Mongoose

A mongoose is a small terrestrial carnivorous mammal belonging to the family Herpestidae. This family is currently split into two subfamilies, the Herpestinae and the Mungotinae. The Herpestinae comprises 23 living species that are native to southern Europe, Africa and Asia, whereas the Mungotinae comprises 11 species native to Africa.[2] The Herpestidae originated about 21.8 ± 3.6 million years ago in the Early Miocene and genetically diverged into two main genetic lineages between 19.1 and 18.5 ± 3.5 million years ago.[3]

Mongoose
Temporal range: Early Miocene to present, 21.8–0 Ma
Top left: Meerkat
Top right: Yellow mongoose
Bottom left: Slender mongoose
Bottom right: Indian gray mongoose
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Suborder: Feliformia
Superfamily: Herpestoidea
Family: Herpestidae
Bonaparte, 1845
Type genus
Herpestes
Johann Karl Wilhelm Illiger, 1811
Genera[1]
List
  • Atilax
  • Bdeogale
  • Cynictis
  • Galerella
  • Herpestes
  • Ichneumia
  • Paracynictis
  • Rhynchogale
  • Crossarchus
  • Dologale
  • Helogale
  • Liberiictus
  • Mungos
  • Suricata
Synonyms[1]
List
  • Rhinogalidae, Gray, 1869
  • Suricatinae, Thomas, 1882
  • Cynictidae, Cope, 1882
  • Suricatidae, Cope, 1882
  • Herpestoidei, Winge, 1895
  • Mongotidae, Pocock, 1920

Etymology

The English word "mongoose" used to be spelled "mungoose" in the 18th and 19th centuries. The name is derived from names used in India for Herpestes species:[4][5][6][7] muṅgūs or maṅgūs in classical Hindi;[8] muṅgūsa in Marathi;[9] mungisa in Telugu;[10] mungi, mungisi and munguli in Kannada.[11]

The form of the English name (since 1698) was altered to its "-goose" ending by folk etymology.[12] The plural form is "mongooses".[13]

Characteristics

Mongooses have long faces and bodies, small, rounded ears, short legs, and long, tapering tails. Most are brindled or grizzly; a few have strongly marked coats which bear a striking resemblance to mustelids. Their nonretractile claws are used primarily for digging. Mongooses, much like goats, have narrow, ovular pupils. Most species have a large anal scent gland, used for territorial marking and signaling reproductive status. The dental formula of mongooses is 3.1.3–4.1–23.1.3–4.1–2. They range from 24 to 58 cm (9.4 to 22.8 in) in head-to-body length, excluding the tail. In weight, they range from 320 g (11 oz) to 5 kg (11 lb).[14]

Mongooses are one of at least four known mammalian taxa with mutations in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor that protect against snake venom.[15] Their modified receptors prevent the snake venom α-neurotoxin from binding. These represent four separate, independent mutations. In the mongoose, this change is effected, uniquely, by glycosylation.[16]

Taxonomy

Herpestina was a scientific name proposed by Charles Lucien Bonaparte in 1845 who considered the mongooses a subfamily of the Viverridae.[17] In 1864, John Edward Gray classified the mongooses into three subfamilies: Galidiinae, Herpestinae and Mungotinae.[18] This grouping was supported by Reginald Innes Pocock in 1919, who referred to the family as "Mungotidae".[19]

Genetic research based on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA analyses revealed that the Galidiinae are more closely related to Madagascar carnivores, including the fossa and Malagasy civet.[20][21] Galidiinae is presently considered a subfamily of Eupleridae.[22]

