Plug-in electric vehicle
A plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) is any road vehicle that can be recharged from an external source of electricity, such as wall sockets, and the electricity stored in the rechargeable battery packs drives or contributes to drive the wheels. PEV is a subset of electric vehicles that includes all-electric, or battery electric vehicles (BEVs), and plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs). In China, plug-in electric vehicles are classified as new energy vehicles (NEVs). Sales of the first mass-production plug-in cars by major carmakers began in late December 2010, with the introduction of the all-electric Nissan Leaf and the plug-in hybrid Chevrolet Volt.
(global sales as of December 2020)
Plug-in cars have several benefits compared to conventional internal combustion engine vehicles. All-electric vehicles have lower operating and maintenance costs, and produce little or no local air pollution. They reduce dependence on petroleum and may significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions, depending on the electricity source. Plug-in hybrids capture most of these benefits when they are operating in all-electric mode.
Cumulative global sales of highway legal plug-in electric passenger cars and light utility vehicles achieved the 1 million unit mark in September 2015, 5 million in December 2018. and the 10 million unit milestone in 2020. Despite the rapid growth experienced, the plug-in electric car segment represented just about 1 out of every 200 motor vehicles (0.48%) on the world's roads by the end of 2019, of which pure electrics comprised 0.32%.
As of December 2020, the Tesla Model 3 listed as the world's top selling highway-capable plug-in electric car in history, with global sales since inception of more than 800,000 units, followed by the Nissan Leaf with 500,000 units by December 2020. The Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV is the world's all-time best selling plug-in hybrid with global sales of 270,000 units through December 2020.
As of December 2020, China had the world's largest stock of highway legal plug-in electric passenger cars with 4.5 million units, representing 42% of the world's stock of plug-in cars. Europe ranked next with over 3.2 million plug-in passenger cars at the end of 2020, accounting for about 30% of the global stock. The U.S. cumulative sales totaled about 1.8 million plug-in cars through December 2020.
As of December 2020, Germany is the leading European country with cumulative sales of around 700,000 plug-ins registered since 2010, and also led the continent plug-in sales in 2019 and 2020. Norway has the highest market penetration per capita in the world, and also achieved in 2020 the world's largest annual plug-in market share ever registered, almost 75% of new car sales. In October 2018, Norway became the first country where 1 for every 10 passenger cars registered is a plug-in electric car, and its plug-in stock in use passed 15% in 2020.
Plug-in electric vehicle
A plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) is any motor vehicle with rechargeable battery packs that can be charged from the electric grid, and the electricity stored on board drives or contributes to drive the wheels for propulsion. Plug-in electric vehicles are also sometimes referred to as grid-enabled vehicles (GEV), and the European Automobile Manufacturers Association (ACEA) calls them electrically chargeable vehicles (ECV).
PEV is a subcategory of electric vehicles that includes battery electric vehicles (BEVs), plug-in hybrid vehicles, (PHEVs), and electric vehicle conversions of hybrid electric vehicles and conventional internal combustion engine vehicles. Even though conventional hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) have a battery that is continually recharged with power from the internal combustion engine and regenerative braking, they can not be recharged from an off-vehicle electric energy source, and therefore, they do not belong to the category of plug-in electric vehicles.
"Plug-in electric drive vehicle" is the legal term used in U.S. federal legislation to designate the category of motor vehicles eligible for federal tax credits depending on battery size and their all-electric range. In some European countries, particularly in France, "electrically chargeable vehicle" is the formal term used to designate the vehicles eligible for these incentives. While the term "plug-in electric vehicle" most often refers to automobiles or "plug-in cars", there are several other types of plug-in electric vehicle, including battery electric multiple units, electric motorcycles and scooters, neighborhood electric vehicles or microcars, city cars, vans, buses, electric trucks or lorries, and military vehicles.
New energy vehicles
In China the term new energy vehicles (NEVs) refers to vehicles that are partially or fully powered by electricity, such as battery electric vehicles (BEVs), plug-in hybrids (PHEVs), and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (FCEVs). The Chinese government began implementation of its NEV program in 2009 to foster the development and introduction of new energy vehicles.
Battery electric vehicles
A battery electric vehicle (BEV) uses chemical energy stored in rechargeable battery packs as its only source for propulsion. BEVs use electric motors and motor controllers instead of internal combustion engines (ICEs) for propulsion.
A plug-in hybrid operates as an all-electric vehicle or BEV when operating in charge-depleting mode, but it switches to charge-sustaining mode after the battery has reached its minimum state of charge (SOC) threshold, exhausting the vehicle's all-electric range (AER).
Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles
A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV or PHV), also known as a plug-in hybrid, is a hybrid electric vehicle with rechargeable batteries that can be restored to full charge by connecting a plug to an external electric power source. A plug-in hybrid shares the characteristics of both a conventional hybrid electric vehicle and an all-electric vehicle: it uses a gasoline engine and an electric motor for propulsion, but a PHEV has a larger battery pack that can be recharged, allowing operation in all-electric mode until the battery is depleted.
An aftermarket electric vehicle conversion is the modification of a conventional internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV) or hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) to electric propulsion, creating an all-electric or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle.
There are several companies in the U.S. offering conversions. The most common conversions have been from hybrid electric cars to plug-in hybrid, but due to the different technology used in hybrids by each carmaker, the easiest conversions are for 2004–2009 Toyota Prius and for the Ford Escape/Mercury Mariner Hybrid.
Advantages compared to ICE vehicles
PEVs have several advantages. These include improved air quality, reduced greenhouse gas emissions, noise reduction, and national security benefits. According to the Center for American Progress, PEVs are an important part of the group of technologies that will help the U.S. meet its goal under the Paris Agreement, which is a 26-28 percent reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by the year 2025.
Improved air quality
Electric cars, as well as plug-in hybrids operating in all-electric mode, emit no harmful tailpipe pollutants from the onboard source of power, such as particulates (soot), volatile organic compounds, hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, ozone, lead, and various oxides of nitrogen. However, like ICE cars, electric cars emit particulates from brake and tyres. Depending on the source of the electricity used to recharge the batteries, air pollutant emissions are shifted to the location of the generation plants where they can be more easily captured from flue gases. Cities with chronic air pollution problems, such as Los Angeles, México City, Santiago, Chile, São Paulo, Beijing, Bangkok and Kathmandu may also gain local clean air benefits by shifting the harmful emission to electric generation plants located outside the cities.
Lower greenhouse gas emissions
Plug-in electric vehicles operating in all-electric mode do not emit greenhouse gases from the onboard source of power, but from the point of view of a well-to-wheel assessment, the extent of the benefit also depends on the fuel and technology used for electricity generation. This fact has been referred to as the long tailpipe of plug-in electric vehicles. From the perspective of a full life cycle analysis, the electricity used to recharge the batteries must be generated from renewable or clean sources such as wind, solar, hydroelectric, or nuclear power for PEVs to have almost none or zero well-to-wheel emissions. In the case of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles operating in hybrid mode with assistance of the internal combustion engine, tailpipe and greenhouse emissions are lower in comparison to conventional cars because of their higher fuel economy.
The magnitude of the potential advantage depends on the mix of generation sources and therefore varies by country and by region. For example, France can obtain significant emission benefits from electric and plug-in hybrids because most of its electricity is generated by nuclear power plants; similarly, most regions of Canada are primarily powered with hydroelectricity, nuclear, or natural gas which have no or very low emissions at the point of generation; and the state of California, where most energy comes from natural gas, hydroelectric and nuclear plants can also secure substantial emission benefits. The United Kingdom also has a significant potential to benefit from PEVs as low carbon sources such as wind turbines dominate the generation mix. Nevertheless, the location of the plants is not relevant when considering greenhouse gas emission because their effect is global.
Lifecycle GHG emissions are complex to calculate, but compared to ICE cars generally while the EV battery causes higher emissions during vehicle manufacture this excess carbon debt is paid back after several months of driving.
Lower operating and maintenance costs
Internal combustion engines are relatively inefficient at converting on-board fuel energy to propulsion as most of the energy is wasted as heat, and the rest while the engine is idling. Electric motors, on the other hand, are more efficient at converting stored energy into driving a vehicle. Electric drive vehicles do not consume energy while at rest or coasting, and modern plug-in cars can capture and reuse as much as one fifth of the energy normally lost during braking through regenerative braking. Typically, conventional gasoline engines effectively use only 15% of the fuel energy content to move the vehicle or to power accessories, and diesel engines can reach on-board efficiencies of 20%, while electric drive vehicles typically have on-board efficiencies of around 80%.
All-electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles also have lower maintenance costs as compared to internal combustion vehicles, since electronic systems break down much less often than the mechanical systems in conventional vehicles, and the fewer mechanical systems onboard last longer due to the better use of the electric engine. PEVs do not require oil changes and other routine maintenance checks.
Less dependence on imported oil
For many developing countries, and particularly for the poorest African countries, oil imports have an adverse impact on the government budget and deteriorate their terms of trade thus jeopardizing their balance of payments, all leading to lower economic growth.
Through the gradual replacement of internal combustion engine vehicles for electric cars and plug-in hybrids, electric drive vehicles can contribute significantly to lessen the dependence of the transport sector on imported oil as well as contributing to the development of a more resilient energy supply.
Plug-in electric vehicles offer users the opportunity to sell electricity stored in their batteries back to the power grid, thereby helping utilities to operate more efficiently in the management of their demand peaks. A vehicle-to-grid (V2G) system would take advantage of the fact that most vehicles are parked an average of 95 percent of the time. During such idle times the electricity stored in the batteries could be transferred from the PEV to the power lines and back to the grid. In the U.S. this transfer back to the grid have an estimated value to the utilities of up to $4,000 per year per car. In a V2G system it would also be expected that battery electric (BEVs) and plug-in hybrids (PHEVs) would have the capability to communicate automatically with the power grid to sell demand response services by either delivering electricity into the grid or by throttling their charging rate.
Cost of batteries
As of 2020, plug-in electric vehicles are significantly more expensive as compared to conventional internal combustion engine vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles due to the additional cost of their lithium-ion battery pack. Cost reductions through advances in battery technology and higher production volumes will allow plug-in electric vehicles to be more competitive with conventional internal combustion engine vehicles.
Bloomberg New Energy Finance (BNEF) concludes that battery costs are on a trajectory to make electric vehicles without government subsidies as affordable as internal combustion engine cars in most countries by 2022. BNEF projects that by 2040, long-range electric cars will cost less than US$22,000 expressed in 2016 dollars. BNEF expects electric car battery costs to be well below US$120 per kWh by 2030, and to fall further thereafter as new chemistries become available.
Availability of recharging infrastructure
Despite the widespread assumption that plug-in recharging will take place overnight at home, residents of cities, apartments, dormitories, and townhouses do not have garages or driveways with available power outlets, and they might be less likely to buy plug-in electric vehicles unless recharging infrastructure is developed. Electrical outlets or charging stations near their places of residence, in commercial or public parking lots, streets and workplaces are required for these potential users to gain the full advantage of PHEVs, and in the case of EVs, to avoid the fear of the batteries running out energy before reaching their destination, commonly called range anxiety. Even house dwellers might need to charge at the office or to take advantage of opportunity charging at shopping centers. However, this infrastructure is not in place and it will require investments by both the private and public sectors.
A different approach to resolve the problems of range anxiety and lack of recharging infrastructure for electric vehicles was developed by Better Place but was not successful in the USA in the 2010s. As of 2020 battery swapping is available in China and is planned for other countries.
