Month

A month is a unit of time, used with calendars, that is approximately as long as a natural orbital period of the Moon; the words month and Moon are cognates. The traditional concept arose with the cycle of Moon phases; such lunar months ("lunations") are synodic months and last approximately 29.53 days. From excavated tally sticks, researchers have deduced that people counted days in relation to the Moon's phases as early as the Paleolithic age. Synodic months, based on the Moon's orbital period with respect to the Earth-Sun line, are still the basis of many calendars today, and are used to divide the year.

Types of months in astronomy

The following types of months are mainly of significance in astronomy, most of them (but not the distinction between sidereal and tropical months) first recognized in Babylonian lunar astronomy.

  1. The sidereal month is defined as the Moon's orbital period in a non-rotating frame of reference (which on average is equal to its rotation period in the same frame). It is about 27.32166 days (27 days, 7 hours, 43 minutes, 11.6 seconds). It is closely equal to the time it takes the Moon to pass twice a "fixed" star (different stars give different results because all have a very small proper motion and are not really fixed in position).
  2. A synodic month is the most familiar lunar cycle, defined as the time interval between two consecutive occurrences of a particular phase (such as new moon or full moon) as seen by an observer on Earth. The mean length of the synodic month is 29.53059 days (29 days, 12 hours, 44 minutes, 2.8 seconds). Due to the eccentricity of the lunar orbit around Earth (and to a lesser degree, the Earth's elliptical orbit around the Sun), the length of a synodic month can vary by up to seven hours.
  3. The tropical month is the average time for the Moon to pass twice through the same equinox point of the sky. It is 27.32158 days, very slightly shorter than the sidereal month (27.32166) days, because of precession of the equinoxes.
  4. An anomalistic month is the average time the Moon takes to go from perigee to perigee—the point in the Moon's orbit when it is closest to Earth. An anomalistic month is about 27.55455 days on average.
  5. The draconic month, draconitic month, or nodal month is the period in which the Moon returns to the same node of its orbit; the nodes are the two points where the Moon's orbit crosses the plane of the Earth's orbit. Its duration is about 27.21222 days on average.

A synodic month is longer than a sidereal month because the Earth-Moon system is orbiting the Sun in the same direction as the Moon is orbiting the Earth. The Sun moves eastward with respect to the stars (as does the Moon) and it takes about 2.2 days longer for the Moon to return to the same apparent position with respect to the Sun.

An anomalistic month is longer than a sidereal month because the perigee moves in the same direction as the Moon is orbiting the Earth, one revolution in nine years. Therefore, the Moon takes a little longer to return to perigee than to return to the same star.

A draconic month is shorter than a sidereal month because the nodes move in the opposite direction as the Moon is orbiting the Earth, one revolution in 18.6 years. Therefore, the Moon returns to the same node slightly earlier than it returns to the same star.

Calendrical consequences

At the simplest level, most well-known lunar calendars are based on the initial approximation that 2 lunations last 59 solar days: a 30-day full month followed by a 29-day hollow month—but this is only roughly accurate and eventually needs intercalation (correction). Additionally, the synodic month does not fit easily into the solar (or 'tropical') year, which makes accurate, rule-based 'lunisolar' calendars complicated. The most common solution to this problem is the Metonic cycle, which takes advantage of the fact that 235 lunations are approximately 19 tropical years (which add up to not quite 6,940 days). However, a Metonic calendar will drift against the seasons by about one day every 200 years. Metonic calendars include the calendar used in the Antikythera Mechanism about 2,000 years ago, and the Hebrew calendar.

The complexity required in an accurate lunisolar calendar may explain why solar calendars (which have months which no longer relate to the phase of the Moon, but are based only on the motion of the Sun relative to the equinoxes and solstices) have generally replaced lunar calendars for civil use in most societies. Conversely, exclusively lunar calendars such as the Islamic calendar, do not try to synchronise with the solar year. (Consequently, an Islamic year is shorter than a solar year and the Islamic New Year has a different Gregorian calendar date in each (solar) year.)

Months in various calendars

Beginning of the lunar month

The Hellenic calendars, the Hebrew Lunisolar calendar and the Islamic Lunar calendar started the month with the first appearance of the thin crescent of the new moon.

However, the motion of the Moon in its orbit is very complicated and its period is not constant. The date and time of this actual observation depends on the exact geographical longitude as well as latitude, atmospheric conditions, the visual acuity of the observers, etc. Therefore, the beginning and lengths of months defined by observation cannot be accurately predicted.

