marginal income levels, as Providence had the highest rise in median housing price of any city in the United States from 2004 to 2005.[27]


Satellite photograph of greater Providence

The Providence city limits enclose a small geographical region with a total area of 20.5 square miles (53 km2); 18.5 square miles (48 km2) of it is land and the remaining 2.1 square miles (5.4 km2) is water (roughly 10%). Providence is located at the head of Narragansett Bay, with the Providence River running into the bay through the center of the city,[28] formed by the confluence of the Moshassuck and Woonasquatucket Rivers. The Waterplace Park amphitheater and riverwalks line the river's banks through Downtown.

Providence is one of many cities claimed to be founded on seven hills like Rome. The more prominent hills are: Constitution Hill (near Downtown), College Hill (east of the Providence River), and Federal Hill (west of Downtown and containing New England's largest Italian district outside of Massachusetts). The other four are: Tockwotten Hill at Fox Point, Smith Hill (where the State House is located), Christian Hill at Hoyle Square (junction of Cranston and Westminster Streets), and Weybosset Hill at the lower end of Weybosset Street, which was leveled in the early 1880s.[29]


Map of neighborhoods in Providence

Providence has 25 official neighborhoods, though these neighborhoods are often grouped together and referred to collectively:[30][31]

  • The East Side is a region comprising the neighborhoods of Blackstone, Hope (aka Summit), Mount Hope, College Hill, Wayland, and Fox Point.
  • The Jewelry District describes the area enclosed by I-95, the old I-195, and the Providence River. The city has made efforts to rename this area the Knowledge District to reflect the area's newly developing life sciences and technology-based economy.[32][33]
  • The North End is formed by the concatenation of the neighborhoods of Charles, Wanskuck, Smith Hill, Elmhurst, and Mount Pleasant.
  • The South Side (or South Providence) consists of the neighborhoods of Elmwood, Lower South Providence, Upper South Providence, Washington Park, and the West End.
  • West Broadway is an officially recognized neighborhood with its own association. It overlaps with the southern half of Federal Hill and the northern part of the West End.[34]


The Providence skyline as viewed from across the Providence River
Downtown Providence and the East Side, 2010. Note the demolition of the previous I-195 as part of the Iway project.

Geographically, Providence is compact—characteristic of eastern seaboard cities that developed prior to use of the automobile. The city is among the most densely populated cities in the country and boasts the eighth-highest percentage of pedestrian commuters.[35][36] The street layout of the city is irregular; more than one thousand streets run haphazardly, connecting and radiating from traditionally bustling places such as Market Square.[37]

Downtown Providence has numerous 19th-century mercantile buildings in the Federal and Victorian architectural styles, as well as several postmodern and modernist buildings. In particular, a fairly clear spatial separation appears between the areas of pre-1980s development and post-1980s development; West Exchange Street and Exchange Terrace serve as rough boundaries between the two.

The newer area, sometimes called "Capitol Center",[38] includes the Providence Place Mall (1999), Omni Providence Hotel (1993) and Residences Providence (2007), GTECH Corporation (2006), Waterplace Towers condominiums (2007), and Waterplace Park (1994). The area tends toward newer development, since much of it is land reclaimed in the 1970s from a mass of railroad tracks referred to colloquially as the "Chinese Wall".[39] This part of Downtown is characterized by open spaces, wide roads, and landscaping.

The streetscape of much of historic Downtown has retained a similar appearance since the early 20th century. Many of the state's tallest buildings are found here. At 426 feet (130 m), the city's largest structure is the art deco Industrial National Bank Building.[40] The building contrasts with the city's second tallest structure—One Financial Plaza—which is designed in the modernist style.[41] Other core buildings of the Providence skyline are the postmodern 50 Kennedy Plaza and late modern Textron Tower. Downtown is also the home of the historic Providence Biltmore hotel and Westminster Arcade—the oldest enclosed shopping mall in the U.S.[42]

The city's southern waterfront, away from the Downtown core, is the location of oil tanks, ferry and sailing docks, power plants, and nightclubs. The Russian Submarine Museum was located here until 2008, when the submarine sank. The Fox Point Hurricane Barrier is also found here, built to protect Providence from storm surge like those endured by the city during the 1938 New England Hurricane and 1954 Hurricane Carol.[43]

The majority of the cityscape comprises abandoned and revitalized industrial mills, double- and triple-decker housing, a small number of high-rise buildings (predominantly for housing the elderly), and single family homes. Interstate 95 serves as a physical barrier between the city's commercial core and neighborhoods such as Federal Hill and the West End.


Climate chart (explanation)
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches

Providence has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfa) bordering a humid subtropical climate with hot summers, cold winters, and high humidity year-round. The USDA places the city in hardiness zone 6b, with the suburbs in zones 6a – 7b.[44] The influence of the Atlantic Ocean keeps the state of Rhode Island warmer than many inland locales in New England.[45][46][47] January is the coldest month with a daily mean of 29.2 °F (−1.6 °C) and low temperatures dropping to 10 °F (−12 °C) or lower an average of 11 days per winter,[48] while July is the warmest month with a daily mean of 73.5 °F (23.1 °C) and highs rising to 90 °F (32 °C) or higher an average of 10 days per summer.[48] Extremes range from −17 °F or −27.2 °C on February 9, 1934[49] to 104 °F or 40 °C on August 2, 1975;[50] the record cold daily maximum is 1 °F (−17.2 °C) on February 5, 1918, while the record warm daily minimum is 80 °F (26.7 °C) on June 6, 1925.[48] Temperature readings of 0 °F or −17.8 °C or lower are uncommon in Providence and generally occur once every several years. The year which had the most days with a temperature reading of zero degrees or lower was 2015 with eight days total—one day in January and seven days in February.[48] Conversely, temperature readings of 100 °F or 37.8 °C or higher are even rarer, and the year with the most days in this category was 1944 with three days, all of which were in August.[48]

Monthly precipitation in Providence ranges from a high of 4.43 inches (112.5 mm) in March to a low of 3.17 inches (80.5 mm) in July.[50] In general, precipitation levels are slightly less in the summer months than the winter months, when Nor'easters can cause significant snowfall and blizzard conditions. Hurricanes are not frequent in coastal New England, although Providence's location at the head of Narragansett Bay makes it vulnerable to them.

