Michael Richard Pence (born June 7, 1959) is an American politician, broadcaster, and lawyer who served as the 48th vice president of the United States from 2017 to 2021. A member of the Republican Party, he was the 50th governor of Indiana from 2013 to 2017. Pence was also a member of the U.S. House of Representatives from 2001 to 2013, representing the 2nd district of Indiana from 2001 to 2003 and the 6th district of Indiana from 2003 to 2013.
|48th Vice President of the United States|
January 20, 2017 – January 20, 2021
|Preceded by||Joe Biden|
|Succeeded by||Kamala Harris|
|2nd Chairman of the White House Coronavirus Task Force|
February 26, 2020 – January 20, 2021
|Preceded by||Alex Azar|
|Succeeded by||Office abolished|
|50th Governor of Indiana|
January 14, 2013 – January 9, 2017
|Preceded by||Mitch Daniels|
|Succeeded by||Eric Holcomb|
|Chair of the House Republican Conference|
January 3, 2009 – January 3, 2011
|Preceded by||Adam Putnam|
|Succeeded by||Jeb Hensarling|
|Member of the|
U.S. House of Representatives
January 3, 2001 – January 3, 2013
|Preceded by||David M. McIntosh|
|Succeeded by||Luke Messer|
Michael Richard Pence
June 7, 1959
Columbus, Indiana, U.S.
|Political party||Republican (1983–present)|
|Democratic (before 1983)|
|Children||3, including Charlotte|
|Relatives||Greg Pence (brother)|
|Residence||Indianapolis, Indiana, U.S.|
Pence was born and raised in Columbus, Indiana, and is the younger brother of U.S. representative Greg Pence. He graduated from Hanover College and earned a law degree from the Indiana University Robert H. McKinney School of Law before entering private practice. After losing two bids for a congressional seat in 1988 and 1990, he became a conservative radio and television talk show host from 1994 to 1999. Pence was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives in 2000 and represented Indiana's 2nd and 6th congressional districts from 2001 to 2013. He chaired the Republican Study Committee from 2005 to 2007 and served as the chairman of the House Republican Conference from 2009 to 2011, the third-highest position in the House Republican leadership. Pence described himself as a "principled conservative" and supporter of the Tea Party movement, saying he was "a Christian, a conservative, and a Republican, in that order."
Pence successfully sought the Republican nomination for the 2012 Indiana gubernatorial election when term-limited Mitch Daniels retired. He defeated former Indiana House speaker John R. Gregg in the closest gubernatorial election in 50 years. Upon becoming governor in January 2013, Pence initiated the largest tax cut in Indiana's history and pushed for more funding for private education initiatives. Pence signed bills intended to restrict abortions, including one that prohibited abortions if the reason for the procedure was the fetus's race, gender, or disability. After Pence signed the Religious Freedom Restoration Act, he encountered fierce resistance from moderate members of his party, the business community, and LGBT advocates. The backlash against the RFRA led Pence to amend the bill to prohibit discrimination based on sexual orientation, gender identity, and other criteria.
Pence withdrew his gubernatorial reelection campaign in July 2016 to become the running mate of Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump, who went on to win the 2016 presidential election. He was inaugurated as vice president of the United States on January 20, 2017. As vice president, Pence chaired the National Space Council since it was reestablished in June 2017. In February 2020, Pence was appointed chairman of the White House Coronavirus Task Force, which was established in response to the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States.
Pence and Trump lost their bid for re-election in the 2020 presidential election to Joe Biden and Kamala Harris, although the Trump campaign refused to concede, made false allegations of election fraud, and filed more than 60 lawsuits in multiple states, all of which were eventually rejected by the courts. Despite Trump's urging to overturn the results, Pence certified the Biden-Harris ticket as the winner of the election. Pence was vilified by Trump and threatened with violence by some of Trump's supporters for not trying to overturn the election results, particularly during the storming of the U.S. Capitol.
Early life and education
Mike Pence was born Michael Richard Pence on June 7, 1959, in Columbus, Indiana, one of six children of Ann Jane "Nancy" (née Cawley) and Edward Joseph Pence Jr., who ran a group of gas stations. His father served in the U.S. Army during the Korean War and received the Bronze Star in 1953, which Pence displays in his office along with its commendation letter and a reception photograph. His father was of German and Irish descent and his mother is of Irish ancestry. His paternal grandfather, Edward Joseph Pence, Sr., worked in the Chicago stockyards. Pence was named after his maternal grandfather, Richard Michael Cawley, who emigrated from Doocastle, County Mayo, Ireland, to the United States through Ellis Island, following an aunt and his brother James, and became a bus driver in Chicago, Illinois. His maternal grandmother's parents were from Doonbeg, County Clare, Ireland.
Pence graduated from Columbus North High School in 1977. He earned a Bachelor of Arts in history from Hanover College in 1981, and a Juris Doctor from the Robert H. McKinney School of Law at Indiana University–Purdue University Indianapolis in Indianapolis in 1986. While at Hanover, Pence joined the Phi Gamma Delta fraternity, where he became the chapter president. After graduating from Hanover, Pence was an admissions counselor at the college from 1981 to 1983.
In his childhood and early adulthood, Pence was a Roman Catholic and a Democrat, as was the rest of his family. He volunteered for the Bartholomew County Democratic Party in 1976 and voted for Jimmy Carter in the 1980 presidential election, and has said he was originally inspired to get involved in politics by people such as John F. Kennedy and Martin Luther King Jr. While in college, Pence left the Catholic Church and became an evangelical, born-again Christian, to the great disappointment of his mother. His political views also started shifting to the right during this time in his life, something which Pence attributes to the "common-sense conservatism of Ronald Reagan" with which he began to identify.
Early career and congressional campaigns
After graduating from law school in 1986, Pence was an attorney in private practice. In 1988, Pence ran for Congress against Democratic incumbent Philip Sharp, but lost. He ran against Sharp again in 1990, quitting his job in order to work full-time in the campaign, but once again was unsuccessful. During the race, Pence used "political donations to pay the mortgage on his house, his personal credit card bill, groceries, golf tournament fees and car payments for his wife". While the spending was not illegal at the time, it reportedly undermined his campaign.
During the 1990 campaign, Pence ran a television advertisement in which an actor, dressed in a robe and headdress and speaking in a thick Middle Eastern accent, thanked his opponent, Sharp, for doing nothing to wean the United States off imported oil as chairman of a House subcommittee on energy and power. In response to criticism, Pence's campaign responded that the advertisement was not about Arabs; rather, it concerned Sharp's lack of leadership. In 1991, Pence wrote an essay, "Confessions of a Negative Campaigner", published in the Indiana Policy Review, in which he apologized for running negative ads against Sharp. Pence vowed to refrain from using insulting speech or running ads that belittle his adversaries. Also taking place in 1991, he became the president of the Indiana Policy Review Foundation, a self-described free-market think tank and a member of the State Policy Network, a position he held until 1993.
Shortly after his first congressional campaign in 1988, radio station WRCR-FM in Rushville, Indiana, hired Pence to host a weekly half-hour radio show, Washington Update with Mike Pence. In 1992, Pence began hosting a daily talk show on WRCR, The Mike Pence Show, in addition to a Saturday show on WNDE in Indianapolis. Pence called himself "Rush Limbaugh on decaf" since he considered himself politically conservative while not as bombastic as Limbaugh. Beginning on April 11, 1994, Network Indiana syndicated The Mike Pence Show statewide. With a 9:00 a.m. to noon (ET) time slot, the program reached as many as 18 radio stations in Indiana, including WIBC in Indianapolis. Pence ended his radio show in September 1999 to focus on his 2000 campaign for Congress, which he eventually won. From 1995 to 1999, Pence hosted a weekend public affairs TV show also titled The Mike Pence Show on Indianapolis TV station WNDY.
U.S. House of Representatives (2001–2013)
Pence rejuvenated his political career by running for the U.S. House of Representatives again in 2000, this time winning the seat in Indiana's 2nd congressional district after six-year incumbent David M. McIntosh opted to run for governor of Indiana. The district (renumbered as Indiana's 6th congressional district beginning in 2002) comprises all or portions of 19 counties in eastern Indiana. As a congressman, Pence adopted the slogan he had used on the radio, describing himself as "a Christian, a conservative and a Republican, in that order". While in Congress, Pence belonged to the Tea Party Caucus.
In his first year in office, Pence opposed President George W. Bush's No Child Left Behind Act in 2001, as well as President Bush's Medicare prescription drug expansion the following year. Pence was re-elected four more times by comfortable margins. In the 2006, 2008, and 2010 House elections, he defeated Democrat Barry Welsh.
Pence began to climb the party leadership structure and from 2005 to 2007 was chairman of the Republican Study Committee, a group of conservative House Republicans. In November 2006, Pence announced his candidacy for leader of the Republican Party (minority leader) in the United States House of Representatives. Pence's release announcing his run for minority leader focused on a "return to the values" of the Newt Gingrich-headed 1994 Republican Revolution. However, he lost the bid to Representative John Boehner of Ohio by a vote of 168 for Boehner, 27 for Pence, and one for Representative Joe Barton of Texas. In January 2009, Pence was elected as the Republican Conference chairman, the third-highest-ranking Republican leadership position at the time behind Minority Leader John Boehner and Republican Whip Eric Cantor. He ran unopposed and was elected unanimously. He was the first representative from Indiana to hold a House leadership position since 1981. During Pence's twelve years in the House, he introduced 90 bills and resolutions; none became law. His committee assignments in the House were the following:
- 107th Congress (2001–2003): Agriculture, Judiciary, Small Business
- 108th Congress (2003–2005): Agriculture, International Relations, Judiciary
- 109th Congress (2005–2007): Agriculture, International Relations, Judiciary
- 110th Congress (2007–2009): Foreign Affairs, Judiciary, Select Committee to Investigate the Voting Irregularities of August 2, 2007 (Ranking Member)
- 111th Congress (2009–2011): Foreign Affairs
- 112th Congress (2011–2013): Foreign Affairs, Judiciary
In 2008, Esquire magazine listed Pence as one of the ten best members of Congress, writing that Pence's "unalloyed traditional conservatism has repeatedly pitted him against his party elders." Pence was mentioned as a possible Republican candidate for president in 2008 and 2012. In September 2010, he was the top choice for president in a straw poll conducted by the Values Voter Summit. That same year, he was encouraged to run against incumbent Democratic senator Evan Bayh, but opted not to enter the race, even after Bayh unexpectedly announced that he would retire.
Governor of Indiana (2013–2017)
In May 2011, Pence announced that he would be seeking the Republican nomination for governor of Indiana in 2012. Incumbent Republican Governor Mitch Daniels was term-limited. Pence ran on a platform that touted the successes of his predecessor and promised to continue educational reform and business deregulation of Daniels. The Democratic nominee was former Indiana Speaker of the House John R. Gregg. Despite strong name recognition and a popular outgoing governor of the same party, Pence found himself in a heated race, eventually pulling out a close win with just under 50 percent of the vote, and less than 3% ahead of Gregg, with Libertarian nominee Rupert Boneham receiving most of the remaining votes.
Fiscal and economic policy
Pence "inherited a $2 billion budget reserve from his predecessor, Mitch Daniels, and the state ... added to that reserve under his watch, though not before requiring state agencies, including public universities, to reduce funding in years in which revenue fell below projections." The state finished fiscal year 2014 with a reserve of $2 billion; budget cuts ordered by Pence for the $14 billion annual state budget include $24 million cut from colleges and universities; $27 million cut from the Family and Social Services Administration (FSSA); and $12 million cut from the Department of Correction. During Pence's term as governor, the unemployment rate reflected the national average. Indiana's job growth lagged slightly behind the national trend. In 2014, Indiana's economy was among the slowest-growing in the United States, with 0.4 percent GDP growth, compared to the national average of 2.2 percent; this was attributed in part to a sluggish manufacturing sector. Carrier Corp. and United Technologies Electronic Controls (UTEC) announced in 2016 that they would be closing two facilities in Indiana, sending 2,100 jobs to Mexico; the Trump campaign criticized the moves and Pence expressed "deep disappointment". Pence was unsuccessful in his efforts to persuade the companies to stay in the state, although the companies agreed to reimburse local and state governments for certain tax incentives they had received. The Indiana Economic Development Corporation led by Pence had approved $24 million in incentives to ten companies who sent jobs abroad. $8.7 million had been paid out by August 2016.
In 2013, Pence signed a law blocking local governments in Indiana from requiring businesses to offer higher wages or benefits beyond those required by federal law. In 2015, Pence also repealed an Indiana law that required construction companies working on publicly funded projects to pay a prevailing wage. Indiana enacted right-to-work legislation under Pence's predecessor, Republican governor Mitch Daniels. Under Pence, the state successfully defended this legislation against a labor challenge. In 2013, Pence also announced the formation of the Indiana Biosciences Research Institute, a life sciences research facility supported with $25 million in startup funds from the state.
Pence made tax reform, namely a ten percent income-tax rate cut, a priority for 2013. While he did not get the ten percent cut he advocated, Pence did accomplish his goal of cutting state taxes. Legislators cut the income tax by five percent and also killed the inheritance tax. Speaker of the House Brian Bosma said the legislative package was the "largest tax cut in our state's history, about $1.1 billion dollars". By signing Senate Bill 1, the state corporate income tax would be dropped from 6.5 percent to 4.9 percent by 2021, which would be the second-lowest corporate income tax in the nation. The law also permitted Indiana counties to eliminate the business personal property tax on new equipment and let them exempt small businesses with less than $20,000 worth of equipment from paying personal property taxes.
On June 12, 2013, the Indiana Legislature overrode Pence's veto of a bill to retroactively authorize a local tax. Lawmakers overrode Pence's veto in a 68–23 vote in the House and a 34–12 one in the Senate. Republican legislators overwhelmingly voted against Pence, while most Democrats supported his veto. The Jackson–Pulaski tax fix, one of three bills vetoed by Pence during the session, addressed a 15-year-old county income tax which had been imposed to fund the construction of jail facilities with the stipulation that the tax be lowered by one percent after the first several years. The reduction was not implemented and thus county residents paid an additional one percent tax that they were legally not required to pay. The bill, which was passed by a huge majority of legislators and subsequently vetoed by Pence, allowed money to be kept and not returned to the taxpayers as would have otherwise been necessary.
As governor, Pence pressed for a balanced budget amendment to the state's constitution. He initially proposed the initiative in his State of the State address in January 2015. The legislation passed the state Senate. Indiana has had AAA credit ratings with the three major credit-rating agencies since 2010, before Pence took office; these ratings were maintained throughout Pence's tenure.
In 2014, Pence supported the Indiana Gateway project, a $71.4 million passenger and freight rail improvement initiative paid for by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (the federal stimulus package), which Pence had voted against while a congressman. In October 2015, Pence "announced plans to pay off a $250 million federal loan" to cover unemployment insurance payments which had spiked during the recession. In March 2016, Pence signed legislation to fund a $230 million two-year road-funding package.
During his tenure as governor, Pence supported significant increases in education funding to pre-schools, voucher programs, and charter schools, but frequently clashed with supporters of traditional public schools. In 2014, a little over one year after taking office, Pence helped establish a $10-million state preschool pilot program in Indiana and testified personally before the state Senate Education Committee in favor of the program to convince fellow Republicans (several of whom opposed the proposal) to approve the plan. Although the plan was initially defeated, Pence successfully managed to revive it, "getting Indiana off the list of just 10 states that spent no direct funds to help poor children attend preschool". Demand for enrollment in the program "far outstripped" capacity, and Pence at first refused to apply for up to $80 million in federal Health and Human Services Preschool Development Grant program funding, arguing that "Indiana must develop our own pre-K program without federal intrusion." After coming under sustained criticism for this position, Pence reversed course and sought to apply for the funds.
In 2015, Pence secured significant increases in charter-school funding from the legislation, although he did not get everything he had proposed. Legislation signed into law by Pence in 2013 greatly increased the number of students in Indiana who qualify for school vouchers, making it one of the largest voucher programs in the United States. The annual cost of the program is estimated to be $53 million for the 2015–2016 school year.
Pence opposed the Common Core State Standards Initiative, calling for the repeal of the standards in his 2014 State of the State address. The Indiana General Assembly then passed a bill to repeal the standards, becoming the first state to do so. In a televised interview appearance with Chris Matthews, Pence advocated eroding the teaching of science in public schools by putting religious dogma on a par with established science, accepting "creationist beliefs" as factual, and thus "teaching the controversy" over evolution and natural selection, and regarding the age of the earth, and letting children decide for themselves what to believe.
Despite successful advocacy for more funding for pre-schools, voucher programs, and charter schools, Pence has frequently clashed with teachers unions and supporters of public schooling. In one of his first acts as governor, Pence removed control of the Educational Employment Relations Board, which was in charge of handling conflicts between unions and school boards, from Glenda Ritz, a Democrat who was the Indiana superintendent of public instruction (a separately elected position in the state). Pence created a new "Center for Education and Career Innovation" (CECI) to coordinate efforts between schools and the private sector; Ritz opposed the center, viewing it as a "power grab" and encroachment on her own duties. Pence eventually disestablished the center in order to help defuse the conflict. In May 2015, Pence signed a bill stripping Ritz of much of her authority over standardized testing and other education issues, and reconstituting the State Board of Education dominated by Pence appointees. The bill also allowed the board to appoint a chairman other than the Superintendent of Public Instruction starting in 2017, and added the State Board of Education (controlled by Pence) as a "state educational authority" along with the Department of Education (controlled by Ritz) for purposes of accessing sensitive student data. Pence and Ritz also clashed over non-binding federal guidelines that advised Indiana public schools must treat transgender students in a way that corresponds to their gender identity, even if their education files indicate a different gender.