While some like orthodox Islam and the Jewish Karaites still rely on actual moon observations, reliance on astronomical calculations and tabular methods is increasingly common in practice.[1][2]

Pingelapese, a language from Micronesia, also uses a lunar calendar. There are 12 months associated with their calendar. The moon first appears in March, they name this month Kahlek. This system has been used for hundreds of years and throughout many generations. This calendar is cyclical and relies on the position and shape of the moon.[3]

Roman calendar

Roman calendar was reformed several times, the last three enduring reforms during historical times. The last three reformed Roman calendars are called the Julian, Augustan, and Gregorian; all had the same number of days in their months. Despite other attempts, the names of the months after the Augustan calendar reform have persisted, and the number of days in each month (except February) have remained constant since before the Julian reform. The Gregorian calendar, like the Roman calendars before it, has twelve months, whose Anglicized names are:

OrderNameNumber
of days
1 January31
2 February 28
29 in leap years
3 March31
4 April30
5 May31
6 June30
7 July
formerly Quinctilis
31
8 August
formerly Sextilis
31
9 September30
10 October31
11 November30
12 December31
On top of the knuckles (yellow): 31 days
Between the knuckles (blue): 30 days
February (red) has 28 or 29 days.
The white keys of the musical keyboard correspond to months with 31 day months. (F corresponds to January.)

The famous mnemonic Thirty days hath September is a common way of teaching the lengths of the months in the English-speaking world. The knuckles of the four fingers of one's hand and the spaces between them can be used to remember the lengths of the months. By making a fist, each month will be listed as one proceeds across the hand. All months landing on a knuckle are 31 days long and those landing between them are 30 days long, with variable February being the remembered exception. When the knuckle of the index finger is reached (July), go over to the first knuckle on the other fist, held next to the first (or go back to the first knuckle) and continue with August. This physical mnemonic has been taught to primary school students for many decades, if not centuries.[4][5]

This cyclical pattern of month lengths matches the musical keyboard alternation of wide white keys (31 days) and narrow black keys (30 days). The note F corresponds to January, and the diabolis in musica note F corresponds to February, the exceptional 28–29 day month.

Numerical relations

The mean month-length in the Gregorian calendar is 30.436875 days.

Any five consecutive months, that do not include February, contain 153 days.

Calends, nones, and ides

Months in the pre-Julian Roman calendar included:

  • Intercalaris an intercalary month occasionally embedded into February, to realign the calendar.
  • Quintilis, later renamed to Julius in honour of Julius Caesar.
  • Sextilis, later renamed to Augustus in honour of Augustus.

The Romans divided their months into three parts, which they called the calends, the nones, and the ides. Their system is somewhat intricate. The ides occur on the thirteenth day in eight of the months, but in March, May, July, and October, they occur on the fifteenth. The nones always occur 8 days (one Roman ‘week’) before the ides, i.e., on the fifth or the seventh. The calends are always the first day of the month,[lower-alpha 1] and before Julius Caesar's reform fell sixteen days (two Roman weeks) after the ides (except the ides of February and the intercalary month).

Relations between dates, weekdays, and months in the Gregorian calendar

Within a month, the following dates fall on the same day of the week:

  • 01, 08, 15, 22, and 29 (e.g., in January 2021, all these dates fell on a Friday)
  • 02, 09, 16, 23, and 30 (e.g., in January 2021, all these dates fell on a Saturday)
  • 03, 10, 17, 24, and 31 (e.g., in January 2021, all these dates fell on a Sunday)
  • 04, 11, 18, and 25 (e.g., in January 2021, all these dates fell on a Monday)
  • 05, 12, 19, and 26 (e.g., in January 2021, all these dates fell on a Tuesday)
  • 06, 13, 20, and 27 (e.g., in January 2021, all these dates fell on a Wednesday)
  • 07, 14, 21, and 28 (e.g., in January 2021, all these dates fell on a Thursday)

Some months have the same date/weekday structure.

In a non-leap year:

  • January/October (e.g., in 2021, they began/begin on a Friday)
  • February/March/November (e.g., in 2021, they began/begin on a Monday )
  • April/July (e.g., in 2021, they began/begin on a Thursday)
  • September/December (e.g., in 2021, they begin on a Wednesday)
  • January 1 and December 31 fall on the same weekday (e.g. in 2021 on a Friday)

In a leap year:

  • February/August (e.g. in 2020, they begin on a Saturday)
  • March/November (e.g., in 2020, they begin on a Sunday)
  • January/April/July (e.g., in 2020, they begin on a Wednesday)
  • September/December (e.g., in 2020, they begin on a Tuesday)
  • February 29 (the leap day) falls on the same weekday like February 1, 08, 15, 22, and August 1 (see above; e.g. in 2020 on a Saturday)

Hebrew calendar

The Hebrew calendar has 12 or 13 months.