Potential overload of the electrical grid
The existing electrical grid, and local transformers in particular, may not have enough capacity to handle the additional power load that might be required in certain areas with high plug-in electric car concentrations. As recharging a single electric-drive car could consume three times as much electricity as a typical home, overloading problems may arise when several vehicles in the same neighborhood recharge at the same time, or during the normal summer peak loads. To avoid such problems, utility executives recommend owners to charge their vehicles overnight when the grid load is lower or to use smarter electric meters that help control demand. When market penetration of plug-in electric vehicles begins to reach significant levels, utilities will have to invest in improvements for local electrical grids in order to handle the additional loads related to recharging to avoid blackouts due to grid overload. Also, some experts have suggested that by implementing variable time-of-day rates, utilities can provide an incentive for plug-in owners to recharge mostly overnight when rates are lower.
In the 5 years from 2014 to 2019, EVs increased in number and range, and doubled power draw and energy per session. Charging increased after midnight, and decreased in the peak hours of early evening.
Risks associated with noise reduction
Electric cars and plug-in hybrids when operating in all-electric mode at low speeds produce less roadway noise as compared to vehicles propelled by an internal combustion engine, thereby reducing harmful noise health effects. However, blind people or the visually impaired consider the noise of combustion engines a helpful aid while crossing streets, hence plug-in electric cars and conventional hybrids could pose an unexpected hazard when operating at low speeds. Several tests conducted in the U.S. have shown that this is a valid concern, as vehicles operating in electric mode can be particularly hard to hear below 20 mph (30 km/h) for all types of road users and not only the visually impaired. At higher speeds the sound created by tire friction and the air displaced by the vehicle start to make sufficient audible noise. Therefore in the 2010s laws were passed in many countries mandating warning sounds at low speeds.
Risks of battery fire
Lithium-ion batteries may suffer thermal runaway and cell rupture if overheated or overcharged, and in extreme cases this can lead to combustion. To reduce these risks, lithium-ion battery packs contain fail-safe circuitry that shuts down the battery when its voltage is outside the safe range.
Several plug-in electric vehicle fire incidents have taken place since the introduction of mass-production plug-in electric vehicles in 2008. Most of them have been thermal runaway incidents related to the lithium-ion batteries. General Motors, Tesla, and Nissan have published a guide for firefighters and first responders to properly handle a crashed plug-in electric-drive vehicle and safely disable its battery and other high voltage systems.
Car dealers’ reluctance to sell
With the exception of Tesla Motors, almost all new cars in the United States are sold through dealerships, so they play a crucial role in the sales of electric vehicles, and negative attitudes can hinder early adoption of plug-in electric vehicles. Dealers decide which cars they want to stock, and a salesperson can have a big impact on how someone feels about a prospective purchase. Sales people have ample knowledge of internal combustion cars while they do not have time to learn about a technology that represents a fraction of overall sales. As with any new technology, and in the particular case of advanced technology vehicles, retailers are central to ensuring that buyers, especially those switching to a new technology, have the information and support they need to gain the full benefits of adopting this new technology.
There are several reasons for the reluctance of some dealers to sell plug-in electric vehicles. PEVs do not offer car dealers the same profits as a gasoline-powered cars. Plug-in electric vehicles take more time to sell because of the explaining required, which hurts overall sales and sales people commissions. Electric vehicles also may require less maintenance, resulting in loss of service revenue, and thus undermining the biggest source of dealer profits, their service departments. According to the National Automobile Dealers Association (NADS), dealers on average make three times as much profit from service as they do from new car sales.
Government incentives and policies
Several national, provincial, and local governments around the world have introduced policies to support the mass market adoption of plug-in electric vehicles. A variety of policies have been established to provide direct financial support to consumers and manufacturers; non-monetary incentives; subsidies for the deployment of charging infrastructure; procurement of electric vehicle for government fleets; and long term regulations with specific targets.
Financial incentives for consumers aim to make plug-in electric car purchase price competitive with conventional cars due to the still higher up front cost of electric vehicles. Among the financial incentives there are one-time purchase incentives such as tax credits, purchase grants, exemptions from import duties, and other fiscal incentives; exemptions from road, bridge and tunnel tolls, and from congestion pricing fees; and exemption of registration and annual use vehicle fees. Some countries, like France, also introduced a bonus-malus CO
2 based tax system that penalize fossil-fuel vehicle sales.
As of 2020, monetary incentives for electrically chargeable vehicles are available, among others, in several European Union member states, China, the United States, the UK, Japan, Norway, some provinces in Canada, South Korea, India, Israel, Colombia, and Costa Rica.
Among the non-monetary incentives there are several perks such allowing plug-in vehicles access to bus lanes and high-occupancy vehicle lanes, free parking and free charging. In addition, in some countries or cities that restrict private car ownership (purchase quota system for new vehicles), or have implemented permanent driving restrictions (no-drive days), the schemes often exclude electric vehicles from the restrictions to promote their adoption.
For example in Beijing, the license plate lottery scheme specifies a fixed number of vehicle purchase permits each year, but to promote the electrification of its fleet, the city government split the number of purchase permits into two lots, one for conventional vehicles, and another dedicated for all-electric vehicle applicants. In the case of cities with driving alternate-days based on the license plate number, such as San José, Costa Rica, since 2012, São Paulo and Bogotá since 2014, and Mexico City since 2015, all-electric vehicles were excluded from the driving restrictions.
Some government have also established long term regulatory signals with specific target timeframes such as ZEV mandates, national or regional CO
2 emissions regulations, stringent fuel economy standards, and the phase out of internal combustion engine vehicle sales. For example, Norway set a national goal that all new car sales by 2025 should be zero emission vehicles (electric or hydrogen).
Also, some cities are planning to establish zero-emission zones (ZEZ) restricting traffic access into an urban cordon area or city center where only zero-emission vehicles (ZEVs) are allowed access. In such areas, all internal combustion engine vehicles are banned.
As of June 2020, Oxford is slated to be the first city to implement a ZEZ scheme, beginning with a small area scheduled to go into effect by mid 2021. The plan is to expand the clean air zone gradually into a much larger zone, until the ZEZ encompasses the majority of the city center by 2035.
As of May 2020, other cities planning to gradually introduce ZEZ, or partial or total ban fossil fuel powered vehicles include, among others, Amsterdam (2030), Athens (2025), Barcelona (2030), Brussels (2030/2035), Copenhagen (2030), London (2020/2025), Los Angeles (2030), Madrid (2025), Mexico City (2025), Milan (2030), Oslo (2024/2030), Paris (2024/2030), Quito (2030), Rio de Janeiro (2030), Rome (2024/2030), Seattle (2030), and Vancouver (2030).
Production plug-in electric vehicles available
During the 1990s several highway-capable plug-in electric cars were produced in limited quantities, all were battery electric vehicles. PSA Peugeot Citroën launched several electric "Électrique" versions of its models starting in 1991. Other models were available through leasing mainly in California. Popular models included the General Motors EV1 and the Toyota RAV4 EV. Some of the latter were sold to the public and were still in use by the early 2010s.
In the late 2000s began a new wave of mass production plug-in electric cars, motorcycles and light trucks. However, as of 2011, most electric vehicles in the world roads were low-speed, low-range neighborhood electric vehicles (NEVs) or electric quadricycles. Sales of low-speed electric vehicles experienced considerable growth in China between 2012 and 2016, with an estimated NEV stock between 3 million to 4 million units, with most powered by lead-acid batteries.
As of December 2019, according to the International Energy Agency, there were about 250 models of highway-capable plug-in electric passenger cars available for sale in the world, up from 70 in 2014. There are also available several commercial models of electric light commercial vehicles, plug-in motorcycles, all-electric buses, and plug-in heavy-duty trucks.
The Renault–Nissan–Mitsubishi Alliance is the world's leading light-duty electric vehicle manufacturer. Since 2010, the Alliance's global all-electric vehicle sales totaled almost 725,000 units, including those manufactured by Mitsubishi Motors through December 2018, now part of the Alliance. Its best selling all-electric Nissan Leaf was the world's top selling plug-in electric car in 2013 and 2014. Tesla is the world's second largest plug-in electric passenger car manufacturer with global sales since 2012 of over 532,000 units as of December 2018. Its Model S was the world's top selling plug-in car in 2015 and 2016, and its Model 3 was the world's best selling plug-in electric car in 2018.
Ranking next is BYD Auto with more than 529,000 plug-in passenger cars delivered in China through December 2018. Its Qin plug-in hybrid is the company's top selling model with almost 137,000 units sold in China through December 2018. As of December 2018, the BMW Group had sold more than 356,000 plug-in cars since inception of the BMW i3, accounting for global sales its BMW i cars, BMW iPerformance plug-in hybrid models, and MINI brand plug-ins.
BYD Auto ended 2015 as the world's best selling manufacturer of highway legal light-duty plug-in electric vehicles, with 61,722 units sold, followed by Tesla, with 50,580 units. BYD was again the world's top selling plug-in car manufacturer in 2016, with 101,183 units delivered, one more time followed again by Tesla with 76,243 units. In 2017 BYD ranked for the third consecutive year as the global top plug-in car manufacturer with 113,669 units delivered. BAIC ranked second with 104,520 units. The BAIC EC-Series all-electric city car ranked as the world's top selling plug-in car in 2017 with 78,079 units sold in China.
After 10 years in the market, Tesla was the world's top selling plug-in passenger car manufacturer in 2018, both as a brand and by automotive group, with 245,240 units delivered and a market share of 12% of all plug-in cars sold globally in 2018. BYD Auto ranked second with 227,152 plug-in passenger cars sold worldwide, representing a market share of 11%.
Sales and main markets
The global stock of plug-in electric vehicles between 2005 and 2009 consisted exclusively of all-electric cars, totaling about 1,700 units in 2005, and almost 6,000 in 2009. The plug-in stock rose to about 12,500 units in 2010, of which, only 350 vehicles were plug-in hybrids. By comparison, during the Golden Age of the electric car at the beginning of the 20th century, the EV stock peaked at approximately 30,000 vehicles.
After the introduction of the first mass-production plug-in cars by major carmakers in late 2010, plug-in car global sales went from about 50,000 units in 2011, to 125,000 in 2012, almost 213,000 in 2013, and over 315,000 units in 2014. By mid-September 2015, the global stock of highway legal plug-in electric passenger cars and utility vans reached the one million sales milestone, almost twice as fast as hybrid electric vehicles (HEV).
Light-duty plug-in electric vehicle sales in 2015 increased to more than 565,000 units in 2015, about 80% from 2014, driven mainly by China and Europe. Both markets passed in 2015 the U.S. as the largest plug-in electric car markets in terms of total annual sales, with China ranking as the world's best-selling plug-in electric passenger car country market in 2015. About 775,000 plug-in cars and vans were sold in 2016, and cumulative global sales passed the 2 million milestone by the end of 2016. The global market share of the light-duty plug-in vehicle segment achieved a record 0.86% of total new car sales in 2016, up from 0.62% in 2015 and 0.38% in 2014.
Cumulative global light-duty plug-in vehicle sales passed the 3 million milestone in November 2017. About 1.2 million plug-ins cars and vans were sold worldwide in 2017, with China accounting for about half of global sales. The plug-in car segment achieved a 1.3% market share. Plug-in passenger car sales totaled just over 2 million in 2018, with a market share of 2.1%. The global stock reached 5.3 million light-duty plug-in vehicles in December 2018. Despite the rapid growth experienced, the plug-in electric car segment represented just about 1 out of every 250 vehicles on the world's roads by the end of 2018.