Energy and environment
During Pence's term in office, the Republican-controlled Indiana General Assembly "repeatedly tried to roll back renewable energy standards and successfully ended Indiana's energy efficiency efforts". Pence has been an outspoken supporter of the coal industry, declaring in his 2015 State of the State address that "Indiana is a pro-coal state," expressing support for an "all-of-the-above energy strategy", and stating: "we must continue to oppose the overreaching schemes of the EPA until we bring their war on coal to an end." In 2015, Pence sent a letter to President Obama denouncing the EPA's Clean Power Plan (which would regulate carbon emissions from existing power plants) and stating that Indiana would refuse to comply with the plan. Indiana joined other states in a lawsuit seeking to invalidate the plan. In 2016, Pence said that even if legal challenges failed, Indiana would continue to defy the rule and would not come up with its own plan to reduce emissions.
In 2014, over the opposition of Indiana school organizations, Pence signed a bill which allows firearms to be kept in vehicles on school property. In 2015, following a shooting in Chattanooga, Pence recruited the National Rifle Association to train the Indiana National Guard on concealed carry. Some National Guard officials from other states questioned why a civilian organization would be involved in a military issue. In May 2015, Pence signed into law Senate Bill 98, which limited lawsuits against gun and ammunition manufacturers and sellers and retroactively terminated the City of Gary's still-pending 1999 lawsuit against gun manufacturers and retailers that allegedly made illegal sales of handguns. The bill was supported by Republicans such as state senator Jim Tomes, who hoped the measure would attract more gun-related businesses to Indiana, but opposed by Gary mayor and former Indiana attorney general Karen Freeman-Wilson, who viewed the measure as "an unprecedented violation of the separation of powers between the legislative and judicial branches of state government". In 2016, Pence signed Senate Bill 109 into law, legalizing the captive hunting of farm-raised deer in Indiana.
In 2009, parts of East Chicago were discovered to have toxic lead and arsenic contamination, and were designated a Superfund site. Governor Pence declined to declare the Superfund site a state emergency; his successor Governor Eric Holcomb has issued Executive Order 17–13, declaring a disaster emergency in East Chicago. The site of several former lead smelting plants was first identified as a health concern by the EPA in 1997.
Beginning in December 2014, there was an HIV outbreak in Southern Indiana. In 2011, Planned Parenthood (PP) operated five rural clinics in Indiana. They tested for HIV and offered prevention, intervention and counseling to improve public health outcomes. The PP clinic in Scott County performed no abortions. The Republican-controlled legislature and Pence defunded Planned Parenthood. Scott County has been without an HIV testing center since 2013. Pence had long been a vocal opponent of needle exchange programs, which allow drug users to trade in used syringes for sterile ones in order to stop the spread of diseases, despite solid scientific evidence that such programs prevent the spread of AIDS, Hepatitis B (HBV) and Hepatitis C (HCV), and do not increase drug abuse. In March 2015, well after the outbreak began, Pence finally allowed at least five counties to open needle exchanges, but did not move to lift the state ban on funding for needle exchanges. Critics say Pence's compromise had been ineffective because counties had no way to pay for needle exchanges themselves. Anesthesiologist Jerome Adams, then the Pence-appointed Indiana state health commissioner and now the Trump-appointed surgeon general of the United States, defended Pence, arguing that publicly funded needle exchange programs are controversial in many conservative communities. During his time as Indiana State Health Commissioner, Adams—along with Governor Pence—delayed Indiana's efforts to deal with the largest HIV outbreak related to injection drug use in the history of the United States by stalling adoption of a needle exchange program. Adams said, "There are people who have real moral and ethical concerns about passing out needles to people with substance abuse problems. To be honest, I shared that sentiment." When President Trump appointed Pence in 2020 to head the country's response to coronavirus, he touted his ostensible experience with quelling an epidemic of HIV in Indiana, in which Pence deliberately delayed his state government's response to the disease despite the recommendations of the Centers for Disease Control that needle exchange was an efficacious approach to reining in the spread of diseases. Pence had told lawmakers he would veto any bill they might pass that provided for such exchanges.
In 2015, Pence and the Obama administration agreed to expand Medicaid in Indiana, in accordance with the Affordable Care Act. As part of the expansion, called the Healthy Indiana Plan 2.0, Pence negotiated modifications to the program for Indiana that included co-payments by participants. The co-payments are linked to healthy behaviors on the part of the participants so that, for example, a participant who quit smoking would receive a lower co-payment. Participants can lose benefits for failing to make the payments. The required contribution would be about 2% of income. Critics say those who already struggle to buy food and housing will have even more difficulty paying their 2%. One critic expressed concern that lower-income people may stay out of the program or avoid pursuing health care. A service provider said the program "wins the award for bureaucratic complexity and red tape". In early 2017, Indiana submitted its application to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services to renew Healthy Indiana, to show that the program was meeting its targets, as required for renewal. National Public Radio/Side Effects Public Media said the application used "misleading and inaccurate information".
Religion and LGBT rights
On March 26, 2015, Pence signed Indiana Senate Bill 101, also known as the Indiana "religious objections" bill (Religious Freedom Restoration Act, or RFRA), into law. The move was praised by religious conservatives, but criticized by people and groups who felt the law was carefully worded in a way that would permit discrimination against LGBT persons. Such organizations as the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), the gamer convention Gen Con, and the Disciples of Christ spoke out against the law. Apple CEO Tim Cook and Salesforce.com CEO Marc Benioff condemned the law, with Salesforce.com saying it would halt its plans to expand in the state. Angie's List announced that they would cancel a $40 million expansion of their Indianapolis-based headquarters over concerns with the law. The expansion would have moved 1000 jobs into the state. Thousands protested against the policy. Five Republican state representatives voted against the bill, and Greg Ballard, the Republican mayor of Indianapolis, criticized it as sending the "wrong signal" about the state.
Pence defended the law, saying it was not about discrimination. In an appearance on the ABC News program This Week with George Stephanopoulos he said, "We are not going to change this law," while refusing to answer whether examples of discrimination against LGBT people given by Eric Miller of anti-LGBT group Advance America would be legal under the law. Pence denied the law permitted discrimination and wrote in a March 31, 2015, Wall Street Journal op-ed, "If I saw a restaurant owner refuse to serve a gay couple, I wouldn't eat there anymore. As governor of Indiana, if I were presented a bill that legalized discrimination against any person or group, I would veto it." In the wake of the backlash against the RFRA, on April 2, 2015, Pence signed legislation revising the law to protect against potential discrimination. Pence received heavy criticism from liberals at the time of signing the religious freedom law, who labeled him as anti-gay. In 2018, emails released to the Associated Press showed that conservatives had also opposed his changing the law.
In March 2016, as Indiana governor, Pence signed into law H.B. 1337, a bill that both banned certain abortion procedures and placed new restrictions on abortion providers. The bill banned abortion if the reason for the procedure given by the woman was the fetus' race or gender or a fetal abnormality. In addition, the bill required that all fetal remains from abortions or miscarriages at any stage of pregnancy be buried or cremated, which according to the Guttmacher Institute was not required in any other state. The law was described as "exceptional for its breadth"; if implemented, it would have made Indiana "the first state to have a blanket ban on abortions based solely on race, sex or suspected disabilities, including evidence of Down syndrome". Days after the U.S. Supreme Court issued its decision in Whole Woman's Health v. Hellerstedt, a federal court issued a preliminary injunction blocking the bill from taking effect, with U.S. district judge Tanya Walton Pratt determining that the bill was likely to be unconstitutional and that the State of Indiana would be unlikely to prevail at trial. The abortion bill was subsequently ruled unconstitutional in April 2018 by the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit.
Media and the press
On January 26, 2015, it was widely reported that Pence had planned to launch a state-run, taxpayer-funded news service for Indiana. The service, called "JustIN", was to be overseen by a former reporter for The Indianapolis Star, and would feature breaking news, stories written by press secretaries, and light features. At the time, it was reported that the two employees who would run the news service would be paid a combined $100,000 yearly salary. The target audience was small newspapers which had limited staff, but the site would also serve to communicate directly with the public. The publisher of the Commercial Review of Portland, Indiana, said, "I think it's a ludicrous idea ... the notion of elected officials presenting material that will inevitably have a pro-administration point of view is antithetical to the idea of an independent press." There was speculation that the news service would publish pro-administration stories that would make Pence look good in the event of a presidential run.
According to Associated Press, the idea "of stories prewritten for the media set off a wave of criticism from journalists around the country, who likened the Indiana endeavor to state-run media in Russia and China. Headlines like 'Pravda in the Plains' accompanied calls for Pence to scrap the idea." David A. Graham of The Atlantic regarded the announcement of JustIN as evidence of a disturbing changing trend in how the public gets news. After a week or so of controversy about the idea, Pence scrapped the idea saying, "However well-intentioned, after thorough review of the preliminary planning and careful consideration of the concerns expressed, I am writing you to inform you that I have made a decision to terminate development of the JustIN website immediately."
Syrian refugee crisis
As governor, Pence attempted unsuccessfully to prevent Syrian refugees from being resettled in Indiana. In February 2016, a federal judge ruled that Pence's order to cut off federal funds for a local non-profit refugee resettlement agency was unconstitutional; Pence has appealed. In December 2015, Pence said that "calls to ban Muslims from entering the U.S. are offensive and unconstitutional."
Public-records requests and use of private email
Pence "repeatedly stonewalled public records requests as governor, often withholding documents or delaying their release if not denying them outright". As governor, Pence routinely used a personal AOL email account to conduct official business, according to public records. In 2016, hackers compromised the account and used it to send fraudulent emails in an attempt to obtain money from Pence's contacts. While Pence's use of a private email account for state business is not prohibited by Indiana law, some of the emails discussed sensitive matters and homeland security issues. In March 2017, after Pence had become vice president, the State of Indiana released 29 emails to media outlets that had made public records requests, but withheld an undisclosed number of other emails, saying they were deliberative or advisory and thus exempt from public disclosure. Cybersecurity experts and government transparency advocates were surprised by Pence's use of a personal email account to conduct public business, given Pence's past attacks on Hillary Clinton's use of a private email server while U.S. secretary of state. In 2017, Indiana hired a private law firm for $100,000 to handle a backlog of public-records requests for Pence's personal AOL account email correspondence.
Re-election campaign and withdrawal
Pence ran for a second term as governor. He was unopposed in the May 3, 2016, Republican primary for governor. He was to face Democrat John R. Gregg in a rematch of the 2012 race. However, Pence filed paperwork ending his campaign on July 15, 2016, as Trump announced his selection of Pence as his vice presidential running mate. Lieutenant Governor Eric Holcomb was nominated in Pence's place, and selected Suzanne Crouch as his running mate. Holcomb went on to defeat Gregg in the general election.
2016 vice presidential campaign
Pence endorsed Senator Ted Cruz of Texas in the 2016 Republican presidential primaries.
Donald Trump considered naming Pence as his vice presidential running mate along with other finalists including New Jersey governor Chris Christie and former House speaker Newt Gingrich. Pence had stronger connections at the time to the politically influential big donors, the Kochs, than Trump did. It was widely reported on July 14 that Pence planned to end his re-election campaign and accept the Republican vice presidential nomination instead. The following day, Trump officially announced on Twitter that Pence would be his running mate.
Immediately after the announcement, Pence said he was "very supportive of Donald Trump's call to temporarily suspend immigration from countries where terrorist influence and impact represents a threat to the United States". Pence said he was "absolutely" in sync with Trump's Mexican wall proposal, saying Mexico was "absolutely" going to pay for it.
According to a FiveThirtyEight rating of candidates' ideology, Pence was the most conservative vice-presidential candidate in the last 40 years.
Pence said his role model as vice president would be Dick Cheney.
During Pence's preparations for the vice presidential debate in October 2016, Wisconsin governor Scott Walker played the role of Democratic vice presidential nominee Tim Kaine. In Kaine's own debate prep, lawyer Robert Barnett was selected to play Pence. Following the debate, experts concluded Pence won against Kaine, with a CNN poll showing 48% of viewers thought Pence won and 42% believing Kaine won. Pence's "cooler" temperament was seen as an advantage compared to Kaine, who was perceived as more hotheaded.
On October 7, 2016, lewd comments made by Donald Trump in 2005 surfaced and gained heavy media attention. That day, Pence said to reporters, "I do not condone his remarks and cannot defend them," but made clear that he was standing by Trump. In response to the revelation, Paul Ryan, the then-speaker of the U. S. House of Representatives, "uninvited" Trump from what would have been a joint campaign event. The Trump campaign attempted to substitute Pence for Trump at the event, but according to The New York Times, Pence called Trump on October 8 and told him that he (Pence) would not appear at the event, and that Trump would need to handle the next 48 hours on his own, as Pence did not think he would be an effective surrogate for Trump.
According to Bob Woodward's 2018 book Fear: Trump in the White House, in the midst of the scandal, then-Republican National Committee chairman Reince Priebus told Trump he should drop out of the race for the good of the party, and that Pence had agreed to replace Trump on the top of the ticket as the Republican presidential nominee, with former Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice agreeing to be Pence's running mate.
On October 10, 2016, Pence appeared on CNN and said, in response to rumors that he was leaving the ticket, that it was "absolutely false to suggest that at any point in time we considered dropping off this ticket" and that it is the "greatest honor of my life" to be nominated as Trump's running mate.
On October 27, 2016, a chartered Boeing 737 carrying Pence skidded off a runway at LaGuardia Airport in New York City and was slowed by an engineered materials arrestor system; no injuries were reported.
Vice Presidency (2017–2021)
On November 8, 2016, Pence was elected vice president of the United States as Trump's running mate.
Soon after the election, he was appointed chairman of President-elect Trump's transition team. During the transition phase of the Trump administration, Pence was reported as holding a large degree of influence in the administration due to his roles as a mediator between Trump and congressional Republicans, for reassuring conservatives about Trump's conservative credentials, and his influence in determining Donald Trump's cabinet.
Pence is the sixth vice president from Indiana, following Schuyler Colfax (1869–1873), Thomas A. Hendricks (1885), Charles W. Fairbanks (1905–1909), Thomas R. Marshall (1913–1921), and Dan Quayle (1989–1993).
On January 20, 2017, at noon, Pence became the 48th vice president of the United States, sworn into the office by justice Clarence Thomas, using Ronald Reagan's Bible, opened to 2 Chronicles 7:14, "If my people, which are called by my name, shall humble themselves, and pray, and seek my face, and turn from their wicked ways; then will I hear from heaven, and will forgive their sin, and will heal their land," which is the same verse Reagan used for his swearing-ins as governor and president. Pence also used his personal Bible which he opens every morning.
On the first day in office (January 20), Pence performed various ceremonial duties, including swearing in Jim Mattis as United States secretary of defense and John Kelly as secretary of homeland security. He also administered the oath of office to the White House senior staff on January 22, 2017.
In January, Pence appointed Josh Pitcock as his chief of staff, whom he had known from his gubernatorial and congressional days. The following month, Jarrod Agen was tapped as deputy assistant to the president and director of communications to the vice president; his previous job being chief of staff for governor of Michigan Rick Snyder through the time of the Flint water crisis. In July, Pitcock stepped down as chief of staff, and was succeeded in the position by Nick Ayers, another longtime Pence advisor.
On February 5, 2017, Pence warned Iran "not to test the resolve" of the new Trump administration following their ballistic missile tests.
On February 7, 2017, Pence, in his dual constitutional role as president of the United States Senate made the first ever tie-breaking vote to confirm a Cabinet member. He cast the deciding vote to break a fifty-fifty tie to confirm Betsy DeVos as the secretary of education. Pence cast his second tie-breaking vote on March 30, voting to advance a bill to defund Planned Parenthood. In 2018, Pence broke a tie to confirm Jonathan A. Kobes for the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit. This was the first ever tie-breaking vote to confirm a judicial nominee in U.S. history. In total, Pence had cast 13 tie-breaking votes, seventh-most in history and more than his previous four predecessors (Joe Biden, Dick Cheney, Al Gore and Dan Quayle) cast combined (Cheney broke eight ties, Gore broke four ties, and Quayle and Biden did not cast a tie-breaking vote).
In April, Pence made a tour of the Asia-Pacific region. In South Korea, he met acting president Hwang Kyo-ahn and condemned North Korea's latest missile launch. In Japan, Pence met Prime Minister Shinzō Abe and pledged to work with Japan, South Korea, and China "to achieve a peaceable resolution and the denuclearization of the Korean peninsula," adding "The era of strategic patience is over and while all options are on the table." Pence subsequently traveled to Jakarta, Indonesia, where he met with president Joko Widodo, toured the largest mosque in the region (the Istiqlal Mosque), and praised moderate Islam. Pence ended his trip with stops in Sydney, Australia (where, after meeting with Malcolm Turnbull, he said the U.S. "intends to honor" a U.S.–Australia refugee resettlement agreement), and Oahu, Hawaii and American Samoa.
On May 21, 2017, Pence delivered the commencement address at the University of Notre Dame. Traditionally, the president delivers the address at Notre Dame in his inaugural year, but in 2017 Pence was invited instead when Trump decided to speak at Liberty University.
On October 8, 2017, Pence walked out of a game between the NFL's Indianapolis Colts and San Francisco 49ers at Trump's request after members of the 49ers knelt during the national anthem. Shortly afterwards, Pence commented via Twitter, "President Trump and I will not dignify any event that disrespects our soldiers, our Flag, or our National Anthem," adding, "While everyone is entitled to their own opinion, I don't think it's too much to ask NFL players to respect the flag and our national anthem." Pence was widely criticized by various people for what was considered a publicity stunt. Democratic representative Adam Schiff (CA-28) questioned how much taxpayer's money was used to fund Pence's actions, and CNN later estimated that the total cost of his eight hours of travel on Air Force Two to attend the game was about $242,500, not including ground transportation and security. 49ers safety Eric Reid (the second NFL player after Colin Kaepernick to participate in the protests) told reporters it was predictable that Pence would walk out, knowing that most of the team were protesting. Reid also expressed doubt over the regularity Pence is in terms of attending Colts matches, and referenced a photograph of the vice president and his wife in Colts uniform that had been tweeted before the match, although the official photograph (right) proved otherwise. The photograph in question was first published in 2014. Sportswriter Peter King wrote that the furor surrounding Pence had overshadowed Peyton Manning, who was being honored by the Colts, saying, "Pence trumped a day that belonged to the greatest football hero the state of Indiana has ever seen, and he did it for political purposes ... he stole Manning's last great day as a Colt. [He] will have to live with himself for that." The following year, Pence reacted positively on Twitter, after NFL owners unanimously decided to approve a new policy requiring all players to stand (or, given the option to stay in the locker room) during the national anthem, despite not consulting the NFL Players Association.