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 70
Mean maximum °F (°C) 59
Average high °F (°C) 38.3
Daily mean °F (°C) 30.2
Average low °F (°C) 22.1
Mean minimum °F (°C) 4
Record low °F (°C) −13
Average precipitation inches (mm) 3.96
Average snowfall inches (cm) 10.3
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 11.2 10.3 11.6 11.7 12.2 10.8 9.3 9.1 9.1 10.2 9.6 11.9 127.0
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 5.7 5.4 3.7 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.6 3.4 19.3
Average relative humidity (%) 63.9 63.0 62.9 61.4 66.6 70.1 71.0 72.5 73.0 70.2 68.9 67.0 67.5
Average dew point °F (°C) 16.3
Mean monthly sunshine hours 171.7 172.6 215.6 225.1 254.9 274.1 290.6 262.8 233.0 208.7 148.0 148.6 2,605.7
Percent possible sunshine 58 58 58 56 57 60 63 61 62 61 50 52 58
Average ultraviolet index 1 2 4 6 7 8 8 8 6 4 2 1 5
Source 1: NOAA (relative humidity, dew point, and sun 1961–1990)[48][52][53]
Source 2: Weather Atlas [54]
Climate data for Providence
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average sea temperature °F (°C) 41.4
Source: Weather Atlas [54]


Historical population
Source: Largest Cities and Other Urban Places in the United States 1790 to 1990[55]
2019 Estimate[4]
1708 to 1782[56]
Demographic profile2010[57]1990[58]1970[58]1950[58]
Black or African American16.0%14.8%8.9%3.3%
Hispanic or Latino (of any race)38.1%15.5%0.8%[59]N/A

As of the 2000 United States census,[5] Providence's population consisted of 173,618 people, 162,389 households, and 35,859 families. The population density was 9,401.7 inhabitants per square mile (3,629.4/km2), characteristic of other small cities in New England such as New Haven, Connecticut; Springfield, Massachusetts; and Hartford, Connecticut.[60] The city's population peaked in the 1940s, just prior to the nationwide period of rapid suburbanization.

Providence has a racially and ethnically diverse population. In 2010, white Americans formed 49.8% of the population, including a sizable white Hispanic community. Non-Hispanic whites were 37.6% of the total population,[57] down from 89.5% in 1970.[58] Providence has had a substantial Italian American population since the start of the 20th century, with 14% of the population claiming Italian ancestry.[61] Italian influence manifests itself in Providence's Little Italy in Federal Hill.[62] Irish immigrants have also had considerable influence on the city's history, with 8% of residents claiming Irish heritage.[63] The percentages of people claiming Irish and Italian ancestry, though high, has gone down considerably from historical highs, and is much lower than the percentages of these groups in Rhode Island as a whole. The city also has a sizable Jewish community, estimated at 10,500 in 2012, or roughly 5% of the city's population.[64]

Map of racial distribution in Providence, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: White, Black, Asian, Hispanic or Other (yellow)

In 2010, people of Hispanic or Latino origin composed 38.1% of the city's population and currently form a majority of city public school students.[57][65] The majority of Hispanics in Providence are of Dominican descent. Constituting roughly 19% of the city's population, Providence's Dominican community is one of the largest in the United States. Other Hispanic groups present in sizable numbers include Puerto Ricans, Guatemalans, and Colombians. Hispanics are most concentrated in the neighborhoods of Elmwood, the West End, and Upper and Lower South Providence.[66] In 2010, Providence elected its first Hispanic mayor, Dominican-American Angel Taveras.

African Americans constitute 16%[57] of the city's population, with their greatest concentrations found in Mount Hope and the Upper and Lower South Providence neighborhoods.[67][68] Providence has small Liberian and Haitian communities in the city. Liberians compose 0.4% of the population;[61] the city is home to one of the largest Liberian immigrant populations in the country.[69] Asian-Americans constitute 6% of Providence's population. The largest Asian groups are Cambodians (1.7%), Chinese (1.1%), Indian Americans (0.7%), Laotians (0.6%), and Koreans (0.6%).[68] Another 6% of the city has multiracial ancestry. American Indians and Pacific Islanders make up the remaining 1.3%.

Providence has a considerable community of immigrants from various Portuguese-speaking countries, especially Portugal, Brazil, and Cape Verde. These residents are concentrated in the Washington Park and Fox Point neighborhoods.[70][71][72] Portuguese is the city's third-largest European ethnicity, after Italian and Irish. At 4% of the population; Cape Verdeans compose 2% of the city's population.[61]

The Providence metropolitan area includes Providence, Fall River, Massachusetts, and Warwick, and is estimated to have a population of 1,622,520. In 2006, this area was officially added to the Boston Combined Statistical Area (CSA), the sixth-largest CSA in the country. In the last 15 years, Providence has experienced a sizable growth in its under-18 population. The median age of the city is 28 years, while the largest age cohort is 20- to 24-year-olds, owing to the city's large student population.[57][73]

The per capita income as of the 2000 census was $15,525, which is well below both the state average of $29,113 and the national average of $21,587.[74][75] The median income for a household was $26,867, and the median income for a family in Providence was $32,058,. The city has one of the highest rates of poverty in the nation with 29.1% of the population and 23.9% of families living below the poverty line. Of residents in poverty, the largest concentrations are found in the city's Olneyville, and Upper and Lower South Providence areas.[26][76] Poverty has affected children at a disproportionately higher rate, with 40.1% of those under the age of 18 living below the poverty line. These residents are concentrated west of Downtown in the neighborhoods of Hartford, Federal Hill, and Olneyville.[76]


Crime rates* (2019)
Violent crimes
Aggravated assault532
Total violent crime892
Property crimes
Motor vehicle theft474
Total property crime5,413

*Number of reported crimes per 100,000 population.

2019 population: 179,762

Source: 2013 FBI UCR Data

Compared to the national average, Providence has an average rate of violent crime and a higher rate of property crime per 100,000 inhabitants.[77][78] In 2019, the city experienced 18 murders, up slightly from the prior year's total of 13.[79] The 2018 number—10— was tied as the city's lowest in 40 years.[80] Violent crime in the city is highly specific by neighborhood, with the vast majority of the murders taking place in the poorer sections of Providence such as Olneyville, Elmwood, South Providence, and the West End.[81]


Around 1830, Providence had manufacturing industries in metals, machinery, textiles, jewelry, and silverware. Manufacturing has declined since, but the city is still one of the largest centers for jewelry and silverware design and manufacturing. Services also make up a large portion of the city's economy, in particular education, healthcare, and finance. Providence also is the site of a sectional center facility (SCF), a regional hub for the U.S. Postal Service.[82] It is the capital of Rhode Island, so the city's economy additionally consists of government services.

