President of Moldova

The President of the Republic of Moldova (Romanian: Președintele Republicii Moldova) is the head of state of Moldova. The current president is Maia Sandu, who assumed office on 24 December 2020.

President of Moldova
Standard of the President
Incumbent
Maia Sandu

since 24 December 2020
StyleHis/Her Excellency
ResidencePresidential Palace
AppointerPopular vote
Term lengthFour years, renewable once
Inaugural holderIon Inculeț (Bessarabia era)
Mircea Snegur (Republic of Moldova)
Formation3 September 1990
Salary9,264 USD annually[1]
Websitepresedinte.md/eng

Duties and functions

The office of the presidency in Moldova is largely ceremonial, with most of the formal political power exercised by parliament and the prime minister.[2][3] However, because the president represents Moldova internationally, he or she has sway over the country's relationships with other countries. In addition, the president can influence public policy by using his or her high profile to initiate and participate in public discourse.[4]

A collection of organizational bodies collectively known as the Presidential Administration, whose members are appointed by the president, serves as the communication service between the government and the presidency. One office of the Administration, the Supreme Security Council, advises the president on foreign policy.[5]

Election

The president is elected in a two-round direct election, with a runoff taking place between the top two finishers if no candidate receives a majority in the first round. This system was put in place when the constitution of Moldova was adopted in 1994.

In 2000, a law was passed changing the process to an indirect election by the Parliament of Moldova, with a supermajority of 61 votes required. On March 4, 2016, the Constitutional Court ruled that the law was unconstitutional[6] and Moldova consequently returned to electing the president via popular vote.

One presidential term lasts for four years; presidents are limited to two terms.

Constitutional position

According to the Article 77 of the Constitution of Moldova (1994), the president of Moldova is the head of the state and represents the state and is the guarantor of national sovereignty, independence, and the unity and territorial integrity of the nation.

Acting president

The acting president of Moldova (Romanian: Președinte interimar al Republicii Moldova) is a person who fulfills the duties of the president of Moldova when cases of incapacity and vacancy occur. It is a temporary post provided by the Constitution of Moldova.

According to Article 91 of the Constitution of Moldova (1994):

When the office of the President of the Republic of Moldova becomes vacant or the President has been suspended from office, or finds himself in the temporary impossibility of discharging his duties, the responsibility of the office shall devolve ad interim on the President of Parliament or the Prime Minister, in that priority order.

Suspension from office

According to Article 89 of the Constitution of Moldova (1994):

  • (1) In the event where the president of the Republic of Moldova commits grave offenses infringing upon constitutional provisions, he or she may be suspended from office by Parliament if two-thirds of the members cast their vote in support of suspension.
  • (2) The motion requesting the suspension from office must be initiated by at least one third of the members, and it must be brought to the knowledge of the President without delay. The President may give explanations on the actions for which he or she is being censured before parliament.
  • (3) If the motion requesting suspension from office meets with approval, a national referendum shall be organized within 30 days for removing the President from office.

Vacancy

According to Article 90 of the Constitution of Moldova (1994):

  • (1) The office of the President of the Republic of Moldova may become vacant in consequence of expiry of the presidential mandate, resignation from office, removal from office, definite impossibility of executing his duties, or death.
  • (2) The request to remove the President of the Republic of Moldova from office will be brought forward in Parliament, which will pass a decision on that request.
  • (3) Within 3 months from the date when the presidential office was announced as vacant elections for a new president will be held in accordance with the law.

Standard

The presidential standard (Stindardul Preşedintelui) consists of the Coat of Arms of Moldova in front of a purple background and a border composed of squares of 1/9 in the national colors of the republic. The regulations of the Standard of the President is approved by the decree of the President with the opinion of the National Heraldic Commission. The original of the Standard of the President is handed over to the President at the inauguration ceremony and is kept in their office. Duplicates and copies of the standard are displayed at the Presidential Palace or at other presidential residences while they are on these premises.[7]

Band and music

The official march of the presidency is the Marș de Întîmpinare «La Mulți ani» (Slow March «To many years»), which is used during the arrival of the president at special occasions, similarly to Hail to the Chief for the President of the United States.[8] The Presidential Band of the Republic of Moldova is the main military band of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Moldova and specifically serves the president during all functions of state. The band performs at welcome ceremonies of foreign officials on state visits, military parades, and the accreditation of ambassadors.[9][10]