On February 1, 2018, it was announced that Pence would lead the presidential delegation to the 2018 Winter Olympics, alongside his wife. Much of Pence's time at PyeongChang was affected by the ongoing North Korean crisis. Prior to the opening ceremony, on February 9, Pence skipped on a dinner held by South Korean president Moon Jae-in, as he would have shared a table with North Korea's ceremonial head of state Kim Yong-nam. Instead, he met with four North Korean defectors in Pyeongtaek, alongside his special guest, Fred Warmbier (the father of Otto Warmbier, who was arrested in North Korea for attempted theft, and sentenced to 15 years' imprisonment, before returning to the U.S. in a comatose state). At the ceremony, the Pences were seated in front of the North Korean delegates, and when North and South Korean athletes entered during the Parade of Athletes, they chose to stay seated, which prompted critics to accuse Pence of hypocrisy in regards to the NFL protests. Pence was supposed to meet with the North Koreans on February 10, but they pulled out at the last day.
Over the next few months, the North Koreans started communicating more with their neighbors, as Supreme Leader Kim Jong-un secretly met with Chinese paramount leader Xi Jinping in March and then Moon Jae-in in an historic inter-Korean summit in April, and around the same time, a meeting between Trump and Kim was also proposed. On May 10, Pence accompanied Trump to Andrews Air Force Base as three American citizens were released by North Korea, and in an early morning interview with ABC's Jonathan Karl, he said seeing the men back on American soil "was really one of the greatest joys of my life". Talks broke down later that month following comments made by Pence and Trump, comparing the situation to events in Libya seven years previous, despite their voluntary disarmament of nuclear weapons in 2003. North Korean vice foreign minister Choe Son-hui called Pence's remarks "ignorant and stupid". On May 24, Trump abruptly called off the summit with Pence in attendance, only for him to change his mind a day later, later announcing that it would still be scheduled to take place on June 12 in Singapore.
In September 2019, Pence attended official meetings with Irish prime minister Leo Varadkar in Dublin, Ireland but stayed at President Trump's resort in Doonbeg, 180 miles (290 km) away. Pence's schedule included four hours spent in transit in one day, and two flights on Air Force Two before the end of the next day. Costs for the limousine service alone totaled $599,000 according to State Department receipts, compared to President Obama's three-day trip to Dublin with the same limousine company totaling $114,000.
Political action committee
In May 2017, Pence filed FEC paperwork to form Great America Committee, a political action committee (PAC) that would be headed by his former campaign staffers Nick Ayers and Marty Obst. Pence is the only vice president to have started his own PAC while still in office. Pence denied a New York Times article's allegations that he would run for president in 2020, calling them "laughable and absurd", and said the article was "disgraceful and offensive".
Pence and the Trump impeachment inquiry
Pence was a key player in the Trump-Ukraine scandal and the Trump impeachment inquiry. Pence had at least two phone conversations and an in-person meeting with Volodymyr Zelensky, President of Ukraine. Pence met with Zelensky in Poland on September 1, 2019, during an unexpected delay in U.S. military aid to Ukraine. Pence later told the press that he did not mention 2020 presidential candidate and former vice president Joe Biden to Zelensky, but raised issues regarding Ukrainian corruption.
After the inquiry was opened, Pence publicly stated his support of Trump's call for foreign investigation into Joe Biden and his son Hunter, saying, "I think the American people have a right to know if the vice president of the United States or his family profited from his position." On October 3, Pence stated, "My predecessor had a son who was paid $50,000 a month to be on a Ukrainian board at the time that Vice President Biden was leading the Obama administration's efforts in Ukraine, I think [that] is worth looking into."
Death of Soleimani
Pence defended Trump's decision in January 2020 to assassinate the Iranian major general in the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) Qasem Soleimani, promoting conspiracy theories that supposedly linked the al-Queda attacks on the United States to Iran. In a series of tweets, the vice president termed Soleimani "an evil man who was responsible for killing thousands of Americans". Pence insisted Soleimani had "assisted in the clandestine travel to Afghanistan of 10 of the 12 terrorists who carried out the September 11 terrorist attacks", which critics said was his confusing the number of 9/11 hijackers (actually 19) and insinuating (without evidence) that the general was involved. Many experts responded that Pence's claims were unsubstantiated. Pence's spokeswoman Katie Waldman said that the dozen terrorists Pence referred to were those who had traveled through Afghanistan, ten of whom "were assisted by Soleimani".
On February 26, 2020, President Trump named Pence as the leader of the White House Coronavirus Task Force to combat the spread of the coronavirus. Various public health officials and members of Congress had suggested the selection of a "Coronavirus Czar", though Trump has said Pence will not hold such a title because he is a member of the administration. As the leader of the task force, Pence will coordinate efforts with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, Department of Homeland Security, and White House Office.
After it was announced a staff member of his tested positive for the coronavirus on March 20, 2020, Pence confirmed he and his wife would be undergoing tests in a statement to the press, though he stressed he had no direct contact with the staff member in question. By the next day the results of the tests came back negative, with Pence also announcing that more than 195,000 Americans had been tested at that point, with only 19,343 returning positive. Another White House employee, a U.S. military member who served as Trump's valet, tested positive for the coronavirus in early May. After becoming aware of this, Pence and Trump were almost immediately tested once again, both proving negative.
In April 2020, Pence exempted himself from the Mayo Clinic's policy of wearing a face mask in the hospital during a visit. Pence defended his action, saying he needed to look staff "in the eye". The next day, the vice president's opponents criticized him for promoting "completely irresponsible public health messaging". Later, Pence acknowledged he should have worn a mask during the hospital visit, and did so two days later when visiting a ventilator production facility.
In late June 2020, as coronavirus cases were spiking, Pence gave an optimistic press briefing where he made several misleading and false claims about the state of the coronavirus pandemic. He misleadingly argued that surges in cases were the result of increased testing, telling reporters that increases in new cases were "a reflection of a great success in expanding testing across the country". However, health experts noted that case growth outpaced the number of tests, and that the share of positive tests was increasing. Pence also falsely claimed that coronavirus fatalities were declining all across the country, that the curve had been flattened, and that all 50 states were opening up. In private meetings with Republican Senators, Pence urged them to focus on "encouraging signs". Pence told the senators that cases were increasing in only 3% of counties and 12 states; however, data at the time showed that cases were increasing in at least 5% of counties and in at least 20 states. On December 18, the Pences received the Pfizer/BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine for SARS-CoV-2, in front of a live audience at a televised event to show Americans that the vaccine is safe and effective.
2020 vice presidential election
Ahead of his presidential campaign on February 28, 2019, Joe Biden referred to Pence as a "decent guy" in a speech in Omaha, Nebraska, when making an anecdote about an audience falling silent after Pence mentioned Trump's name. Biden later faced criticism for his complimentary remarks due to Pence's alleged anti-LGBT positions, which Biden would later apologize for and clarify by saying, "I was making a point in a foreign policy context, that under normal circumstances a Vice President wouldn't be given a silent reaction on the world stage." Biden had previously referred to Pence as a "decent guy" in 2018, and Pence and Biden would exchange conversations via phone during Pence's initial transition into the vice presidency.
In June 2019, the Democratic former New York City Council president Andrew Stein opined that Trump could improve his re-election chances by replacing Pence as his running mate with former South Carolina governor and former United States ambassador to the United Nations Nikki Haley. Despite that, Trump has said Pence will be his running mate. He declined to endorse Pence should his running mate seek in 2024 to succeed him, but said he would give it "very strong consideration".
In remarks about law enforcement during the 2020 Republican convention, Pence said a federal security officer, Dave Underwood, "was shot and killed during the riots in Oakland", implying he was killed by someone involved in nearby George Floyd protests, when instead a man linked to the far-right Boogaloo movement had been charged with Underwood's murder.
On October 7, 2020, Pence participated in a debate with Kamala Harris that was held by USA Today in Salt Lake City, Utah, and moderated by Susan Page, the Washington bureau chief of the newspaper. The debate was held with adaptations designed to avoid contagion of the COVID-19 virus given that the vice president had been in close contact with people who had been infected at a recent event at the White House. Plexiglas partitions separated the candidates and masks were required for all attending except the candidates and moderator. By some estimates, Pence interrupted Harris twice as much as she interrupted him. Media outlets noted that near the end of the debate, a fly landed on Pence's head for almost two minutes. A CNN poll found that 59% of registered voters felt that Harris had won the debate, while 38% felt that Pence had.
On November 7, 2020, after several days of vote counting, Biden and Harris were declared by most major news networks to be the winners of the election. On December 14 the Electoral College confirmed the win, giving the Biden-Harris campaign 306 votes compared to 232 for the Trump–Pence campaign, however, Trump refused to concede and insisted that he had actually won. Throughout November and December Trump and his campaign filed more than 50 lawsuits alleging election fraud and other irregularities; all of them were eventually rejected by judges. Trump also pressured Republican officials and lawmakers to take actions to overturn the election.
In late December 2020, a federal lawsuit was filed against Pence by Republican congressman Louie Gohmert and 11 Arizona Republicans who would have become presidential electors had Trump actually won Arizona. The plaintiffs sought to give the Vice President the power to reject state-certified presidential electors in favour of "competing slates of electors" so that Biden's victory over Trump could be overturned. The United States Department of Justice represented Pence in this case, and argued for its dismissal, stating that the lawsuit was a "walking legal contradiction" because it sought to grant power to the Vice President, while suing the Vice President. Within a week, the lawsuit was dismissed in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Texas, and the appeal was rejected by a United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit panel, both due to the plaintiffs' lack of standing. Gohmert then appealed to the Supreme Court, which on January 7 tersely "denied" his petition.
Vote counting and storming of the Capitol
In January 2021, Trump began to pressure Pence to take action to overturn the election. As vice president, Pence presided over the January 6, 2021, Congressional Joint Session to count the electoral votes—normally a non-controversial, ceremonial event. For days beforehand, Trump declared both in public and in private that Pence should use that position to overturn the election results in swing states and declare Trump–Pence the winners of the election. Pence demurred that the United States constitution does not give him that power, but Trump insisted that "The Vice President and I are in total agreement that the Vice President has the power to act." According to The New York Times, multiple sources claim that Trump called Pence before he departed to certify the results urging him again one last time ultimately telling him, "You can either go down in history as a patriot, or you can go down in history as a pussy." Before the start of the Joint Session, Pence stated in a "Dear Colleague" letter that the Constitution prevents him from deciding which electoral votes should be counted and which should not.
On January 6, 2021, the day on which a joint session of Congress met to count and certify the results of the electoral college for the 2020 presidential election, Trump held a rally at which he urged listeners to go to the Capitol and repeatedly expressed the hope that Pence would "do the right thing". Many listeners then marched to the Capitol and stormed it. A Reuters photographer overheard three rioters saying they wanted to seize Pence and hang him, while many others chanted their desire to hang Pence.
On January 15, The Washington Post reported that Pence came "dangerously close" to the rioters during their occupation of the Capitol. Pence was not evacuated from the Senate chambers until 14 minutes after the initial breach of the Capitol was reported. He and his family were eventually ushered from the Senate chambers into a second-floor hideaway. One minute later, the mob rushed onto a stair landing only 100 feet away, from which they could have seen him enter the room if they had arrived a minute earlier. Pence later approved the deployment of the National Guard. After the Capitol was cleared, Congress resumed its joint session, and officially certified the election results with Pence declaring Biden and Harris the winners.
During the siege, Trump criticized Pence as lacking "courage" Earlier L. Lin Wood, a lawyer associated with Trump, had called for Pence to be "executed" by "firing squad". In spite of the threats against Pence, Trump never reached out to Pence or inquired about his safety during the attack on the Capitol, according to sources close to the vice president. Aides believed that Pence was being set up as a scapegoat for Trump's failure to overturn the results of the election. Pence was described as very angry with Trump. The two did not speak for several days, until January 11 when they met at the White House to discuss the prior week's Capitol siege and the final days of their administration.
Post-vice presidency (2021–present)
According to media reports, Pence does not have a permanent place of residence in Indiana, so he and his wife have been staying at residences owned by various Indiana Republican politicians since leaving the vice presidency. Official records indicate that Pence has not owned a residence in Indiana since 2013. It is believed that he is currently staying in a cabin owned by his former lieutenant governor, Indiana governor Eric Holcomb. In May 2021, the Pences bought a home north of Indianapolis.
In February 2021, it was announced that Pence will join the Heritage Foundation as a distinguished visiting fellow. He also joined the Young America's Foundation conservative youth organization, with plans to launch a new podcast with the group in the coming months. In March 2021, Pence published an op-ed on a Heritage Foundation website which made false claims of fraud in the 2020 election. He also made numerous false claims about the For the People Act, a Democratic bill under consideration by the Democratic-controlled House to improve voting access, saying the bill would "force states to adopt universal mail-in ballots" and would mean "millions of illegal immigrants are quickly registered to vote." At speaking engagements in the months after the end of the Trump administration, Pence spoke with reverence of the former president.
Pence narrated a four-part television series on the career of right-wing radio host Rush Limbaugh titled Age of Rush, which debuted on Fox Nation in March 2021. Pence had previously cited Limbaugh as an inspiration for his career in talk radio and then in politics. In April 2021, it was reported that Pence signed a deal with publisher Simon & Schuster for two books, including an autobiography that is set to be published in 2023.
In 2016, Pence was described as being staunchly conservative on fiscal and social issues, with his political views strongly shaped by his Christian faith and by the conservative political theorist Russell Kirk. As Vice President, Pence defended debt- and deficit-spending as a measure to stimulate economic growth. During his acceptance speech for the nomination of Republican vice presidential candidate at the 2016 Republican National Convention he said: "I'm a Christian, a conservative, and a Republican, in that order." As one commentator put it, "Pence doesn't simply wear his faith on his sleeve—he wears the entire Jesus jersey."
Abortion, sex education, and stem cell research
Pence is an opponent of abortion, and his unwavering support of abortion restrictions has gained him the support of grassroots conservative activists. He began seeking to defund Planned Parenthood in 2007 and in three congressional sessions, he introduced legislation to block organizations that provide abortion services from receiving any Title X funding, even for services not related to reproductive health or family planning. Marjorie Dannenfelser, president of the Susan B. Anthony List, has praised Pence as a "pro-life trailblazer".
Pence has criticized comprehensive sex education. In 2002, he criticized a speech by then-secretary of state Colin Powell, who had said it was "important for young people ... to protect themselves from the possibility of acquiring any sexually transmitted disease" through the use of condoms. Pence called Powell's comments a "sad day" and expressed his support for abstinence education. He asserted that "condoms are a very, very poor protection against sexually transmitted diseases" and that Powell was "maybe inadvertently misleading millions of young people and endangering lives" despite the CDC assessment that when properly used they offer effective protection against STDs.
Pence opposed President Obama's executive order eliminating restrictions on embryonic stem-cell research, saying, "I believe it is morally wrong to create human life to destroy it for research ... I believe it is morally wrong to take the tax dollars of millions of pro-life Americans." He asserted that "scientific breakthroughs have rendered embryonic stem-cell research obsolete."
On January 27, 2017, Pence spoke at the March for Life in Washington, D.C., becoming the first vice president, and at the time, the highest-ranking United States official to ever speak at the annual event, until President Trump spoke at the event in 2020.
Pence has said he supports an overturn of Roe v. Wade, though denied that Supreme Court justice Brett Kavanaugh was nominated for that purpose. During the 2020 vice presidential debate, when asked by moderator Susan Page what he would want states to do if Roe were overturned, Pence refused to endorse criminalizing abortion, instead simply referring to himself as "pro-life".
Pence has been a vocal opponent of efforts to expand LGBT civil rights, during both his governorship and his tenure as a U.S. representative. In 2000, his congressional campaign website said, "Congress should oppose any effort to recognize homosexuals as a 'discrete and insular minority' entitled to the protection of anti-discrimination laws similar to those extended to women and ethnic minorities." Also included on his website was a call for "an audit to ensure that federal dollars were no longer being given to organizations that celebrate and encourage the types of behaviors that facilitate the spreading of the HIV virus" and instead advocated that "Resources should be directed toward those institutions which provide assistance to those seeking to change their sexual behavior." Some LGBT rights advocates have cited this as evidence of Pence endorsing conversion therapy, a charge he denies.
In 2007, Pence voted against the Employment Non-Discrimination Act, which would have banned workplace discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation. Pence opposed the 2009 Matthew Shepard Hate Crimes Act, saying that Barack Obama wanted to "advance a radical social agenda" and said that pastors "could be charged or be subject to intimidation for simply expressing a Biblical worldview on the issue of homosexual behavior". Pence has said that homosexuals should not serve in the military, saying, "Homosexuality is incompatible with military service because the presence of homosexuals in the ranks weakens unit cohesion." Pence opposed the repeal of "don't ask, don't tell", saying in 2010 that allowing gays and lesbians to openly serve in the military would "have an impact on unit cohesion".
Pence opposes both same-sex marriage and civil unions. While in the House, he said that "societal collapse was always brought about following an advent of the deterioration of marriage and family." He has advocated a constitutional same-sex marriage ban but did not champion such a proposed ban for his first year as governor.