By the end of 2019 the stock of light-duty plug-in vehicles totaled 7.55 million units, consisting of 4.79 million all-electric cars, 2.38 million plug-in hybrid cars, and 377,970 electric light commercial vehicles. Plug-in passenger cars still represented less than 1% of the world's car fleet in use. In addition, there were about half a million electric buses in circulation in 2019, most of them in China. In 2020, global cumulative sales of light-duty plug-in vehicles passed the 10 million unit milestone.
All-electric cars have outsold plug-in hybrids for several years, and by the end of 2019, the shift towards battery electric cars continued. The global ratio between all-electrics (BEVs) and plug-in hybrids (PHEVs) went from 56:44 in 2012, to 60:40 in 2015, increased to 66:34 in 2017, and rose to 69:31 in 2018, and reached 74:26 in 2019. Out of the 7.2 million plug-in passenger cars in use at the end of 2019, two thirds were all-electric cars (4.8 million).
Since 2016, China has the world's largest fleet of light-duty plug-in electric vehicles, after having overtaken during 2016 both the U.S. and Europe in terms of cumulative sales. The fleet of Chinese plug-in passenger cars represented 46.7% of the global stock of plug-in cars at the end of 2019. Europe listed next with 24.8%, followed by the U.S. with 20.2% of the global stock in use.
As of December 2017, 25 cities accounted for 44% of the world's stock of plug-in electric cars, while representing just 12% of world passenger vehicle sales. Shanghai led the world with cumulative sales of over 162,000 electric vehicles since 2011, followed by Beijing with 147,000 and Los Angeles with 143,000. Among these cities, Bergen has the highest market share of the plug-in segment, with about 50% of new car sales in 2017, followed by Oslo with 40%.
As of December 2020, China had the world's largest stock of highway legal plug-in passenger cars with 4.6 million units, corresponding to 42% of the global plug-in car fleet in use. Domestically produced cars account for about 96% of new energy car sales in China A particular feature of the Chinese passenger plug-in market is the dominance of small entry level vehicles.
China also dominates the plug-in light commercial vehicle and electric bus deployment, with its stock reaching over 500,000 buses in 2019, 98% of the global stock, and 247,500 electric light commercial vehicles, 65% of the global fleet. In addition, the country also leads sales of medium- and heavy duty electric trucks, with over 12,000 trucks sold, and nearly all battery electric. Since 2011, combined sales of all classes of new energy vehicles (NEV) totaled almost 5.5 million at the end of 2020. Of these, there were 4.9 million new energy vehicles in use at the end of 2020, accounting for 1.75% of all vehicles on the road in China.
The BAIC EC-Series all-electric city car was China's the top selling plug-in car in 2017 and 2018, and also the world's top selling plug-in car in 2017. BYD Auto was the world's top selling car manufacturer in 2016 and 2017. In 2020, the Tesla Model 3 listed as the best-selling plug-in car with 137,459 units.
Europe had 3.26 million plug-in electric passenger cars and light commercial vehicles in circulation at the end of 2020, consisting of 1,722,003 fully electric passenger cars, 1,394,915 plug-in hybrid cars, and 146,611 all-electric light commercial vehicles. The European stock of plug-in passenger is the world's second largest market after China, accounting for 25% of the global stock in 2019. Europe also has the second largest electric light commercial vehicle stock, 31% of the global stock in 2019.
In 2020, and despite the strong decline in global car sales brought by the COVID-19 pandemic, annual sales of plug-in passenger cars in Europe surpassed the 1 million mark for the first time. In addition, Europe outsold China in 2020 as the world's largest plug-in passenger car market for the first time since 2015.
The plug-in car segment had a market share of 1.3% of new car registrations in 2016, rose to 3.6% in 2019, and achieved 11.4% in 2020. The largest country markets in the European region in terms of EV stock and annual sales are Germany, Norway, France, the UK, the Netherlands, and Sweden. Germany surpassed Norway in 2019 as the best selling plug-in market, leading both the all-electric and the plug-in hybrid segments in Europe. and in 2020 listed as the top selling European country market for the second consecutive year.
As of December 2020, cumulative registrations in Germany totaled 700,419 plug-in electric passenger cars since 2010, consisting of 362,559 all-electric cars and 337,860 plug-in hybrids, allowing the country to rank as the European market with the largest stock of plug-in cars. In addition, Germany had a stock of 21,890 light-duty electric commercial vehicles in 2019, the second largest in Europe after France. There were 588,944 plug-in cars in circulation on January 1, 2021, representing 1.2% of all cars on the road in Germany, up from 0.5% the previous year.
Germany listed as the top selling plug-in car market in the European continent in 2019 and achieved a market share of 3.10%. Despite the global decline in car sales brought by the COVID-19 pandemic, the segment market share achieved a record 13.6% in 2020. with a record volume of 394,632 plug-in passenger cars registered in 2020, up 263% from 2019, allowing Germany to be listed for a second year running as the best selling European plug-in market. Both years, the German market led both the fully electric and plug-in hybrid segments.
As of February 2021, a total of 508,425 light-duty plug-in electric vehicles have been registered in Norway since 2010. Until 2019, Norway ranked as the European country with the largest stock of plug-in cars in use. Norwegian cumulative registrations of light-duty plug-ins consists of 359,352 all-electric passenger cars and vans, and 149,073 plug-in hybrids, including both new and used imports registrations.
The Norwegian plug-in car segment market share has been the highest in the world for several years, reaching 39.2% in 2017, up from 29.1% in 2016, 49.1% in 2018, rose to 55.9% in 2019, and achieved 74.7% in 2020, meaning that three out of every four new passenger car sold in Norway in 2020 was a plug-in electric. In January 2017 the electric-drive segment surpassed combined conventional internal combustion engine sales for the first time ever, achieving a combined market share of 51.4% of new car sales.
In October 2018, Norway became the first country where 1 in every 10 passenger cars in use was a plug-in electric vehicle. and more than 15% of all passenger cars on Norwegian roads were plug-ins by the end 2020. The Norwegian fleet of plug-in electric cars is one of the cleanest in the world because 98% of the electricity generated in the country comes from hydropower. Norway is the country with the largest EV ownership per capita in the world.
As of February 2021, there were 504,354 light-duty plug-in electric vehicles in use in France, consisting of 354,729 all-electric passenger cars and commercial vans, and 149,625 plug-in hybrids.. Of these, over 50,000 were all-electric light commercial vehicles.
The market share of all-electric passenger cars increased from 0.30% of new car registered in 2012, to 0.59% in 2014. After the introduction of the super-bonus for the scrappage of old diesel-power cars in 2015, sales of both pure electric cars and plug-in hybrids surged, rising the market share to 1.17% in 2015, climbed to 2.11% in 2018, and achieved a record market share of 2.8% in 2019. Despite the global strong decline in car sales brought by the COVID-19 pandemic, plug-in electric car sales in France during the first six months of 2020 achieved a record sales volume of 65,267 units, and a market share of 9.1%.
As of December 2019, France is the country with the world's second largest stock of light-duty electric commercial vehicles after China, with 49,340 utility vans in use. The market share of all-electric utility vans reached a market share of 1.22% in 2014, and 1.77% in 2018.
As of January 2021, there were about 450,000 light-duty plug-in electric vehicles on British roads, consisting of around 210,000 fully electric vehicles and 240,000 plug-in hybrids, of which, over 10,000 were plug-in commercial vans. A surge of plug-in car sales took place in Britain beginning in 2014. Total registrations went from 3,586 in 2013, to 37,092 in 2016, and rose to 59,911 in 2018.
As of June 2020, the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV is the all-time top selling plug-in car in the UK over 46,400 units registered, followed by the Nissan Leaf more than 31,400 units.
As of 31 December 2020, there were 297,380 highway-legal light-duty plug-in electric vehicles on the Dutch roads, consisting of 182,481 all-electric cars, 182,481 plug-in hybrids, and 6,247 all-electric light utility vans. When all other classes of vehicles are accounted for (buses, trucks, motorcycles, quadricycles, etc.), the Dutch plug-in electric-drive fleet in use climbs to 382,721 units.
As of July 2016, the Netherlands had the second largest plug-in ownership per capita in the world after Norway. Plug-in sales fell sharply in 2016 due to changes in tax rules, and as a result of the change in government's incentives, the plug-in market share declined from 9.9% in 2015, to 6.7% in 2016, and fell to 2.6% in 2017. The intake rate rose to 6.5% in 2018 in anticipation of another change in tax rules that went into effect in January 2019, and increased to 14.9% in 2019, and rose to a record 24.6% in 2020.
As of January 2021, cumulative sales of highway legal plug-in electric cars in the U.S. totaled 1,769,953 units since 2010. Since December 2016 the U.S. has the world's third largest stock of plug-in passenger cars, after having been overtaken by Europe in 2015 and China during 2016. California is the largest plug-in regional market in the country, with 803,816 plug-in cars registered up until December 2020, 46% of national sales.
Nationwide sales of plug-in electric car sales totaled 157,181 units in 2016, rose to 199,818 in 2017, and achieved a record of 361,307 units in 2018. Sales declined to 329,528 units in 2019. The market share of plug-in electric passenger cars increased from 0.14% of new car sales in 2011 to 0.75% in 2014. The segment's market share fell to 0.66% in 2015, then increased to 0.90% in 2016, reached 1.13% in 2017, and achieved 2.1% in 2018.
The Tesla Model 3 electric car has been the best selling plug-in car in the U.S. for two consecutive years, 2018 and 2019. Cumulative sales of the Model 3 surpassed in 2019 the discontinued Chevrolet Volt plug-in hybrid to become the all-time best selling plug-in car in the country, with an estimated 300,471 units delivered since inception, followed by the Tesla Model S all-electric car with about 157,992, and the Chevrolet Volt with 157,054.
As of December 2019, Japan had a stock of plug-in passenger cars of 294,000 units on the road, consisting of 152,320 all-electric cars (51.8%) and 141,680 plug-in hybrids (48.2%). The fleet of electric light commercial vehicles in use totaled 8,720 units in 2019.
Plug-in sales totaled 24,660 units in 2015 and 24,851 units in 2016. The rate of growth of the Japanese plug-in segment slowed down from 2013, with annual sales falling behind Europe, the U.S. and China during 2014 and 2015. The segment market share fell from 0.68% in 2014 to 0.59% in 2016. Sales recovered in 2017, with almost 56,000 plug-in cars sold, and the segment's market share reached 1.1%. Sales fell slightly in 2018 to 52,000 units with a market share of 1.0%.
The decline in plug-in car sales reflects the Japanese government and the major domestic carmakers decision to adopt and promote hydrogen fuel cell vehicles instead of plug-in electric vehicles.
All-electric cars and vans
The Tesla Model 3 surpassed the Nissan Leaf in early 2020 to become the world's all-time best selling electric car, and global cumulative sales totaled more than 800,000 through December 2020. The Model 3 has been the world's best selling plug-in electric car for three consecutive years, from 2018 to 2020. The United States is the leading market with an estimated 395,000 units sold, followed by the European market with over 180,000 units delivered, both through December 2020. The Model 3 was the best-selling plug-in car in China in 2020, with 137,459 units sold.
Global sales of the Nissan Leaf totaled 500,000 units by December 2020, 10 years after its inception. Europe is the world's largest Leaf market with more than 180,000 units sold through December 2020, of which, over 65,500 units have been registered in Norway, the leading European country market. As of December 2020, U.S. sales totaled 151,471 units, and sales in Japan totaled 146,216 units.
Ranking third is the all-electric Tesla Model S with global deliveries of 263,504 units as of December 2018. The United States is its leading market with about 157,992 units delivered through 2019.