Over one third of Providence's economy is based in trade, transportation, utilities, and educational and health services [83]
The headquarters of Textron (center), and One Financial Plaza (back right)

Prominent companies headquartered in Providence include Fortune 500 Textron, an advanced technologies industrial conglomerate; United Natural Foods, a distributor of natural and organic foods; Fortune 1000 Nortek Incorporated; Gilbane, a construction and real estate company. Other companies with headquarters in the city include Citizens Bank, Virgin Pulse, Ørsted US Offshore Wind, and Providence Equity.[84][85]

The city is home to the Rhode Island Convention Center, which opened in December 1993.[86] Along with a hotel, the convention center is connected to the Providence Place Mall, a major retail center, through a skywalk.[86] The Port of Providence is the second largest deep-water seaport in New England.[87][88] It handles cargos such as cement, chemicals, heavy machinery, petroleum, and scrap metal. Providence is also home to some of toy manufacturer Hasbro's business operations, although their headquarters are in Pawtucket.

Top employers

According to the City's 2014 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report,[89] the top twenty employers in the city are:

# Employer # of Employees  % of Total city employment
1 Brown University 4,600 4.30%
2 Rhode Island Hospital 4,200 3.93%
3 Lifespan 1,990 1.86%
4 Women & Infants Hospital 1,800 1.68%
5 Roger Williams Medical Center 1,470 1.38%
6 Miriam Hospital 1,263 1.18%
7 Belo Corp/Providence Journal 870 0.81%
8 Mars 2000 850 0.80%
9 Providence College 799 0.75%
10 AAA Southern New England 700 0.66%
11 Johnson & Wales University 700 0.66%
12 Butler Hospital 699 0.65%
13 H. Carr & Sons Inc. 500 0.47%
14 National Grid 450 0.42%
15 Employment 2000 400 0.37%
16 Verizon 400 0.37%
17 Gilbane Building Co. 400 0.37%
18 Walmart 350 0.33%
19 Jewel Case Corp. 300 0.28%
20 Nordstrom 300 0.28%
21 Target Corporation 200 0.35%


Rhode Island State House in the neoclassical style
The Providence City Council Chambers

As the state capital, Providence houses the Rhode Island General Assembly, as well as the offices of the Governor and the Lieutenant Governor in the Rhode Island State House. The city itself has a Mayor-council government. The Providence City Council consists of 15 councilors, one for each of the city's wards, who enact ordinances and pass an annual budget. Providence also has probate and superior courts. The U.S. District Court for the District of Rhode Island is located downtown across from Providence City Hall adjacent to Kennedy Plaza.

In November 2002, David Cicilline was elected mayor of Providence, becoming the first openly gay mayor of a United States state capital.[90]

The city's first Latino mayor was Angel Taveras, who assumed office on January 3, 2011.[91] Current mayor Jorge Elorza succeeded him on January 5, 2015.[92]

The headquarters of the city's fire and police departments is a 130,000 square foot, steel frame Public Safety Complex on Washington Street near Interstate I-95. The building was dedicated in 2002 by former Mayor Vincent Cianci Jr.[93]



Johnson & Wales
Providence College
Rhode Island College
Community College of RI

The main campuses of five of Rhode Island's colleges and universities are in Providence (city proper):

  • Brown University, an Ivy League university and one of nine colonial colleges in the nation
  • Johnson & Wales University
  • Providence College
  • Rhode Island College, the state's oldest public college
  • Rhode Island School of Design (RISD)

In addition, the Community College of Rhode Island, Roger Williams University, and University of Rhode Island have satellite campuses in the city. Between these schools, the number of post-secondary students is approximately 44,000.[94] Higher education exerts a considerable presence in the city's politics and economy, compounded by the fact that Brown University is the city's second-largest employer.[88]

Private and charter schools

There are several private schools in the city's East Side, including Moses Brown, the Lincoln School, and the Wheeler School. La Salle Academy, a Catholic college preparatory school, is located in the North End, near Providence College. The public charter schools Time Squared Academy High School (K-12) and Textron Chamber of Commerce (9–12) are funded by GTECH Corporation and Textron respectively.[95] In addition, the city's South Side houses Community Preparatory School, a private school serving primarily low-income students in grades 3–8.[96] There are two separate centers for students with special needs.[97]

Public schools

The Providence Public School District serves about 30,000 students from pre-Kindergarten to grade 12. The district has 25 elementary schools, nine middle schools, and thirteen high schools. The Providence Public School District features magnet schools at the middle and high school level, Nathanael Greene and Classical respectively. The overall graduation rate as of 2007 is 70.1%,[98] which is close to the statewide rate of 71% and the national average of 70%.[99] The state of Rhode Island also operates two public schools in Providence.


The Providence Performing Arts Center

Much of Providence culture is synonymous with the culture of Rhode Island as a whole. Like the state, the city has a non-rhotic accent that can be heard on local media. Providence also shares Rhode Island's affinity for coffee, with the most coffee and doughnut shops per capita of any city in the country.[100] Providence is also reputed to have the highest number of restaurants per capita of major U.S. cities,[101] many of which are founded or staffed by Johnson & Wales University graduates.[102]

During the summer months, the city regularly hosts WaterFire, an environmental art installation that consists of about 100 bonfires which blaze just above the surface of the three rivers that pass through the middle of Downtown Providence.[103] There are multiple Waterfire events that are accompanied by various pieces of classical and world music.

Providence has several ethnic neighborhoods, notably Federal Hill and the North End (Italian),[104] Fox Point (Portuguese),[105] West End (mainly Central American and Asian),[106] and Smith Hill (Irish).[107] There are also many dedicated community organizations and arts associations located in the city.[108]

Friday night diners at DePasquale Square, the heart of Providence's Little Italy

LGBTQ community

The city gained the reputation as one of the most active and growing gay and lesbian communities in the Northeast.[109][110] The rate of reported gay and lesbian relationships is 75% higher than the national average,[111] and Providence has been named among the "Best Lesbian Places to Live".[110] Former mayor David Cicilline won his election running as an openly gay man,[90] Former Mayor Cianci instituted the position of Mayor's Liaison to the Gay and Lesbian community in the 1990s.[110] and Providence is home to the largest gay bathhouse in New England.[112]

Arts and performing arts

The city is also the home of the Tony Award-winning theater group Trinity Repertory Company, the Providence Black Repertory Company, and the Rhode Island Philharmonic Orchestra,[113] as well as groups such as The American Band, once associated with noted American composer David Wallis Reeves. Providence is also the home of several performing arts centers, such as the Veterans Memorial Auditorium, the Providence Performing Arts Center, and Festival Ballet Providence. The city's underground music is centered on artist-run spaces such as the now-defunct Fort Thunder and is known in underground music circles.[114] Providence is also home to the Providence Improv Guild, an improvisational theatre that has weekly performances and offers improv and sketch comedy classes, and AS220, a long-standing non-profit arts center with exhibition, educational, and performance spaces, as well as live-work studios.[115]