List of presidents of Moldova

Moldavian Democratic Republic (1917–1918)

Party

  Bessarabian Peasants' Party

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Took office Left office Political party
1 Ion Inculeț
(1884–1940)
December 15 [O.S. December 2] 1917April 9 [O.S. March 27] 1918Bessarabian Peasants' Party

First secretaries of the Moldavian Communist Party

  • Piotr Borodin (2 August 1940 – 11 February 1942) (in exile in Russian SFSR from June 1941)
  • Nikita Salogor (13 February 1942 – 5 January 1946) (in exile in Russian SFSR until August 1944) (acting)
  • Nicolae Coval (5 January 1946 – July 1950)
  • Leonid Brezhnev (26 July 1950 – 25 October 1952)
  • Dimitri Gladki (25 October 1952 – 8 February 1954)
  • Zinovie Serdiuk (8 February 1954 – 29 May 1961)
  • Ivan Bodiul (29 May 1961 – 22 December 1980)
  • Semion Grossu (22 December 1980 – 16 December 1989)
  • Petru Lucinschi (16 November 1989 – 5 February 1991)
  • Grigore Eremei (5 February – August 1991)

Chairman of the Supreme Soviet

Party

  PCM

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Took office Left office Political party
1 Mircea Snegur
(born 1940)
27 April 19903 September 1990Communist Party of Moldova

Republic of Moldova (1991–present)

Parties

  PDAM   PCRM   PL   PLDM   PDM   PSRM   PAS   Independent

Status
  Acting President
# Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Office term Cabinets Election Prior office Political party
1 Mircea Snegur
(born 1940)
3 September 1990 15 January 1997 Druc (1990–91) 1991 Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the Moldavian SSR Independent
6 years,

(Lost re-election campaign)

Muravschi (1991–92)
Sangheli I (1992–94)
Sangheli II (1994–97)
2 Petru Lucinschi
(born 1940)
15 January 1997 7 April 2001 Ciubuc I (1997–98) 1996 2nd President of the Parliament Democratic Agrarian Party of Moldova
4 years,

(Opted out of second

term in office)

Ciubuc II (1998–99)
Sturza (1999)
Braghiș (1999–2001)
3 Vladimir Voronin
(born 1941)
7 April 2001 11 September 2009 Tarlev I (2001–05) 2001
(indirect)
2005
(indirect)
Minister of Internal Affairs of the Moldavian SSR Party of Communists
8 years, Tarlev II (2005–08)
Greceanîi I (2008–09)
Greceanîi II (2009)
Mihai Ghimpu
(born 1951)
Acting President
11 September 2009 28 December 2010 Filat I (2009–11) 8th President of the Parliament Liberal Party
(Alliance for European Integration)
Vlad Filat
(born 1969)
Acting President
28 December 2010 30 December 2010 8th Prime Minister of Moldova Liberal Democratic Party
(Alliance for European Integration)
Marian Lupu
(born 1966)
Acting President
30 December 2010 23 March 2012 Filat II (2011–13) 6th and 9th President of the Parliament Democratic Party
(Alliance for European Integration)
4 Nicolae Timofti
(born 1948)
23 March 2012 23 December 2016 Filat II (2011–13) 2011–12
(indirect)
Chairman of the Supreme Magistrate Council Independent
(Alliance for European Integration)
Leancă (2013–15)
4 years,

(Opted out of second

term in office)

Gaburici (2015)
Streleț (2015)
Filip (2016–19)
5 Igor Dodon
(born 1975)
23 December 2016 24 December 2020 2016 First Deputy Prime Minister of Moldova;Minister of Economy and Trade Party of Socialists of the Republic of Moldova
4 years, 1 day

(Lost re-election campaign)

Sandu (2019)
Chicu (2019–20)
6 Maia Sandu
(born 1972)
24 December 2020 2020 13th Prime Minister of Moldova Party of Action and Solidarity

Living former presidents

There are five living former Moldovan presidents:

Residence

Official residence on Stephen the Great Boulevard.

The Presidential Palace is located in the Buiucani sector of Chișinău. It was constructed between 1984 and 1987 to the design of architects A. Zalțman and V. Iavorski. The distinctive building was originally the meeting place of the Supreme Soviet of the Moldavian SSR.

See also

  • President of Transnistria

References

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