The following table presents global sales of the top selling highway-capable electric cars and light utility vehicles produced since the introduction of the first modern production all-electric car, the Tesla Roadster, in 2008 and December 2020. The table includes all-electric passenger cars and utility vans with cumulative sales of about or over 150,000 units.
|Top selling highway legal electric cars and light|
utility vehicles produced between 2008 and December 2020(1)
|Tesla Model 3||Jul 2017||~814,000||Dec 2020|
|Nissan Leaf||Dec 2010||500,000||Dec 2020|
|Tesla Model S||Jun 2012||~305,000||Aug 2020|
|Renault Zoe||Dec 2012||284,800||Dec 2020|
|BAIC EC-Series||Dec 2016||203,000(2)||Aug 2020|
|BAIC EU-Series||2016||196,000(2)||Aug 2020|
|BMW i3||Nov 2013||191,000(3)||Aug 2020|
|Tesla Model X||Sep 2015||~177,000||Aug 2020|
|Wuling Hongguang Mini EV||Jul 2020||160,000||Jan 2021|
|Chery eQ||Nov 2014||139,000||Aug 2020|
|Volkswagen e-Golf||Jun 2014||136,000||Aug 2020|
(1) Vehicles are considered highway-capable if able to achieve at least a top speed of 100 km/h (62 mph).
(2) Sales in main China only. (3) BMW i3 sales includes the REx variant (split is not available).
The Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV is the world's all-time best selling plug-in hybrid according to JATO Dynamics. Global sales achieved the 250,000 unit milestone in May 2020. Europe is the Outlander P-HEV leading market with 126,617 units sold through January 2019, followed by Japan with 42,451 units through March 2018. European sales are led by the UK with 36,237 units delivered, followed by the Netherlands with 25,489 units, both through March 2018.
Ranking second is the Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid (Toyota Prius Prime) with about 225,000 units sold worldwide of both generations through December 2020. The United States is the market leader with over 93,000 units delivered through December 2018. Japan ranks next with about 61,200 units through December 2018, followed by Europe with almost 14,800 units through June 2018.
Combined global sales of the Chevrolet Volt and its rebadged models totaled about 186,000 units by the end of 2018, including about 10,000 Opel/Vauxhall Amperas sold in Europe through June 2016. Volt sales are led by the United States with 157,054 units delivered through December 2019, followed by Canada with 17,311 units through November 2018. Until the end of 2018, the Chevrolet Volt family listed as the world's top selling plug-in hybrid, when it was surpassed by the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV.
The following table presents plug-in hybrid models with cumulative global sales of around or more than 100,000 units since the introduction of the first modern production plug-in hybrid car, the BYD F3DM, in 2008 up until December 2019:
|Top selling highway legal plug-in hybrid electric cars |
between 2008 and Dec 2020
|Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV||Jan 2013||270,000||Dec 2020|
|Toyota Prius PHV||Jan 2012||225,000||Dec 2020|
|Chevrolet Volt(1)||Dec 2010||~186,000||Dec 2018|
|BYD Qin(2)||Dec 2013||136,818||Dec 2018|
|BYD Tang(2)||Jun 2015||101,518||Dec 2018|
|Notes: (1) In addition to the Volt sold in North America, combined sales of the Volt/Ampera family includes |
about 10,000 Vauxhall/Opel Ampera and about 1,750 Volts sold in Europe, 246 Holden Volt sold in Australia,
and 4,317 units of the Buick Velite 5 sold only in China (rebadged second generation Volt).
(2) Sales in China only. BYD Qin total does not include sales of the all-electric variant (Qin EV300).
- All-electric vehicle (EV) or battery electric vehicle (BEV)
- Battery electric multiple unit
- Electric car
- Electric car use by country
- Electric vehicle battery
- Electric vehicle warning sounds
- Hybrid tax credit (U.S.)
- List of electric cars currently available
- List of modern production plug-in electric vehicles
- Neighborhood electric car
- New energy vehicles in China
- Plug In America
- Plug-in hybrid vehicle, (PHEV)
- RechargeIT (Google.org PHEV program)
- Renewable energy by country
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- Kane, Mark (2019-01-02). "Tesla Production And Deliveries Graphed Through Q4 2018". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2019-01-02.
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- Cobb, Jeff (2017-01-16). "The World Just Bought Its Two-Millionth Plug-in Car". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2017-01-17. An estimated 2,032,000 highway-legal plug-in passenger cars and vans have been sold worldwide at the end of 2016. The top selling markets are China (645,708 new energy cars, including imports), Europe (638,000 plug-in cars and vans), and the United States (570,187 plug-in cars). The top European country markets are Norway (135,276), the Netherlands (113,636), France (108,065), and the UK (91,000). Total Chinese sales of domestically produced new energy vehicles, including buses and truck, totaled 951,447 vehicles. China was the top selling plug-in car market in 2016, and also has the world's largest stock of plug-in electric cars.
- Cobb, Jeff (2016-11-07). "China's BYD Becomes World's Third-Largest Plug-in Car Maker". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2016-11-07.
- "Top 10 Automakers by 2017 NEV Sales". Gasgoo China Automotive News. 2018-01-18. Retrieved 2018-01-29.
According to the data released by China Passenger Car Association (CPCA), BYD topped the rank with annual NEV delivery of 113,669 units, increasing 11% year on year. With NEV deliveries soaring 125% on an annual basis to 104,520 units, BAIC BJEV took the second place among the top ten automakers.
- Kane, Mark (2019-01-14). "BYD Sold Record 37,000 Electric Cars In December 2018". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2019-01-14. BYD Auto sold in China 227,152 plug-in cars, up 109% from 2017. During 2018 BYD Qin sales totaled 47,425 units and BYD Tang sales totaled 37,146 units.
- Kane, Mark (2018-01-26). "BYD #1 In World For Plug-In Electric Car Sales In 2017, Beats Tesla Again". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2018-01-29. "BYD sold 108,612 passenger plug-in cars in China in 2017, enough to make it the world's top selling plug-in car manufacturer for the third year in a row."
- Mark Kane (2019-01-11). "BMW Sold 142,617 Plug-In Electric Cars In 2018". Inside EVs. Retrieved 2019-01-12. The BMW Group sold 142,617 plug-in electric cars in 2018, and cumulative sales since inception of the BMW i3 totaled over 356,000 BMW and MINI electrified vehicles. BMW set a target of cumulative sales of 500,000 units by the end of 2019.
- Cobb, Jeff (2016-01-12). "Tesla Model S Was World's Best-Selling Plug-in Car in 2015". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2016-02-06. The Tesla Model S was the top selling plug-in electric car in 2015 with 50,366 units sold, followed by the Nissan Leaf (about 43,000), the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV (over 40,000), the BYD Qin (31,898) and the BMW i3 (24,057). The Model S is also the second-best seller ever with 107,148 sales since its mid-2012 launch, behind the Nissan Leaf and ahead of GM’s Volt/Ampera family, credited with 106,000 sales.
- John Voelcker (2016-01-15). "Who Sold The Most Plug-In Electric Cars In 2015? (It's Not Tesla Or Nissan)". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2016-01-17. BYD Auto delivered 31,898 Qins, 18,375 Tangs, and 7,029 e6s during 2015. Added to that are small numbers of the T3 small commercial van and e5 battery-electric compact sedan, along with 2,888 Denza EV compact hatchbacks built by its joint venture with Daimler. Altogether, BYD sold a total of 61,722 light-duty plug-in electric vehicles in China in 2015.
- Natasha Li (2016-03-04). "Alternative Energy Vehicles Account HALF of BYD's Profits for the Very First Time in 2015". Gasgoo Automotive News. Archived from the original on 2016-03-08. Retrieved 2016-03-07. BYD Auto delivered 69,222 new energy vehicles in China in 2015, including buses, of which, a total of 61,722 were passenger vehicles, mostly plug-in hybrids, led by the Qin and Tang.
- Jin Peiling (2017-01-10). "谁是2016年电动汽车市场的霸主？" [Who is the dominant electric vehicle market in 2016?] (in Chinese). Daily Observation Car. Archived from the original on 2017-01-16. Retrieved 2017-01-15. BYD sold more than 100,000 new energy passenger cars in China in 2016, about 30,000 more units than Tesla Motors. The BYD Tang was the top selling plug-in car in China in 2016 with 31,405 units delivered.
- Jose Pontes (2018-01-18). "China December 2017". EV Sales. Retrieved 2018-01-19. Sales of plug-in electric cars in China, including imports, totaled 600,174 units in 2017. The BAIC EC-Series was the top selling plug-in with 78,079 units sold in China, making the city car the world's top selling plug-in car in 2017. The top selling plug-in hybrid was the BYD Song PHEV with 30,920 units. BYD Auto was the top selling car manufacturer. Foreign brands captured only about 4% of plug-in sales in 2017, with about half by Tesla. The Chinese plug-in car market represented roughly half of the 1.2 million plug-ins sold worldwide in 2017.
- Jose, Pontes (2019-02-03). "2018 Global Sales by OEM". EVSales.com. Retrieved 2019-02-03. "Tesla led plug-in car sales among automotive groups in 2018, with 245,240 units delivered, followed by BYD with 229,338, and the Renault-Nissan Alliance with 192,711."
- "BYD NEV sales in 2018 exceed 240,000 units". Gasgoo. 2019-01-08. Retrieved 2019-01-14. BYD Auto sold 247,811 new energy vehicles in 2018 (including commercial heavy-duty vehicles), up 118% from 2018, of which, 227,152 were passenger cars, consisting of 103,263 units all-electric cars and 123,889 units were plug-in hybrid vehicles. In addition, 20,659 new energy commercial vehicles were sold in 2018.
- Justin Gerdes (2012-05-11). "The Global Electric Vehicle Movement: Best Practices From 16 Cities". Forbes. Retrieved 2014-10-20.
- International Energy Agency (IEA), Clean Energy Ministerial, and Electric Vehicles Initiative (EVI) (May 2016). "Global EV Outlook 2016: Beyond one million electric cars" (PDF). IEA Publications. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-08-24. Retrieved 2016-09-07.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) See pp. 4–5, and 24–25 and Statistical annex, pp. 34–37.
- Clark, Pilita; Campbell, Peter (2016-08-31). "Motor Industry: Pressure on the Pump". Financial Times. Retrieved 2016-09-01.
- Argonne National Laboratory, United States Department of Energy (2016-03-28). "Fact #918: March 28, 2016 – Global Plug-in Light Vehicles Sales Increased By About 80% in 2015". Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy. Retrieved 2016-03-29.
- Nic Lutsey (2015-09-29). "Global milestone: The first million electric vehicles". International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT). Retrieved 2015-10-10.
- International Energy Agency (IEA), Clean Energy Ministerial, and Electric Vehicles Initiative (EVI) (May 2018). "Global EV Outlook 2017: 3 million and counting" (PDF). IEA Publications. Retrieved 2018-10-23.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) See pp. 9–10, 19–23, 29–28, and Statistical annex, pp. 107–113. The global stock of plug-in electric passenger cars totaled 3,109,050 units, of which, 1,928,360 were battery electric cars..
- European Automobile Manufacturers Association (ACEA) (2017-02-01). "New Passenger Car Registrations By Alternative Fuel Type In The European Union: Quarter 4 2016" (PDF). ACEA. Retrieved 2018-10-23. See table New Passenger Car Registrations By Market In The EU + EFTA - Total Electric Rechargeable Vehicles: Total EU + EFTA in Q1-Q4 2015.
