Mohammed VI of Morocco

Mohammed VI (Arabic: محمد السادس; born 21 August 1963)[1] is the King of Morocco. He belongs to the Alaouite dynasty and ascended to the throne on 23 July 1999 upon the death of his father, King Hassan II.[2]

Mohammed VI
محمد السادس
Amir al-Mu'minin
King of Morocco
Reign23 July 1999 – present
PredecessorHassan II
Heir apparentMoulay Hassan
Prime Ministers
See list
  • Abderrahmane Youssoufi
    Driss Jettou
    Abbas El Fassi
    Abdelilah Benkirane
    Saadeddine Othmani
Born (1963-08-21) 21 August 1963
Rabat, Morocco
Spouse
Salma Bennani
(m. 2001)
Issue
Detail
  • Moulay Hassan, Crown Prince of Morocco
  • Princess Lalla Khadija
Names
Sidi Mohammed Bin Hassan al Alaoui سيدي محمد بن الحسن العلوي
Arabicالملك محمد السادس
DynastyAlaouite
FatherHassan II of Morocco
MotherLalla Latifa Hammou
ReligionSunni Islam

The king initially introduced reforms to grant women more power.[3] Leaked diplomatic cables from WikiLeaks have alleged extensive corruption in the court of King Mohammed VI, implicating the king and his closest advisors.[4] Widespread disturbances in 2011, a Moroccan element of the Arab Spring, protested against corruption and urged the need for political reform. In response, King Mohammed VI promulgated a program of reform and introduced a new constitution. These reforms were passed by a public referendum on 1 July 2011.[5]

The king's net worth has been estimated at between US$2.1 billion [6] and over US$5 billion,[7][8] and, according to the American business magazine Forbes, he was the richest king in Africa in 2014, and the 5th richest king in the world.[9]

Early life and education

Mohammed VI was the second child and oldest son of Hassan II and his secondary wife, Lalla Latifa Hammou.[10] On the day of his birth, Mohammed was appointed Heir Apparent and Crown Prince. His father was keen on giving him a religious and political education from an early age; at the age of four, he started attending the Quranic school at the Royal Palace.[1]

Mohammed VI completed his first primary and secondary studies at Collège Royal and attained his Baccalaureate in 1981, before gaining a bachelor's degree in law at the Mohammed V University at Agdal in 1985.[11] His research paper dealt with "the Arab-African Union and the Strategy of the Kingdom of Morocco in matters of International Relations".[1] He has also frequented the Imperial College and University of Rabat. He was furthermore appointed president of the Pan Arab Games, and was commissioned a Colonel Major of the Royal Moroccan Army on 26 November 1985. He served as the Coordinator of the Offices and Services of the Royal Armed Forces until 1994.

In 1987, Mohammed VI obtained his first Certificat d'Études Supérieures (CES) in political sciences, and in July 1988 he obtained a Diplôme d'Études Approfondies (DEA) in public law.[1] In November 1988, he trained in Brussels with Jacques Delors, then-President of the European Commission.[1]

Mohammed VI obtained his PhD in law with distinction on 29 October 1993 from the French University of Nice Sophia Antipolis for his thesis on "EEC-Maghreb Relations".[1] On 12 July 1994, he was promoted to the military rank of Major General, and that same year he became president of the High Council of Culture and Commander-in-Chief of the Royal Moroccan Army.

The New York Times reported that prior to ascending to the throne, Mohammed VI "gained a reputation as a playboy during the years he spent waiting in the wings, showing a fondness for fast cars and nightclubs."[12]

King of Morocco

On 23 July 1999, Mohammed VI succeeded his father as king and was enthroned in Rabat on 30 July.

Criticism of the king's spending

Morocco ranks 121st in the United Nations’ human development index. Ten per cent of the population live in absolute poverty. In the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic, Mohammed VI was reported to have purchased an €80 million mansion in Paris, close to the Eiffel Tower, from the Saudi Royal family.[13]