  1. Nisan, 30 days ניסן
  2. Iyar, 30 days אייר
  3. Sivan, 30 days סיון
  4. Tammuz, 29 days תמוז
  5. Av, 30 days אב
  6. Elul, 29 days אלול
  7. Tishri, 30 days תשרי
  8. Marcheshvan, 29/30 days מַרְחֶשְׁוָן
  9. Kislev, 30/29 days כסלו
  10. Tevet, 29 days טבת
  11. Shevat, 30 days שבט
  12. Adar 1, 30 days, intercalary month אדר א
  13. Adar 2, 29 days אדר ב

Adar 1 is only added 7 times in 19 years. In ordinary years, Adar 2 is simply called Adar.

Islamic calendar

There are also twelve months in the Islamic calendar. They are named as follows:

  1. Muharram (Restricted/sacred) محرّم
  2. Safar (Empty/Yellow) صفر
  3. Rabī' al-Awwal/Rabi' I (First Spring) ربيع الأول
  4. Rabī' ath-Thānī/Rabi' al-Aakhir/Rabi' II (Second spring or Last spring) ربيع الآخر أو ربيع الثاني
  5. Jumada al-Awwal/Jumaada I (First Freeze) جمادى الأول
  6. Jumada ath-Thānī or Jumādā al-Thānī/Jumādā II (Second Freeze or Last Freeze) جمادى الآخر أو جمادى الثاني
  7. Rajab (To Respect) رجب
  8. Sha'bān (To Spread and Distribute) شعبان
  9. Ramadān (Parched Thirst) رمضان
  10. Shawwāl (To Be Light and Vigorous) شوّال
  11. Dhu al-Qi'dah (The Master of Truce) ذو القعدة
  12. Dhu al-Hijjah (The Possessor of Hajj) ذو الحجة

See Islamic calendar for more information on the Islamic calendar.

Arabic calendar

Gregorian month Arabic month
Januaryينايركانون الثانيKanun Al-Thani
FebruaryفبرايرشباطShebat
MarchمارساذارAdhar
AprilابريلنيسانNisan
MayمايوأيّارAyyar
JuneيونيوحزيرانḨazayran
JulyيوليوتمّوزTammuz
AugustأغسطساَبʕAb
SeptemberسبتمبرأيلولAylul
Octoberأكتوبرتشرين الأولTishrin Al-Awwal
Novemberنوفمبرتشرين الثانيTishrin Al-Thani
Decemberديسمبركانون الأولKanun Al-Awwal

Hindu calendar

The Hindu calendar has various systems of naming the months. The months in the lunar calendar are:

Sanskrit nameTamil nameTelugu nameNepali name
1Chaitra (चैत्र)Chitirai (சித்திரை)Chaithramu (చైత్రము)Chaitra (चैत्र/चैत)
2Vaiśākha (वैशाख)Vaikasi (வைகாசி)Vaisaakhamu (వైశాఖము)Baisakh (बैशाख)
3Jyeṣṭha (ज्येष्ठ)Aani (ஆனி)Jyeshttamu (జ్యేష్ఠము)Jesth (जेष्ठ/जेठ)
4Ashadha (आषाढ)Aadi (ஆடி)Aashaadhamu (ఆషాఢము)Aasad (आषाढ/असार)
5Śrāvaṇa (श्रावण)Aavani (ஆவணி)Sraavanamu (శ్రావణము)Srawan (श्रावण/साउन)
6Bhadrapada (भाद्रपद)Purratasi (புரட்டாசி)Bhaadhrapadamu (భాద్రపదము)Bhadau (भाद्र|भदौ)
7Āśvina (अश्विन)Aiypasi (ஐப்பசி)Aasveeyujamu (ఆశ్వయుజము)Asoj (आश्विन/असोज)
8Kārtika (कार्तिक)Kaarthigai (கார்த்திகை)Kaarthikamu (కార్తీకము)Kartik (कार्तिक)
9Mārgaśīrṣa (मार्गशीर्ष)Maargazhi (மார்கழி)Maargaseershamu (మార్గశిరము)Mangsir (मार्ग/मंसिर)
10Pauṣa (पौष)Thai (தை)Pushyamu (పుష్యము)Push (पौष/पुष/पूस)
11Māgha (माघ)Maasi (மாசி)Maaghamu (మాఘము)Magh (माघ)
12Phālguna (फाल्गुन)Panguni (பங்குனி)Phaalgunamu (ఫాల్గుణము)Falgun (फाल्गुन/फागुन)

These are also the names used in the Indian national calendar for the newly redefined months. Purushottam Maas or Adhik Maas (translit. adhika = 'extra', māsa = 'month') is an extra month in the Hindu calendar that is inserted to keep the lunar and solar calendars aligned. "Purushottam" is an epithet of Vishnu, to whom the month is dedicated.