In March 2019, former vice president Joe Biden referred to Pence as "a decent guy" during a speech at the University of Nebraska Omaha in Omaha, Nebraska, a month before Biden announced his 2020 presidential campaign. LGBT groups, progressive leaders and celebrities strongly criticized him, with actress and New York gubernatorial candidate Cynthia Nixon chastising Biden on Twitter, to which Biden responded by apologizing and criticizing Pence's stance on LGBT rights. Nixon later penned an op-ed in The Washington Post calling Pence "insidious and dangerous" for his actions on LGBT rights, claiming about Biden's comments that "it's easy to say nice things about Pence when you're not personally threatened by his agenda. If Biden were being directly attacked in the same way that our community is, I think he would see Pence from a very different vantage point."
Pence was a co-sponsor of H.J.Res.73, a 2011 spending limit amendment to the U.S. Constitution. This amendment would limit federal spending to "the average annual revenue collected in the three prior years, adjusted in proportion to changes in population and inflation". In regards to adopting the gold standard, Pence said in 2011, "the time has come to have a debate over gold and the proper role it should play in our nation's monetary affairs." Pence proposed legislation to end the dual mandate of the Federal Reserve (maximizing employment and stabilizing prices), requiring the Fed to just focus on price stability and not full employment. He has been a proponent of a flat federal tax rate. Pence opposed the Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP) (the "Wall Street bailout") of 2008. Pence also opposed the auto industry rescue package of 2008–2009, which guided General Motors and Chrysler through bankruptcy.
In 2007, Pence voted against raising the federal minimum wage to $7.25 (from $5.15) an hour over two years, saying it would "hurt the working poor". While in the House, Pence voted against the Employee Free Choice Act ("card check"). He voted against the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. He had publicly opposed the bill denouncing it as a failure, and called for a federal spending freeze. Nevertheless, several months after voting against the bill, Pence privately sought $6 million in stimulus funds for projects in his district, and in 2010, hosted a job fair for stimulus-backed employers. A Pence spokesperson said that "once it became law, he had a responsibility to support local efforts to secure funding for projects that could benefit people in his district." Pence voted against the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act.
Pence was a supporter of earmark reform. He voted against the $139.7 billion Transportation-Treasury spending bill in June 2006, and in favor of a series of amendments proposed that same month by Jeff Flake which would strip other members' earmarks from the federal budget. On occasion, however, Pence secured earmarks for projects in his district.
Pence voted against the act that created Medicare Part D (a prescription drug benefit) and against the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. In June 2012, after the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the Affordable Care Act in NFIB v. Sebelius, Pence likened the ruling to the September 11 attacks in a closed-door meeting of the House Republican Conference. He immediately apologized for making the statement.
Pence wrote an article that appeared on his 2000 congressional campaign website arguing against the tobacco settlement and tobacco regulation, saying they would create "new government bureaucracies" and encroach on private lives. He wrote, "despite the hysteria from the political class and the media, smoking doesn't kill." Pence asserted, "two out of every three smokers does [sic] not die from a smoking related illness and nine out of ten smokers do not contract lung cancer," while acknowledging that "smoking isn't good for you" and people who smoke should quit. In fact, smoking-related deaths comprise two out of three among those who smoke, twice as high as Pence claimed. In 2009, Pence voted against the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, which allows the Food and Drug Administration to regulate tobacco products. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Pence's state of Indiana has one of the worst smoking problems in America.
Pence was slow to support a needle exchange program in Indiana to combat a major HIV outbreak related to needle-sharing among opioid drug users. While giving credit for the program's ultimate start, an AIDS research foundation director of public policy later deemed the outbreak "entirely preventable". Jerome Adams, Pence's state health commissioner, defended Pence's pace at responding to the situation. Republican state house representative Edward Clere, concerned about the rapid spread of HIV in Scott County, Indiana, urged then-governor Pence to sign an executive order to allow needle exchange programs to operate. After resisting the intervention for over two months, Pence spoke to the county sheriff, prayed for guidance, then finally capitulated in May 2015, signing an executive order that allowed such a program to address the epidemic. The rate of infection spread then slowed dramatically.
In February 2020, after conflicting statements by administration officials via television, it was announced that Pence would control all messaging from government health officials regarding the COVID-19 pandemic.
In June 2006, Pence unveiled an immigration plan (which he described as "No Amnesty Immigration reform") that would include increased border security, followed by strict enforcement of laws against hiring illegal aliens, and a guest worker program. This guest worker program would have required participants to apply from their home country to government-approved job placement agencies that match workers with employers who cannot find Americans for the job. The plan received support from conservatives such as Dick Armey, but attracted criticism from other conservatives such as Richard Viguerie and paleoconservatives Phyllis Schlafly and Pat Buchanan, who, as described by The New York Times, collectively viewed Pence as lending "his conservative prestige to a form of liberal amnesty".
Pence opposes birthright citizenship. Pence asserted in 2018 that the Citizenship Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution (which provides that "all persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside") would not apply to "people who are in the country illegally". As a congressman, Pence co-sponsored a bill that would have limited citizenship to children born to at least one parent who is a citizen, immigrants living permanently in the U.S. or non-citizens performing active service in the Armed Forces.
In 2010, Pence voted against the DREAM Act, which would grant the undocumented children of illegal immigrants conditional non-immigrant status if they met certain requirements. In 2010, Pence said Arizona S.B. 1070, which at the time of passage in 2010 was the nation's broadest and strictest anti-illegal immigration legislation, was "a good faith to try and restore order to their communities".
Pence supported President George W. Bush's unsuccessful 2005 proposal to partially privatize Social Security by allowing workers to invest part of their Social Security payroll taxes in private investment accounts and reduce the increase in benefits for high-income participants. Pence had previously proposed a similar but more aggressive reform plan than Bush's.
When asked in 2010 if he would be willing to make cuts to Social Security, Pence answered, "I think everything has to be on the table." When asked if he would raise the retirement age, he said, "I'm an all-of-the-above guy. We need look at everything on the menu."
Pence supported the Patriot Act on its passage in 2001, and in 2005 called the act "essential to our continued success in the war on terror here at home". Pence was a sponsor of legislation in 2009 to extend three expiring provisions of the Patriot Act (the library records provision, the roving-wiretap provision, and the lone-wolf provision) for an additional ten years.
Pence "has been a longtime, aggressive advocate of trade deals" between the U.S. and foreign countries. Pence has been a supporter of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), and during his tenure in the House, he voted for every free-trade agreement that came before him. Pence voted in favor of the Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA); in favor of keeping the U.S. in the World Trade Organization; and in favor of permanent normal trade relations with China. Pence also supported bilateral free-trade agreements with Colombia, South Korea, Panama, Peru, Oman, Chile, and Singapore. Pence's strong stance in favor of free trade sharply differs from the stance of his running mate Trump, who has condemned globalization and the liberalization of trade.
Pence voted against the Trade and Globalization Act of 2007, which would have expanded Trade Adjustment Assistance to American workers adversely affected by globalization. However, in 2014 Pence called for the "swift adoption" of the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), urging Indiana's congressional delegation to support the trade deal.
Pence supported the Iraq War Resolution, which authorized military action against Iraq. During the Iraq War, Pence opposed setting a public withdrawal date from Iraq. During an April 2007 visit to Baghdad, Pence and John McCain visited Shorja market, the site of a deadly attack in February 2007 which had claimed 61 lives. Pence and McCain described the visit as evidence that the security situation in Iraqi markets had improved. The visit to the market took place under tight security, including helicopters overhead, and the New York Times reported that the visit gave a false indication of how secure the area was because of the extremely heavy security forces protecting McCain. Pence chaired the House Foreign Affairs Subcommittee on the Middle East and was a prominent supporter of George W. Bush's Iraq War troop surge of 2007. At the time, Pence said "the surge is working" and defended the initial decision to invade in 2003.
Pence has opposed closing the Guantanamo Bay detention camp and trying the suspected terrorists in the United States. As an alternative, Pence has said the "enemy combatants" should be tried in a military tribunal.
Pence has stated his support of Israel and its right to attack facilities in Iran to prevent the Iranians from developing nuclear weapons, has defended the actions of Israel in its use of deadly force in enforcing the blockade of Gaza, and has referred to Israel as "America's most cherished ally". He visited Israel in 2014 to express his support, and in 2016 signed into law a bill which would ban Indiana from having any commercial dealings with a company that boycotts Israel. He opposes a Palestinian state.
Pence criticized Russian president Vladimir Putin and Barack Obama's alleged weak leadership, saying: "When Donald Trump and I observe that, as I've said in Syria, in Iran, in Ukraine, that the small and bullying leader of Russia has been stronger on the world stage than this administration, that's stating painful facts. That's not an endorsement of Vladimir Putin. That's an indictment of the weak and feckless leadership."
Two weeks prior to the NATO intervention in Libya, Pence thanked the Obama administration and secretary of state Hillary Clinton for their efforts to isolate the Gaddafi regime. Pence expressed support for "a no-fly zone" and said "Gaddafi must go."
Pence condemned the "terrible savagery" against Rohingya Muslims in Myanmar, saying "The images of the violence and its victims have shocked the American people, and decent people all over the world."
Pence called on Turkish president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan to release Andrew Brunson, an American pastor detained in the post-coup purges in Turkey. On August 1, 2018, the U.S. Department of Treasury imposed sanctions on two senior Turkish government ministers who were involved in the detention of Brunson. Erdoğan said the U.S. behavior will force Turkey to look for new friends and allies.
On July 26, 2018, Pence raised the Xinjiang re-education camps issue at Ministerial To Advance Religious Freedom. He said that "Sadly, as we speak as well, Beijing is holding hundreds of thousands, and possibly millions, of Uyghur Muslims in so-called 're-education camps', where they're forced to endure around-the-clock political indoctrination and to denounce their religious beliefs and their cultural identity as the goal."
Pence "does not accept the scientific consensus that human activity is the primary driver of climate change". In 2001, Pence wrote in an op-ed that "global warming is a myth," saying that "the earth is actually cooler today than it was about 50 years ago." In 2006 and 2009, Pence expressed the view that it was unclear whether global warming was driven by human activity, and in 2009 he told political commentator Chris Matthews that there was a "growing skepticism in the scientific community about global warming". In 2009, Pence led the Republican effort to defeat the American Clean Energy and Security Act (Waxman-Markey), a Democratic-backed bill to cut greenhouse gas emissions (and therefore combat climate change) through a cap-and-trade system. On September 27, 2016, however, Pence said "there's no question" that human activity affects both the climate and the environment. Pence holds a lifetime rating of four percent from the League of Conservation Voters. While in the House, Pence "voted to eliminate funding for climate education programs and to prohibit the Environmental Protection Agency from regulating greenhouse gas emissions". Pence also "repeatedly voted against energy efficiency and renewable energy funding and rules" and voted "for several bills that supported fossil fuel development, including legislation promoting offshore drilling".
Crime and illegal drugs
Pence has questioned proposals to decrease penalties for low-level marijuana offenses in Indiana, saying the state should focus on "reducing crime, not reducing penalties". In 2013, Pence expressed concern that a then-pending bill to revise the state's criminal code was not tough enough on drug crimes, and successfully lobbied to limit the reduction in sentencing of marijuana offenses.
During 2014, Pence sent a letter to United States attorney general Eric Holder, saying Indiana would not comply with federal prison rape elimination standards because they were "too expensive". According to the Indiana Department of Corrections, it would cost the state $15–20 million annually to comply with the guidelines. Pence said a number of rape prevention measures had already been "implemented".
In 2015, Pence signed Senate Bill 94 to lengthen the statute of limitations for rape—continuing for five years after sufficient DNA evidence is uncovered, enough recorded evidence is brought forth or discovered, or the offender confesses to the crime. Pence also signed Senate Bill 8 to allow the death penalty for beheadings if the victim was alive at the time of the offense.
Pence has been an advocate of federal restrictions on online gambling. In 2006, he was one of 35 cosponsors of H.R. 4411, the Goodlatte–Leach Internet Gambling Prohibition Act, and H.R. 4777, the Internet Gambling Prohibition Act.
Pence praised the 2010 Supreme Court ruling in Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission when it was announced. Pence said:
Freedom won today in the Supreme Court. Today's ruling in the Citizens United case takes us one step closer to the Founding Fathers' vision of free speech, a vision that is cherished by all Americans and one Congress has a responsibility to protect. If the freedom of speech means anything, it means protecting the right of private citizens to voice opposition or support for their elected representatives. The fact that the court overturned a 20-year precedent speaks volumes about the importance of this issue.
On June 19, 2020—the Juneteenth holiday, and the day before a significant Trump rally held at the BOK Center in Tulsa, Oklahoma—a television journalist asked Pence if he would say the words black lives matter. Pence replied that all lives matter. Pence added that no significant U.S. group would disagree, as he saw it, about "the preciousness and importance of every human life". He denounced the police abolition movement when speaking to a police union rally in Philadelphia in July 2020, commenting how "[w]e also don't need to choose between supporting our police and supporting African American families here in Philadelphia or anywhere in America. We can do both. We have done both."
In the late 1990s, Pence supported the impeachment of President Bill Clinton. Arguing for the moral requirements of the office of the presidency, Pence wrote that an American president with "bad moral habits" can "incinerate the planet", thus nothing less than a president who represents "all of our highest hopes and ideals and values" could be accepted. Pence also brought up "staggering rates of illegitimacy and divorce", mandating that "America needs to be able to look to her First Family as role models."
Mike and Karen Pence have been married since 1985. The two met while he was in law school at Indiana University. They have three children: Michael, Charlotte, and Audrey. During Pence's service in the House, his family lived in Arlington, Virginia when Congress was in session and in Columbus, Indiana, during recesses. Pence's son, Michael, is a first lieutenant and training to be a pilot in the United States Marine Corps. Pence has five siblings. His oldest brother, Greg, ran in 2018 to represent Indiana's 6th congressional district in Congress (the seat previously held by Mike), and won. Pence's father died in 1988, leaving his mother, Nancy, a widow with four grown children and two teenagers. On May 1, 2004, Pence's mother married Basil Coolidge Fritsch, a widower since 2001.
The Pences' pet rabbit Marlon Bundo was featured in two children's books, both released in March 2018. A Day in the Life of Marlon Bundo was written by Jill Twiss and released on March 18, 2018. Marlon Bundo's: A Day in the Life of the Vice President was written by his daughter Charlotte and released on March 19, 2018.
Pence was raised in a Catholic family, served as an altar server, and attended parochial school. He became a born-again Christian in college, while a member of a nondenominational Christian student group, and identified his first year—and specifically "a Christian music festival in Asbury, Kentucky, in the spring of 1978" referring to the Ichthus Music Festival at then Asbury College in Wilmore, Kentucky—as the moment he made a "commitment to Christ". After that point, Pence continued to attend Mass (where he met his wife) and was a Catholic youth minister. Pence called himself Catholic in a 1994 news piece, although by 1995, he and his family had joined an evangelical megachurch, the Grace Evangelical Church. In 2013, Pence said his family was "kind of looking for a church". He has described himself as "a Christian, a conservative and a Republican, in that order", and as "a born-again, evangelical Catholic".
When asked by Chris Matthews in 2009 if he believed in evolution, Pence said "I believe with all my heart that God created the heavens and the earth, the seas and all that is in them. How he did that, I'll ask him about some day." In a 2002 statement on the floor of the House of Representatives (reported in the Congressional Record), Pence told his colleagues "... I also believe that someday scientists will come to see that only the theory of intelligent design provides even a remotely rational explanation for the known universe."
|Democratic||Philip R. Sharp||116,915||53.20|
|Democratic||Philip R. Sharp||93,495||59.37|
|Independent||William "Bill" Frazier||19,077||9.15|
|Libertarian||Michael E. Anderson||2,422||1.16|
|Democratic||Melina Ann Fox||63,871||34.40|
|Democratic||Melina Ann Fox||85,123||31.29|
|Libertarian||Chad (Wick) Roots||4,397||1.62|
|Democratic||Barry A. Welsh||76,812||39.99|
|Democratic||Barry A. Welsh||94,223||33.38|
|Libertarian||George T. Holland||7,534||2.67|
|Democratic||Barry A. Welsh||56,647||29.92|
|Libertarian||Talmage "T.J." Thompson, Jr.||6,635||3.51|
|Republican||Mike Pence / Sue Ellspermann||1,275,424||49.49%|
|Democratic||John Gregg / Vi Simpson||1,200,016||46.56%|
|Libertarian||Rupert Boneham / Brad Klopfenstein||101,868||3.95%|
|No party||Donnie Harold Harris / George Fish (write-in)||21||0%||—|
|Margin of victory||75,408||2.93%||%|
Vice president of the United States
|Year||Election||Votes for Pence||%||Opponent||Party||Votes||%|
(304 electoral votes)
(227 electoral votes)
(232 electoral votes)
(306 electoral votes)
- The White House Coronavirus Task Force was succeeded by the White House COVID-19 Response Team.
- An elector from Texas cast a vote replacing Pence with Carly Fiorina as the vice president.
- At the end of the debate, Second Lady Karen Pence was seen onstage without a mask, which her spokesperson said was on the basis of an agreement with Harris's husband, Douglas Emhoff, who ended up wearing his mask onstage.
- Eason, Rrian (November 9, 2016). "Next VP: 10 things to know about Indiana Gov. Mike Pence". IndyStar. Retrieved December 4, 2016.
- Groppe, Maureen (November 19, 2008). "U.S. Rep. Mike Pence of Indiana to get House GOP's No. 3 leadership job". The Indianapolis Star. Archived from the original on January 29, 2015. Retrieved November 20, 2008.
- Hulse, Carl (November 11, 2016). "Mike Pence Emerging as a Commanding Figure in Trump Administration". The New York Times. Retrieved January 14, 2018.
- Miller, Emily McFarlan; Kimberly, Winston (July 15, 2016). "5 faith facts on "Mike Pence: A 'born-again, evangelical Catholic". Religion News Service. Retrieved May 19, 2017. Also published the same date in the National Catholic Reporter.