- European Automobile Manufacturers Association (ACEA) (2018-02-01). "New Passenger Car Registrations By Alternative Fuel Type In The European Union: Quarter 4 2017" (PDF). ACEA. Retrieved 2018-10-23. See table New Passenger Car Registrations By Market In The EU + EFTA - Total Electric Rechargeable Vehicles: Total EU + EFTA in Q1-Q4 2017 and Q1-Q4 2016.
- International Energy Agency (IEA), Clean Energy Ministerial, and Electric Vehicles Initiative (EVI) (May 2019). "Global EV Outlook 2019: Scaling-up the transition to electric mobility" (PDF). IEA Publications. Retrieved 2020-05-11.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) See Statistical annex, pp. 210–213. The global stock of plug-in electric passenger cars totaled 5,122,460 units at the end of 2018, of which, 3,290,800 (64.2%) were battery electric cars (See Tables A.1 and A.2)..
- European Automobile Manufacturers Association (ACEA) (2020-02-06). "New Passenger Car Registrations By Alternative Fuel Type In The European Union: Quarter 4 2019" (PDF). ACEA. Retrieved 2020-05-11. See table New Passenger Car Registrations By Market In The EU + EFTA - Total Electric Rechargeable Vehicles: Total EU + EFTA in Q1-Q4 2018 and 2019.
- Irle, Roland (2021-01-19). "Global Plug-in Vehicle Sales Reached over 3,2 Million in 2020". EV-volumes.com. Retrieved 2021-01-20. Plug-in sales totaled 3.24 million in 2020, up from 2.26 million in 2019. Europe, with nearly 1.4 million untits surpassed China as the largest EV market for the first time since 2015.
- Cobb, Jeff (2016-01-18). "Top Six Plug-in Vehicle Adopting Countries – 2015". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2016-02-12. About 520,000 highway legal light-duty plug-in electric vehicles were sold worldwide in 2015, with cumulative global sales reaching 1,235,000. The United States was the leading market with 411,120 units sold since 2008, followed by China with 258,328 units sold since 2011. Japan ranks third, followed by the Netherlands (88,991), Norway (77,897), France (74,291), and the UK (53,254). Over 21,000 units were sold in Japan in 2015.
- Berman, Brad (2016-02-13). "US Falls Behind Europe and China in Global Plug-in Vehicle Market". Plugincars.com. Retrieved 2016-02-16.
- Staff (February 2017). "Global Plug-in Sales for 2016". EV-Volumes.com. Retrieved 2017-02-05.
- Vaughan, Adam (2017-12-25). "Electric and plug-in hybrid cars whiz past 3m mark worldwide". The Guardian. Retrieved 2018-01-20. "The number of fully electric and plug-in hybrid cars on the world’s roads passed the 3 million mark in November 2017."
- EVvolumes.com (January 2018). "Global Plug-in Sales for 2017-Q4 and the Full Year (prelim.)". EVvolumes.com. Retrieved 2018-02-17. Global registrations totaled around 1.2 million units in 2017, 57 % higher than 2016. These include all global BEV and PHEV passenger cars sales, light trucks in USA/Canada and light commercial vehicle in Europe. The segment market share was 1.3%, and in December the global plug-in share touched the 2 % mark for the first time.
- Coren, Michael J. (2019-01-25). "E-nough? Automakers may have completely overestimated how many people want electric cars". Quartz. Retrieved 2019-01-25.
Despite exponential growth, with a record 2 million or so EVs sold worldwide last year, only one in 250 cars on the road is electric.
- Jose, Pontes (2020-01-31). "Global Top 20 - December 2019". EVSales.com. Retrieved 2020-05-10. "Global sales totaled 2,209,831 plug-in passenger cars in 2019, with a BEV to PHEV ratio of 74:26, and a global market share of 2.5%. The world's top selling plug-in car was the Tesla Model 3 with 300,075 units delivered, and Tesla was the top selling manufacturer of plug-in passenger cars in 2019 with 367,820 units, followed by BYD with 229,506."
- Hertzke, Patrick; Müller, Nicolai; Schenk, Stephanie; Wu, Ting (May 2018). "The global electric-vehicle market is amped up and on the rise". McKinsey & Company. Retrieved 2019-01-27. See Exhibit 1: Global electric-vehicle sales, 2010-17.
- Cobb, Jeff (2016-12-27). "China Takes Lead As Number One In Plug-in Vehicle Sales". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2017-01-06. As of November 2016, cumulative sales of plug-in vehicles in China totaled 846,447 units, including passenger and commercial vehicles, making it the world's leader in overall plug-in vehicle sales. With cumulative sales of about 600,000 passenger plug-ins through November 2016, China is also the global leader in the passenger plug-in car segment, ahead of Europe and the U.S.
- King, Danny (2016-12-29). "China far ahead of US, Europe in total electric vehicle sales". Autoblog.com. Retrieved 2017-01-08.
Last year, China overtook both the US and Europe in annual sales of electric vehicles and plug-in hybrids. This year, it will move ahead of both the US and Europe in cumulative plug-in vehicle sales.
- Dale Hall, Hongyang Cui, Nic Lutsey (2018-10-30). "Electric vehicle capitals: Accelerating the global transition to electric drive". The International Council on Clean Transportation. Retrieved 2018-11-01.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) Click on "Download File" to get the full report, 15 pp.
- Liu Wanxiang (2017-01-12). "中汽协：2016年新能源汽车产销量均超50万辆,同比增速约50%" [China Auto Association: 2016 new energy vehicle production and sales were over 500,000, an increase of about 50%] (in Chinese). D1EV.com. Retrieved 2017-01-12. Chinese sales of new energy vehicles in 2016 totaled 507,000, consisting of 409,000 BEV vehicles and 98,000 PHEVs.
- Automotive News China (2018-01-16). "Electrified vehicle sales surge 53% in 2017". Automotive News China. Retrieved 2018-01-19. Chinese sales of domestically-built new energy vehicles in 2017 totaled 777,000, consisting of 652,000 all-electric vehicles and 125,000 plug-in hybrid vehicles. Sales of domestically-produced new energy passenger vehicles totalled 579,000 units, consisting of 468,000 all-electric cars and 111,000 plug-in hybrids. Only domestically built all-electric vehicles, plug-in hybrids and fuel cell vehicles qualify for government subsidies in China.
- "中汽协：2018年新能源汽车产销均超125万辆，同比增长60%" [Chia Automobile Association: In 2018, the production and sales of new energy vehicles exceeded 1.25 million units, a year-on-year increase of 60%] (in Chinese). D1EV.com. 2019-01-14. Retrieved 2019-01-15. Chinese sales of new energy vehicles in 2018 totaled 1.256 million, consisting of 984,000 all-electric vehicles and 271,000 plug-in hybrid vehicles.
- Kane, Mark (2020-02-04). "Chinese NEVs Market Slightly Declined In 2019: Full Report". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2020-05-30. Sales of new energy vehicles totaled 1,206,000 units in 2019, down 4.0% from 2018, and includes 2,737 fuel cell vehicles. Battery electric vehicle sales totaled 972,000 units (down 1.2%) and plug-in hybrid sales totaled 232,000 vehicles (down 14.5%). Sales figures include passenger cars, buses and commercial vehicles..
- Dune, Michael J. (2016-12-14). "China's Automotive 2030 Blueprint: No. 1 Globally In EVs, Autonomous Cars". Forbes. Retrieved 2016-12-14.
- Majeed, Abdul (2016-09-29). "China faces acid test in vehicle emissions". Business Line. Retrieved 2016-09-29.
- Liu Fangyu (2021-01-08). "2020年全国机动车保有量达3.72亿辆 机动车驾驶人达4.56亿人" [In 2020, the number of motor vehicles in the country will reach 372 million, and the number of motor vehicle drivers will reach 456 million]. People's Daily Online (in Chinese). Xinhuanet. Retrieved 2021-03-06.
As of the end of 2020, the number of new energy vehicles in the country reached 4.92 million, accounting for 1.75% of the total number of vehicles (Translation to English)
- "China's new energy PV wholesale volume in 2018 shoots up 83% year on year". Gasgoo. 2019-01-11. Retrieved 2019-01-21. Sales of new energy passenger cars totaled 1,016,002 units in 2018.The BAIC EC series ranked as China's top selling plug-in car in 2018 with 90,637 units delivered.
- "Top 10 NEV Models by 2017 Sales". Gasgoo China Automotive News. 2018-01-18. Retrieved 2019-01-15. Sales of the BAIC EC series totaled 78,079 cars in 2018 and ranked as China's top selling plug-in car.
- "Domestic EV makers rival Tesla in China, can they win?". SDchina.com. 2021-02-05. Retrieved 2021-02-19. See table: Top 10 NEV sold in China in 2020.
- Schmidt, Matthias (2020-12-03). "Exclusive: Western Europe's plug-in electric car market surpasses 1 million landmark". Schmidt Automotive Research. Retrieved 2021-01-16.
- Jacobs, Frank (2021-01-07). "Yes, 2021 is the year EVs go mainstream". Fleet Europe. Retrieved 2021-01-12.
Close to 1.25 million EVs were sold in Europe in 2020, around 10% of the total
- Carrington, Damian (2021-01-19). "Global sales of electric cars accelerate fast in 2020 despite pandemic". The Guardian. Retrieved 2021-01-19.
The EV-volumes.com data showed the five highest national sales were in China (1.3m), Germany (0.4m), the US (0.3m), France and the UK (both 0.2m).Global sales of plug-ins cars totaled 3 million in 2020, 43% up from 2018. The market share of plug-in vehicles reached 4.2% of the global market, up from 2.5% in 2019. Tesla was the best selling brand with almost 500,000 units delivered.
- ""罚出来的"爆发式增长 欧洲新能源车销量首次超越中国" ["Punished" explosive growth, European new energy vehicle sales surpassed China for the first time] (in Chinese). Sina Finance. 2021-02-08. Retrieved 2021-02-08.
- LeSage, Jon (2017-02-06). "Renault Zoe Ekes By Mitsubishi Outlander in 2016 European Plug-in Sales". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2017-02-06.
- France Mobilité Électrique - AVERE France (2020-02-11). "En Europe, les ventes de voitures électriques en hausse de 80 % en 2019" [In Europe, sales of electric cars up 80% in 2019] (in French). AVERE. Retrieved 2020-05-16.
- Kraftfahrt-Bundesamtes (KBA) (12 January 2018). "Neuzulassungsbarometer im Dezember 2017" [New Registrations Barometer December 2017] (in German). KBA. Retrieved 12 January 2018. A total of 29,436 plug-in hybrids and 25,056 all-electric cars were registered in Germany in 2017.
- Kraftfahrt-Bundesamt (KBA) (January 2019). "Neuzulassungsbarometer im Dezember 2018" [New registration barometer in December 2018] (in German). KBA. Retrieved 2019-01-15. Click on the tab Kraftstoffarten for the market shares by fuel: Electric was 1.0% in 2018, and plug-in hybrid was 0.9%
- Kraftfahrt-Bundesamtes (KBA) (January 2020). "Neuzulassungsbarometer im Dezember 2019" [New Registrations Barometer December 2019] (in German). KBA. Retrieved 2019-05-14. See the tab Kraftsoffarten: A total of 45,348 plug-in hybrids (market share 1.3%) and 63,321 all-electric cars (market share 1.8%) were registered in Germany in 2019.
- Kraftfahrt-Bundesamtes (KBA) (2021-01-08). "Pressemitteilung Nr. 02/2021 - Fahrzeugzulassungen im Dezember 2020 - Jahresbilanz" [Press release No. 02/2021 - Vehicle registrations in December 2020 - Annual balance sheet] (in German). KBA. Retrieved 2021-01-10. A total of 394,632 plug-in electric passenger cars were registered in Germany in 2021, consisting of 200,469 plug-in hybrids (6.9% market share) and 194,163 all-electric cars (6.7% market share).