Allegations of corruption

Royal involvement in business is a major topic in Morocco, but public discussion of it is sensitive. The US embassy in Rabat reported to Washington in a leaked cable that "corruption is prevalent at all levels of Moroccan society".[4] Corruption allegedly reaches the highest levels in Morocco, where the business interests of Mohammed VI and some of his advisors influence "every large housing project," according to WikiLeaks documents quoted in The Guardian newspaper.[14] The documents released by the whistleblower website also quote the case of a businessman working for a US consortium, whose plans in Morocco were paralysed for months after he refused to join forces with a company linked with the royal palace. Decisions on big investments in the kingdom were taken by only three people, the documents quote a company executive linked to the royal family as saying. The three are the king, his secretary Mounir Majidi, and the monarch's close friend, adviser and former classmate Fouad Ali Himma, the executive said at a meeting with potential investors in a Gulf country. This corruption especially affects the housing sector, the WikiLeaks documents show.[15]

In December 2010, the whistleblowing website WikiLeaks published diplomatic cables which alleged high-level corruption involving the king himself.[4]

In April 2016, Mounir Majidi, the personal secretary of Mohammed VI, was named in the Panama Papers.[16][17]

Social reforms and liberalization

Mohammed VI (right) talking to US President George W. Bush in Washington on 23 April 2002
Mohammed VI with U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry in 2014
Mohammed VI (left) with Brazilian President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva in 2004
Mohammed VI (left) with Russian President Vladimir Putin in 2016
Joint U.S.-Israeli delegation met with Mohammed VI during visit to Rabat on 22 December 2020

Shortly after he ascended to the throne, Mohammed VI addressed his nation via television, promising to take on poverty and corruption, while creating jobs and improving Morocco's human rights record. His reformist rhetoric was opposed by Islamist conservatives, and some of his reforms angered fundamentalists. In February 2004, he enacted a new family code, or Mudawana, which granted women more power.[3]

In December 2020, Mohammed VI agreed to normalize relations with Israel on the condition that the United States will recognize Western Sahara as under Moroccan sovereignty. The deal will include direct flights between the two nations.

Mohammed VI also created the so-called Instance Equité et Réconciliation (IER), which was tasked with researching human rights violations under Hassan II. This move was welcomed by many as promoting democracy, but was also criticized because reports of human rights violations could not name the perpetrators. According to human rights organisations, widespread abuses still exist in Morocco.[18][19][20] The 2011 Moroccan protests were motivated by corruption and general political discontentment, as well as by the hardships of the global economic crisis.

In a speech delivered on 9 March 2011, he said that parliament would receive "new powers that enable it to discharge its representative, legislative, and regulatory mission". In addition, the powers of the judiciary were granted greater independence from the king, who announced that he was impaneling a committee of legal scholars to produce a draft constitution by June 2011.[21] On 1 July, voters approved a set of political reforms proposed by Mohammed VI.

The reforms consisted of the following:[5]

  • The Berber language[22] is an official national language, along with standard Arabic.[23]
  • The state preserves and protects the Hassānīya language and all the linguistic components of the Moroccan culture as a heritage of the nation.[23]
  • Mohammed VI now has the obligation to appoint the prime minister from the party that wins the most seats in the parliamentary elections, but it can be any member of the winning party and not necessarily the party's leader. Previously, the king could nominate anybody he wanted for this position regardless of the election results. That was usually the case when no party had a big advantage over the other parties, in terms of the number of seats in the parliament.[5][24][25]
  • The king is no longer "sacred or holy" but the "integrity of his person" is "inviolable".[26]
  • High administrative and diplomatic posts (including ambassadors, CEOs of state-owned companies, provincial and regional governors), are now appointed by the prime minister and the ministerial council which is presided by the king; previously the latter exclusively held this power.[27][28]
  • The prime minister is the head of government and president of the council of government, he has the power to dissolve the parliament.[29]
  • The prime minister will preside over the Council of Government, which prepares the general policy of the state. Previously the king held this position.[29]
  • The parliament has the power of granting amnesty. Previously this was exclusively held by the king.[30]
  • The judiciary system is independent from the legislative and executive branches, the king guarantees this independence.[29][31]
  • Women are guaranteed "civic and social" equality with men. Previously, only "political equality" was guaranteed, though the 1996 constitution grants all citizens equality in terms of rights before the law.[25]
  • The king retains complete control over the armed forces and the judiciary as well as matters pertaining to religion and foreign policy; the king also retains the authority to appoint and dismiss prime ministers.[32]
  • All citizens have the freedom of thought, ideas, artistic expression and creation. Previously only free speech and the freedom of circulation and association were guaranteed.[25][33] However, criticizing or directly opposing the king is still punishable with prison.