Sites of interest

Roger Williams National Memorial
Roger Williams Park
Prospect Terrace Park
Rhode Island School of Design Museum
Old Stone Bank
Providence Athenæum

Providence is home to a 1,200-acre (4.9 km2) park system.[116] Notable among these are Waterplace Park and the Riverwalk, Roger Williams Park, Roger Williams National Memorial, and Prospect Terrace Park. Prospect Terrace Park features expansive views of the downtown area, as well as a 15-foot tall granite statue of Roger Williams gazing over the city. As one of the first cities in America, Providence contains many historic buildings, while the East Side neighborhood in particular includes the largest contiguous area of buildings listed on the National Register of Historic Places in the U.S., with many pre-revolutionary houses.[117]

East Side

Providence's East Side is also home to the First Baptist Church in America, which was founded by Williams in 1638, as well as the Old State House which served as the state's capitol from 1762 to 1904.[118] Nearby is Roger Williams National Memorial. The dome of the State House is the fourth-largest self-supporting marble dome in the world and the second-largest marble dome after St. Peter's Basilica in Rome.[119] The Westminster Arcade is the oldest enclosed shopping center in the U.S.[120][121]

The Rhode Island School of Design Museum contains the 20th-largest collection in the United States.[122] The Providence Athenæum is the fourth oldest library in the United States, in addition to the Providence Public Library and the nine branches of the Providence Community Library.[123] Edgar Allan Poe frequented the library, and met and courted Sarah Helen Whitman at the library.[124] H. P. Lovecraft was also a regular patron.[125]


The Bank Newport City Center is located near Kennedy Plaza in the Downtown district, connected by pedestrian tunnel to Waterplace Park, a cobblestone and concrete park below street traffic that abuts Providence's three rivers.[126][127][24][128] Another Downtown landmark is the Providence Biltmore, a historic hotel which stands adjacent to Kennedy Plaza.[129]

The southern part of the city is home to the famous roadside attraction Big Blue Bug, the world's largest termite and mascot of eponymous Big Blue Bug Solutions.[130] Roger Williams Park contains a zoo, a botanical center, and the Museum of Natural History and Planetarium.[131]


A 2019 hockey game between Providence College and Cornell University at the Dunkin’ Donuts Center

Providence is home to the American Hockey League (AHL) team Providence Bruins, which plays at the Dunkin' Donuts Center (formerly the Providence Civic Center). From 1926 to 1972, the AHL's Providence Reds (renamed the Rhode Island Reds in their last years)[132] played at the Rhode Island Auditorium. In 1972, the team relocated to the Providence Civic Center, where they played until moving to Binghamton, New York, in 1977.

The city has two rugby teams, the Rugby Union team Providence Rugby Football Club, and the Semi-Professional Rugby league team The Rhode Island Rebellion, which play at Classical High School. In 2013 the Rebellion finished the USA Rugby League (USARL) regular season in third place. Their playoff run took them to the USARL Semi-Finals, the first time the Rebellion made the playoffs in its short three-year history.

The Providence Hurling Club was founded in 2015 by Michael Kennelly, David O'Connor, and Michael Walsh. The club is part of the Boston Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA). Since their inauguration the team has captured three cups. The league comprises Worcester, Hartford, Portsmouth, and Concord. UConn Huskies also put forth a team in various play and other university teams are in the process of being established. Home games are played at a pitch located at 50 Obediah Brown Road behind Pleasant View Elementary School. In November 2018, for the first time playoffs were hosted in Providence and Providence took the cup by defeating Worcester.

The NFL's New England Patriots and MLS's New England Revolution play in Foxborough, Massachusetts, which is situated halfway between Providence and Boston. Providence was formerly home to two major league franchises: the NFL's Providence Steam Roller in the 1920s and 1930s, and the NBA's Providence Steamrollers in the 1940s. The Rhode Island Auditorium also hosted 29 of the 49 boxing fights of Rocky Marciano.[133]

The city's defunct baseball team, the Providence Grays, competed in the National League from 1879 through 1885. The team defeated the New York Metropolitans in baseball's first successful "world championship series" in 1884.[134] In 1914, after the Boston Red Sox purchased Babe Ruth from the then-minor league Baltimore Orioles, the team prepared Ruth for the major leagues by sending him to finish the season playing for a minor league team in Providence that was also known as the Grays. Most baseball fans—along with the local media—tend to follow the Boston Red Sox.[135]

Major colleges and universities fielding NCAA Division I athletic teams are Brown University and Providence College. The latter is a member of the Big East Conference. Much local hype is associated with games between these two schools or the University of Rhode Island.

Providence has also hosted the alternative sports event Gravity Games from 1999 to 2001, and was also the first host of ESPN's X Games, known in its first edition as the Extreme Games, in 1995. Providence has its own roller derby league. Formed in 2004, it currently has four teams: the Providence Mob Squad, the Sakonnet River Roller Rats, the Old Money Honeys, and the Rhode Island Riveters. Until 2020, Providence was home to the headquarters of the American Athletic Conference (The American).[136][137]


Health and medicine

Brown University's Alpert Medical School

Providence is home to eight hospitals, most prominently Rhode Island Hospital, the largest general acute care hospital in the state. It is also the Level I Trauma Center for Rhode Island, Southeastern Massachusetts and parts of Connecticut.[138] The hospital is in a complex along I-95 that includes Hasbro Children's Hospital and Women and Infants Hospital. The city is also home to the Roger Williams Medical Center, St. Joseph Hospital For Specialty Care (a division of St. Joseph Health Services Of Rhode Island), The Miriam Hospital, a major teaching affiliate associated with the Alpert Medical School of Brown University, as well as a VA medical center.

The Rhode Island Blood Center has its main headquarters in Providence. Since 1979, the Rhode Island Blood Center has been the sole organization in charge of blood collection and testing and distribution of blood products to 11 hospitals in Rhode Island.


Providence Station
The Iway Bridge and Fox Point Hurricane Barrier

Providence is served by T. F. Green Airport in Warwick, and general aviation fields also serve the region. Massport has been promoting T. F. Green as an alternative to Boston's Logan International Airport because of over-crowding.[139] Providence Station is located between the Rhode Island State House and the Downtown district and is served by Amtrak[140] and MBTA Commuter Rail services, with a commuter rail route running north to Boston and south to T.F. Green Airport and Wickford Junction.[141][142] Approximately 2,400 passengers pass through the station per day.[143][144] I-95 runs from north to south through Providence; I-195 connects the city to eastern Rhode Island and southeastern Massachusetts, including New Bedford, Massachusetts and Cape Cod. I-295 encircles Providence, while RI 146 provides a direct connection with Worcester, Massachusetts. The city began the long-term project Iway in 2007 to move I-195 for safety reasons, to free up land, and to reunify the Jewelry District with Downtown Providence, which had been separated by the highway.[145] The project was estimated to cost $610 million.