- France Mobilité Électrique - AVERE France (2021-01-08). "Baromètre des immatriculations - En décembre 2020, les véhicules électriques et hybrides rechargeables ont représenté plus de 16 % du marché français : du jamais vu !" [Registrations barometer - In December 2020, electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles represented more than 16% of the French market: unprecedented!] (in French). AVERE France. Retrieved 2021-01-23. See infograh "Parc Roulant et Immatriculations Annuelles depuis Janvier 2010" - As of December 2020, there were 470,295 plug-in electric cars and utility vans, consisting of 337,986 all-electric cars and vans, and 132,309 plug-in hybrids registered since 2010.
- Kraftfahrt-Bundesamtes (KBA) (2021-03-02). "Pressemitteilung Nr. 8/2021 - Der Fahrzeugbestand am 1. Januar 2021" [Press release No. 8/2021 - The number of vehicles on January 1st, 2021] (in German). KBA. Retrieved 2021-03-02.
The share of electric cars (BEV ) rose from 0.3 percent (136,617) on January 1, 2020 to 0.6 percent (309,083) and that of hybrid cars from 1.1 percent (539,383) to 2.1 percent (1.004.089). The number of plug-in hybrid vehicles grew from 102,175 to 279,861 (+ 173.9%). Their share tripled to 0.6 percent. (Translated from the original)
- Kraftfahrt-Bundesamtes (KBA) (2021-01-06). "Pressemitteilung Nr. 01/2021 - Elektromobilität in Deutschland auf der Überholspur" [Press release No. 01/2021 - Electromobility in Germany in the fast lane] (in German). KBA. Retrieved 2021-01-24.
In the case of cars with electric drive, this positive development was even more pronounced at +147.1 percent - here the share of the total stock rose from 0.5 percent to 1.2 percent (Translated from the original)The term electric drive used by KBA includes battery-electric, plug-in and fuel-cell cars.
- Norsk Elbilforening (Norwegian Electric Vehicle Association) (February 2021). "Electric vehicle fleet in Norway". Norsk Elbilforening. Retrieved 2021-02-26. Place the pointing device over the graph to show the cumulative number of electric vehicles and plug-in hybrids in Norway at the end of each year registered since 2010. As of 31 December 2020, cumulative light-duty plug-in electric vehicle registrations totaled 489,669 units, consisting of 346,822 all-electric battery electric vehicles and 142,847 plug-in hybrids.
- Norwegian Road Federation (OFV) (February 2021). "Bilsalget i januar 2021" [Car sales in January 2021] (in Norwegian). OFV. Retrieved 2021-03-01. A total of 9,255 plug-in cars and vans were sold in January 2021, including used imports.
- Norwegian Road Federation (OFV) (2021-03-01). "Bilsalget i februar 2021" [Car sales in February] (in Norwegian). OFV. Retrieved 2021-03-01. A total of 9,501 plug-in cars and vans were sold in February 2021, including used imports.
- Opplysningsrådet for Veitrafikken AS (OFV). "Bilsalget i 2017" [Car sales in 2017] (in Norwegian). OFV. Retrieved 2017-01-10.
- Norsk Elbilforening (Norwegian Electric Vehicle Association) (2017-01-05). "Elbilsalget: Ned i fjor – venter ny vekst i år" [EV Sales: Down from last year - awaiting new growth this year] (in Norwegian). Norsk Elbilforening. Retrieved 2017-01-18.
- Norwegian Road Federation (OFV) (2019-01-02). "Bilsalget i 2018" [Car sales in 2018] (in Norwegian). OFV. Retrieved 2019-01-09.
- Norwegian Road Federation (OFV) (January 2020). "Bilsalget i 2019" [Car sales in 2019] (in Norwegian). OFV. Retrieved 2020-02-10.
- Moberg, Knut (6 February 2017). "Bilsalget i januar 2017 - BMW foran Toyota" [Car sales in January 2017 - BMW surpassed Toyota]. Dinside.no (in Norwegian). Retrieved 10 February 2017.
- Agence France-Presse (6 March 2017). "Half of new cars in oil-rich Norway now electric or hybrid". eNCA. Retrieved 6 March 2017.
- Miley, Jessica (2 October 2018). "45% of New Cars Sold in Norway in September were All-Electric Vehicles". Interesting Engineering. Retrieved 10 November 2018.
Despite the huge increase in new electric cars on the road, EVs still only account for roughly 10% of all of Norway's vehicles.
- Figenbaum, Erik; Kolbenstvedt, Marika (June 2016). "Learning from Norwegian Battery Electric and Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle users". Institute of Transport Economics (TØI), Norwegian Centre for Transport Research. Retrieved 2016-08-17. TØI report 1492/2016. See pp. 1.
- Alister Doyle & Nerijus Adomaitis (2013-03-13). "Norway shows the way with electric cars, but at what cost?". Reuters. Retrieved 2013-03-15.
- Joly, David (2015-10-16). "Norway is A Model For Encouraging Electric Car Sales". The New York Times. Retrieved 2016-02-16.
- Agence France-Presse (2011-05-15). "Electric cars take off in Norway". The Independent. Retrieved 2011-10-09.
- AVERE (2012-06-07). "Norwegian Parliament extends electric car initiatives until 2018". AVERE. Archived from the original on 2013-10-24. Retrieved 2012-07-20.
- Kane, Mark (2020-07-03). "Renault EV Sales In France Is Booming: 17,650 ZOE Sold In H1 2020". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2020-07-20.
- France Mobilité Électrique - AVERE France (2021-03-04). "Baromètre, février 2021 - Les immatriculations d'électriques et d'hybrides rechargeables se maintiennent" [Barometer, February 2021 - Registrations of electric and plug-in hybrids hold up] (in French). AVERE France. Retrieved 2021-03-04. See infograh "Parc Roulant et Immatriculations Annuelles depuis Janvier 2010" - As of February 2021, a total of 504,354 plug-in electric passenger cars and commercial vans were registered in France, consisting of 354,729 all-electric cars and vans, and 149,625 plug-in hybrids in circulation.
- Autoactu.com (May 2016). "Chiffres de vente & immatriculations de voitures électriques en France" [Sales figures & electric car registrations in France] (in French). Automobile Propre. Retrieved 2016-05-14. See "Ventes de voitures électriques en 2016/2015, 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011 and 2010" It shows all electric car registrations between 2010 and 2016.
- Yoann Nussbaumer (2013-01-16). "+115% pour les ventes de voitures électriques en France pour 2012" [Electric car sales in France increased 115% in 2011] (in French). Automobile Propre. Retrieved 2015-02-03.
- France Mobilité Électrique – AVERE France (2016-01-08). "Immatriculations des hybrides rechargeables : La barre des 5.000 est franchie !" [Plug-in hybrid registrations: The 5,000 barrier is achieved!] (in French). AVERE. Retrieved 2016-05-14. A total of 5,006 plug-in hybrids were registered in France in 2015.
- France Mobilité Électrique - AVERE France (2019-01-09). "Baromètre annuel : près de 40 000 véhicules électriques immatriculés en France en 2018 !" [Annual barometer: nearly 40,000 electric vehicles registered in France in 2018!] (in French). AVERE. Retrieved 2019-01-18. A total of 53,745 light-duty plug-in electric vehicles were registered in France in 2018 consisting of 31,055 all-electric cars plus 1,148 REx vehicles, 8,103 electric utility vans, and 13,439 plug-in hybrid cars. The plug-in car segment achieved a market share of 2.1% of new car registrations in the country in 2018. Includes revised figures for 2017
- France Mobilité Électrique - AVERE France (2020-07-08). "Baromètre mensuel : un mois de juin 2020 record pour les immatriculations de véhicules électriques et hybrides rechargeables" [Monthly barometer: a record June 2020 for electric and plug-in hybrid vehicle registrations] (in French). AVERE France. Retrieved 2020-07-19. See infograh "Parc Roulant et Immatriculations Annuelles depuis Janvier 2010" - As of June 2020, there were 344,725 plug-in electric cars and utility vans, consisting of 267,120 all-electric cars and vans, and 77,605 plug-in hybrids registered since 2010.
- Jose, Pontes (2020-07-14). "France June 2020". EVSales.com. Retrieved 2020-07-19.
- Automobile Propre (August 2016). "Chiffres de vente & immatriculations d'utilitaires électriques en France" [Sales figures & electric utility van registrations in France] (in French). Automobile Propre. Retrieved 2016-10-02. See "Ventes d’utilitaires électriques en 2016/2015/2014 for all-electric utility van registrations. Light-duty electric vehicles reached a 1.22% market share of new van sales in the country in 2014, and rose to 1.30% in 2015.
- Lane, Ben (2021-02-08). "EV sales grow by more than 50% vs January 2020". UK: Next Green Car. Retrieved 2021-03-04.
...the cumulative total of plug-in vehicles on UK roads to over 450,000 (approx. 210,000 BEVs and 240,000 PHEVs).
- Lane, Ben (December 2020). "Electric car market statistics". UK: Next Green Car. Retrieved 2021-03-01.
- Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders(SMMT) (2014-01-07). "December 2013 – EV registrations". SMT. Retrieved 2014-01-12. A total of 2,254 plug-in electric cars were registered in 2013.
- Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders (SMMT) (2018-01-05). "December – EV registrations". SMMT. Retrieved 2018-01-11.Registrations in 2017 totaled 47,263 plug-in electric vehicles consisting of 13,597 all-electric cars and 33,6663 plug-in hybrids. Of these, a total of 45,187 cars were eligible for the Plug-in Car Grant. Since its launch in 2011, a total of 127,509 cars eligible for the PICG have been registered through December 2017. A total of 2,540,617 new cars were registered in 2017, resulting in a plug-in electric car market share of 1.86% of new car sales.
- Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders (SMMT) (2019-01-07). "December – EV registrations". SMMT. Retrieved 2019-01-17.Registrations in 2018 totaled 59,911 plug-in electric vehicles consisting of 15,474 all-electric cars and 44,437 plug-in hybrids. A total of 2,367,147 new cars were registered in 2018, resulting in a plug-in electric car market share of 2.53% of new car sales.
- Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders(SMMT) (2015-01-07). "December 2014 – EV registrations". SMT. Retrieved 2015-01-08. A total of 14,518 plug-in electric cars were registered during 2014, consisting of 6,697 pure electrics and 7,821 plug-in hybrids, up from 3,586 plug-in electric cars were registered in 2013. A total of 2,476,435 new cars were registered in 2014.
- Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders (SMMT) (2021-01-06). "UK automotive looks to green recovery strategy after -29.4% fall in new car registrations in 2020". SMMT. Retrieved 2021-02-22.
- Jose, Pontes (2021-01-07). "Netherlands December 2020". EVSales.com. Retrieved 2021-03-02.
- "Statistics Electric Vehicles in the Netherlands (up to and including December 2020)" (PDF). Rijksdienst voor Ondernemend Nederland (RVO) - Dutch National Office for Enterprising -. RVO. February 2021. Retrieved 2021-02-02. As of 31 December 2020, there were 297,380 highway-legal light-duty plug-in electric vehicles registered (in use) in the Netherlands, consisting of 182,481 fully electric cars, 108,652 plug-in hybrids, and 6,247 all-electric light utility vans. The total number of all classes of plug-in electric vehicles (including buses, heavy-duty truck, mopeds, etc.) on the road totaled 382,721 units. Source includes figures from 2016 to 2020. Sales of plug-in passenger cars totaled 87,946 vehicles and the segment market share was 24.6%.