In January 2017, Morocco banned the manufacturing, marketing and sale of the burqa.[34]

20 February Movement

The 20 February movement called for and resulted in partial reforms.

Royal pardon scandals

Protests broke out in Rabat, the capital of Morocco, on 2 August 2013, after Mohammed pardoned 48 jailed Spaniards, including a pedophile who had been serving a 30-year sentence for raping 11 children aged between 4 and 15.[35]

It was also revealed that amongst the pardoned figured a drug trafficking suspect, who was released before standing trial.[36] He had resisted arrest using a firearm.[36] There was, Antonio Garcia, a recidivist drug trafficker arrested in possession of 9 tons of Hashish in Tangiers and sentenced to 10 years.[37] Some media claimed that his release embarrassed Spain.[37]

Business and wealth

Graphic detailing ownership of the palace-controlled holding[38] the Société National d'investissement as of June 2013

Mohammed is Morocco's leading businessman and banker.[38] In 2015, he was estimated by Forbes magazine to be worth US$5.7bn[7] although in 2019 Business Insider quoted a figure of just US$2.1 billion.[6] The Moroccan Royal Family, meanwhile, has one of the largest fortunes in the world.[39] Together, they hold the majority stakes in the Société Nationale d'Investissement (SNI), which was originally state-owned but was merged in 2013 with Omnium Nord Africain (ONA Group), to form a single holding company that was taken off the Casablanca Stock Exchange—resulting in the scrapping of an equivalent of 50 billion Dirhams Marketcap (~US$6 billion).[40] SNI has a diverse portfolio consisting of many important businesses in Morocco and operating in various sectors such as; Attijariwafa Bank (banking), Managem (mining), Onapar, SOMED (tourism/real-estate and exclusive distributor of Maserati), Wafa Assurance (insurance), Marjane (hypermarket chain), Wana-Inwi (telecommunications), SONASID (Siderurgy), Lafarge Maroc (cSopriam (exclusive distributor of Peugeot-Citroën in Morocco), Renault Maroc (exclusive distributor of Renault in Morocco) and Nareva (energy).[41][42] SNI also owns many food-processing companies and is currently in the process of disengaging from this sector.[41] Between mid-2012 and 2013 SNI sold; Lessieur, Centrale Laitière, Bimo and Cosumar to foreign groups for a total amount of ~$1.37 billion (11.4 billion Dirhams including 9.7 billion in 2013 and 1.7 in 2012).[41]

SNI and ONA both owned stakes in Brasseries du Maroc, the largest alcoholic beverages manufacturer and distributor of brands such as Heineken in the country.[43]

Mohammed is also a leading agricultural producer and land owner in Morocco, where agriculture is exempted from taxes.[41] His holding company "Siger" has shares in the large agricultural group "Les domaines agricoles" (originally called "Les domaines royaux", now commonly known as "Les domaines"), which was founded by Hassan II.[41] In 2008, Telquel estimated that "Les domaines" had a revenue of $157 million (1.5 billion Dirhams), with 170,000 tons of citrus exported in that year.[41] According to the same magazine, the company officially owns 12,000 hectares of agricultural lands.[41] "Chergui", a manufacturer of dairy products, is the most recognizable brand of the group.[41] Between 1994 and 2004, the group has been managed by Mohammed VI's brother-in-law Khalid Benharbit, the husband of Princess Lalla Hasna.[41] "Les domaines" also owns the "Royal Golf de Marrakech", which originally belonged to Thami El Glaoui.[41]

His palace's daily operating budget is reported by Forbes to be $960,000—which is paid by the Moroccan state as part of a 2.576 billion Dirhams/year budget as of 2014[44]—with much of it accounted for by the expense of personnel, clothes, and car repairs.[39]

Family

Mohammed has one brother, Prince Moulay Rachid, and three sisters: Princess Lalla Meryem, Princess Lalla Asma, and Princess Lalla Hasna. The New York Times noted "conflicting reports about whether the new monarch had been married on Friday night, within hours of his father's death [in 1999]... to heed a Moroccan tradition that a King be married before he ascends the throne." A palace official subsequently denied that a marriage had taken place.[12]

On 21 March 2002, Mohammed married Salma Bennani (now H.R.H. Princess Lalla Salma) in Rabat. Bennani was granted the personal title of Princess with the title of Her Royal Highness on her marriage. They have two children: Crown Prince Moulay Hassan, who was born on 8 May 2003, and Princess Lalla Khadija, who was born on 28 February 2007.[3]