SubfamilyGenusSpeciesImage of type species
Herpestinae
Herpestes Illiger, 1811[23]
  • Egyptian mongoose (H. ichneumon) (Linnaeus, 1758)[24]
  • Indian grey mongoose (H. edwardsii) (Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire), 1818[25]
  • Javan mongoose (H. javanicus) (Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1818)[25]
  • Stripe-necked mongoose (H. vitticollis) (Bennett), 1835[26]
  • Small Indian mongoose (H. auropunctatus) (Hodgson, 1836)[27]
  • Crab-eating mongoose (H. urva) Hodgson, 1836[27]
  • Ruddy mongoose (H. smithii) (Gray, 1837)[28]
  • Short-tailed mongoose (H. brachyurus) (Gray, 1837)[28]
  • Indian brown mongoose (H. fuscus) (Waterhouse, 1838)[29]
  • Collared mongoose (H. semitorquatus) (Gray, 1846) [30]
  • Long-nosed mongoose (H. naso) (de Winton, 1901)[31]
  • Herpestes lemanensis †
Atilax Cuvier, 1826[32] Marsh mongoose (A. paludinosus) Cuvier, 1829[33]
Cynictis Ogilby, 1833[34] Yellow mongoose (C. penicillata) (Cuvier, 1829)[33]
Ichneumia Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1837 White-tailed mongoose (I. albicauda) (Cuvier, 1829)[33]
Bdeogale Peters, 1850[35]
  • Bushy-tailed mongoose (B. crassicauda) Peters, 1852[36]
  • Black-footed mongoose (B. nigripes) Pucheran, 1855[37]
  • Jackson's mongoose (B. jacksoni) (Thomas, 1894)[38]
  • Sokoke dog mongoose (B. omnivora) Heller, 1914[39][40]
Galerella Gray, 1864
  • Slender mongoose (G. sanguinea) (Rüppell, 1836)
  • Cape gray mongoose (G. pulverulenta) (Wagner, 1839)[41]
  • Somalian slender mongoose (G. ochracea) (Gray, 1848)
  • Angolan slender mongoose (G. flavescens) (Bocage, 1889)
  • Black mongoose (G. nigrata) Thomas, 1928
Rhynchogale Thomas, 1894 Meller's mongoose (R. melleri) Gray, 1865
Paracynictis Pocock, 1916 Selous's mongoose (P. selousi) (de Winton, 1896)
Mungotinae Mungos E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire & F. Cuvier, 1795[42]
  • Banded mongoose (M. mungo) (Gmelin, 1788)[43]
  • Gambian mongoose (M. gambianus) (Ogilby, 1835)[44]
Suricata Desmarest, 1804[45] Meerkat (S. suricatta) (Schreber, 1776)[46]
Crossarchus Cuvier, 1825
  • Common kusimanse (C. obscurus) Cuvier, 1825
  • Alexander's kusimanse (C. alexandri) Thomas & Wroughton, 1907
  • Angolan kusimanse (C. ansorgei) Thomas, 1910
  • Flat-headed kusimanse (C. platycephalus) Goldman, 1984
Helogale Gray, 1861
  • Common dwarf mongoose (H. parvula) Sundevall, 1847
  • Ethiopian dwarf mongoose (H. hirtula) Thomas, 1904
Dologale Thomas, 1920 Pousargues's mongoose (D. dybowskii) Pousargues, 1894[47]
Liberiictis Hayman, 1958 Liberian mongoose (L. kuhni) Hayman, 1958

Phylogenetic relationships

In 1989, zoologist W. Christopher Wozencraft noted that while the phylogenetic relationships in Mungotinae were obscure, studies in the latter part of 20th century supported two monophyletic clades in Herpestinae: one consisting of Atilax and Herpestes, and the other comprising Bdeogale, Ichneumia and Rhynchogale.[48] Like other feliformian carnivorans, mongooses descended from the viverravines, which were civet- or genet-like mammals.

The phylogenetic relationships of Herpestidae are shown in the following cladogram:[49][3]

 Herpestidae 
 Herpestinae 
 Bdeogale 

Bdeogale jacksoni (Jackson's mongoose)

Bdeogale nigripes (Black-footed mongoose)

Bdeogale crassicauda (Bushy-tailed mongoose)

 Rhynchogale 

Rhynchogale melleri (Meller's mongoose)

 Paracynictis 

Paracynictis selousi (Selous's mongoose)

 Cynictis 

Cynictis penicillata (Yellow mongoose)

 Ichneumia 

Ichneumia albicauda (White-tailed mongoose)

"Herpestes" ichneumon (Egyptian mongoose)[3]

 Galerella 

Galerella sanguinea (Slender mongoose)

Galerella pulverulenta (Cape gray mongoose)

Galerella ochracea (Somalian slender mongoose)

Galerella flavescens (Angolan slender mongoose)

Galerella nigrata (Black mongoose)

 Atilax 

Atilax paludinosus (Marsh mongoose)

 Xenogale[3]

Xenogale naso (Long-nosed mongoose)

 Herpestes 

Herpestes lemanensis

Herpestes brachyurus (Short-tailed mongoose)

Herpestes semitorquatus (Collared mongoose)

Herpestes urva (Crab-eating mongoose)

Herpestes smithii (Ruddy mongoose)

Herpestes vitticollis (Stripe-necked mongoose)

Herpestes fuscus (Indian brown mongoose)

Herpestes edwardsi (Indian gray mongoose)

Herpestes javanicus (Small Asian mongoose)

 Mungotinae 
 Helogale 

Helogale parvula (Common dwarf mongoose)

Helogale hirtula (Ethiopian dwarf mongoose)

 Dologale 

Dologale dybowskii (Pousargues's mongoose)