- Cobb, Jeff (2016-09-01). "Americans Buy Their Half-Millionth Plug-in Car: Concentration of plug-in electrified car registrations per 1,000 people". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2016-09-04. As of July 2016, Norway had a concentration of registered plug-in cars per 1,000 people of 21.52, the Netherlands of 5.63, California of 5.83, and the United States national average was 1.52.
- "Elektrisch Rijden – Personenauto's en laadpunten Analyse over 2018" [Electric Driving - Passenger cars and charging points - Analysis for 2018] (PDF). Rijksdienst voor Ondernemend Nederland (RVO) - Dutch National Office for Enterprising - (in Dutch). RVO. January 2019. Retrieved 2020-05-11. As of 31 December 2018, there were 145,882 highway legal light-duty plug-in electric vehicles registered in the Netherlands, consisting of 97,702 plug-in hybrids, 44,984 pure electric cars, and 3,196 all-electric light utility vans. With a total of 24,273 Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEVs registered by the end of December 2018, the plug-in hybrid is the all-time top selling plug-in electric vehicle in the Netherlands. The Tesla Model S is the best selling all-electric car with 12,990 units registered.
- Cobb, Jeff (2016-05-09). "Norway Is Fourth Country To Register 100,000 Plug-in Cars". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2016-05-09. As of April 2016, the United States is the leading country market with a stock of about 450,000 highway legal light-duty plug-in electric vehicles delivered since 2008. China ranks second with around 300,000 units sold since 2011, followed by Japan with about 150,000 plug-in units sold since 2009, both through March 2016. European sales are led by Norway with over 100,000 units registered by the end of April 2016.
- Argonne National Laboratory (February 2021). "Light Duty Electric Drive Vehicles Monthly Sales Updates: Plug-In Vehicle Sales". Argonne National Laboratory. Retrieved 2021-03-01.
Cumulatively, 30,913 PHEVs and BEVs have been sold in 2021. In total, 1,769,953 PHEVs and BEVs have been sold since 2010.
- Cobb, Jeff (2017-01-05). "December 2016 Dashboard". HybridCars.com and Baum & Associates. Retrieved 2016-12-06. Plug-in electric car sales in the U.S. totaled 157,181 units, consisting of 84,246 all-electric cars and 72,935 plug-in hybrids. The plug-in car segment achieved a market share of 0.90% of new car sales. December sales totaled 23,288 units with a market share of 1.39%. The top selling model in 2016 was the Tesla Model S with 29,156 units sold, followed by the Chevrolet Volt(24,739) and the Tesla Model X (18,028).
- Steven Loveday (2019-01-07). "December 2018 U.S. EV Sales Recap: Over 360K Secured!". Inside EVs. Retrieved 2019-01-20.
- Loveday, Steven (17 January 2020). "FINAL UPDATE: Quarterly Plug-In EV Sales Scorecard". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 8 May 2020. See Chart: "2019 Monthly/Q4 Sales Chart : Annual" - Cumulative sales in the U.S. totaled 329,528 units in 2019, and the top selling models were the Tesla Model 3 with 158,925 units, the Toyota Prius Prime with 23,630, The Tesla Model X with 19,225, the Chevrolet Bolt EV with 16,418 and the Tesla Model S with 14,100 units.
- Cobb, Jeff (2016-01-06). "December 2015 Dashboard". HybridCars.com and Baum & Associates. Retrieved 2016-02-13. Plug-in electric car sales in the U.S. totaled 114,248 units in 2015, consisting of 71,105 all-electric cars and 43,143 plug-in hybrids, with corresponding market shares of 0.25% and 0.41%. Sales in 2014 totaled 123,347 units.
- Jeff Cobb (2013-01-08). "December 2012 Dashboard". HybridCars.com and Baum & Associates. Retrieved 2013-01-14. See the section: December 2012 Plug-in Electric Car Sales Numbers. A total of 53,172 plug-in electric vehicles were sold during 2012. Sales of the Fisker Karma, Coda and Wheego are not included, as these carmakers do not report monthly sales on a regular basis.
- Cobb, Jeff (2018-01-04). "December 2017 Dashboard". HybridCars.com and Baum & Associates. Retrieved 2018-01-21. The plug-in car segment achieved a market share of 1.13% of new car sales in 2017.
- Irle, Roland. "USA Plug-in Sales for 2018 Full Year". EV-volumes.com. Retrieved 2019-01-20.
- Kane, Mark (2019-01-24). "US Plug-In Electric Car Sales Charted: December 2018". InsideEVs. Retrieved 2019-01-24. See Graph: "Top 10 U.S. Plug-in cars (cumulative sales)" and "U.S. Plug-in Car Sales (cumulative)"
- Kane, Mark (2020-01-11). "The Top 10 Plug-In Electric Cars In U.S. - 2019 Edition". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2020-05-19. At the end of 2019, the all-time top selling plug-in cars in the U.S. were the Tesla Model 3 with 300,471 units, Tesla Model S with 157,992, Chevrolet Volt with 157,054 units, Nissan Leaf with 141,907 and the Toyota Prius PHV with 109,003 (by September 2019).
- "Nissan LEAF sales surpass 100,000 in Japan" (Press release). Yokohama: Nissan. 2018-04-20. Retrieved 2018-12-02.
- Kane, Mark (2016-04-02). "Plug-In Electric Car Sales Visualized From 2011 to 2015". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2016-06-19.
- Jose Pontes (2018-02-02). "Japan December 2017". EV Sales. Retrieved 2018-02-17. About 56,000 plug-in electric cars were sold in Japan in 2017.
- Pontes, Jose (2019-01-29). "Japan December 2018". EVSales.com. Retrieved 2019-02-01. A total of 52,013 plug-in cars were sold in Japan in 2018, with a market share of 1.0%. The Nissan Leaf was the top selling plug-in model with 25,722 units, followed by the Prius PHEV with 12,401 units.
- Shirouzu, Norihiko; Lienert, Paul (2015-10-28). "Auto power play: Japan's hydrogen car vs China's battery drive". Reuters. Retrieved 2016-06-19.
- Deign, Jason (2015-02-10). "Japan Makes a Big Bet on the Hydrogen Economy". Green Tech Media. Retrieved 2016-06-19.
- C.J. Moore (2021-02-14). "Tesla's commanding lead in U.S. EVs illustrated by registration report". Automotive News. Retrieved 2021-02-14. According to Experian, in 2020 the top U.S. EVs by registrations were the Tesla Model 3 with 95,135 units.
- Gauthier, Michael (2020-02-19). "European Car Sales Climbed To 15.7 Million Units Last Year, Tesla Model 3 Is The EV Champion". Carscoops. Retrieved 2020-05-16. Sales of the Tesla Model 3 in Europe totaled 94,495 units in 2019 (Europe 23) and topped sales in the region in the EV segment.
- Attwood, James (2021-01-27). "Renault Zoe eclipses Tesla Model 3 as Europe's best-selling EV". AutoCar UK. Retrieved 2021-02-14. According to Jato Dynamics, 85,713 Tesla Model 3 cars and 30,916 Leafs were sold in Europe in 2020.
- Musk, Jonathan (2019-12-19). "Nissan drops Leaf pricing". Fleet World. Retrieved 2020-05-19.
With almost 440,000 sold since 2010, the model remains the world’s best-selling electric vehicle, and also in the UK where it has received more than 32,000 orders. European sales currently stand at 150,000, the company said.
- Øystein B. Fossum (2021-01-19). "Mest solgte noensinne" [Most sold ever] (in Norwegian). Dinside.no. Retrieved 2021-02-25. The Nissan Leaf is the all-time best selling electric car in Norway, with 65,528 units registered through 2020.
- Kane, Mark (2021-01-08). "US: Nissan LEAF Sales Were Decent In Q4, But 2020 Was Its Worst Year Ever". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2021-01-08.
- Kane, Mark (2021-01-17). "Japan: Over 11,000 Nissan LEAFs Were Sold In 2020". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2021-01-17.
The cumulative LEAF sales stand at 146,216
- Cobb, Jeff (2018-01-22). "Tesla Quietly Sold 200,000th Model S Last Year". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2018-01-22. "Tesla sold its 200,000 Model S in the fourth quarter of 2017, in October or early November, becoming the second plug-in car to cross this sales threshold after the Nissan Leaf (300,000 units by early 2017). As of December 2017, Tesla reported global sales of 212,874 Model S cars."
- "Tesla Q1 2018 Vehicle Production and Deliveries". Palo Alto: Tesla. 2018-04-03. Retrieved 2018-09-02. Q1 deliveries totaled 11,730 Model S cars and 10,070 Model X.
- "Tesla Second Quarter 2018 Delivery". Palo Alto: Tesla. 2018-07-02. Retrieved 2018-09-02. Q2 deliveries totaled 10,930 Model S cars and 11,370 Model X.
- "Tesla Q3 2018 Vehicle Production and Deliveries". Palo Alto: Tesla. 2018-10-02. Retrieved 2018-10-20. Q3 deliveries totaled 55,840 Model 3 cars, 14,470 Model S, and 13,190 Model X.
- "Tesla Fourth Quarter 2018 Delivery". Palo Alto: Tesla. 2019-01-05. Retrieved 2019-01-07.
Q4 deliveries grew to 90,700 vehicles, which was 8% more than our prior all time-high in Q3. This included 63,150 Model 3 (13% growth over Q3), 13,500 Model S, and 14,050 Model X vehicles. In 2018, we delivered a total of 245,240 vehicles: 145,846 Model 3 and 99,394 Model S and X.
- "Renault, Leader of EV Sales in Europe" (Press release). Île-de-France: Groupe Renualt. 2020-12-07. Retrieved 2021-02-21.
ZOE remains the number 1 most sold electric passenger car in Europe. More than 268,000 ZOE have been sold in Europe since its launch (As of November 2020).
- Kane, Mark (2020-10-04). "See The Best Selling Battery Electric Cars Of All-Time Here". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2020-10-05.
- Jose, Pontes (2020-10-02). "Milestone of the Month: 100k models". EVSales.com. Retrieved 2020-10-05.
- "Tesla Fourth Quarter & Full Year 2018 Update". Palo Alto: Tesla. 2019-01-30. Retrieved 2019-01-30.
In Q4, we delivered 63,359 Model 3 vehicles to customers in North America.
- "Investor Communication: Tesla Q1 2020 Update". Investor relations (Press release). Tesla, Inc. 2020-04-29. Retrieved 2020-05-16.
Model 3/Y Production 87,282 Deliveries 76,266 (1Q 2020)Includes updated production and sales figures from 1Q 2019 through 1Q 2020.
- "_Update_Letter_2017-3Q.pdf Tesla Third Quarter 2017 Update". Tesla. 2017-11-01. Archived from the original on 2018-01-11. Retrieved 2018-05-27.
In Q3, we delivered 25,915 Model S and Model X vehicles and 222 Model 3 vehicles, for a total of 26,137 deliveries
- "Tesla Fourth Quarter & Full Year 2017 Update" (PDF). Tesla (Press release). Palo Alto: Tesla. 2017-02-07. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2018-02-08. Retrieved 2018-10-20. A total of 1,542 Model 3 vehicles were delivered in Q4 2018.
- Groupe Renaul (2020-03-19). "2019 Universal Registration Document" (PDF). Renault. Retrieved 2020-05-22. See pp. 24 and 39. Since the launch of the Renault electric program, the Group has sold more than 252,000 electric vehicles in Europe and more than 273,550 electric vehicles worldwide. Since inception, a total of 181,893 Zoe cars, 48,821 Kangoo Z.E. electric vans and 29,118 Twitzy quadricycles have been sold globally through December 2019. Global sales of the Zoe totaled 48,269 units in 2019, and Kangoo ZE totaled 10,349.