Mohammed's birthday on 21 August is a public holiday,[45] although festivities were cancelled upon the death of his aunt in 2014.[46]

Children

NameDate of birthPlace of birthAge
Crown Prince Moulay Hassan(2003-05-08)8 May 2003Royal Palace, Rabat, Morocco18
Princess Lalla Khadija(2007-02-28)28 February 2007Royal Palace, Rabat, Morocco14

Honours

Royal styles of
King Mohammed VI of Morocco
Reference styleHis Majesty
Spoken styleYour Majesty

National orders:

  • Grand Master of the Order of Muhammad, (23 July 1999)
  • Grand Master of the Order of the Throne, (23 July 1999)
  • Grand Master of the Order of Ouissam Alaouite, (23 July 1999)
  • Grand Master of the Order of the Independence Combat, (23 July 1999)
  • Grand Master of the Order of Fidelity, (23 July 1999)
  • Grand Master of the Order of Military Merit, (23 July 1999)

Mohammed has received numerous honours and decorations from various countries, some of which are listed below.

Foreign orders:

  • Grand Officer of the Order of the Equatorial Star of Gabon (7 July 1977)
  • Collar of the Order of Civil Merit of Spain (2 June 1979)[47]
  • Honorary Knight of the Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (27 October 1980)[48]
  • Grand Cross of the Order of Charles III of Spain (23 June 1986)[49]
  • Grand Cordon of the Order of the Republic of Tunisia (August 1987)[50]
  • Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic of Italy (18 March 1997)[51]
  • Grand Cross of the Order of Aviz of Portugal (13 August 1998)[52]
  • Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour of France (19 March 2000)
  • Collar of the Order of al-Hussein bin Ali of Jordan (1 March 2000)[50]
  • Collar of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic of Italy (11 April 2000)[53]
  • Grand Cordon of the National Order of Merit of Mauritania (26 April 2000)[50]
  • Grand Collar of the Order of the Seventh of November of Tunisia (31 May 2014, previously Grand Cross on 24 May 2000)
  • Grand Cordon of the National Order of Mali of Mali with Collar (14 June 2000)[50]
  • Collar of the Order of Isabella the Catholic of Spain (16 September 2000)[54]
  • Wissam of the Order of the Umayyads of Syria (9 April 2001)[50]
  • Wissam of the Order of Merit of Lebanon Special Class (13 June 2001)[50]
  • First Class Medal of the Order of Abu Bakar Siddiq of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement (29 June 2001)[50]
  • Grand Collar of the Order of al-Khalifa of Bahrain (28 July 2001)[50]
  • Silver Star of United States (21 January 2002)
  • Collar of the Order of Mubarak the Great of Kuwait (22 October 2002)[50]
  • Cordon of the Order of the Independence of Qatar (25 October 2002)[50]
  • Grand Cordon of the Order of the Nile of Egypt (28 October 2002)[50]
  • Grand Cross of the Order of Pakistan First Class (Nishan-e-Pakistan) of Pakistan (19 July 2003)
  • Grand Cross of the Order of Valour of Cameroon (17 June 2004)[50]
  • Grand Cross of the Order of the Equatorial Star of Gabon (21 June 2004)[50]
  • Grand Cross of the National Order of the Niger of the Niger (24 June 2004)[50]
  • Grand Cordon of the Order of Leopold of Belgium (5 October 2004)
  • Collar of the Order of the Southern Cross of Brazil (26 November 2004)[50]
  • Medal of Honour of the Congress of Peru (1 December 2004)[50]
  • Collar of the Order of Bernardo O'Higgins of Chile (3 December 2004)[50]
  • Grand Collar of the Order of the Liberator General San Martin of Argentina (7 December 2004)
  • Collar of the Order of Charles III of Spain (14 January 2005)[55]
  • Grand Collar of the Order of the Aztec Eagle of Mexico (11 February 2005)[50]
  • Grand Cross of the Order of Burkinabé of Burkina Faso (1 March 2005)[50]
  • Supreme Collar of the Order of the Chrysanthemum of Japan (28 November 2005)[50]
  • Grand Commander of the Order of the Republic of the Gambia (20 February 2006)[50]
  • Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Congo of the Republic of Congo (22 February 2006)[50]
  • Grand Cross of the Order of the National Hero of the Democratic Republic of the Congo of Congo-Kinshasa (28 February 2006)[50]
  • Commander Grand Cross with Chain of the Order of the Three Stars of Latvia (14 May 2007)[50]
  • Collar of the Order of Abdulaziz Al Saud of Saudi Arabia (18 May 2007)[50]
  • Grand Collar of the Order of Independence of Equatorial Guinea (17 April 2009)[50]
  • Collar of the Order of the Republic of Tunisia (31 May 2014)
  • Grand Cross of the National Order of the Ivory Coast (2015)
  • Collar of the Order of Zayed (4 May 2015)[56]
  • Grand Cross of the National Order of Madagascar (2016)
  • Grand Collar of the Military Order of Saint James of the Sword of Portugal (28 June 2016)[52]
  • Companion of the Order of the Star of Ghana (17 February 2017)
  • Grand Cross of the Order of La Pléiade (24 May 2017)[57]
  • Chief Commander of the Legion of Merit of the United States (16 January 2021)[58]