- Stidman, Eric (April 20, 2015). "John Gregg eyes governor's seat for 2016". WTHITV.com. Archived from the original on June 13, 2015. Retrieved June 13, 2015.
- "DOUG ROSS: Gregg gearing up for second gubernatorial run". Nwitimes.com. February 15, 2015. Retrieved June 13, 2015.
- Smith, Mitch (March 24, 2016). "Indiana Governor Signs Abortion Bill With Added Restrictions". The New York Times. Retrieved May 19, 2017.
- Davis, Tina (November 5, 2020). "Trump's Election Lawsuits: Where the Court Fights Are Playing Out". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved November 14, 2020.
- Herb, Jeremy. "As Trump refuses to concede, his agencies awkwardly prepare what they can for a Biden transition". CNN. Retrieved November 14, 2020.
- Groppe, Maureen (September 2, 2019). "Mike Pence has a deep affection for Ireland. It's not completely reciprocated". USA Today. Retrieved July 9, 2020.
- "The Republic from Columbus, Indiana · Page 1". Retrieved November 17, 2016.
- "Wedding Bells Ring Out For 3 S. Side Couples". Chicago Daily Tribune. April 5, 1956. p. 90.
- de la Cuetara, Ines (July 14, 2016). "Mike Pence: Everything You Need to Know". ABC News. Retrieved July 15, 2016.
- Thomas, Ken (April 15, 2017). "5 things to know about US Vice President Mike Pence". National. Star Tribune. Associated Press. Archived from the original on April 18, 2017. Retrieved April 17, 2017.
- Neal, Andrea (July 11, 2018). Pence: The Path to Power. Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-1-68435-038-4. Retrieved August 5, 2020.
- Mayer, Jane (October 23, 2017). "The Danger of President Pence; Trump's critics yearn for his exit. But Mike Pence, the corporate right's inside man, poses his own risks". Newyorker.com. Retrieved October 26, 2017.
- Deparle, Jason (August 29, 2006). "Star of the Right Loses His Base at the Border". The New York Times. Retrieved May 19, 2017.
- Doyle, Kevin (March 16, 2017). "Mike Pence tried with extraordinary speech about Irish heritage—but Hillary Clinton wins the biggest cheer of the night". Irish Independent. Retrieved March 16, 2017.
- Mahler, Jonathan; Johnson, Dirk (July 20, 2016). "Mike Pence's Journey: Catholic Democrat to Evangelical Republican". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 22, 2017.
- Bump, Philip (January 9, 2018). "How 'chain migration' brought us the Trump White House". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 14, 2018.
- Carswell, Simon (March 21, 2013). "Mike Pence and Donald Trump's Irish connection: Doonbeg". The Irish Times. Retrieved July 15, 2016.
- McMahon, Páraic (July 15, 2016). "Doonbeg links aplenty in US Presidential race". ClareHerald.com. Retrieved October 1, 2016.
- "Biography". Office of U.S. Representative Mike Pence. Archived from the original on March 6, 2012. Retrieved July 2, 2017.
- Kelly, Niki (February 10, 2016). "Pence pegs Holcomb for state's No. 2 post". The Journal Gazette. Retrieved July 13, 2016.
- Cook, Tony (May 31, 2014). "Is Gov. Mike Pence moving to the center amid talk of presidential run?". The Indianapolis Star. Retrieved April 21, 2020.
- Burton, Danielle (November 15, 2006). "What You Didn't Know About Rep. Mike Pence of Indiana". U.S. News & World Report. Archived from the original on February 17, 2010. Retrieved March 31, 2015.
- Graham, Jordan (September 9, 2016). "Mike Pence Explains How Ronald Reagan Made Him a Republican". The Orange County Register. Archived from the original on September 10, 2016. Retrieved December 4, 2016.
- "Here's what you should know about Mike Pence". Huffington Post.
- Sager, R. (2006). The Elephant in the Room: Evangelicals, Libertarians, and the Battle to Control the Republican Party. Wiley. p. 82. ISBN 978-0-471-79332-8.
- Helderman, Rosalind S.; Hamburger, Tom; Crites, Alice (June 15, 2016). "Mike Pence used campaign funds to pay his mortgage—and it cost him an election". Washington Post. Retrieved July 16, 2016.
- "Arab Group Says Pence TV Ad Is Offensive". Post-Tribune. Associated Press. October 12, 1990.
- "Mike Pence Fast Facts—CNN Politics". CNN. July 14, 2016. Retrieved March 7, 2021.
- Montanaro, Domenica (July 14, 2016). "5 Things To Know About Mike Pence". NPR.
- Pence, Mike (Summer 1991). "Confessions of a negative campaigner". Indiana Policy Review. pp. 5–6. Archived from the original on March 5, 2001.
- "Mike Pence Congressional Papers". Indiana University. 2014.
- Moll, Karly (November 7, 2012). "Profile: Indiana Gov.-elect Mike Pence". USA Today. Retrieved May 17, 2017.
- In a 1992 article for the monthly Indiana Policy Review, Pence likened Bayh's and Coats's attempt at blocking out-of-state trash from landing in Hoosier landfills to Nazis seizing Jewish assets.Samuelsohn, Daniel (July 20, 2016). "Mike Pence once compared Evan Bayh and Dan Coats to Nazis". Politico. Retrieved May 17, 2017.
- Hall, Steve (September 11, 1995). "The kind conservative". The Indianapolis Star. pp. C1, C2.
- Congressional Record: Proceedings and debates of the 147th Congress, First Session. 147. June 4, 2014. p. 19950. ISBN 9780160924286.
- "Mike Pence and His Family". Mike Pence for Congress. Archived from the original on January 19, 2001.
- "Hear Mike Here!". WIBC. Archived from the original on June 11, 2000.
- "Pence to syndicate". Indianapolis Star. February 24, 1994. p. B7. Retrieved April 24, 2018.
- Trares, Ryan (January 17, 2017). "Pence used radio show to build name". The Republic. Columbus, Indiana. Retrieved April 24, 2018.
- "Arena Profile: Mike Pence". Politico. 2010. Archived from the original on October 12, 2010. Retrieved November 28, 2014.
- Lorber, Janie (July 21, 2010). "Tea Party Caucus Tackles Racism Charge". The New York Times. Retrieved May 17, 2017.
- "At first official event, Pence, Trump set sights on Clinton, vow to restore prosperity, safety to America". Republican Convention. Fox News. July 16, 2016. Retrieved July 16, 2016.
- Barbaro, Michael; Davey, Monica (July 15, 2016). "Mike Pence: A Conservative Proudly Out of Sync With His Times". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 16, 2016.
- "2006 Indiana Election Report" (PDF). Indiana Election Division. March 28, 2007. pp. 10, 62, 69–70, 110. Retrieved January 24, 2017.
- "2008 Indiana Election Report" (PDF). Indiana Election Division. May 24, 2009. pp. 14, 56, 66–67, 104. Retrieved January 24, 2017.
- "2010 Indiana Election Report" (PDF). Indiana Election Division. pp. 15, 61, 69, 111. Retrieved March 11, 2017.
- Harris, Shane (July 15, 2016). "Donald Trump and Mike Pence: Two Newbies, One Dangerous World". Daily Beast. Retrieved May 19, 2017.
- Pence, Mike (November 8, 2006). "Pence Announces Candidacy for Republican Leader" (Press release). Office of U.S. Representative Mike Pence. Archived from the original on November 14, 2006. Retrieved May 19, 2017.
- "Boehner elected as Republican leader: Succeeds Hastert in top GOP role in Democratic-controlled House". Politics. NBC News. Associated Press. November 17, 2006. Retrieved May 19, 2017.
- Barbaro, Michael; Davey, Monica (July 15, 2016). "Mike Pence: A Conservative Proudly Out of Sync With His Times". The New York Times. Retrieved May 19, 2017.
- "Official Alphabetical List of Members with Committee Assignments for the 107th Congress". Clerk of the House of Representatives. p. 27. Archived from the original on September 22, 2018. Retrieved May 19, 2017.
- "Official Alphabetical List of Members with Committee Assignments for the 108th Congress". Clerk of the House of Representatives. October 14, 2004. p. 57. Archived from the original on September 22, 2018. Retrieved May 19, 2017.
- "Official Alphabetical List of Members with Committee Assignments for the 109th Congress (final ed.)". Clerk of the House of Representatives. p. 27. Archived from the original on December 30, 2016. Retrieved May 19, 2017.
- "Official Alphabetical List of Members with Committee Assignments for the 110th Congress (final ed.)". Clerk of the House of Representatives. p. 27. Archived from the original on September 22, 2018. Retrieved May 19, 2017.
- "Official Alphabetical List of Members with Committee Assignments for the 111th Congress (final ed.)". Clerk of the House of Representatives. p. 27. Archived from the original on December 29, 2016. Retrieved May 19, 2017.
- "Official Alphabetical List of Members with Committee Assignments for the 112th Congress (final ed.)". Clerk of the House of Representatives. December 27, 2012. p. 13. Archived from the original on December 29, 2016. Retrieved May 19, 2017.
- "The 10 Best Members of Congress". Esquire. October 15, 2008. Retrieved May 19, 2017.
- Phillips, Amber (July 14, 2016). "Who is Mike Pence?". The Fix. The Washington Post. Retrieved May 19, 2017.
- Montenaro, Domenico (July 13, 2016). "Curse of the 2012 GOP candidate?". MSN. Archived from the original on June 27, 2009. Retrieved May 19, 2017.
- Memoli, Michael A. (September 19, 2010). "GOP Rep. Mike Pence gets nod for 2012 presidential run". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 3, 2015.
- O'Donnell, Kelly (July 12, 2016). "Team Trump Plans Public Event Friday With VP Pick". NBC News. Retrieved July 12, 2016.
- Kristol, William (December 21, 2009). "Kristol: Draft Pence!". The Weekly Standard. Retrieved January 31, 2010.
- Kraushaar, Josh (January 20, 2010). "Is Pence inspired?". Politico. Retrieved January 31, 2010.
- Cox, Norman (January 20, 2010). "Bayh Criticizes 'Ultraliberal' Leanings After GOP Upset WRTV Indianapolis". WRTV 6. Archived from the original on September 27, 2013. Retrieved January 31, 2010.
- Hamby, Peter (February 15, 2010). "Pence will not seek Bayh seat". CNN. Retrieved May 19, 2017.
- Sherman, Jake (February 15, 2010). "Pence declines again on Bayh seat". Politico. Retrieved May 19, 2017.
- Montopoli, Brian (January 27, 2011). "Mike Pence Says he Won't Run for President". CBS News. Retrieved December 15, 2011.
- Smith, Brandon (June 27, 2012). "Pence Vows No New Business Regulation If Elected Governor". Indiana Public Media. Archived from the original on May 12, 2018. Retrieved May 11, 2018.
- Smith, Brandon (November 7, 2012). "Daniels And Pence Vow To Continue Education Reform". Indiana Public Media. Archived from the original on March 1, 2013. Retrieved May 11, 2018.
- "Pence in as governor of Indiana; Hassan wins N.H." NBC News. November 6, 2012. Retrieved December 17, 2012.
- Carden, Dan (January 14, 2013). "Pence sworn in as Indiana's 50th governor". The Times of Northwest Indiana.
- Timiraos, Nick (July 17, 2016). "Mike Pence Brings Conservative Bona Fides to Donald Trump Ticket". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved July 18, 2016.
- "FSSA Mission and Vision". in.gov. State of Indiana. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
- Hayden, Maureen (July 14, 2014). "State reports budget surplus, $2 billion in reserves". Tribune Star. Community Newspaper Holdings Indiana Statehouse Bureau. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
- "Fact-Checking Trump's First Appearance With Running Mate Mike Pence". Politics: 2016 Election. NBC News. July 16, 2016. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
- Jackson, Brooks (July 21, 2016). "Pence on Employment Record". The Wire. FactCheck.org. Annenberg Public Policy Center. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
- Groppe, Maureen (June 10, 2015). "Indiana's Economy Growing More Slowly Than U.S. Average". Indianapolis Star. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
- Cook, Tony (August 28, 2016). "Under Mike Pence, Indiana gave incentives to companies that offshored jobs". Indianapolis Star. Archived from the original on September 5, 2016. Retrieved November 22, 2016.
List of Incentives and offshoring under Gov. Mike Pence
- Turner, Kris (February 15, 2016). "Sen. Joe Donnelly, Gov. Mike Pence react to Carrier, UTEC sending 2,100 Hoosier jobs to Mexico". Indianapolis Star. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
- Adams, Matt; Smith, Matt (March 2, 2016). "Gov. Pence meets with Carrier executives about move to Mexico". WXIN. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
- Turner, Kris (March 3, 2016). "Carrier, UTEC agree to reimburse incentives after meeting with Gov. Pence". Indianapolis Star. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
- Levine, Sam (July 16, 2016). "Mike Pence Once Thought A $7.25 Minimum Wage Was Too High". The Huffington Post. Retrieved July 17, 2016.
- Mahoney, Brian (July 15, 2016). "Pence on labor". Morning Shift. Politico. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
- Carden, Dan. "Indiana unlikely to boost minimum wage despite widespread support". The Times of Northwest Indiana. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
- Carden, Dan. "Pence signs repeal of common construction wage". The Times of Northwest Indiana. Retrieved July 17, 2016.
- Nather, David (July 16, 2016). "With Pence pick, Trump just made women's health a top-tier election issue". PBS. Retrieved June 22, 2017.
- Rucker, Philip (December 12, 2014). "Mike Pence Lays Out Vision for a Presidential Campaign. But Will He Be a Candidate?". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 1, 2015.
- "Review & Outlook: The State Tax Reformers: More Governors look to repeal their income taxes". The Wall Street Journal. January 31, 2013. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
- Trinko, Katrina (May 7, 2013). "Governor Pence's Indiana-Tax Win". National Review. Archived from the original on January 1, 2015. Retrieved January 1, 2015.
- Cook, Tony (March 14, 2015). "Gov. Mike Pence Signs Off on Business Tax Cuts". The Indianapolis Star. Retrieved July 22, 2016.
- "Indiana Lawmakers Override Pence on Local Tax Measure". The Herald Bulletin. Associated Press. June 12, 2013. Retrieved January 1, 2015.
- Schneider, Mary Beth (June 12, 2013). "Indiana Lawmakers Override Gov. Mike Pence's Veto, Resolve County Tax Mixup". The Indianapolis Star. Archived from the original on January 1, 2015. Retrieved January 1, 2015.
- "Legislature Overrides Pence Veto of Jackson-Pulaski Tax Fix". WIBC-FM 93.1. June 12, 2013. Archived from the original on January 1, 2015. Retrieved January 1, 2015.
- Davies, Tom (March 8, 2015). "Pence's balanced budget amendment advancing in Legislature". WISH-TV. Associated Press. Retrieved July 14, 2016.
- "S&P affirms Indiana bond rating". Journal Gazette. April 1, 2016. Retrieved July 18, 2016.
- "Indiana Gateway Project". INDOT. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
- Carden, Dan (June 1, 2014). "Pence sweetens on stimulus as state benefits". The Times of Northwest Indiana. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
- Klein, Alyson (July 15, 2016). "Indiana's Pence, Trump VP Pick: Pro-School Choice, Anti-Common Core". EducationWeek.
- Elliott, Scott (July 13, 2015). "The basics of Mike Pence on education: A battle for control". Chalkbeat.
- Howey, Brian (October 26, 2014). "Pence takes heat over pre-K federal funds". Times of Northwest Indiana.
- Cook, Tony; Schneider, Chelsea (June 2, 2016). "In an about-face, Pence expresses interest in federal pre-K grant". Indianapolis Star.
- "Pence signs Indiana voucher expansion bill". Associated Press. May 9, 2013.
- Carden, Dan (May 9, 2013). "Pence signs law expanding school voucher eligibility". Times of Northwest Indiana.
- Weddle, Eric; McInerny, Claire (July 20, 2016). "What Did Mike Pence Do For Indiana Schools As Governor? Here's a Look". NPR.
- Schneider, Chelsea; Cook, Tony (July 18, 2016). "Are vouchers costing or saving taxpayer dollars?". Indianapolis Star.
- Boyle, Rebecca (July 15, 2016). "Trump VP Choice Mike Pence Doesn't Agree With Science: Smoking doesn't kill, teach the controversy, and more quotes from the candidate". Popular Science. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
- Gross, Allie (January 30, 2015). "Republican-backed bill would shift power from Indiana ed chief". educationdive.com.
- LoBianco, Tom (May 7, 2015). "Pence signs bill stripping Ritz of education authority". Associated Press.
- "Bathroom guidelines for transgender students leave Pence, Ritz at odds". Indianapolis Business Journal. Associated Press. May 14, 2016.
- Hirji, Zahra (July 15, 2016). "Trump's Choice of Pence Adds a Conservative Fossil Fuel Backer to GOP Ticket". InsideClimate News. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
- "Governor Pence: 2015 State of the State". www.in.gov. January 13, 2015. Archived from the original on December 1, 2016. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
- Groppe, Maureen (June 24, 2015). "Pence: EPA must change emissions rules or Indiana won't comply". Indianapolis Star. Retrieved May 18, 2016.
- Groppe, Maureen (February 20, 2016). "Pence to defy coal plant rules". Indianapolis Star. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
- Wang, Stephanie (March 26, 2014). "Gov. Mike Pence signs bill to allow guns in school parking lots". Indianapolis Star. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
- Slodysko, Brian (August 21, 2015). "Indiana enlists NRA to train National Guard on concealed guns". Portland Press Herald. Associated Press. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
- Rund, Jacob (May 9, 2015). "What bills has Gov. Pence signed into law?". Indianapolis Star. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
- Carden, Dan (April 21, 2015). "Fate of Gary gun lawsuit in Pence's hands". The Times of Northwest Indiana. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
- Kelly, Niki (March 22, 2016). "Pence signs captive hunting bill". Journal Gazette. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
- Erbentraut, Joseph (February 16, 2017). "Mike Pence Ignored A Lead Contamination Crisis In His Backyard". The Huffington Post. Retrieved February 23, 2017.