 Crossarchus 

Crossarchus alexandri (Alexander's kusimanse)

Crossarchus ansorgei (Angolan kusimanse)

Crossarchus platycephalus (Flat-headed kusimanse)

Crossarchus obscurus (Common kusimanse)

 Liberiictis 

Liberiictis kuhni (Liberian mongoose)

 Mungos 

Mungos gambianus (Gambian mongoose)

Mungos mungo (Banded mongoose)

 Suricata 

Suricata suricatta (Meerkat)

Extinct species

Leptoplesictis Major, 1903[50]

  • L. atavus Beaumont, 1973
  • L. aurelianensis (Schlosser, 1888)
  • L. filholi Gaillard, 1899
  • L. mbitensis Schmidt-Kittler, 1987
  • L. namibiensis Morales et al., 2008
  • L. peignei, Grohé et al., 2020
  • L. rangwai Schmidt-Kittler, 1987
  • L. senutae Morales et al., 2008

Behaviour and ecology

Mongooses mostly feed on insects, crabs, earthworms, lizards, birds, and rodents. However, they also eat eggs and carrion.[51]

Some species can learn simple tricks. They can be semi-domesticated and are kept as pets to control vermin.[52]

Relationship with humans

In ancient Mesopotamia, mongooses were sacred to the deity Ningilin, who was conflated with Ningirima, a deity of magic who was invoked for protection against serpents. According to a Babylonian popular saying, when a mouse fled from a mongoose into a serpent's hole, it announced, "I bring you greetings from the snake-charmer!" A creature resembling a mongoose also appears in Old Babylonian glyptic art, but its significance is not known.[53]

According to Greek historian Diodorus Siculus (1.35 & 1.87), Egyptians venerated native mongooses (Herpestes ichneumon) for their ability to handle venomous snakes and for their occasional diet of crocodile eggs. The Buddhist god of wealth Vaiśravaṇa, or Dzambala for Tibetans, is frequently depicted holding a mongoose that is spitting jewels from its mouth.[54] The Hindu god of wealth, Kubera (being the son of Vishrava ("Fame"), Kubera is also called Vaisravana), is often portrayed holding a mongoose in his left hand, hence the sight of a mongoose is considered lucky by some.[55]

All mongoose species, except for Suricata suricatta, are classed as a "prohibited new organism" under New Zealand's Hazardous Substances and New Organisms Act 1996, preventing them from being imported into the country.[56]

Mongooses are a common spectacle at roadside shows in Pakistan. Snake charmers keep mongooses for mock fights with snakes.

In Okinawa (where mongooses were misguidedly brought in to control the local habu snake), mongoose fights with these highly venomous snakes (Ovophis okinavensis and Trimeresurus flavoviridis) in a closed perimeter were presented as spectator events at such parks as Okinawa World; however, due to pressure from animal rights activists, the spectacle is less common today.[57]

A well-known fictional mongoose is Rikki-Tikki-Tavi, who appears in a short story of the same title in The Jungle Book (1894) by Rudyard Kipling. In this tale set in India, the young mongoose saves his family from a krait and from Nag and Nagaina, two cobras. The story was later made into several films and a song by Donovan, among other references. A mongoose is also featured in Bram Stoker's novel The Lair of the White Worm. The main character, Adam Salton, purchases one to independently hunt snakes. Another mongoose features in the denouement of the Sherlock Holmes story "The Adventure of the Crooked Man", by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. The Indian Tamil devotional film Padai Veetu Amman shows Tamil actor Vinu Chakravarthy changing himself into a mongoose by using his evil tantric mantra, to fight with goddess Amman. However, the mongoose finally dies in the hands of the goddess.

The mongoose is a prohibited animal in the United States. However, the 1962 case of "Mr. Magoo" became an exception. It was brought to Duluth, Minnesota by a merchant seaman and faced being euthanized. A public campaign to save it resulted in the intervention of Secretary of the Interior Stewart Udall, who exempted Magoo from the regulations. Magoo lived on display as the most popular attraction of the Lake Superior Zoo, dying of old age in 1968.[58]

Pablo Neruda had a pet mongoose named Kiria while he lived in Colombo. Kiria had the habit of following the poet everywhere. However, after Neruda moved to Batavia, Kiria disappeared and was never seen again.[59]

See also

  • List of herpestids

References

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Further reading

  • Rasa, A. (1986). Mongoose Watch: A Family Observed. Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor Press, Doubleday & Co. ISBN 9780385231756. OCLC 12664019.
  • Lodrick, D. O. (1982). "Man and Mongoose in Indian Culture". Anthropos. 77 (1/2): 191–214. JSTOR 40460438.
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