The names in the solar calendar are just the names of the zodiac sign in which the sun travels. They are

  1. Mesha
  2. Vrishabha
  3. Mithuna
  4. Kataka
  5. Simha
  6. Kanyaa
  7. Tulaa
  8. Vrishcika
  9. Dhanus
  10. Makara
  11. Kumbha
  12. Miina

Baháʼí calendar

The Baháʼí calendar is the calendar used by the Baháʼí Faith. It is a solar calendar with regular years of 365 days, and leap years of 366 days. Years are composed of 19 months of 19 days each (361 days), plus an extra period of "Intercalary Days" (4 in regular and 5 in leap years).[6] The months are named after the attributes of God. Days of the year begin and end at sundown.[6]

Iranian calendar (Persian calendar)

The Iranian / Persian calendar, currently used in Iran and Afghanistan, also has 12 months. The Persian names are included in the parentheses. It begins on the northern Spring equinox.

  1. Farvardin (31 days, فروردین)
  2. Ordibehesht (31 days, اردیبهشت)
  3. Khordad (31 days, خرداد)
  4. Tir (31 days, تیر)
  5. Mordad (31 days, مرداد)
  6. Shahrivar (31 days, شهریور)
  7. Mehr (30 days, مهر)
  8. Aban (30 days, آبان)
  9. Azar (30 days, آذر)
  10. Dey (30 days, دی)
  11. Bahman (30 days, بهمن)
  12. Esfand (29 days- 30 days in leap year, اسفند)

Reformed Bengali calendar

The Bangla calendar, used in Bangladesh, follows solar months and it has six seasons. The months and seasons in the calendar are:

No.Name (Bengali)Name (Sylheti)Name (Rohingya)SeasonDaysRoman months
1Boishakh (বৈশাখ)BoishakhBoicákGrishmo (গ্রীষ্ম)3114 April – May
2Joishtho (জ্যৈষ্ঠ)ZoitZethGrishmo (গ্রীষ্ম)31May – June
3Asharh (আষাঢ়)AaŗAcárBorsha (বর্ষা)31June – July
4Shrabon (শ্রাবণ)HaonCónBorsha (বর্ষা)31July – August
5Bhadro (ভাদ্র)BhadoBádoShorot (শরৎ)31August – September
6Aashin (আশ্বিন)AshinAcínShorot (শরৎ)30September – October
7Kartik (কার্তিক)KhatiHatiHemonto(হেমন্ত)30October – November
8Ogrohayon (অগ্রহায়ণ)AghonÓonHemonto(হেমন্ত)30November – December
9Poush (পৌষ)PhushFucSheet (শীত)30December – January
10Magh (মাঘ)Magh (মাঘ)MakSheet (শীত)30January – February
11Falgun (ফাল্গুন)FagunFóonBoshonto (বসন্ত)30 (31 in leap years)February – March
12Choitro (চৈত্র)SoitSoitBoshonto (বসন্ত)30March – April

Nanakshahi calendar

The months in the Nanakshahi calendar are:[7]

No.NamePunjabiDaysJulian months
1Chetਚੇਤ3114 March – 13 April
2Vaisakhਵੈਸਾਖ3114 April – 14 May
3Jethਜੇਠ3115 May – 14 June
4Harhਹਾੜ3115 June – 15 July
5Sawanਸਾਵਣ3116 July – 15 August
6Bhadonਭਾਦੋਂ3016 August – 14 September
7Assuਅੱਸੂ3015 September – 14 October
8Katakਕੱਤਕ3015 October – 13 November
9Magharਮੱਘਰ3014 November – 13 December
10Pohਪੋਹ3014 December – 12 January
11Maghਮਾਘ3013 January – 11 February
12Phagunਫੱਗਣ30/3112 February – 13 March

Khmer calendar

Like the Hindu calendar, the Khmer calendar consists of both a lunar calendar and a solar calendar. The solar is used more commonly than the lunar calendar. There are 12 months and the numbers of days follow the Julian and Gregorian calendar.

Roman nameKhmer nameTransliterationMeaning Zodiac sign
JanuaryមករាMakaraមករ "naga" Capricorn
Februaryកម្ភៈKompeakក្អម "clay pitcher" Aquarius
Marchមិនា or មីនាMik Nea or Me Naត្រី "fish" Pisces
AprilមេសាMesaចៀម ពពៃ "ram" Aries
MayឧសភាUk Sak Pheaគោឈ្មោល "bull" Taurus
JuneមិថុនាMik Thok Naគូបុរសន"pair of boy & girl" Gemini
Julyកក្កដាKak Ka Daក្ដាម "crab" Cancer
AugustសីហាSeihaសីហៈ "lion" Leo
Septemberកញ្ញាKagnaស្រីក្រមុំ "girl" Virgo
OctoberតុលាTolaជញ្ជីង "scales" Libra
Novemberវិច្ឆិកាVichekaខ្ទួយ "scorpion" Scorpio
Decemberធ្នូThnuធ្នូ "bow, arc" Sagittarius