- "Governor Holcomb: Executive Orders". www.in.gov. Retrieved February 23, 2017.
- "East Chicago Lead Crisis Declared Emergency by Indiana Governor". Patch. Chicago. February 10, 2017. Retrieved February 23, 2017.
- Reese, Sarah (September 4, 2016). "Old East Chicago lead smelter site went unaddressed for years". Indiana Economic Digest. Archived from the original on July 30, 2018. Retrieved July 30, 2018.
- Barry-Jester, Anna Maria (July 15, 2016). "Two Times Mike Pence Brushed Off Science". FiveThirtyEight. Retrieved July 16, 2016.
- Rutter, David (June 6, 2015). "Little Indiana town paid for war on Planned Parenthood". chicagotribune.com. Retrieved October 1, 2016.
- Bassett, Laura (March 31, 2015). "Indiana Shut Down Its Rural Planned Parenthood Clinics And Got An HIV Outbreak". huffingtonpost.com. Retrieved October 1, 2016.
- Gonsalves, Gregg; Crawford, Forrest (March 2, 2020). "How Mike Pence Made Indiana's HIV Outbreak Worse". Politico. Retrieved March 12, 2020.
- Demko, Paul (August 7, 2016). "How Mike Pence's slow walk on needle exchange helped propel Indiana's health crisis; The GOP vice presidential nominee's response to Indiana's opioid scourge offers a window into his approach to handling a crisis". Politico. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
- Mike Pence's Response to H.I.V. Outbreak: Prayer, Then a Change of Heart, New York Times, Megan Twohey, August 8, 2016. Retrieved March 12, 2020.
- "Mike Pence was criticized for his handling of Indiana's HIV outbreak. He will lead the U.S. coronavirus response". The Washington Post. February 27, 2020. Retrieved March 2, 2020.
- Rudavsky, Shari; Groppe, Maureen (January 27, 2017). "Gov. Pence gets federal OK for Medicaid alternative". Indianapolis Star. Retrieved July 15, 2016.
- Ehrenfreund, Max (July 15, 2016). "Republicans hate Obamacare. But Mike Pence expanded it in Indiana". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 15, 2016.
- Henderson, Nia-Malika (January 29, 2015). "Will Mike Pence tip the GOP scales on Medicaid expansion?". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 15, 2016.
- Rudavsky, Shari; Groppe, Maureen (January 27, 2015). "Gov. Pence gets federal OK for Medicaid alternative". Indianapolis Star. Retrieved November 25, 2017.
- Harper, Jake (February 24, 2017). "Indiana's Claims About Its Medicaid Experiment Don't All Check Out". NPR. Retrieved January 10, 2018.
- "Indiana Gov. Pence defends religious objections law: 'This bill is not about discrimination'". Chicago Tribune. Associated Press. March 26, 2015. Retrieved April 22, 2017.
- Adams, Dwight (May 3, 2018). "RFRA: Why the 'religious freedom law' signed by Mike Pence was so controversial". Indianapolis Star.
- "Thousands march in Indiana to protest law seen targeting gays". Reuters. March 29, 2015. Archived from the original on March 29, 2015.
- "These Religious Groups Want Nothing To Do With Indiana's New Law". The Huffington Post. April 4, 2015.
- Conkle, Daniel O. (March 7, 2015). "Law professor: Why Indiana needs 'religious freedom' legislation". The Indianapolis Star.
- Epps, Garrett (March 30, 2015). "What Makes Indiana's Religious-Freedom Law Different?". The Atlantic. Retrieved April 1, 2015.
- "NCAA 'concerned' over Indiana law that allows biz to reject gays". CNN. March 26, 2015. Retrieved March 26, 2015.
- Davies, Tom (March 27, 2015). "Indiana officials look to stem religious objections fallout". Associated Press.
- Evans, Tim (March 28, 2015). "Angie's List canceling Eastside expansion over RFRA". The Indianapolis Star. Retrieved June 28, 2013.
- Sabalow, Ryan; Eason, Brian (March 26, 2015). "Ballard: 'Religious freedom' bill sends 'wrong signal'". Indy Star.
- "ABC News 'This Week with George Stephanopoulos'". March 29, 2015.
- "Indiana 'Not Going to Change' Anti-LGBT Law, Gov. Mike Pence Says". KTLA 5. March 29, 2015.
- Pence, Mike (March 31, 2015). "Ensuring Religious Freedom in Indiana". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved April 1, 2015.
- "Indiana, Arkansas pass revised religious objection proposals". The Times-Picayune. New Orleans. Associated Press. April 2, 2015.
- "Conservatives Slammed Pence in 2015 For Changing Law". US News. Archived from the original on April 3, 2018.
- Crockett, Emily (March 26, 2016). "Indiana crammed as many anti-abortion bills as it could into this horrifying new law". Vox.
- Smith, Mitch; Eckholm, Erik (June 30, 2016). "Federal Judge Blocks Indiana Abortion Law". The New York Times.
- Green, Emma (May 14, 2016). "State-Mandated Mourning for Aborted Fetuses". The Atlantic.
- Hays, Holly. "Indiana abortion law signed by former Gov. Mike Pence is ruled unconstitutional". IndyStar. Retrieved May 11, 2018.
- Murray, Jon (June 28, 2013). "Governor apologizes for deleted Facebook comments". USA Today. The Indianapolis Star. Retrieved June 28, 2013.
- LoBianco, Tom (January 26, 2015). "Indiana state-run news outlet will compete with media". USA Today. Retrieved April 14, 2015.
- Mataconis, Doug (January 28, 2015). "A state-run news agency for 'small government' Indiana: Huh?". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved April 14, 2015.
- "Indiana Gov. Mike Pence's state-run news service stirs controversy". Associated Press. January 28, 2015.
- Graham, David A. "Pravda on the Plains: Indiana's New Propaganda Machine". The Atlantic. Retrieved April 14, 2015.
- LoBianco, Tom. "Just in: Indiana governor kills state-run news outlet". USA Today. Retrieved April 14, 2015.
- "Exodus, continued: Indiana's governor is losing his fight to keep Syrian refugees away: Most other governors seem to have quietly dropped the matter". The Economist. March 14, 2016. Retrieved March 15, 2016.
- "That's the ticket: Trump said to pick Pence". The Guardian. July 14, 2016. Retrieved July 16, 2016.
- "Indiana to pay out $100,000 to deal with requests for Mike Pence emails". The Guardian. Associated Press. June 17, 2017.
- Slodysko, Brian (January 10, 2017). "Indiana court: Public records requirements applied to Pence". Associated Press.
Pence, whose gubernatorial administration ended Monday, has also resisted the public release of emails and other documents that could shed light on his tenure as governor. In some cases, his office has withheld documents, delayed responses or denied public records requests filed by The Associated Press and other news organizations.
- Slodysko, Brian (March 3, 2017). "Pence fought against releasing records, including emails, as Indiana governor". Associated Press.
- Slodysko, Brian (October 10, 2017). "Indiana Officials Vague About Reasons for Withholding Pence Emails". Bloomberg News. Retrieved October 10, 2017.
- Cook, Tony (March 2, 2017). "Pence used personal email for state business—and was hacked". The Indianapolis Star.
- "Mike Pence officially withdraws from Indiana governor's race". Associated Press. July 15, 2016.
- Eason, Brian; Tony, Cook; Briggs, James (July 26, 2016). "Indiana GOP panel nominates Eric Holcomb for governor". The Indianapolis Star. Retrieved July 26, 2016.
- "Holcomb introduces Crouch as his running mate in governor's race". Fox 59. August 1, 2016. Retrieved August 2, 2016.
- "Indiana Secretary of State Election Results". Archived from the original on August 10, 2020. Retrieved April 21, 2020.
- Nussbalm, Matthew, Trump flirts with unpopular Pence, Politico, July 12, 2016
- Gross, Terry; Mayer, Jane (October 18, 2017). "Understanding Mike Pence And His Relationship To Trump: 'His Public Role Is Fawning'". NPR.org. Fresh Air. Retrieved October 22, 2017.
- Mascaro, Lisa (August 15, 2017). "They snubbed Trump. But the Koch network has still exerted a surprising influence over the White House". LATimes.com. Retrieved October 26, 2017.
- Mascaro, Lisa (September 29, 2017). "Pence to headline Koch network's strategy session for the midterm elections". LATimes.com. Retrieved October 26, 2017.
The network, founded by billionaire industrialist Koch brothers Charles G. and David H. Koch, has close ties to Pence, which has helped enable it to exert influence in the White House despite not endorsing President Trump in 2016.
- Shelbourne, Mallory (October 16, 2017). "Bannon: Kochs 'would own' Pence if he became president". Thehill.com. Retrieved October 26, 2017.
- Briggs, James; Cook, Tony (July 14, 2016). "Pence is Trump's VP pick". The Indianapolis Star.
- Jamieson, Amber (July 15, 2016). "Donald Trump announces Mike Pence as VP pick". The Guardian. Retrieved July 15, 2016.
- O'Donnell, Kelly (July 15, 2016). "Its Official: Trump Announces Mike Pence as VP Pick". NBC News.
- Bradner, Eric; Bash, Dana; Lee, MJ (July 16, 2016). "Donald Trump selects Mike Pence as VP". CNN.
- Schleifer, Theodore; Beavers, Olivia (July 16, 2016). "Pence 'very supportive' of latest version of Trump Muslim ban". CNN.
- Abramson, Alana; de la Cuetara, Ines (July 16, 2016). "Pence Walks Back Positions on Muslims, TPP to Stand With Trump". ABC News.
- Enten, Harry (July 15, 2016). "Mike Pence Is A Really Conservative And Mostly Unknown VP Pick". FiveThirtyEight.
- de la Cuertara, Ines (September 18, 2016). "Mike Pence Says His Role Model for Vice President Is Dick Cheney". ABC News.
- Allen, Mike (September 17, 2016). "Exclusive: Here's who's playing Tim Kaine in GOP debate prep". Politico.
- Karni, Annie (September 17, 2016). "Exclusive: Robert Barnett to play Mike Pence in Tim Kaine debate prep". Politico.
- Agiesta, Jennifer (October 5, 2016). "Pence edges Kaine in VP debate instant poll". CNN. Retrieved July 4, 2020.
- Zurcher, Anthony (October 5, 2016). "Pence v Kaine: Who won the vice-presidential debate?". BBC. Retrieved July 4, 2020.
- "Who won the vice presidential debate?". CNN. October 5, 2016. Retrieved July 4, 2020.
- Cassidy, John (October 8, 2016). "A Sexual Predator in the Republican Party's Midst". The New Yorker.
- Quinn, Dave (October 8, 2016). "Mike Pence 'Offended' and Praying for Donald Trump's Family Amid Crisis Over His 2005 Lewd Comments". Politics. People.
- Fahrenthold, David A. (October 8, 2016). "Trump recorded having extremely lewd conversation about women in 2005". The Washington Post.
- "Lewd Donald Trump Tape Is a Breaking Point for Many in the G.O.P." The New York Times. October 9, 2016.
- "Here are the top takeaways from Bob Woodward's new book on Donald Trump". ABC News. September 5, 2018. Retrieved October 14, 2018.
- LoBianco, Tom. "Pence: I never considered leaving Trump ticket". CNN.
- Svitek, Patrick; Blanchard, Bobby; Swaby, Aliyya (December 19, 2016). "Texas electors cast 36 votes for Trump, 1 for Kasich and 1 for Ron Paul". The Texas Tribune. Retrieved July 5, 2020.
- Mele, Christopher (October 27, 2016). "Plane With Mike Pence Aboard Skids Off La Guardia Runway". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 28, 2016.
- Shear, Michael D.; Haberman, Maggie; Schmidt, Michael S. (November 11, 2016). "Vice President-Elect Pence to Take Over Trump Transition Effort". The New York Times. Retrieved December 4, 2016.
- Johnson, Eliana; Restuccia, Andrew (December 4, 2016). "Pence's Power Play". Politico. Retrieved December 4, 2016.
- LoBianco, Tom; Bradner, Eric (December 1, 2016). "Mike Pence's Key Role in Building Team Trump". CNN. Retrieved December 4, 2016.
- Groppe, Maureen (January 19, 2017). "Mike Pence's swearing-in is full of symbolism". USA Today. Retrieved January 21, 2017.
- Caldwell, Leigh Ann (January 20, 2017). "Trump's Defense and Homeland Security Picks Sworn-in". NBC News. Retrieved February 7, 2017.
- Nakamura, David; Wagner, John (January 22, 2017). "Trump, Pence preside over East Room ceremony to swear in senior staff". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 7, 2017.
- Wagner, Meg (January 28, 2017). "President Trump calls Russia's Vladimir Putin for first time since taking office". New York Daily News. Retrieved February 7, 2017.
- "'This deal will make me look terrible': Full transcripts of Trump's calls with Mexico and Australia". Washington Post.
- "'This was the worst call by far': Trump badgered, bragged and abruptly ended phone call with Australian leader". Washington Post.
- Groppe, Maureen (January 25, 2017). "Pence tapping former aides, and some lobbyists, for VP office staff". Indianapolis Star. Retrieved February 7, 2017.
- "Vice President Mike Pence Announces Jarrod Agen as Director of Communications". whitehouse.gov. February 1, 2017. Retrieved February 7, 2017 – via National Archives.
- Groppe, Maureen (June 29, 2017). "Mike Pence's first major staff shakeup: Josh Pitcock out, Nick Ayers in as chief of staff". USA Today. Retrieved May 25, 2018.
- "White House Warns Iran To 'Think Twice' Before Testing U.S. Resolve". www.rferl.org. February 5, 2017. Retrieved June 14, 2020.
- "DeVos confirmed as education secretary, Pence casts historic tie-breaking vote". Associated Press. February 7, 2017.
- Bycoffe, Aaron (February 7, 2012). "Pence Has Already Done Something Biden Never Did: Break A Senate Tie". FiveThirtyEight.
Vice presidents have broken ties on presidential nominees before, but Tuesday was the first time it's happened for a Cabinet nominee ... according to the Senate Historical Office
- Stratford, Michael; Hefling, Kimberly; Emma, Caitlin; Wermund, Benjamin (February 7, 2017). "Senate confirms DeVos as secretary of education". Politico.
- Kim, Seung Min; Ehley, Brianna (March 30, 2017). "Pence breaks tie in Senate vote on Planned Parenthood funding". Politico.
- Caplan, David (April 16, 2017). "Mike Pence arrives in South Korea, attends wreath-laying ceremony and Easter Sunday services". ABC News. Retrieved April 17, 2017.
- Thomas, Ken (April 16, 2017). "Pence warns NKorea 'era of strategic patience is over'". ABC News. Associated Press. Retrieved April 17, 2017.
- Thomas, Ken; Colvin, Jill (April 17, 2017). "Trump's message to North Korea: 'Gotta behave'". Chicago Tribune. Associated Press. Retrieved April 18, 2017.
- Rampton, Roberta (April 19, 2017). "Pence reassures Japan of U.S. resolve on North Korea, to work with China". Reuters. Retrieved April 22, 2017.
- Cahill, Petra (April 19, 2017). "VP Mike Pence Warns North Korea: 'We Will Defeat Any Attack'". NBC News. Retrieved April 22, 2017.
- Rampton, Roberta (April 20, 2017). "Pence tours Southeast Asia's biggest mosque, talks trade in Indonesia". Reuters. Retrieved April 22, 2017.
- Liptak, Kevin (April 20, 2017). "Pence praises moderate Islam in Indonesia". CNN. Retrieved April 22, 2017.
- Smith-Spark, Laura (April 22, 2017). "Pence says US will honor refugee deal with Australia". Politics. CNN. Retrieved April 24, 2017.
- "Mike Pence cuts short his stop in Hawaii to deal with domestic issues". CBS News. April 24, 2017. Retrieved April 24, 2017.
- Stack, Liam (May 21, 2017). "Notre Dame Students Walk Out of Mike Pence Commencement Address". The New York Times.
- Rosa Flores; Eric Levenson; Susannah Cullinane. "Some Notre Dame graduates walk out at Pence speech". CNN.
- Lange, Kaitlin; Cook, Tony (September 15, 2017). "Pence spokesman to leave post". USA Today. Retrieved October 3, 2017.
- Borchers, Callum (May 13, 2017). "Trump at Liberty University commencement: 'In America, we don't worship government; we worship God'". The Washington Post.
- Abramson, Alana (October 8, 2017). "Vice President Mike Pence Leaves Football Game After Players Kneel During National Anthem". Time. Retrieved January 11, 2018.
- Griffiths, Brent D. (October 8, 2017). "Pence leaves NFL game after players kneel during anthem". Politico. Retrieved June 10, 2018.
- Marsh, Rene (October 8, 2017). "The price tag for Pence's trip to Indianapolis". CNN. Archived from the original on May 6, 2020. Retrieved June 10, 2018.
- VanTryon, Matthew (October 8, 2017). "Mike Pence tweets same picture from Colts game that he tweeted in 2014". CNN. Retrieved June 10, 2018.
- Delk, Josh (May 23, 2018). "Pence celebrates NFL requiring players to stand for anthem: 'Winning'". The Hill. Retrieved June 10, 2018.
- "Presidential Delegation to Attend Winter Olympics". whitehouse.gov. February 1, 2018. Retrieved June 10, 2018 – via National Archives.
- "Winter Olympics 2018: Pence skips dinner with N Koreans". BBC. February 9, 2018. Retrieved June 10, 2018.
- "Otto Warmbier's father to attend Olympics in South Korea". BBC. February 5, 2018. Retrieved June 10, 2018.