- Groupe Renault (January 2021). "Ventes Mensuelles - Statistiques commerciales mensuelles du groupe Renault" [Monthly Sales - Monthly sales statistics of the Renault Group] (in French). Renault.com. Retrieved 2021-02-21. Sales figures includes passenger and light utility variants. Click on the corresponding link to download the file "GROUPE RENAULT - MONTHLY SALES DECEMBER 2020 XLSX - 806 KB", and open the tab "Sales by Model" to access sales figures for 2019 and 2020. Global Zoe sales totaled 102,868 units in 2020 (16,035 in December 2020), and European registrations totaled 100,815 units, including both passenger and LCV variants.
- Zentrum für Sonnenenergieund Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Württemberg (ZSW) (2020-02-26). "ZSW analysis shows global number of EVs at 7.9 million". electrive.com. Retrieved 2020-05-17. See table: Global cumulative EV registrations (by models)
- "BAIC Beijing EC180". Carsalesbase.com. January 2019. Retrieved 2019-01-28. Sales of the BAIC EC series totaled 4,128 units in 2016, 78,079 in 2017 and 90,637 in 2018.
- "Six years of BMW i3: Electric vehicle pioneers drive over 200,000 km in their BMW i3" (Press release). Munich: BMW Group. 2020-02-01. Retrieved 2020-05-17.
Since its market launch, the BMW i3 has been the most widely sold electric vehicle in the premium compact segment with more than 165,000 units already sold worldwide
- Tesla, Inc. (2017-04-02). "Tesla Q1 2017 Vehicle Production and Deliveries" (Press release). Palo Alto: Market Wired. Retrieved 2018-05-26.
Tesla (NASDAQ: TSLA) delivered just over 25,000 vehicles in Q1, of which approx 13,450 were Model S and approx 11,550 were Model X.
- "UPDATE - Tesla Q2 2017 Vehicle Production and Deliveries (NASDAQ:TSLA)". ir.tesla.com. Retrieved 2017-09-28.
- "Telsa Production Q3 2017". Retrieved 2018-05-26.
- Tesla, Inc. (2018-01-03). "Tesla Q4 2017 Vehicle Production and Deliveries" (Press release). Palo Alto: Market Wired. Retrieved 2018-05-26.
Tesla (NASDAQ: TSLA) delivered 29,870 vehicles, of which 15,200 were Model S, 13,120 were Model X, and 1,550 were Model 3
- Fernyhough, James (2021-03-03). "Electric vehicles tipped to reach 58pct of new car sales in China by 2030". The Driven. Retrieved 2021-03-03.
Since its launch in July well over 160,000 units have been sold, all of them in Asia.
- "Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV Hits 200,000 Global Sales Milestones" (Press release). Tokyo: Mitsubishi Motors Corporation (MMC). 2019-04-11. Retrieved 2019-04-12.
- Esther de Aragón (2020-06-11). "El Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV consigue llegar a la cifra récord de ventas de 250.000 unidades" [Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV achieves record sales of 250,000 units]. Automotive News Europe (in Spanish). movilidadeléctrica.com. Retrieved 2020-06-16.
- Kane, Mark (2019-03-13). "Outlander PHEV Is Best-Selling Mitsubishi In Europe". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2019-04-12.
- "New (MY19) Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV - Summer 2018" (PDF) (Press release). Mitsubishi Motors. 2018. Retrieved 2018-10-29. See tables in pp. 3-4.
- Zentrum für Sonnenenergieund Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Württemberg (ZSW) (2021-03-09). "Electric Cars on the Rise: Global Count Climbs to 10.9 Million - ZSW Data service". ZSW. Retrieved 2021-03-09. "See table: Global cumulative EV registrations" by models (selection)
- "Toyota sells 1.52 million electrified vehicles in 2017, three years ahead of 2020 target" (Press release). Toyota City, Japan: Toyota. 2018-02-02. Retrieved 2018-10-29.
- Kane, Mark (2019-01-25). "Top 3 Plug-In Hybrid Cars In U.S. In 2018: Prius Prime, Clarity, Volt". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2019-01-27. The Chevrolet Volt is the best selling plug-in electric car in the U.S. with 152,144 units sold through the end of 2018. American sales totaled 20,349 units in 2017 and 18,306 in 2018. Combined sales of both generations of the Toyota Prius plug-in hybrid totaled more than 93,000 units
- "46% of Toyota Motor Europe (TME) sales in H1 are self-charging hybrid electric vehicles" (Press release). Brussels: Toyota Europe Newsroom. 2018-07-11. Retrieved 2019-02-01. Toyota sold 1,693 Prius PHEV during the first half of 2018.
- Cobb, Jeff (2017-01-09). "Nissan's Quarter-Millionth Leaf Means It's The Best-Selling Plug-in Car In History". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2017-01-10. As of December 2016, the Nissan Leaf is the world's best-selling plug-in car in history with more than 250,000 units delivered, followed by the Tesla Model S with over 158,000 sales, and the Volt/Ampera family of vehicles with 134,500 vehicles sold.
- "Chevrolet Volt Sales Numbers". GM Authority. January 2019. Retrieved 2019-02-01. Canadian sales totaled 4,313 units in 2017 and 4,114 in 2018 through November.
- Cain, Timothy (October 2018). "Chevrolet Volt Sales Figures". Good Car Bad Car. Retrieved 2018-12-01.
- "Buick Velite 5 ( Chinese Car Sales Data)". Car Sales Base. Retrieved 2019-02-01. Buick Velite 5 sales in China totaled 1,629 units in 2017 and 2,688 in 2018.
- Cobb, Jeff (2016-12-12). "Chevy Volt and Nissan Leaf Celebrate Their Sixth-Year Anniversary". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2016-12-14. Global cumulative sales of plug-in electric vehicles totaled about 1.9 million units through November 2016. The Nissan Leaf is the world's leading plug-in car with more than 240,000 units delivered. As of November 2016, the Tesla Model S ranks next with over 151,000, followed by the Vollt/Ampera family of vehicles with 130,500 vehicles sold including over 10,000 Opel/Vauxhall Amperas sold in Europe, the Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV with about 116,500 units, and the Toyota Prius PHV with about 76,200.
- Kane, Mark (2018-01-26). "BYD #1 In World For Plug-In Electric Car Sales In 2017, Beats Tesla Again". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2018-10-31. During 2017, BYD Qin sales totaled 20,738 units and BYD Tang totaled 14,592 units.
- Staff (2017-01-19). "Best-selling China-made EVs in 2016". China Auto Web. Retrieved 2017-01-25. Three BYD Auto models topped the Chinese ranking of best-selling new energy passenger cars in 2016. The BYD Tang SUV was the top selling plug-in electric car in China in 2016 with 31,405 units sold, followed by the BYD Qin with 21,868 units sold, and ranking third overall in 2016 was the BYD e6 with 20,605 units.
- Staff (2016-02-13). "Best-selling China-made SUVs in 2015". China Auto Web. Retrieved 2016-01-17. A total of 18,375 Tangs were sold in China in 2015.
- Staff (2016-02-11). "Opel bringt 2017 neues Elektroauto" [Opel brings new electric car in 2017]. Autohaus.de (in German). Retrieved 2019-02-01. About 10,000 Opel Amperas were sold in Europe by the end of 2015.
- Jeff Cobb (2015-11-04). "GM Sells Its 100,000th Volt in October". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2015-11-04.About 102,000 units of the Volt/Ampera family have been sold worldwide by the end of October 2015.
- Mike Costello (2015-04-25). "The Holden Volt is dead". Car Advice. Retrieved 2019-02-01.
- Application of Life-Cycle Assessment to Nanoscale Technology: Lithium-ion Batteries for Electric Vehicles, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, April 2013.
- Clean Vehicle Rebate Project website
- Competitive Electric Town Transport, Institute of Transport Economics (TØI), Oslo, August 2015.
- Cradle-to-Grave Lifecycle Analysis of U.S. Light-Duty Vehicle-Fuel Pathways: A Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Economic Assessment of Current (2015) and Future (2025–2030) Technologies (includes BEVs and PHEVs), Argonne National Laboratory, June 2016.
- Driving Electrification – A Global Comparison of Fiscal Incentive Policy for Electric Vehicles, International Council on Clean Transportation, May 2014.
- Effects of Regional Temperature on Electric Vehicle Efficiency, Range, and Emissions in the United States, Tugce Yuksel and Jeremy Michalek, Carnegie Mellon University. 2015
- eGallon Calculator: Compare the costs of driving with electricity, U.S. Department of Energy
- Electric Vehicle Timeline: Electric Cars, Plug-In Hybrids, and Fuel Cell Vehicles (1900–2014), Union of Concerned Scientists
- EV Everywhere Grand Challenge Blueprint, U.S. Department of Energy, January 2013.
- From Fiction to Reality: The Evolution of Electric Vehicles 2013 – 2015, JATO Dynamics, November 2015.
- Global EV Outlook 2013– Understanding the Electric Vehicle Landscape to 2020, International Energy Agency (IEA), April 2013
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- NHTSA Interim Guidance Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles Equipped with High Voltage Batteries – Vehicle Owner/General Public
- NHTSA Interim Guidance Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles Equipped with High Voltage Batteries – Law Enforcement/Emergency Medical Services/Fire Department
- New Energy Tax Credits for Electric Vehicles purchased in 2009
- Overview of Tax Incentives for Electrically Chargeable Vehicles in the E.U.
- PEVs Frequently Asked Questions
- Plug-in Electric Vehicles: Challenges and Opportunities, American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, June 2013
- Powering Ahead – The future of low-carbon cars and fuels, the RAC Foundation and UK Petroleum Industry Association, April 2013.
- Plugging In: A Consumer's Guide to the Electric Vehicle Electric Power Research Institute
- Plug-in America website
- Plug-in Cars website
- Plug-in Electric Vehicle Deployment in the Northeast Georgetown Climate Center
- Plug-In Electric Vehicles: A Case Study of Seven Markets (Norway, Netherlands, California, United States, France, Japan, and Germany), UC Davis, October 2014.
- Plug-in Tracker: A comprehensive list of highway-capable PEVs (cars and trucks, 2- and 3-wheeled and commercial vehicles)
- Plug-in List of Registered Charging Stations in the USA
- RechargeIT plug-in driving experiment (Google.org)
- Shades of Green – Electric Car's Carbon Emissions Around the Globe, Shrink that Footprint, February 2013.
- State of the Plug-in Electric Vehicle Market, Electrification Coalition, July 2013.
- The Great Debate – All-Electric Cars vs. Plug-In Hybrids, April 2014
- UK Plug-in Car Grant website
- Transport Action Plan: Urban Electric Mobility Initiative, United Nations, Climate Summit 2014, September 2014
- U.S. Federal & State Incentives & Laws
- U.S. State and Federal Incentives for EVs, PHEVs and Charge Stations
- US Tax Incentives for Plug-in Hybrids and Electric Cars
- Will Electric Cars Transform the U.S. Vehicle Market? Belfer Center, Harvard University
- David B. Sandalow, ed. (2009). Plug-In Electric Vehicles: What Role for Washington? (1st. ed.). The Brookings Institution. ISBN 978-0-8157-0305-1.
- Mitchell, William J.; Borroni-Bird, Christopher; Burns, Lawrence D. (2010). Reinventing the Automobile: Personal Urban Mobility for the 21st Century (1st. ed.). The MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-01382-6. Archived from the original on 2010-06-09. Retrieved 2010-07-18.