The Khmer lunar calendar contains 12 months; however, the eighth month is repeated (as a "leap month") every two or three years, making 13 months instead of 12.[8]

  • មិគសិរ
  • បុស្ស
  • មាឃ
  • ផល្គុន
  • ចេត្រ
  • វិសាខ/ ពិសាខ
  • ជេស្ឋ
  • ឤសាឍ, or in the case of a year with a leap month:
    • បឋមសាឍ
    • ទុតិយាសាឍ
  • ស្រាពណ៍
  • ភទ្របទ
  • អស្សុជ
  • កត្តិក

Thai calendar

English nameThai nameAbbr.TranscriptionSanskrit wordZodiac sign
Januaryมกราคมม.ค.mokarakhommakara "sea-monster"Capricorn
Februaryกุมภาพันธ์ก.พ.kumphaphankumbha "pitcher, water-pot"Aquarius
Marchมีนาคมมี.ค.minakhommīna "(a specific kind of) fish"Pisces
Aprilเมษายนเม.ย.mesayonmeṣa "ram"Aries
Mayพฤษภาคมพ.ค.phruetsaphakhomvṛṣabha "bull"Taurus
Juneมิถุนายนมิ.ย.mithunayonmithuna "a pair"Gemini
Julyกรกฎาคมก.ค.karakadakhomkarkaṭa "crab"Cancer
Augustสิงหาคมส.ค.singhakhomsiṃha "lion"Leo
Septemberกันยายนก.ย.kanyayonkanyā "girl"Virgo
Octoberตุลาคมต.ค.tulakhomtulā "balance"Libra
Novemberพฤศจิกายนพ.ย.phruetsachikayonvṛścika "scorpion"Scorpio
Decemberธันวาคมธ.ค.thanwakhomdhanu "bow, arc"Sagittarius

Tongan calendar

The Tongan calendar is based on the cycles of the moon around the earth in one year. The months are:

  1. Liha Mu'a
  2. Liha Mui
  3. Vai Mu'a
  4. Vai Mui
  5. Faka'afu Mo'ui
  6. Faka'afu Mate
  7. Hilinga Kelekele
  8. Hilinga Mea'a
  9. 'Ao'ao
  10. Fu'ufu'unekinanga
  11. 'Uluenga
  12. Tanumanga
  13. 'O'oamofanongo

Kollam era (Malayalam) calendar

Malayalam nameTransliterationConcurrent Gregorian monthsSanskrit word and meaningZodiac sign
ചിങ്ങംchi-ngnga-mAugust–Septembersimha "lion"Leo
കന്നിka-nniSeptember–Octoberkanyā "girl"Virgo
തുലാംthu-lā-mOctober–Novembertulā "balance"Libra
വൃശ്ചികംvRSh-chi-ka-mNovember–Decembervṛścika "scorpion"Scorpio
ധനുdha-nuDecember–Januarydhanu "bow, arc"Sagittarius
മകരംma-ka-ra-mJanuary–Februarymokara "sea-monster"Capricorn
കുംഭംkum-bha-mFebruary–Marchkumbha "pitcher, water-pot"Aquarius
മീനംmee-na-mMarch–Aprilmīna "(a specific kind of) fish"Pisces
മേടംmE-Da-mApril–Maymeṣa "ram"Aries
ഇടവംi-Ta-va-mMay – Junevṛṣabha "bull"Taurus
മിഥുനംmi-thu-na-mJune–Julymithuna "a pair"Gemini
കർക്കടകംkar-kka-Ta-ka-mJuly–Augustkarkaṭa "crab"Cancer

Sinhalese calendar

The Sinhalese calendar is the Buddhist calendar in Sri Lanka with Sinhala names. Each full moon Poya day marks the start of a Buddhist lunar month.[9] The first month is Vesak.[10]

  1. Duruthu (දුරුතු)
  2. Navam (නවම්)
  3. Mædin (මැදින්)
  4. Bak (බක්)
  5. Vesak (වෙසක්)
  6. Poson (පොසොන්)
  7. Æsala (ඇසල)
  8. Nikini (නිකිණි)
  9. Binara (බිනර)
  10. Vap (වප්)
  11. Il (iL) (ඉල්)
  12. Unduvap (උඳුවප්)

Germanic calendar

The old Icelandic calendar is not in official use anymore, but some Icelandic holidays and annual feasts are still calculated from it. It has 12 months, broken down into two groups of six often termed "winter months" and "summer months". The calendar is peculiar in that the months always start on the same weekday rather than on the same date. Hence Þorri always starts on a Friday sometime between January 22 and January 28 (Old style: January 9 to January 15), Góa always starts on a Sunday between February 21 and February 27 (Old style: February 8 to February 14).