- "Mike Pence, accompanied by Otto Warmbier's father, meets with North Korean defectors". Cincinnati.com. February 9, 2018. Retrieved June 10, 2018.
- Graef, Aileen (February 5, 2018). "Father of Otto Warmbier will attend Olympic Opening Ceremony with Pence". CNN. Retrieved June 10, 2018.
- Banks, Paul M. (February 9, 2018). "Winter Olympics Verify Mike Pence Hypocrisy on NFL National Anthem Protests". ChicagoNow. Retrieved February 13, 2018.
- Meeks, David (February 12, 2018). "By not standing for Korea at the 2018 Winter Olympics, VP Mike Pence embarrassed America". USA Today. Retrieved February 13, 2018.
- "N Korea cancelled Pence Olympic meeting in S Korea, says US". BBC. February 21, 2018. Retrieved June 10, 2018.
- Kate O'Keeffe and Katy Stech Ferek (November 14, 2019). "Stop Calling China's Xi Jinping 'President,' U.S. Panel Says". The Wall Street Journal.
- Wolfgang, Ben (November 28, 2019). "Momentum grows for dropping 'President' from title of China's leader; Remove 'veneer' of legitimacy". The Washington Times.
- Haas, Benjamin (May 10, 2018). "Trump welcomes home three Americans released by North Korea". The Guardian. Retrieved June 10, 2018.
- Wiersema, Alisa; Karl, Jonathan; Doom, Justin (May 10, 2018). "Seeing released prisoners from North Korea 'one of the greatest joys of my life,' Pence says". ABC News. Retrieved June 10, 2018.
- Borger, Julian; Haas, Benjamin (May 24, 2018). "Donald Trump cancels North Korea nuclear summit". The Guardian. Retrieved June 10, 2018.
- Noack, Rick. "How Kim-Trump tensions escalated: The more the U.S. said 'Libya', the angrier North Korea got". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 25, 2018.
- Siddiqui, Sabrina; Haas, Benjamin; McCurry, Justin (May 25, 2018). "Donald Trump says North Korea summit could be back on". The Guardian. Retrieved June 10, 2018.
- Haas, Benjamin; McCarthy, Tom; Pengelly, martin (May 27, 2018). "Trump confirms US negotiators in North Korea for summit talks". The Guardian. Retrieved June 10, 2018.
- Smith, Allan (September 11, 2019). "Pence's Doonbeg detour cost nearly $600K in ground transportation fees". NBC News. Archived from the original on February 14, 2020. Retrieved July 23, 2020.
- Honl-Stuenkel, Linnaea (September 10, 2019). "Mike Pence's Doonbeg Detour to Cost Nearly $600k—CREW". Citizens for Responsibility and Ethics in Washington. Archived from the original on June 15, 2020. Retrieved July 23, 2020.
- Hillyard, Vaughn (May 18, 2017). "Pence Creates PAC Ahead of 2018, 2020 Elections". NBC News. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
- "FILING FEC-1162693". docquery.fec.gov. Federal Election Commission. May 17, 2017. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
- Zorthian, Julia (May 18, 2017). "Vice President Mike Pence Just Created His Own PAC". Time. Retrieved August 8, 2017.
- Shugerman, Emily (August 6, 2017). "Vice President Mike Pence calls claims he will run in 2020 'disgraceful and offensive'". Independent. Retrieved August 8, 2017.
- "Trump and Ukraine: A Guide to the Key Players". The Wall Street Journal. October 8, 2019. Retrieved November 18, 2019.
- Lejeune, Tristan (October 3, 2019). "Pence defends Trump's calls for Ukraine to investigate Biden". The Hill. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
- "Pence says Biden, son should be investigated for Ukraine dealings". Reuters. October 3, 2019.
- Singh, Maanvi (January 3, 2020). "Mike Pence pushes 9/11 conspiracy theories to justify Suleimani killing". The Guardian. Retrieved January 4, 2020.
- "Pence's linkage of Soleimani to 9/11 hijackers is challenged". Times of Israel. AFP. January 4, 2020. Retrieved January 4, 2020.
- Cancryn, Adam; Forgey, Quint; Diamond, Dan. "After fumbled messaging, Trump gets a coronavirus czar by another name". Politico. Retrieved March 1, 2020.
- "Trump White House Resists Calls To Appoint A Coronavirus Czar". NPR.org. Retrieved February 27, 2020.
- Choi, Matthew. "Trump puts Pence in charge of coronavirus response". POLITICO. Retrieved February 27, 2020.
- Holpuch, Amanda (February 27, 2020). "Donald Trump puts Mike Pence in charge of US coronavirus response". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved February 27, 2020.
- Carvajal, Nikki; Kelly, Caroline (March 20, 2020). "Staff member in Vice President Mike Pence's office tests positive for coronavirus". CNN. Retrieved March 25, 2020.
- Stracqualursi, Veronica; Hoffman, Jason (March 21, 2020). "Vice President Mike Pence, second lady Karen Pence test negative for coronavirus, White House says". CNN. Retrieved March 25, 2020.
- Jackson, David (May 7, 2020). "White House employee tests positive for coronavirus, Trump and Pence test negative". USA Today. Retrieved May 7, 2020.
- Wise, Alana (April 28, 2020). "Leaving Off Mask At Mayo Clinic, Pence Said He Wanted To Look Workers 'In The Eye'". NPR.org. Retrieved May 16, 2020.
- "Pence forgoes a face mask at Mayo Clinic, appearing to violate policy". www.cbsnews.com. Retrieved June 8, 2020.
- Collins, Michael (May 3, 2020). "Vice President Mike Pence on Mayo Clinic visit: 'I should have worn a mask'". USA Today. Retrieved May 16, 2020.
- Dale, Analysis by Daniel. "Fact check: As pandemic situation worsens, Pence paints a deceptively rosy picture". CNN. Retrieved July 14, 2020.
- Qiu, Linda (June 26, 2020). "As Cases Surge, Pence Misleads on Coronavirus Pandemic". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 14, 2020.
- Oprysko, Caitlin. "Texas, Florida governors order bars closed, impose new restrictions as cases surge". POLITICO. Retrieved July 14, 2020.
- "Pence tries to assure GOP senators as coronavirus cases spike". The Washington Post. 2020.
- Vazquez, Maegan; Klein, Betsy. "Pence receives coronavirus vaccine Friday morning". CNN. Retrieved December 18, 2020.
- "'I Didn't Feel A Thing:' Pence Gets Coronavirus Vaccine In Public Event". NPR.org. December 18, 2020. Retrieved December 18, 2020.
Vice President Pence, Karen Pence, and Surgeon General Jerome Adams received a coronavirus vaccine on Friday at the White House in a televised event aimed at showing the vaccine is safe and effective.
- Pence receives Pfizer-BioNTech coronavirus vaccine. Washington Post on YouTube (Video). December 18, 2020.
- Saenz, Arlette (March 1, 2019). "Joe Biden responds to criticism after calling Pence a 'decent guy'". CNN. Retrieved July 4, 2020.
- Stein, Andrew (June 23, 2019). "Trump-Haley in 2020". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved July 12, 2019.
- Cummings, William (June 26, 2019). "Trump says Mike Pence is his 2020 running mate '100%,' dismisses idea of running with Nikki Haley". USA Today. Retrieved July 12, 2019.
- Kreutz, Liz; Woodrow, Melanie (August 27, 2020). "RNC 2020: Mike Pence's comments on killing of Oakland federal officer David Patrick Underwood are misleading". ABC7 San Francisco.
- "Pence blurs details about killing of Oakland federal officer by alleged right-wing extremist". KTVU FOX 2. August 27, 2020.
- Moniuszko, Sara M. (October 8, 2020). "Following backlash, Karen Pence's team says 'both sides agreed' spouses would remove masks". USA Today. Retrieved October 11, 2020.
- Cheung, Helier. "VP debate: Did gender play a role in the interruptions?". CNN. Retrieved October 11, 2020.
- Stieb, Matt (October 7, 2020). "Mike Pence Had a Fly on His Head for Almost Two Minutes During the VP Debate". Intelligencer. Retrieved October 11, 2020.
- O'Kane, Caitlin (October 8, 2020). "A fly landed on Mike Pence's head during the debate and rested there for nearly two minutes". CBS News. Retrieved October 11, 2020.
- "Biden defeats Trump to win White House, NBC News projects". NBC News. Retrieved November 8, 2020.
- "Electoral College Makes It Official: Biden Won, Trump Lost". U.S. News. Associated Press. December 14, 2020. Retrieved January 6, 2021.
- Richer, Alanna Durkin (December 4, 2020). "Trump loves to win but keeps losing election lawsuits". AP News. Retrieved January 6, 2021.
- Kumar, Anita; Orr, Gabby; McGraw, Meridith (December 21, 2020). "Inside Trump's pressure campaign to overturn the election". Politico. Retrieved December 22, 2020.
- Larson, Erik (December 28, 2020). "Pence Sued by GOP Congressman Over Competing Electors". Bloomberg News. Archived from the original on December 28, 2020. Retrieved January 3, 2021.
- Berman, Dan (January 1, 2021). "Pence asks judge to reject Gohmert lawsuit asking the VP to interfere in the Electoral College count". CNN. Retrieved January 2, 2021.
- Cheney, Kyle; Gerstein, Josh (December 31, 2020). "Pence: Gohmert's fight to overturn the 2020 election results is with Congress, not me". Politico. Retrieved January 2, 2021.
- Gerstein, Josh; Cheney, Kyle (January 2, 2021). "Judge throws out Gohmert suit aimed at empowering Pence to overturn 2020 election results". Politico. Retrieved January 3, 2021.
- Smith, Stewart (January 7, 2021). "SCOTUS rejects Gohmert's last-minute appeal". KLTV. Retrieved January 9, 2021.
- Schmidt, Michael S. (January 5, 2020). "Trump Says Pence Can Overturn His Loss in Congress. That's Not How It Works". The New York Times. Retrieved January 6, 2021.
- Haberman, Maggie; Karni, Annie (January 5, 2020). "Pence Said to Have Told Trump He Lacks Power to Change Election Result". The New York Times. Retrieved January 6, 2021.
- "Pence Reached His Limit With Trump. It Wasn't Pretty". The New York Times. Retrieved February 7, 2021.
- Rummler, Orion (January 6, 2020). "Pence says he lacks authority to throw out Electoral College votes". Axios. Retrieved January 6, 2021.
- Savage, Charlie (January 10, 2021). "Incitement to Riot? What Trump Told Supporters Before Mob Stormed Capitol". The New York Times. Retrieved January 15, 2021.
- Haltiwanger, John (January 7, 2021). "Trump attacks Pence for not having the 'courage' to overturn the election as the president's supporters storm the Capitol". Business Insider Australia. Retrieved January 8, 2021.
- Cannon, Jay. "Watch VP Pence confirm 2020 election win for Joe Biden hours after mob breaches Capitol". USA TODAY. Retrieved January 8, 2021.
- "A Reuters photographer says he overheard pro-Trump insurrectionists saying they wanted to hang Mike Pence at the Capitol". Business Insider. Retrieved January 10, 2021.
- "Must-See New Video Shows Capitol Riot Was Way Worse Than We Thought | All In | MSNBC—YouTube". www.youtube.com. Retrieved January 10, 2021.
- Parker, Ashley; Leonnig, Carol D.; Kane, Paul; Brown, Emma (January 15, 2021). "How the rioters who stormed the Capitol came dangerously close to Pence". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 15, 2021.
- "As the D.C. police clear the Capitol grounds, the mayor extends a public emergency". The New York Times. Retrieved January 7, 2021.
- Samuels, Brett (January 6, 2021). "Trump attacks Pence as protesters force their way into Capitol". The Hill. Retrieved January 8, 2021.
- Rawnsley, Adam (January 1, 2021). "Trump Team Backs Away From Lin Wood After Pence Tweets". The Daily Beast. Retrieved January 2, 2021.
- Brewster, Jack (January 7, 2021). "Lin Wood—Lawyer Closely Tied To Trump—Permanently Banned From Twitter After Claiming Capitol Siege Was 'Staged'". Forbes. Retrieved January 8, 2021.
- Welker, Kristin; O'Donnell, Kelly; Alba, Monica (January 9, 2021). "Pence to attend Biden inauguration; Trump never called him in the Capitol bunker, sources say". NBC News. Retrieved January 10, 2021.
- Frenkel, Sheera (January 6, 2021). "The storming of Capitol Hill was organized on social media". The New York Times. Retrieved January 10, 2021.
- Acosta, JIm (January 7, 2021). "Trump pressured Pence to engineer a coup, then put the VP in danger, source says". CNN. Retrieved January 10, 2021.
- Acosta, Jim; Brown, Pamela (January 7, 2021). "Trump pressured Pence to engineer a coup, then put the VP in danger, source says". CNN. Retrieved January 10, 2021.
- Colvin, Jill; Miller, Zeke (January 11, 2021). "After frosty few days, Pence, Trump appear to reach détente". WTMJ. Associated Press. Retrieved January 11, 2021.
- Gold, Michael (January 20, 2021). "Harris escorted Pence to his motorcade, a symbol of a peaceful transfer of power". The New York Times. ISSN 1553-8095. OCLC 1645522. Archived from the original on February 1, 2021. Retrieved June 3, 2021.
- Singh, Namita (January 27, 2021). "Mike Pence is homeless after leaving office and 'couch-surfing' with Indiana politicians, report says". The Independent. Retrieved January 28, 2021.
- LoBianco, Tom (January 27, 2021). "Mike and Karen Pence are homeless and appear to be couch surfing their way through Indiana". Business Insider. Retrieved January 28, 2021.
- "Mike and Karen Pence Purchase New Home Near Indianapolis: 'Good to Be Back'". People. May 26, 2021. Retrieved May 26, 2021.
- Lippman, Daniel; Orr, Gabby (February 4, 2021). "Pence reveals his post-White House plans". Politico. Retrieved February 4, 2021.
- Orr, Gabby (February 5, 2021). "Mike Pence is starting a podcast". Politico. Retrieved February 9, 2021.
- Dale, Daniel; Lybrand, Holmes; Subramaniam, Tara. "Fact check: Pence echoes Trump's Big Lie in dishonest op-ed on election rules". CNN. Retrieved March 4, 2021.
- Jacobson, Louis (March 4, 2021). "PolitiFact—Mike Pence is wrong that HR 1 forces states to shift to universal mail balloting". PolitiFact. Retrieved April 16, 2021.
- Sherman, Amy (March 5, 2021). "PolitiFact—Pence falsely says if HR 1 passes, millions of people in US illegally will be registered to vote". PolitiFact. Retrieved April 16, 2021.
- Dawsey, Josh. "As he reemerges onto the public stage, Pence sticks to the same strategy he used by Trump's side: Total fealty". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved April 30, 2021.
- Weprin, Alex (March 5, 2021). "Former VP Mike Pence to Narrate Rush Limbaugh Series for Fox Nation Streaming Service". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved March 7, 2021.
- Rutz, David (February 17, 2021). "Pence: Rush Limbaugh was a 'giant,' inspired me to enter talk radio". Fox News. Retrieved March 7, 2021.
- "Mike Pence signs 2-book deal with Simon & Schuster; memoir to come out in 2023". MarketWatch. Associated Press. April 7, 2021. Retrieved April 10, 2021.
- Samuels, Brett (April 15, 2021). "Pence undergoes surgery to receive pacemaker". The Hill. Retrieved April 17, 2021.
- Thrush, Glenn (April 15, 2021). "Pence, suffering from a sluggish heartbeat, undergoes surgery for a pacemaker implant". The New York Times. Retrieved April 17, 2021.
- Breuninger, Kevin (February 7, 2020). "Vice President Pence defends deficit expansion under Trump as necessary for economic growth". CNBC. Retrieved March 15, 2020.
- Garcia, Catherine (July 20, 2016). "Mike Pence: 'I'm a Christian, a conservative, and a Republican—in that order'". The Week. Retrieved March 22, 2017.
- Monica Davey and Michael Barbaro. "How Mike Pence Became a Conservative Hero: Unwavering Opposition to Abortion". New York Times, July 16, 2016.
- Pradhan, Rachana (July 15, 2016). "How Mike Pence embraced Obamacare". Politico.
- Kliff, Sarah (February 16, 2011). "Pence's war on Planned Parenthood". Politico.
- Kilgore, Ed (October 8, 2020). "Pence Won't Own Up to His Anti-Abortion Crusade". Intelligencer. Retrieved November 29, 2020.
- Kaczynski, Andrew (July 21, 2016). "Mike Pence in 2002: 'Condoms Are A Very, Very Poor Protection' Against STDs". BuzzFeed News.
- "Olympic Judges Give Gold to Canadians; Sport Leads to Violence in Afghanistan; Vice President Warns Terrorists". Wolf Blitzer Reports. CNN. February 15, 2002.
- "Donald Trump's Running Mate Has Some Truly Strange Views on Modern Science". Fortune. July 15, 2016. Retrieved July 16, 2016.
- Pence, Mike (March 23, 2009). "The Empty Promise of Embryonic Stem Cell Research". The Hill. Retrieved July 16, 2016.
- Gaudiano, Nicole (January 27, 2017). "At Anti-Abortion Rally, Mike Pence is a Beacon of Hope". USA Today. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
- Fredericks, Bob (January 27, 2017). "Mike Pence Makes History by Rallying with Pro-Life Marchers". New York Post. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
- Samuels, Brett (July 10, 2018). "Pence: 'I do' still want Roe v. Wade overturned". The Hill. Retrieved October 14, 2018.
- "Mike Pence: I still want Roe v. Wade overturned". YouTube. CNN. July 10, 2018. Retrieved October 14, 2018.
- "The Pence Agenda for the 107th Congress: A Guide to Renewing the American Dream". Archived from the original on February 6, 2002. Retrieved May 19, 2017.