Kennedy Plaza in Downtown Providence serves as a transportation hub for local public transit as well as a departure point for Peter Pan Bus Lines[146] and Greyhound Lines.[147] Public transit is managed by Rhode Island Public Transit Authority (RIPTA).[148] Through RIPTA alone, Kennedy Plaza serves more than 71,000 people a day.[149] The majority of the area covered by RIPTA is served by traditional buses, but RIPTA also runs a "Rapid Bus", the R-Line which connects the suburbs of Pawtucket and Cranston with Downtown Providence. Of particular note is the East Side Trolley Tunnel running under College Hill, whose use is reserved for RIPTA buses. RIPTA also operates the Providence LINK, a system of tourist trolleys in Downtown Providence. From 2000 to 2008, RIPTA operated a seasonal ferry to Newport, Rhode Island between May and October, but SeaStreak began operating that ferry route in 2016.[150] In 2020, RIPTA completed construction of the Downtown Transit Connector, an upgraded BRT service to run from Providence Station to the Hospital District.[151]

Walking and bicycling

The Michael S. Van Leesten Memorial Bridge opened in August 2019

The city serves as the end point for four of the state's major traffic-free bicycle paths: the East Bay Bike Path, Washington Secondary Rail Trail, the Woonasquatuck Greenway Bike Path, and the Blackstone River Greenway.[152] There are several dedicated on-road bicycle lanes within the city.[152]

In 2017, the city signed a $400,000 contract with a private Silicon Valley company to introduce Providence's first bicycle sharing program, supported by local hospitals and RIPTA.[153] Shortly after the program started in September 2018, the bicycles became associated with a "wave of vandalism and criminal activity" including widespread thefts of bicycles, bikes tossed into the Providence River, and even a company tech held at gunpoint.[153] The company suspended the program in August 2019.[153]

In August 2019, a pedestrian bridge opened, spanning the Providence River and connecting Providence's east and west sides. The bridge was constructed on the granite piers of the old Route 195 bridge.[154]

In January 2020, mayor Jorge Elorza unveiled a "Great Streets" initiative to create a framework of public space improvements to encourage walking, riding bicycles, and public transit.[155] The plan includes establishing an "Urban Trail Network" which includes 60 miles of bicycle paths, bike lanes, and greenways within Providence.[156]


In late 2019, the Rhode Island Public Transit Authority released a draft of the Rhode Island Transit Master Plan, documenting and describing a variety of proposed improvements and additions to be made to the state's public transit network by 2040. Many of the proposals has particular emphasis on the Providence area, with several still under consideration as of December 2020,[157] including implementation of a bus rapid transit system, express bus routes, and construction of a new light rail network through downtown, as well as expansion of Amtrak and MBTA services.[157][158]


Electricity and natural gas are provided by National Grid.[159] Providence Water is responsible for the distribution of drinking water, ninety percent of which comes from the Scituate Reservoir about ten miles (16 km) west of Downtown, with contributions coming from four smaller bodies of water. Drinking water in Providence has been rated among the highest quality in the country.[160][161][162][163]

Sister cities

Providence had five sister cities:[164]

See also


  1. This motto may appear rhetorical, but it was an earnest expression from the traditional account of Roger Williams' arrival in Rhode Island with settlers William Harris, John Smith, Joshua Verin, Thomas Angell, and Francis Wickes.[1] The party was greeted by a group of Narragansetts, with the description of their exchange:[2]
    Not far from that bridge [over the Blackstone] in a little cove is the famous "Slate Rock," on which it is said that Roger Williams first landed after his tedious and painful flight from the persecutions of his Massachusetts brethren.
    As he approached the place he was saluted by some friendly Indians with the peaceful enquiry "What Cheer netop?" netop, meaning friend, a phrase which they had acquired from their intercourse with the English and which was equivalent to the salutation "How are you?" or "What's the news?"... It is this incident which is pictured upon the seal of the city of Providence.
  2. Providence was listed as a town (not a city) by the US Census Bureau until the Census of 1840 because city status in the New England states is conferred by the form of government, not by population. Providence retained the title of ninth-largest settlement until the Census of 1810.
  3. Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1991 to 2020.
  4. Official records for Providence kept at downtown from November 1904 to May 1932 and at T. F. Green Airport since June 1932.[51]