  • Skammdegi ("Short days")
  1. Gormánuður (mid-October – mid-November, "slaughter month" or "Gór's month")
  2. Ýlir (mid-November – mid-December, "Yule month")
  3. Mörsugur (mid-December – mid-January, "fat sucking month")
  4. Þorri (mid-January – mid-February, "frozen snow month")
  5. Góa (mid-February – mid-March, "Góa's month, see Nór")
  6. Einmánuður (mid-March – mid-April, "lone" or "single month")
  • Náttleysi ("Nightless days")
  1. Harpa (mid-April – mid-May, Harpa is a female name, probably a forgotten goddess, first day of Harpa is celebrated as Sumardagurinn fyrsti – first day of summer)
  2. Skerpla (mid-May – mid-June, another forgotten goddess)
  3. Sólmánuður (mid-June – mid-July, "sun month")
  4. Heyannir (mid-July – mid-August, "hay business month")
  5. Tvímánuður (mid-August – mid-September, "two" or "second month")
  6. Haustmánuður (mid-September – mid-October, "autumn month")

Old Georgian calendar

Month Georgian Month Name Transliteration Georgian Other Names Transliteration
Januaryაპნისი, აპანიApnisi, Apani  
FebruaryსურწყუნისიSurtskunisiგანცხადებისთვეGantskhadebistve
MarchმირკანიMirkani  
AprilიგრიკაIgrika  
MayვარდობისაVardobisaვარდობისთვეVardobistve
JuneმარიალისაMarialisaთიბათვე, ივანობისთვეTibatve, Ivanobistve
JulyთიბისაTibisaმკათათვე, კვირიკობისთვეMkatatve, Kvirikobistve
AugustქველთობისაKveltobisaმარიამობისთვეMariamobistve
SeptemberახალწლისაAkhaltslisaენკენისთვეEnkenistve
OctoberსთვლისაStvlisaღვინობისთვეGvinobistve
NovemberტირისკონიTiriskoniგიორგობისთვე, ჭინკობისთვეGiorgobistve, Chinkobistve
DecemberტირისდენიTirisdeniქრისტეშობისთვეKristeshobistve

*NOTE: New Year in ancient Georgia started from September.

Old Swedish calendar

  1. Torsmånad (January, 'Torre's month' (ancient god))
  2. Göjemånad (February, 'Goe's month' (ancient goddess))
  3. Vårmånad (March, 'Spring month')
  4. Gräsmånad (April, 'Grass month')
  5. Blomstermånad (May, 'Bloom month')
  6. Sommarmånad (June, 'Summer month')
  7. Hömånad (July, 'Hay month')
  8. Skördemånad, Rötmånad (August, 'Harvest month' or 'Rot month')
  9. Höstmånad (September, 'Autumn month')
  10. Slaktmånad (October, 'Slaughter month')
  11. Vintermånad (November, 'Winter month')
  12. Julmånad (December, 'Christmas month')

Old English calendar

Like the Old Norse calendar, the Anglo-Saxons had their own calendar before they were Christianized which reflected native traditions and deities. These months were attested by Bede in his works On Chronology and The Reckoning of Time written in the 8th century.[11] His Old English month names are probably written as pronounced in Bede’s native Northumbrian dialect. The months were named after the moon; the new moon marking the end of an old month and start of a new month; the full moon occurring in the middle of the month, after which the whole month took its name.

Old English month names
from Bede’s The Reckoning of Time
Year
  Order  
Northumbrian
Old English
Modern English
transliteration
Roman
equivalent
1 Æfterra-ġēola mōnaþ    “After-Yule month” January
2 Sol-mōnaþ“Sol month” February
3 Hrēð-mōnaþ“Hreth month” March
4 Ēostur-mōnaþĒostur month”
April
5 Ðrimilce-mōnaþ“Three-milkings month”    
May
6 Ærra-Liþa“Ere-Litha”
June
7 Æftera-Liþa“After-Litha”
July
8 Weōd-mōnaþ“Weed month”
August
9 Hāliġ-mōnaþ or
Hærfest-mōnaþ
“Holy month” or
“Harvest month”
September
10 Winter-fylleþ“Winter-filleth”
October
11 Blōt-mōnaþ“Blót month”
November
12 Ærra-ġēola mōnaþ“Ere-Yule
December

When an intercalary month was needed, a third Litha month was inserted in mid-summer.[11]