- Campbell, Colin (March 31, 2015). "Indiana's governor seems to have a long history of opposing gay rights". Business Insider. Retrieved May 19, 2017.
- Tomasic, John (March 31, 2015). "Indiana Gov. Pence squishy on protecting against LGBT discrimination because he has long opposed it". Colorado Independent. Retrieved May 19, 2017.
- Goddard, Taegan (March 31, 2015). "Mike Pence, Then and Now". Political Wire. Retrieved May 19, 2017.
- Nichols, Chris (December 2, 2016). "Half True: Pence's support for conversion therapy not a settled matter". Politifact California. Retrieved July 30, 2016.
- Stack, Liam (November 30, 2016). "Mike Pence and 'Conversion Therapy': A History". The New York Times. Retrieved August 11, 2018.
- Drabold, Will (July 15, 2016). "Here's What Mike Pence Said on LGBT Issues Over the Years". Time. Retrieved May 19, 2017.
- "Donald Trump Clearly Didn't 'Ask the Gays' About Mike Pence". The Advocate. July 15, 2016. Retrieved July 17, 2016.
- Jackson, David (October 28, 2009). "Obama signs hate-crimes law rooted in crimes of 1998". USA Today. Retrieved May 19, 2017.
- Scherr, Sonia (July 17, 2009). "Religious Right Promotes Falsehoods in Last-Ditch Attempt to Stall Federal Hate Crimes Bill". Southern Poverty Law Center. Archived from the original on March 2, 2015. Retrieved May 19, 2017.
- Ring, Trudy (April 1, 2015). "Mike Pence 'Abhors' Discrimination? His Record Shows Otherwise". The Advocate. Retrieved May 19, 2017.
- Shepherd, Katie; Rappeport, Alan (July 16, 2016). "How Mike Pence and Donald Trump Compare on the Issues". The New York Times. Retrieved May 19, 2017.
- Cook, Tony; Schneider, Chelsea (January 4, 2016). "What we know about Gov. Mike Pence's position on gay rights over the years". The Indianapolis Star. Retrieved July 14, 2016.
- Altman, Alex (July 14, 2016). "Why Donald Trump Looks Likely to Pick Mike Pence". Time. Retrieved July 15, 2016.
- Bradner, Eric (December 13, 2012). "Indiana GOP lawmakers say same-sex marriage ban measure likely". Evansville Courier & Press. Archived from the original on June 6, 2013. Retrieved December 14, 2012.
- Nixon, Cynthia (March 2, 2019). "Mike Pence isn't 'decent.' He's insidious". The Washington Post.
- Saenz, Arlette (March 1, 2019). "Joe Biden responds to criticism after calling Pence a 'decent guy'". CNN.
- Amash, Justin. "H.J.RES.73 Proposing a spending limit amendment to the Constitution of the United States". Library of Congress. Archived from the original on December 15, 2012. Retrieved January 9, 2012.
- Benko, Ralph. "Dear Liberals: It's Your Fed's Paper Money That's Thwarting Full Employment". Forbes. Retrieved July 16, 2016.
- "US Republicans want Fed focus solely on inflation". Reuters. November 16, 2010. Retrieved July 18, 2016.
- "Pence: End Dual Mandate of Fed". YouTube (Office of U.S. Representative Mike Pence official account). November 17, 2010. Retrieved July 18, 2016.
- Steinhauser, Paul (November 29, 2010). "Pence touts flat tax in economic address". Retrieved July 16, 2016.
- Carmody, Steve (July 15, 2016). "Michigan GOP delegates like choice of Pence for VP". Michigan Radio. Associated Press. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
- "Final Vote Results For Roll Call 46: H R 1 Bill Title: Making Supplemental Appropriations For Fiscal Year Ending 2009". Office of the Clerk of the United States House of Representatives. January 29, 2009. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
- Terkel, Amanda (July 18, 2010). "Wallace Presses Pence on How He Can Call The Stimulus A 'Failure' In The Face of Job Growth". Think Progress. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
- Yglesias, Matthew (February 25, 2009). "Mike Pence Calls for Massive Anti-Stimulus". ThinkProgress. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
- Stein, Sam; Cherkis, Jason (August 2, 2016). "Mike Pence Privately Sought Stimulus Funds That He Publicly Criticized". Politics. Huffington Post. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
- Cordon, Stephanie (August 11, 2010). "Dems Slam Mike Pence for Hosting Job Fair with Stimulus-Backed Employers". CBS News. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
- "Final Vote Results For Roll Call 968: H R 4173 Bill Title: The Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2009". Office of the Clerk of the United States House of Representatives. December 11, 2009. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
- Cohn, Peter (June 19, 2006). "Earmark foe collects a few for his district". Government Executive. Retrieved August 18, 2011.
- "Final Vote Results for Roll Call 165: On Motion to Concur in Senate Amendments, Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (H.R. 3590)". Office of the Clerk of the United States House of Representatives. March 21, 2010.
- Sherman, Jake (June 28, 2012). "Health care ruling: Pence likens health care ruling to 9/11". Politico. Retrieved July 12, 2012.
- Pence, Mike. "The Great American Smoke Out". Mike Pence for Congress. Archived from the original on April 15, 2001. Retrieved July 16, 2016.
- 'kills two in three smokers', BBC News, Michelle Roberts, February 24, 2015. Retrieved March 12, 2020.
- Demko, Paul (August 8, 2016). "How Pence's slow walk on needle exchange helped propel Indiana's health crisis". Politico. Retrieved January 28, 2018.
- Shear, Michael D.; Haberman, Maggie (February 27, 2020). "Pence Will Control All Coronavirus Messaging From Health Officials". The New York Times. Retrieved February 28, 2020.
- Pence, Mike. "Issues: Immigration". Office of U.S. Representative Mike Pence. Archived from the original on June 1, 2006. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
- VandeHei, Jim; Babington, Charles (July 25, 2006). "Immigration Proposal Aims to Bridge Republican Divide". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
- DeParle, Jason (August 29, 2006). "Star of the Right Loses His Base at the Border". The New York Times.
- Heinz, Katie (August 26, 2015). "As congressman, Gov. Pence co-sponsored change to birthright citizenship rules". WRTV. Archived from the original on July 30, 2016. Retrieved July 16, 2016.
- Maureen Groppe, Vice President Mike Pence says Trump's plan to curb birthright citizenship may be constitutional, USA Today (October 18, 2018).
- "House Vote 625—Approves DREAM Act". ProPublica. December 8, 2010. Retrieved December 13, 2016.
- Wallace, Chris (July 16, 2016). "Reps. Pence, Clyburn Survey Political Landscape". Fox News. Retrieved July 16, 2016.
- Cooper, Matthew (July 14, 2016). "How Picking Mike Pence Puts Donald Trump in Ideological Bind". Newsweek. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
Pence, who used to work for a free-market think tank, was a booster of Bush's aborted 2005 plan to partially privatize Social Security.
- Sahadi, Jeanne (July 15, 2016). "On Social Security, Trump and Pence couldn't be more different". CNN Money. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
- "Congressman Mike Pence urges fellow Congressmen to vote for the Patriot Act". C-SPAN. October 24, 2001. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
- "12". Congressional Record—House. 151. U.S. Government Printing Office. July 21, 2005. p. 187. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
- Riemann, Wendy (March 12, 2009). "Republicans Introduce Bill to Reauthorize PATRIOT Act provisions" (Press release). Office of Representative Jim Sensenbrenner. Archived from the original on March 25, 2009. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
- Riccardi, Nicholas (July 15, 2016). "Trump, Pence don't agree on key social, economic policies". Associated Press. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
- Tankersley, Jim (July 14, 2016). "So, Mike Pence has been a huge supporter of the thing Donald Trump says is terrible for America". Washington Post. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
- Fischer, Jordan (July 14, 2016). "So what do Trump & Pence agree on? Not much". WRTV. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
- Browne, Ryan (July 15, 2016). "Pence might share a ticket with Trump but not a worldview". CNN. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
- Raghavan, Sudarsan; al-Izzi, Saad (April 2, 2007). "Visiting Iraq, McCain Cites Progress on Safety Issues". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 31, 2010.
- Semple, Kirk (April 3, 2007). "McCain Wrong on Iraq Security, Merchants Say". The New York Times. Iraq. Retrieved September 19, 2010.
- "Pence Urges President to Overturn 'Wrongheaded Decision' Regarding Gitmo Detainees". mikepence.house.gov. Office of U.S. Representative Mike Pence. 2010.
- Keinon, Herb (November 9, 2016). "Analysis: Trump and Israel, now what?". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved December 13, 2016.
- "Pence seen as strong pro-Israel voice". The Times of Israel. Retrieved July 14, 2016.
- ERASMUS (November 10, 2016). "Mike Pence trumps his boss on religious questions, but he also raises some". The Economist. Retrieved November 12, 2016.
- Bershidsky, Leonid (October 5, 2016). "Trump and Pence Play Good Cop, Bad Cop on Putin". Bloomberg. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
- Kaczynski, Andrew. "Mike Pence Publicly Thanked Hillary Clinton in 2011 For Her Efforts on Libya". Buzzfeed News. Retrieved July 16, 2016.
- "U.S. Foreign Policy Priorities". House Foreign Affairs Committee/C-SPAN. March 1, 2011. Retrieved July 16, 2016.
- Stein, Sam (July 15, 2016). "Mike Pence Praised Clinton During Libya Intervention". The Huffington Post. Retrieved July 16, 2016.
- Saine, Cindy (September 20, 2017). "US VP Condemns 'Terrible Savagery' Against Rohingya Muslims". voanews.com.
- "Andrew Brunson, U.S. Pastor, Moved to House Arrest in Turkey". The New York Times. June 25, 2018.
- "US sanctions Turkey over Pastor Brunson detention". The National. August 1, 2018.
- "US sanctions Turkish officials over detained pastor". Politico. August 1, 2018.
- "US changing strategic NATO partner with pastor, Turkish President Erdoğan says". Hürriyet Daily News. August 11, 2018.
- "Remarks by Vice President Pence at Ministerial To Advance Religious Freedom". whitehouse.gov. Retrieved July 26, 2018 – via National Archives.
- "Religious Freedom forum draws attention to persecution, false imprisonment and re-education camps". The Washington Times. Retrieved July 24, 2017.
- Adragna, Anthony; Scott, Dean (July 14, 2016). "Indiana Governor Mike Pence's Views on Climate Change". Bloomberg BNA. Archived from the original on September 14, 2017. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
- Pence, Mike. "Global Warming Disaster". Web Archive. Archived from the original on April 15, 2001. Retrieved January 14, 2017.
- Schreyer, Natalie (July 15, 2016). "On climate change, Pence and Trump are a perfect match". Newsweek. Retrieved May 18, 2017. (originally published by Mother Jones, republished as part of Climate Desk collaboration)
- Pence, Mike (May 5, 2009). "Mike Pence Interview". Hardball with Chris Matthews. MSNBC. Retrieved July 16, 2016.
- Mooney, Chris (July 15, 2016). "Watch Mike Pence, Trump's running mate, question global warming and demur on evolution". Washington Post. Retrieved July 16, 2016.
- Kludt, Tom (September 27, 2016). "Mike Pence appears at odds with Trump on climate change". CNN. Retrieved September 27, 2016.
- "Mike Pence". LCV.org. League of Conservation Voters. Retrieved January 14, 2017.
- Longnecker, Emily (March 20, 2013). "Pence questions proposal to decrease marijuana penalties". WTHR. Archived from the original on March 25, 2013. Retrieved May 19, 2017.
- Smith, Brandon (March 28, 2013). "Senators Up Marijuana Penalties to Appease the Governor". Indiana Public Media (WFIU/WTIU). Archived from the original on June 12, 2017. Retrieved May 19, 2017.
- Carden, Dan (March 21, 2016). "Pence reinstates mandatory minimum prison terms for some drug crimes". The Times of Northwest Indiana. Retrieved May 19, 2017.
- "Governor Pence Reinstates Mandatory Minimum Sentencing for Drug Offenders". WFHB. March 22, 2016. Retrieved May 19, 2017.
- Tuohy, John (June 3, 2014). "Ind. Governor: Prison Rape Prevention Rules Too Costly". IndyStar. Retrieved May 19, 2017.
- Rund, Jacob (May 9, 2015). "What Bills Has Gov. Pence Signed into Law?". IndyStar. Retrieved May 19, 2017.
- "Thomas (Library of Congress): HR 4411". Thomas.loc.gov. Retrieved November 5, 2010.
- "Thomas (Library of Congress): HR 4777". Thomas.loc.gov. Retrieved November 5, 2010.
- "The Voter's Self Defense System". Project Vote Smart. Retrieved July 28, 2016.
- "The Voter's Self Defense System". Project Vote Smart. Retrieved September 15, 2016.
- Mosbergen, Dominique (June 19, 2020). "Pressed Repeatedly To Say 'Black Lives Matter,' Mike Pence Says 'All Lives Matter'". HuffPost. Retrieved June 20, 2020.
- "Pence rallies support from police at 'Back the Blue' event in Northeast Philadelphia". FOX 29 Philadelphia. July 9, 2020. Retrieved July 10, 2020.
- Kaczynski, Andrew. "Mike Pence's moral case for removing a president from office". CNN. Retrieved August 27, 2018.
- Holter, Lauren. "Mike Pence Quotes About Impeachment Reveal What He Really Thinks Of Presidents Having Affairs". Bustle. Retrieved August 27, 2018.
- "Who Is Mike Pence?". Indianapolis Star. July 14, 2016. Retrieved May 19, 2017.
- Moffitt, Julia (January 14, 2013). "Pence family comes home to Indiana". WTHR. Archived from the original on July 5, 2016. Retrieved May 19, 2017.
- "Indiana Gov. Pence attends son's commissioning as Marine Corps officer". Marine Corps Times. March 20, 2015. Retrieved October 1, 2016.
- Tomlinson, Lucas (April 4, 2017). "Navy instructor pilots refusing to fly over safety concerns; Pence's son affected". Fox News. Retrieved April 4, 2017.
- Tackett, Michael (April 22, 2018). "As Another Pence Runs for Congress, His Business Record Raises Questions". The New York Times. Retrieved April 22, 2018.
- "Indiana Election Results". Indiana Secretary of State. Retrieved November 25, 2018.
- "Mary Jean Fritsch". Chicago Tribune. April 8, 2001. Retrieved September 1, 2018 – via Legacy.com.
- "Mike Pence Family Group | Ann Jane Cawley | Ahnentafel No: 3 (62191)". famouskin.com. Retrieved September 1, 2018.
- Estepa, Jessica (March 19, 2018). "John Oliver's book about Marlon Bundo, Comey memoir top Amazon bestseller list". USA Today. Retrieved September 1, 2018.
- Klein, Betsy (September 15, 2017). "Vice president's pet rabbit hops into book deal". CNN. Retrieved February 15, 2018.
- Boorstein, Michelle (July 15, 2016). "What it means that Mike Pence called himself an 'evangelical Catholic". Washington Post. Retrieved May 19, 2017.
- Gryboski, Michael (July 14, 2016). "5 Things to Know About Mike Pence". Christian Post. Retrieved May 19, 2017.
- "Theory of the Origins of Man" (PDF). Congressional Record. July 11, 2002. Retrieved May 19, 2017. (statement of Rep. Pence).
- lowkell (October 6, 2016). "Mike Pence Denies Evolution Because It's 'Just a Theory'". Retrieved December 28, 2016.
- Thomas, Richard C. (June 1989). "Election Results for the U.S. President, the U.S. Senate and the U.S. House of Representatives" (PDF). Federal Election Commission. Retrieved July 15, 2016.
- Thomas, Richard C. (April 1991). "Federal Elections 90 Election Results for the U.S. Senate and the U.S. House of Representatives" (PDF). Federal Election Commission. Retrieved July 15, 2016.
- "Statistics of the Presidential and Congressional Election of November 7, 2000" (PDF). Clerk of the U.S. House of Representatives. June 21, 2001. Retrieved December 13, 2016.
- "2002 Indiana Election Report" (PDF). Indiana Election Division. pp. 7, 59, 67, 111. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 10, 2012. Retrieved March 11, 2017.
- "2004 Indiana Election Report" (PDF). Indiana Election Division. pp. 14, 49, 78. Retrieved March 11, 2017.
- "Indiana Primary Election, May 8, 2012-United States Senator". Secretary of State of Indiana. June 5, 2012. Archived from the original on October 18, 2014. Retrieved June 11, 2012.
- "2012 Primary Election Turnout and Registration" (PDF). Indiana Secretary of State. May 8, 2012. Retrieved March 12, 2017.
- "Election Results". Indiana Secretary of State. November 28, 2012. Retrieved March 12, 2017.
- "2012 General Election Turnout and Registration" (PDF). Indiana Secretary of State. November 6, 2012. Retrieved March 12, 2017.
- "Indiana Primary Election, May 3, 2016". Indiana Secretary of State. Retrieved July 20, 2016.
- "2016 Primary Election Turnout and Registration" (PDF). Indiana Secretary of State. May 3, 2016. Retrieved March 12, 2017.
- Governor Mike Pence official government website
- Mike Pence at Curlie
- Appearances on C-SPAN
- Profile at Ballotpedia
- Mike Pence's statements at Politifact
- "Piety & Power" author gives CBSN an inside look into Mike Pence's rise to the top of politics on YouTube, published September 30, 2019 CBS News
- Biography at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
- Financial information (federal office) at the Federal Election Commission
- Profile at SourceWatch
|U.S. House of Representatives|
David M. McIntosh
| Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Indiana's 2nd congressional district
| Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Indiana's 6th congressional district
|Party political offices|
| Chair of the Republican Study Committee
| Chair of the House Republican Conference|
| Governor of Indiana
| Vice President of the United States
|U.S. order of precedence (ceremonial)|
as Former Vice President
| Current United States order of precedence
Former Vice President
Ambassadors of the United States