  1. Bayles, Richard M., ed. (1891). History of Providence County, Rhode Island. 1. New York: W.W. Preston & Co. p. 16.
  2. Banvard, Joseph (1858). A Guide to Providence River and Narragansett Bay from Providence to Newport. Providence: Coggeshall & Stewart. p. 17.
  3. "2019 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 29, 2020.
  4. "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved May 21, 2020.
  5. "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  6. "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. October 25, 2007. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  7. "Providence: Introduction". Advameg, Inc. Retrieved June 5, 2007.
  8. "Providence Architecture". Retrieved May 15, 2017.
  9. Kupperman, Karen Ordahl (June 1995). Providence Island, 1630–1641: The Other Puritan Colony. Cambridge University Press. p. 17. ISBN 0-521-35205-3.
  10. "Massachusetts Subcounty Resident Population Estimates: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2019". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved July 24, 2020.
  11. "Rhode Island Subcounty Resident Population Estimates: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2019". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved July 24, 2020.
  12. "Three and One-Half Centuries at a Glance". City of Providence, Rhode Island. May 2002. Archived from the original on January 13, 2006. Retrieved January 17, 2006.
  13. "Roger Williams - Founder of Rhode Island & Salem Minister - HISTORY". Retrieved October 15, 2020.
  14. Providence, Mailing Address: 282 North Main Street; Us, RI 02903 Phone: 401-521-7266 Contact. "Roger Williams: In Providence - Roger Williams National Memorial (U.S. National Park Service)". Retrieved October 16, 2020.
  15. "America's First Anti-Slavery Statute Was Passed in 1652. Here's Why It Was Ignored". Time. Retrieved October 16, 2020.
  16. Allen, Zachariah (April 10, 1876). Bi-centenary of the Burning of Providence in 1676: Defence of the Rhode Island System of Treatment of the Indians, and of Civil and Religious Liberty. An Address Delivered Before the Rhode Island Historical Society. Providence: Providence Publishing Company. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  17. Withey, Lynne (January 1, 1984). Urban Growth in Colonial Rhode Island: Newport and Providence in the Eighteenth Century. SUNY Press. ISBN 978-0-87395-751-9.
  18. FitzGerald, Frances. "Peculiar Institutions". The New Yorker. Retrieved October 15, 2020.
  19. "Know Rhode Island, RI Secretary of State". Retrieved February 26, 2014.
  20. "Rhode Island Ratification of the U.S. Constitution". January 8, 2010. Retrieved January 26, 2013.
  21. Cady, John Hutchins (October 1952). "The Providence Market House and its neighborhood" (PDF). Rhode Island History. Rhode Island Historical Society. 11 (4): 97–106. Retrieved April 9, 2015.
  22. Campbell, Paul. "A Brief History of Providence City Hall". City Archives. City of Providence. Retrieved April 10, 2020.
  23. Stanton, Mike (2003). The Prince of Providence. New York: Random House. p. 7. ISBN 0-375-75967-0.
  24. "Alex and Ani City Center". The Providence Rink. Retrieved February 11, 2017.
  25. Abbott, Elizabeth (December 13, 2011). "Providence Puts Focus on Making a Home for Knowledge (Published 2011)". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 16, 2020.
  26. "Providence (city), Rhode Island – QuickFacts". US Census Bureau. 2012. Archived from the original on January 27, 2013. Retrieved June 6, 2014.
  27. "Money Magazine: Best Places to Live: Home Appreciation". Cable News Network LP, LLLP. Retrieved March 6, 2007.
  28. "Providence: Geography and Climate". Advameg, Inc. Retrieved June 5, 2007.
  29. Brown, Seth (September 1, 2007). Rhode Island Curiosities: Quirky Characters, Roadside Oddities & Other Offbeat Stuff. Globe Pequot. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-7627-4338-4. Retrieved July 4, 2010.
  30. "Providence Neighborhoods". City of Providence. Retrieved January 17, 2007.
  31. "Alternative Neighborhood Names". The Providence Plan. 2007. Archived from the original on September 28, 2007. Retrieved January 31, 2007.
  32. "Brown University continues Knowledge District expansion, buys building for $6M". Providence Business News. Archived from the original on March 18, 2012. Retrieved May 4, 2011.
  33. "'Jewelry District,' 'Knowledge District': What's in a name?". Rhode Island news. The Providence Journal Co. Archived from the original on June 13, 2010. Retrieved May 4, 2011 via
  34. "West Broadway Neighborhood Association". WBNA. Retrieved July 30, 2007.
  35. "Carfree Database Results". Bikes At Work Inc. Retrieved June 5, 2007. Out of cities over 100,000 in population
  36. "Carfree Database Results". Bikes At Work Inc. Retrieved June 5, 2007. Out of cities over 100,000 in population
  37. Albert J. Wright. "History of the State of Rhode Island with Illustrations". USGenWeb Project. Retrieved June 23, 2011.
  38. Woodward, William McKenzie (2003). PPS/AIAri Guide to Providence Architecture. Providence, Rhode Island: Providence Preservation Society. pp. 303–304. ISBN 0-9742847-0-X.
  39. Woodward, William McKenzie (2003). PPS/AIAri Guide to Providence Architecture. Providence, Rhode Island: Providence Preservation Society. p. 13. ISBN 0-9742847-0-X.
  40. "Bank of America Building, Providence". Emporis. 2007. Retrieved January 19, 2007.
  41. "One Financial Plaza". Emporis. 2006. Retrieved June 5, 2006.
  42. "Providence Buildings, Real Estate, Architecture, Skyscrapers, and Construction Database". Emporis. 2005. Archived from the original on May 29, 2005. Retrieved November 7, 2005.
  43. "History: A Rhode Island Tradition". The Providence Biltimore. Archived from the original on October 12, 2007. Retrieved July 11, 2007.
  44. "USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map". United States Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on February 27, 2014. Retrieved June 1, 2014.
  45. "Rhode Island USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map". Retrieved November 22, 2010.
  46. "USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map". US Department of Agriculture – The United States National Arboretum. March 2, 2006. Archived from the original on March 3, 2015. Retrieved January 19, 2007.
  47. "Rhode Island ISDA Hardiness Zone Map". 2000. Archived from the original on January 7, 2001. Retrieved January 19, 2007.
  48. "NowData – NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved May 30, 2021.
  49. "H.P. Lovecraft's letter to Robert H. Barlow". The LetterCraft Project. Retrieved September 5, 2020.
  50. "Monthly average temperatures and precipitation". The Weather Channel. Retrieved August 30, 2009.
  51. ThreadEx
  52. "Station: Providence T F Green AP, RI". U.S. Climate Normals 2020: U.S. Monthly Climate Normals (1991-2020). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved May 30, 2021.
  53. "WMO Climate Normals for PROVIDENCE/GREEN STATE, RI 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved September 17, 2020.
  54. "Providence, Rhode Island, USA - Monthly weather forecast and Climate data". Weather Atlas. Retrieved July 4, 2019.
  55. Gibson, Campbell (June 1998). "Population of the 100 Largest Cities and Other Urban Places in the United States: 1790 to 1990". U.S. Census Bureau – Population Division. Archived from the original on March 14, 2007. Retrieved January 17, 2007.