Old Hungarian calendar

Nagyszombati kalendárium (in Latin: Calendarium Tyrnaviense) from 1579. Historically Hungary used a 12-month calendar that appears to have been zodiacal in nature[12] but eventually came to correspond to the Gregorian months as shown below:[13]

  1. Boldogasszony hava (January, 'month of the happy/blessed lady')
  2. Böjtelő hava (February, 'month of early fasting/Lent' or 'month before fasting/Lent')
  3. Böjtmás hava (March, 'second month of fasting/Lent')
  4. Szent György hava (April, 'Saint George's month')
  5. Pünkösd hava (May, 'Pentecost month')
  6. Szent Iván hava (June, 'Saint John [the Baptist]'s month')
  7. Szent Jakab hava (July, 'Saint James' month')
  8. Kisasszony hava (August, 'month of the Virgin')
  9. Szent Mihály hava (September, 'Saint Michael's month')
  10. Mindszent hava (October, 'all saints' month')
  11. Szent András hava (November, 'Saint Andrew's month')
  12. Karácsony hava (December, 'month of Yule/Christmas')

Czech calendar

  1. Leden – derives from 'led' (ice)
  2. Únor – derives from 'nořit' (to dive, referring to the ice sinking into the water due to melting)
  3. Březen – derives from 'bříza' (birch)
  4. Duben – derives from 'dub' (oak)
  5. Květen – derives from 'květ' (flower)
  6. Červen – derives from 'červená' (red – for the color of apples and tomatoes)
  7. Červenec – is the second 'červen' (formerly known as 2nd červen)
  8. Srpen – derives from old Czech word 'sirpsti' (meaning to reflect, referring to the shine on the wheat)
  9. Září – means 'to shine'
  10. Říjen – derives from 'jelení říje', which refers to the estrous cycle of female elk
  11. Listopad – falling leaves
  12. Prosinec – derives from old Czech 'prosiněti', which means to shine through (refers to the sun light shining through the clouds)[14]

Old Egyptian calendar

The ancient civil Egyptian calendar had a year that was 365 days long and was divided into 12 months of 30 days each, plus 5 extra days (epagomenes) at the end of the year.[15] The months were divided into 3 "weeks" of ten days each. Because the ancient Egyptian year was almost a quarter of a day shorter than the solar year and stellar events "wandered" through the calendar, it is referred to as Annus Vagus or "Wandering Year".

  1. Thout
  2. Paopi
  3. Hathor
  4. Koiak
  5. Tooba
  6. Emshir
  7. Paremhat
  8. Paremoude
  9. Pashons
  10. Paoni
  11. Epip
  12. Mesori

Nisga'a calendar

The Nisga'a calendar coincides with the Gregorian calendar with each month referring to the type of harvesting that is done during the month.

  1. K'aliiyee = Going North – referring to the Sun returning to its usual place in the sky
  2. Buxwlaks = Needles Blowing About – February is usually a very windy month in the Nass River Valley
  3. Xsaak = To Eat Oolichans – Oolichans are harvested during this month
  4. Mmaal = Canoes – The river has defrosted, hence canoes are used once more
  5. Yansa'alt = Leaves are Blooming – Warm weather has arrived and leaves on the trees begin to bloom
  6. Miso'o = Sockeye – majority of Sockeye Salmon runs begin this month
  7. Maa'y = Berries – berry picking season
  8. Wii Hoon = Great Salmon – referring to the abundance of Salmon that are now running
  9. Genuugwwikw = Trail of the Marmot – Marmots, Ermines and animals as such are hunted
  10. Xlaaxw = To Eat Trout – trout are mostly eaten this time of year
  11. Gwilatkw = To Blanket – The earth is "blanketed" with snow
  12. Luut'aa = Sit In – the Sun "sits" in one spot for a period of time

French Republican calendar

This calendar was proposed during the French Revolution, and used by the French government for about twelve years from late 1793. There were twelve months of 30 days each, grouped into three ten-day weeks called décades. The five or six extra days needed to approximate the tropical year were placed after the months at the end of each year. A period of four years ending on a leap day was to be called a Franciade. It began at the autumn equinox:

  • Autumn:
  1. Vendémiaire
  2. Brumaire
  3. Frimaire
  • Winter:
  1. Nivôse
  2. Pluviôse
  3. Ventôse
  • Spring:
  1. Germinal
  2. Floréal
  3. Prairial
  • Summer:
  1. Messidor
  2. Thermidor
  3. Fructidor

Eastern Ojibwe calendar

Ojibwe month names[lower-alpha 2] are based on the key feature of the month. Consequently, months between various regions have different names based on the key feature of each month in their particular region. In the Eastern Ojibwe, this can be seen in when the sucker makes its run, which allows the Ojibwe to fish for them. Additionally, Rhodes[16] also informs of not only the variability in the month names, but how in Eastern Ojibwe these names were originally applied to the lunar months the Ojibwe originally used, which was a lunisolar calendar, fixed by the date of Akiinaaniwan (typically December 27) that marks when sunrise is the latest in the Northern Hemisphere.

