A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning. Such features may be persistent, relapsing and remitting, or occur as a single episode. Many disorders have been described, with signs and symptoms that vary widely between specific disorders. Such disorders may be diagnosed by a mental health professional.
|Other names||Psychiatric disorder, psychological disorder, mental illness, mental disease, mental breakdown, nervous breakdown, mental health conditions|
|Specialty||Psychiatry, clinical psychology|
|Symptoms||Agitation, anxiety, depression, mania, paranoia, psychosis|
|Complications||Cognitive impairment, social problems, suicide|
|Types||Anxiety disorders, eating disorders, mood disorders, personality disorders, psychotic disorders, substance use disorders|
|Causes||Genetic and environmental factors|
|Medication||Antidepressants, antipsychotics, anxiolytics, mood stabilizers, stimulants|
|Frequency||18% per year (United States)|
The causes of mental disorders are often unclear. Theories may incorporate findings from a range of fields. Mental disorders are usually defined by a combination of how a person behaves, feels, perceives, or thinks. This may be associated with particular regions or functions of the brain, often in a social context. A mental disorder is one aspect of mental health. Cultural and religious beliefs, as well as social norms, should be taken into account when making a diagnosis.
Services are based in psychiatric hospitals or in the community, and assessments are carried out by mental health professionals such as psychiatrists, psychologists, psychiatric nurses and clinical social workers, using various methods such as psychometric tests but often relying on observation and questioning. Treatments are provided by various mental health professionals. Psychotherapy and psychiatric medication are two major treatment options. Other treatments include lifestyle changes, social interventions, peer support, and self-help. In a minority of cases, there might be involuntary detention or treatment. Prevention programs have been shown to reduce depression.
In 2019, common mental disorders around the globe include depression, which affects about 264 million, bipolar disorder, which affects about 45 million, dementia, which affects about 50 million, and schizophrenia and other psychoses, which affects about 20 million people. Neurodevelopmental disorders include intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorders which usually arise in infancy or childhood. Stigma and discrimination can add to the suffering and disability associated with mental disorders, leading to various social movements attempting to increase understanding and challenge social exclusion.
The definition and classification of mental disorders are key issues for researchers as well as service providers and those who may be diagnosed. For a mental state to classify as a disorder, it generally needs to cause dysfunction. Most international clinical documents use the term mental "disorder", while "illness" is also common. It has been noted that using the term "mental" (i.e., of the mind) is not necessarily meant to imply separateness from the brain or body.
According to DSM-IV, a mental disorder is a psychological syndrome or pattern which is associated with distress (e.g. via a painful symptom), disability (impairment in one or more important areas of functioning), increased risk of death, or causes a significant loss of autonomy; however it excludes normal responses such as grief from loss of a loved one and also excludes deviant behavior for political, religious, or societal reasons not arising from a dysfunction in the individual.
DSM-IV predicates the definition with caveats, stating that, as in the case with many medical terms, mental disorder "lacks a consistent operational definition that covers all situations", noting that different levels of abstraction can be used for medical definitions, including pathology, symptomology, deviance from a normal range, or etiology, and that the same is true for mental disorders so that sometimes one type of definition is appropriate, and sometimes another, depending on the situation.
In 2013, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) redefined mental disorders in the DSM-5 as "a syndrome characterized by clinically significant disturbance in an individual's cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior that reflects a dysfunction in the psychological, biological, or developmental processes underlying mental functioning." The final draft of ICD-11 contains a very similar definition.
The terms "mental breakdown" or "nervous breakdown" may be used by the general population to mean a mental disorder. The terms "nervous breakdown" and "mental breakdown" have not been formally defined through a medical diagnostic system such as the DSM-5 or ICD-10, and are nearly absent from scientific literature regarding mental illness. Although "nervous breakdown" is not rigorously defined, surveys of laypersons suggest that the term refers to a specific acute time-limited reactive disorder, involving symptoms such as anxiety or depression, usually precipitated by external stressors. Many health experts today refer to a nervous breakdown as a "mental-health crisis".
