Nawab of Awadh

The Nawab of Awadh or the Nawab of Oudh /ˈd/ was the title of the rulers who governed the state of Awadh (anglicised as Oudh) in north India during the 18th and 19th centuries. The Nawabs of Awadh belonged to a dynasty of Persian origin from Nishapur, Iran.[1][2][3] In 1724, Nawab Sa'adat Khan established the Oudh State with their capital in Faizabad and Lucknow.

Nawab of Awadh
1732–1856
Flag
Map of Oudh state in 1795.
CapitalFaizabad
Lucknow
Common languagesUrdu
Nawab 
 1722
Saadat Ali Khan I (first)
 1818
Saadat Ali Khan II (last)
History 
 Established
1732
 Disestablished
1856
Area
62,072 km2 (23,966 sq mi)
Currencyrupee
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Mughal Empire
British East India Company
North Western Provinces

History

The Nawabs of Awadh were semi-autonomous rulers within the fragmented polities of Mughal India after the death of Aurangzeb. They fought wars with the Peshwa, the Battle of Bhopal against the Maratha Confederacy which was opposed to the Mughal Empire, and the Battle of Karnal as courtiers of the "Great Moghul".[4]

The Nawab of Awadh, along with many other Nawab were regarded as members of the nobility of the greater Mughal Empire. They joined Ahmad Shah Durrani during the Third Battle of Panipat and restored the imperial throne Shah Alam II. The Nawab of Awadh also fought the Battle of Buxar in the aftermath of the Battle of Plassey, preserving the interests of the Moghul. Oudh State eventually declared itself independent from the rule of the "Great Moghul" in 1818.[5]

List of rulers

All of these rulers used the title of Nawab from 1722 to 1856:

Portrait Titular Name Personal Name Birth Reign Death
Burhan ul Mulk Sa'adat Khan
برہان الملک سعادت خان
Saadat Ali Khan I 1680 Nishapur, Khurasan, Safavid dynasty, Persia 1722 – 19 March 1739 1739
Abul-Mansur Khan Safdar Jung
ابو المنصور خان صفدرجنگ
Muhammad Muqim 1708 1739 – 5 October 1754 1754
Shuja-ud-Daula
شجاع الدولہ
Jalal-ud-din Haider Abul-Mansur Khan 1732 1754 – 26 January 1775 1775
Asaf-ud-Daula
آصف الدولہ
Muhammad Yahya Mirza Amani 1748 26 January 1775 – 21 September 1797 1798
Asif Jah Mirza Wazir Ali Khan
وزیر علی خان
1780 21 September 1797 – 21 January 1798 1817
Yamin-ud-Daula Saadat Ali Khan II
سعادت علی خان
1752 21 January 1798 – 11 July 1814 1814
Rafa'at-ud-Daula
Padshah-i-Awadh
Abul-Muzaffar Ghazi-ud-din Haydar Khan
غازی الدیں حیدر
1769 11 July 1814 – 19 October 1827 1827
Nasir-ud-din Haidar Shah Jahan
ناصر الدیں حیدر شاہ ‌جہاں
Abul-Mansur Qutb-ud-din Sulaiman Jah 1827 19 October 1827 – 7 July 1837 1837
Abul Fateh Moin-ud-din Muhammad Ali Shah
محمّد علی شاہ
1777 7 July 1837 – 7 May 1842 1842
Najm-ud-Daula Abul-Muzaffar Musleh-ud-din Amjad Ali Shah
امجد علی شاہ
1801 7 May 1842 – 13 February 1847 1847
Abul-Mansur Mirza Wajid Ali Shah
واجد علی شاہ
1822 13 February 1847 – 11 February 1856 1 September 1887
Begum Hazrat Mahal
بیگم حضرت محل
Muhammadi Khanum 1820 May 1856 – 1858
Wife of Wajid Ali Shah and mother of Birjis Qadra
7 April 1879
Birjis Qadr
برجیس قدر
Ramzan Ali
رمضان علی
1845 1858–1859
(in rebellion)
14 August 1893

See also

  • Begum Hazrat Mahal
  • List of Shi'a Muslims dynasties
  • Shatranj Ke Khilari

References

  1. Sacred space and holy war: the politics, culture and history of Shi'ite Islam By Juan Ricardo Cole
  2. Encyclopædia Iranica, , R. B. Barnett
  3. Art and culture: endeavours in interpretation by Ahsan Jan Qaisar, Som Prakash Verma, Mohammad Habib
  4. King Wajid Ali Shah of Awadh. Retrieved 17 September 2020.
  5. "As children, we wanted revenge on the British". The Times of India. 30 September 2016. Retrieved 13 April 2019.

Further reading

  • Ashirbadi Lal Srivastava (1899-1973): The First Two Nawabs of Awadh. A critical study based on original sources. With a foreword by Sir Jadunath Sarkar. Lucknow : The Upper India Publishing House 1933. xi, 301 S. - Originally Phil. Diss. Lucknow 1932. 2. rev. and corr. ed. Agra : Shiv Lal Agarwal 1954. - About Burhan ul Mulk Sa'adat Khan (1680-1739) and Safdar Jang (1708-1754), Nawabs of Awadh
  • Ashirbadi Lal Srivastava (1899-1973): Shuja-ud-Daulah. Vol. I (1754-1765). Calcutta : Sarkar Midland Press 1939 - A thesis approved for the degree of doctor of letters by the Agra University in 1938. 2., rev. and corr. ed. Agra : Shiva Lal Agarwala 1961. - Vol. II (1765-1775) Lahore : Minerva 1945. 2. ed. Agra : Agarwal 1974. - About Shuja-ud-Daula (1732-1775), Nawab of Awadh
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