Roman
Month
Month in
Eastern Ojibwe[lower-alpha 2]
English
translation
Original order in the Ojibwa year Starting at the first full moon after:
January
in those places that have a sucker run during that time
n[a]mebin-giizis sucker moon
1
Akiinaaniwan on December 27
n[a]meb[i]ni-giizis
February [o]naab[a]ni-giizis Crust-on-the-snow moon
2
January 25
March zii[n]z[i]baak[wa]doke-giizis Sugaring moon
3
February 26
April
in those places that have a sucker run during that time
n[a]mebin-giizis sucker moon
4
March 25
n[a]meb[i]ni-giizis
April
in those places that do not have a sucker run during that time
waawaas[a]gone-giizis Flower moon
May
in those places that have an April sucker run
May
in those places that have a January sucker run
g[i]tige-giizis Planting moon
5
April 24
June
in those places that have an April sucker run
June
in those places that have a January sucker run
[o]deh[i]min-giizis Strawberry moon
6
May 23
July miin-giizis Blueberry moon
7
June 22
August [o]dat[a]gaag[o]min-giizis Blackberry moon
8
July 20
September m[an]daamin-giizis Corn moon
9
August 18
October b[i]naakwe-giizis Leaves-fall moon
10
September 17
b[i]naakwii-giizis Harvest moon
November g[a]shkadin-giizis Freeze-up moon
11
October 16
December g[i]chi-b[i]boon-giizis Big-winter moon
12
November 15
January
in those places that do not have a sucker run during that time
[o]shki-b[i]boon-gii[zi]soons Little new-winter moon
13
(leap month)
only used if the new moon after g[i]chi-b[i]boon-giizis occurs before Akiinaaniwan on December 27.

See also

Footnotes

  1. More precisely, the calends were when the name of a month first began being used when referring to dates. Instead of counting the number of days elapsed, the Romans used a countdown to number their dates. See the article Roman calendar for a more detailed explanation.
  2. Due to Eastern Ojibwe is a vowel syncope dialect, the elided vowels (and the occasionally elided consonants) have been added back in the table below, shown in brackets.

References

  1. "Calculations or Sighting for starting an Islamic month". www.moonsighting.com. Archived from the original on 8 May 2017. Retrieved 16 April 2017.
  2. Chraibi, Khalid (9 April 2021). "Le mois islamique est-il universel ou national ?". Oumma (in French).
  3. Solomon, Stenson (2009). Pingelap Non-Sacred Knowledge. Historic Preservation Fund Grant Department of Land and Natural Resources.
  4. "Days in each month". Mnemonics to Improve Memory. EUdesign. 1997. Retrieved 8 August 2018.
  5. The Boy Mechanic: A handy calendar. 1. Project Gutenberg. 1913 via Full Books.
  6. Esslemont, J. E. (1980). Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era (5th ed.). Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Baháʼí Publishing Trust. pp. 178–179. ISBN 0-87743-160-4.
  7. "What is the Sikh Nanakshahi calendar". All About Sikhs. Gateway to Sikhism. 2007. Archived from the original on 10 May 2008. Retrieved 9 May 2008.
  8. "Khmer Chhankitek Calendar". Cambodian Coordinating Council. Retrieved 8 August 2018.
  9. "Sri Lanka – Festival Calendar". Premlanka Hotel. Curlew Communications Ltd. Retrieved 8 August 2018.
  10. "The Significance of Poya". Lanka Library. Retrieved 8 August 2018.
  11. Newton, Sam, Dr. (2000). "The Old English Calendar". Wuffings. Retrieved 8 August 2018.
  12. Bodroghy, Gabor Z. (1998). "The Calendar by Marsigli: the ancient Hungarian Calendar". The Ancient Hungarian Rovas. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 8 August 2018.
  13. "Hónapok nevei". Free Web (in Hungarian). Archived from the original on 27 February 2008. Retrieved 8 August 2018.
  14. Kebrle, Vojtěch (1939). "Česká jména měsíců, jejich význam a původ". Naše řeč (in Czech). 23 (3): 65–67. Retrieved 5 May 2021.
  15. Clagett, Marshall (1995). Ancient Egyptian Science: A Source Book. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society. p. 28. ISBN 0-87169-214-7.
  16. Rhodes, Richard A., ed. (1993) [1985]. Eastern Ojibwa-Chippewa-Ottawa Dictionary. Trends in Linguistics. Berlin, DE; New York, NY: Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 978-3110137491.
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