On 22 June 2000, Mohammed received an honorary doctorate from George Washington University.[59]

Ancestry

See also

  • Alaouite dynasty
  • Société Nationale d'Investissement
  • Hassan II

References

  1. "King Mohammed Ben Al-Hassan". Embassy of the Kingdom of Morocco. Archived from the original on 7 April 2010. Retrieved 18 February 2010.
  2. "World: Africa Mohammed VI takes Moroccan throne". BBC News. 24 July 1999. Retrieved 18 February 2010.
  3. "Morocco country profile". BBC News. 16 December 2009. Retrieved 18 February 2010.
  4. Black, Ian (6 December 2010). "WikiLeaks cables accuse Moroccan royals of corruption". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 16 June 2011.
  5. BBC News (29 June 2011). "Q&A: Morocco's referendum on reform". Retrieved 1 February 2013.
  6. Hoffower, Hillary. "Meet the 10 richest billionaire royals in the world right now". Business Insider.
  7. "2015 Africa's 50 Richest Net Worth: #5 King Mohammed VI". Forbes. 18 November 2015. Retrieved 9 October 2020.
  8. Mfonobong, Nsehe (27 February 2018). "King Mohammed VI Of Morocco Undergoes Heart Surgery In Paris". Forbes. Retrieved 9 October 2020.
  9. "The 5 richest kings in Africa". forbes.com. Retrieved 9 June 2015.
  10. (24 July 1999).Morocco's King Hassan dies, aged 70, Independent Online (South Africa)
  11. "Biography of HM. King MohammedVI", Maroc.ma.
  12. "In Morocco, Too, a Young King for a New Generation" New York Times, 27 July 1999
  13. Bremner, Charles (9 October 2020). "King Mohammed of Morocco buys French mansion for €80 million". The Times. Retrieved 9 October 2020.
  14. "US embassy cables: Moroccan sacking exposes king's business role". The Guardian. 6 December 2010.
  15. "US embassy cables: Moroccan businessman reveals royal corruption, claims US cable". The Guardian. 6 December 2010.
  16. "Panama Papers: The Power Players". International Consortium of Investigative Journalists. Archived from the original on 4 April 2016. Retrieved 3 April 2016.
  17. "Mohammed VI aime les îles Vierges" Le Monde, 04 April 2016
  18. MacFarquhar, Neil (1 October 2005). "In Morocco, a Rights Movement, at the King's Pace". The New York Times. Retrieved 18 February 2010.
  19. Harter, Pascale (19 April 2005). "Facing up to Morocco's hidden fear". BBC News. Retrieved 18 February 2010.
  20. "Morocco/Western Sahara: Amnesty International welcomes public hearings into past violations". Amnesty International. Retrieved 18 February 2010.
  21. Mohammed VI speech. Moroccansforchange.com (9 March 2011). Retrieved 4 March 2012.
  22. A standardized version of the 3 native Berber dialects of Morocco: Tashelhit, Central Atlas Tamazight and Tarifit.
  23. Article 5 of the 2011 Moroccan constitution
  24. Article 47 of the 2011 Moroccan constitution
  25. 1996 Moroccan constitution
  26. Article 46 of the 2011 Moroccan constitution
  27. Article 91 of the 2011 Moroccan constitution
  28. Article 49 of the 2011 Moroccan constitution
  29. AFP. "Maroc: la réforme constitutionnelle préconise de limiter certains pouvoirs du roi". Parisien. Retrieved 24 August 2011.
  30. Article 71 of the 2011 Moroccan constitution
  31. Article 107 of the 2011 Moroccan constitution.
  32. Voice of America (30 July 2011). "Moroccan King Calls for Prompt Parliamentary Elections". Retrieved 8 December 2012.
  33. Driss Bennani, Mohammed Boudarham and Fahd Iraqi. "nouvelle constitution. plus roi que jamais". Telquel. Archived from the original on 26 June 2011. Retrieved 24 August 2011.