  56. United States Census Bureau (1909). A Century of Population Growth. p. 163.
  57. "Providence (city), Rhode Island". State & County QuickFacts. U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on January 27, 2013. Retrieved April 22, 2012.
  58. "Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Cities and Other Places: Earliest Census to 1990". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on August 6, 2012.
  59. From 15% sample
  60. "Providence (city) QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau". US Census Bureau. Archived from the original on January 27, 2013. Retrieved January 18, 2007.
  61. "Providence, Rhode Island". Moving Traffic, Inc. Retrieved April 1, 2009. (Click on People tab)
  62. "Federal Hill". City of Providence. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  63. "Providence—Ancestry & Family History". ePodunk Inc. Archived from the original on October 12, 2007. Retrieved June 19, 2007.
  64. "Jewish Population in the United States, 2010" (PDF). North American Jewish Data Bank. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 12, 2012. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
  65. "The Providence Public School Department and The University of Rhode Island Partnership" (PDF). Southern Regional Education Board. p. 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 14, 2007. Retrieved June 5, 2007.
  66. "Geographic Concentration of the Latino Population" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on June 14, 2007.
  67. "Providence City, Rhode Island". US Census Bureau. Archived from the original on June 8, 2011. Retrieved June 9, 2007.
  68. "Maps & Rankings: People". The Providence Plan. Archived from the original on April 15, 2013. Retrieved January 15, 2011.
  69. "Thousands of Liberians in U.S. Face Deportation". NPR. Retrieved April 17, 2010.
  70. "Fox Point". City of Providence. Retrieved June 10, 2007.
  71. "Washington Park". The Providence Plan. Archived from the original on October 12, 2007. Retrieved June 10, 2007.
  72. Manie Marcuss & Ricardo Borgos. "Who are New England's Immigrants?" (PDF). Federal Reserve Bank of Boston. p. 4. Retrieved June 6, 2007.
  73. "Providence Population and Demographics". MDNH, Inc. Retrieved June 5, 2007.
  74. "Per Capital Personal Income by State". HighBeam Research, LLC. Retrieved June 10, 2007.
  75. "U.S. Summary: 2000" (PDF). US Census Bureau. p. 4. Retrieved June 10, 2007.
  76. "Maps & Rankings: Economics". The Providence Plan. Archived from the original on October 12, 2007. Retrieved June 10, 2007.
  77. "FBI Crime Report". Retrieved May 28, 2011.
  78. "Providence Crime Report City Ranking". Archived from the original on September 19, 2009. Retrieved December 8, 2009.
  79. Amaral, Brian. "Homicides, shootings spiked in Providence in 2020". The Providence Journal. Retrieved April 26, 2021.
  80. Associated Press (January 2, 2020). "Providence Homicide Rate Rose Slightly in 2019, Still Low".
  81. "Violent Crime (Murder, Rape, Robbery, and Aggravated Assault)" (PDF). Provplan. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 28, 2011. Retrieved June 6, 2011.
  82. "Sectional Center Facility Chart". Act One Lists. Archived from the original on June 23, 2007. Retrieved June 16, 2007.
  83. "Providence Economy". Advameg Inc. 2007. Retrieved March 13, 2007.
  84. Grocer, Stephen (March 24, 2011). "Ranking the 50 Biggest U.S. Banks: From BofA to Commerce Bancshares". Dow Jones & Company. Retrieved June 6, 2011.
  85. "Ownership and History". Citizens Financial Group. Retrieved June 6, 2011.
  86. "Rhode Island Convention Center – About Us?". Rhode Island Convention Center. Archived from the original on June 4, 2007. Retrieved June 5, 2007.
  87. "Port of Providence". Archived from the original on April 26, 2016. Retrieved May 15, 2017.
  88. "Providence: Economy—Major Industries and Commercial Activity". Advameg Inc. Retrieved June 3, 2007.
  89. "City of Providence, Rhode Island Comprehensive Annual Financial Report" (PDF). March 15, 2015. p. 121. Retrieved March 15, 2015.
  90. Dahir, Mubarak (December 24, 2002). "Leading Providence: David Cicilline becomes the first openly gay mayor of a U.S. state capital – Politics". The Advocate. Gale Group. Retrieved May 20, 2009.
  91. "Latino Candidates Achieve Political Milestones in State and Local Races". Hispanically Speaking News. Archived from the original on November 12, 2010. Retrieved November 24, 2010.
  92. "Jorge Elorza sworn in as Providence's 38th mayor". Retrieved January 5, 2015.
  93. "Federal Hill : Public Safety Complex". Brown University. Retrieved August 29, 2019.
  94. This figure is calculated as the sum of individually given figures from school websites, see: "facts about Brown University". Brown University. Archived from the original on June 8, 2007. Retrieved June 5, 2007., "General Information about CCRI". Community College of Rhode Island. Archived from the original on June 8, 2007. Retrieved June 5, 2007. (Note: exact figures for Providence Campuses were unavailable. For this estimate two fifths of the total student body were approximated to go to two of the five campuses_, "Johnson & Wales Providence". Johnson & Wales University. Archived from the original on June 8, 2007. Retrieved June 5, 2007., "Providence College – Fast Facts". Providence College. Archived from the original on June 8, 2007. Retrieved June 5, 2007., "about RIC". Rhode Island College. Archived from the original on June 8, 2007. Retrieved June 5, 2007., "RISD: About RISD". Rhode Island School of Design. Archived from the original on June 8, 2007. Retrieved June 5, 2007., and "About US". University of Rhode Island. Archived from the original on June 8, 2007. Retrieved June 5, 2007.
  95. "The Providence Public School District at a Glance" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on November 28, 2007. Retrieved June 11, 2007.
  96. "About CPS". Community Preparatory School. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved June 10, 2007.
  97. "About the Student Body". Providence Schools. Archived from the original on February 4, 2005. Retrieved June 10, 2007.
  98. "State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, Department of Education Report" (PDF). State of Rhode Island Department of Education. Retrieved January 3, 2009.
  99. "Manhattan Institute Education Working Paper". Manhattan Institute. Archived from the original on December 27, 2008. Retrieved January 3, 2009.
  100. Patinkin, Mark (August 10, 2004). "Chewing over why we love doughnut shops". The Providence Journal. Retrieved January 20, 2007.
  101. "Which City Really Does Have The Most Restaurants Per Capita?". Archived from the original on January 27, 2012. Retrieved November 11, 2011.
  102. "Providence, Rhode Island". Moving Traffic, Inc. Retrieved June 5, 2007.
  103. "About". Retrieved June 9, 2007.
  104. "Charles". City of Providence. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  105. "Fox Point". City of Providence. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  106. "West End". City of Providence. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  107. "Smith Hill". City of Providence. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  108. "Three and One-Half Centuries at a Glance". History & Facts: America's Renaissance City. The City of Providence, Rhode Island. 2002. Archived from the original on January 13, 2006. Retrieved January 17, 2007.