  34. Ennaji, Moha. "Why Morocco's burqa ban is more than just a security measure". The Conversation. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
  35. Yaakoubi, Aziz El. (3 August 2013) Moroccan police break up protest against royal pardon of Spanish pedophile. Reuters.com. Retrieved on 22 July 2015.
  36. "DanielGate. Un détenu espagnol gracié 48h avant le début de son procès !". Lakome. 7 August 2013. Archived from the original on 11 August 2013. Retrieved 21 November 2013.
  37. "DanielGate. Pourquoi la thèse du cabinet royal ne tient plus". Lakome. 11 August 2013. Archived from the original on 13 August 2013. Retrieved 21 November 2013.
  38. GREENE (24 April 2008). "MOROCCAN ROYAL FAMILY HOLDING ONA FIRES CEO". Consulate Casablanca. Archived from the original on 16 December 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2013.
  39. Pendleton, Devon; Serafin, Tatiana (30 August 2007). "In Pictures: The World's Richest Royals". Forbes.
  40. Iraqi, Fahd; Mehdi Michbal (14 June 2013). "SNO - Le nouveau visage du business royal". Telquel. Archived from the original on 29 November 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2013.
  41. Tounassi, Fédoua (12 December 2008). "Enquête. Les jardins du roi". Telquel. Archived from the original on 7 December 2013. Retrieved 18 November 2013.
  42. Ahmed Reda Benchemsi; Fahd Iraqi (18 July 2009). "Le Businessman" (PDF). TelQuel. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 December 2013. Retrieved 18 November 2013.
  43. SQALLI, Nouaim (3 January 2006). "Bourse: Les filiales de l'ONA boostent le marché de blocs". l'Economiste. Retrieved 18 November 2013.
  44. Benseddik, Ahmed (12 November 2013). "Benkirane a bien augmenté le budget royal de " Sidna "". Demain Online. Archived from the original on 14 November 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2013.
  45. "Morocco Official, Public and National Holidays". Morocco.com. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
  46. "title". Retrieved 18 August 2014.
  47. Boletín Oficial del Estado. (PDF) . Retrieved on 22 July 2015.
  48. "HONORARY KNIGHTS AND DAMES". www.leighrayment.com. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 7 November 2019.
  49. Boletín Oficial del Estado. (PDF) . Retrieved on 22 July 2015.
  50. HM King Mohammed VI. map.ma
  51. Quirinale website. Quirinale.it. Retrieved on 25 July 2016.
  52. "ENTIDADES ESTRANGEIRAS AGRACIADAS COM ORDENS PORTUGUESAS - Página Oficial das Ordens Honoríficas Portuguesas". www.ordens.presidencia.pt. Retrieved 7 November 2019.
  53. Quirinale website. Quirinale.it. Retrieved on 22 July 2015.
  54. Boletín Oficial del Estado. (PDF) . Retrieved on 22 July 2015.
  55. Boletín Oficial del Estado. (PDF) . Retrieved on 22 July 2015.
  56. (Wam). "Morocco King honoured with Order of Zayed - Khaleej Times". www.khaleejtimes.com. Retrieved 24 November 2016.
  57. "King Mohammed VI Awarded Grand Cross of the Order of La Pleiade". Morocco World News. 25 May 2017. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
  58. "Awarding of the Legion of Merit, Degree Chief Commander, to His Majesty Mohammed VI, King of Morocco". whitehouse.gov. 16 January 2021 via National Archives.
  59. "His Majesty The King Mohammed VI". Embassy of the kingdom of Morocco to United States of America. Archived from the original on 28 March 2013. Retrieved 27 September 2013.
Mohammed VI
House of Alaouite
Born: 21 August 1963
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Hassan II
King of Morocco
1999–present
Incumbent
Heir apparent:
Moulay Hassan
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