  109. Link, Matthew (2007). "Providence, R.I.: The gayest city you've driven right past". PLANETOUT INC. Retrieved January 17, 2007.
  110. K. Alexa Mavromatis. "Gay Business Comfortable in R.I." Archived from the original on October 8, 2007. Retrieved June 9, 2007.
  111. "Providence, RI (Providence County) – city gay Index – ePodunk". ePodunk Inc. Archived from the original on October 12, 2007. Retrieved June 9, 2007.
  112. Kenneth H. Mayer, MD (September 8, 2006). "Optimizing high risk men's sexual health: The Providence bathhouse experience". Alpha Public Health and Human Rights.
  113. "Providence, Rhode Island RI, city profile (Providence County)". ePodunk Inc. Archived from the original on October 11, 2007. Retrieved June 9, 2007.
  114. Fox, Andrew (August 30, 2006). "Keys to the Underground". Boston Phoenix. Retrieved January 24, 2007.
  115. "P.I.G. Providence Improv Guild". Providence Improv Guild.
  116. "Parks Department". City of Providence. Retrieved November 8, 2007.
  117. "Cities of New England". Mystic Media, Inc. and Visit New England. Retrieved June 10, 2007.
  118. "History Book". Archived from the original on June 25, 2007. Retrieved June 10, 2007.
  119. "Rhode Island Facts and Figures". State of Rhode Island General Assembly. Archived from the original on February 23, 2007. Retrieved January 20, 2007.
  120. "32-story condo tower would hold R.I.'s highest homes". Providence Journal. February 26, 2005. Archived from the original on January 12, 2016.
  121. "Rhode Island State House". Emporis. 2007. Retrieved January 17, 2007.
  122. "Museum: Membership". Rhode Island School of Design. Archived from the original on June 1, 2007. Retrieved June 10, 2007.
  123. "History of the Providence Athenaeum". Providence Athenaem. Archived from the original on November 8, 2009. Retrieved January 2, 2010.
  124. "Providence Athenaem". Fodor's Travel. Archived from the original on October 12, 2007. Retrieved August 16, 2007.
  125. Rubinton, Noel (August 10, 2016). "How to Find the Spirit of H.P. Lovecraft in Providence" via
  126. "Bank of America City Center". Archived from the original on May 19, 2007. Retrieved June 10, 2007.
  127. Lisa Palmer. "Riverwalk & Waterplace Park – Great Public Spaces". Project for Public Spaces, Inc. Archived from the original on March 19, 2007. Retrieved June 10, 2007.
  128. Stabile, Lori (November 20, 2014). "Providence Rink to become Alex and Ani City Center". Providence Business News. Retrieved February 14, 2017.
  129. Providence Biltmore Hotel, History, accessed January 21, 2017
  130. "Who We Are". New England Pest Control. Retrieved June 10, 2007.
  131. "Roger Williams Park". City of Providence. Retrieved April 9, 2012.
  132. "Providence Reds". A to Z Encyclopedia of Ice Hockey. October 4, 2005. Archived from the original on November 27, 2005. Retrieved November 9, 2005.
  133. Eisele, Andrew (2007). "Rocky Marciano". Retrieved April 10, 2020.
  134. "About Our Project". Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved June 10, 2007.
  135. "Boston Red Sox". Providence Journal. Retrieved June 10, 2007.
  136. Katz, Andy (March 15, 2013). "What's next for the 'old Big East'". ESPN. Retrieved July 1, 2013.
  137. "American Athletic Conference's new Irving headquarters in the works". Dallas News. March 11, 2020. Retrieved April 26, 2021.
  138. "About Rhode Island Hospital". Lifespan. Archived from the original on April 13, 2012. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  139. "T.F.Green". Massport. Archived from the original on June 29, 2007. Retrieved June 5, 2007.
  140. "Providence, RI (PVD)". Amtrak. Retrieved April 10, 2020.
  141. "Schedules & Maps". Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority. Retrieved June 6, 2011.
  142. "RIAC breaks ground on Warwick Intermodal Facility". Rhode Island Department of Transportation. Retrieved June 6, 2010.
  143. "Amtrak Background Information Facts" (PDF). Amtrak. p. 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 14, 2007. Retrieved June 6, 2007.
  144. "Chapter 11: Commuter Rail" (PDF). p. 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 14, 2007. Retrieved June 6, 2007.
  145. "Relocating I-195 in Providence". Rhode Island Department of Transportation. 2007. Archived from the original on February 28, 2009. Retrieved March 5, 2009.
  146. "Tickets – Terminal Listings". Peter Pan Bus Lines. Archived from the original on May 9, 2007. Retrieved June 5, 2007.
  147. "Greyhound: Providence, Rhode Island". Greyhound Lines, Inc. Retrieved June 5, 2007.
  148. "RIPTA". Rhode Island Public Transportation Authority. Retrieved June 5, 2007.
  149. "RIPTA Accomplishments in FY2006". Rhode Island Public Transportation Authority. Archived from the original on July 4, 2007. Retrieved June 6, 2007. 25,943,883 boardings / 365 days = 71,079 daily.
  150. "Schedule & Fares Between Providence & Newport, RI". Archived from the original on August 21, 2016. Retrieved July 7, 2016.
  151. "RIPTA Downtown Transit Connector". Retrieved May 29, 2019.
  152. Curley, Bob (June 22, 2017). "Building a More Bikeable Providence". Rhody Beat. Archived from the original on May 22, 2020. Retrieved May 22, 2020.
  153. Amaral, Brian (May 20, 2020). "Watchdog Team: Company behind Jump bikes was stunned by level of vandalism in Providence". The Providence Journal. Archived from the original on May 21, 2020. Retrieved May 21, 2020.
  154. List, Madeline (August 9, 2019). "$21.9 million later, pedestrian bridge opens in downtown Providence". The Providence Journal. Retrieved August 29, 2019.
  155. "City of Providence Unveils Final Great Streets Plan". City of Providence. City of Providence. Retrieved May 21, 2020.
  156. "Providence Unveils Plan for 'Great Streets'". Eco RI News. January 29, 2020. Archived from the original on May 13, 2020. Retrieved May 21, 2020.
  157. "Project Documents & Reports". Transit Forward RI 2040. Retrieved April 26, 2021.
  158. Patrick Anderson (November 29, 2019). "Big ideas for RIPTA's future: New rail through Providence, designated bus lanes to suburbs". Providence Journal. Retrieved April 26, 2021.
  159. David McPherson. "Electric utility buying R.I. gas company". Providence Journal. Retrieved June 25, 2007.
  160. "Providence Water Introduction". Providence Water. Archived from the original on July 1, 2007. Retrieved June 25, 2007.
  161. "Providence Water Watershed". Providence Water. Archived from the original on June 11, 2007. Retrieved June 25, 2007.
  162. "Providence tap water ranks with the nation's best". Providence Journal. Retrieved July 6, 2010.
  163. "Cities with best and worst tap water". Yahoo!. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  164. "Providence Gets Its Fifth Sister City, But No One Knows for Sure". GoLocal Prov. October 13, 2016. Retrieved June 21, 2019.

Further reading

  • "EDC Profile City of Providence". Rhode Island Economic Development Corporation. 2006.
  • Samantha Cook; Greg Ward; Tim Perry (2004). "Providence". The Rough Guide USA. Rough Guides. pp. 243–247. ISBN 1-84353-262-X.
  • Rich, Wilbur C. (2000). "Vincent Cianci and Boosterism in Providence, Rhode Island". Governing Middle-Sized Cities. Lynne Rienner Publishers. pp. 197–216. ISBN 1-55587-870-9.

This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.