Additionally to the concept of mental disorder, some people have argued for a return to the old-fashioned concept of nervous illness. In How Everyone Became Depressed: The Rise and Fall of the Nervous Breakdown (2013), Edward Shorter, a professor of psychiatry and the history of medicine, says:
About half of them are depressed. Or at least that is the diagnosis that they got when they were put on antidepressants. ... They go to work but they are unhappy and uncomfortable; they are somewhat anxious; they are tired; they have various physical pains—and they tend to obsess about the whole business. There is a term for what they have, and it is a good old-fashioned term that has gone out of use. They have nerves or a nervous illness. It is an illness not just of mind or brain, but a disorder of the entire body. ... We have a package here of five symptoms—mild depression, some anxiety, fatigue, somatic pains, and obsessive thinking. ... We have had nervous illness for centuries. When you are too nervous to function ... it is a nervous breakdown. But that term has vanished from medicine, although not from the way we speak.... The nervous patients of yesteryear are the depressives of today. That is the bad news.... There is a deeper illness that drives depression and the symptoms of mood. We can call this deeper illness something else, or invent a neologism, but we need to get the discussion off depression and onto this deeper disorder in the brain and body. That is the point.
In eliminating the nervous breakdown, psychiatry has come close to having its own nervous breakdown.
Nerves stand at the core of common mental illness, no matter how much we try to forget them.
"Nervous breakdown" is a pseudo-medical term to describe a wealth of stress-related feelings and they are often made worse by the belief that there is a real phenomenon called "nervous breakdown".— Richard E. Vatz, co-author of explication of views of Thomas Szasz in "Thomas Szasz: Primary Values and Major Contentions"
There are currently two widely established systems that classify mental disorders:
- ICD-10 Chapter V: Mental and behavioural disorders, since 1949 part of the International Classification of Diseases produced by the WHO,
- the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) produced by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) since 1952.
Both of these list categories of disorder and provide standardized criteria for diagnosis. They have deliberately converged their codes in recent revisions so that the manuals are often broadly comparable, although significant differences remain. Other classification schemes may be used in non-western cultures, for example, the Chinese Classification of Mental Disorders, and other manuals may be used by those of alternative theoretical persuasions, such as the Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual. In general, mental disorders are classified separately from neurological disorders, learning disabilities or intellectual disability.
Unlike the DSM and ICD, some approaches are not based on identifying distinct categories of disorder using dichotomous symptom profiles intended to separate the abnormal from the normal. There is significant scientific debate about the relative merits of categorical versus such non-categorical (or hybrid) schemes, also known as continuum or dimensional models. A spectrum approach may incorporate elements of both.
In the scientific and academic literature on the definition or classification of mental disorder, one extreme argues that it is entirely a matter of value judgements (including of what is normal) while another proposes that it is or could be entirely objective and scientific (including by reference to statistical norms). Common hybrid views argue that the concept of mental disorder is objective even if only a "fuzzy prototype" that can never be precisely defined, or conversely that the concept always involves a mixture of scientific facts and subjective value judgments. Although the diagnostic categories are referred to as 'disorders', they are presented as medical diseases, but are not validated in the same way as most medical diagnoses. Some neurologists argue that classification will only be reliable and valid when based on neurobiological features rather than clinical interview, while others suggest that the differing ideological and practical perspectives need to be better integrated.
The DSM and ICD approach remains under attack both because of the implied causality model and because some researchers believe it better to aim at underlying brain differences which can precede symptoms by many years.
The high degree of comorbidity between disorders in categorical models such as the DSM and ICD have led some to propose dimensional models. Studying comorbidity between disorders have demonstrated two latent (unobserved) factors or dimensions in the structure of mental disorders that are thought to possibly reflect etiological processes. These two dimensions reflect a distinction between internalizing disorders, such as mood or anxiety symptoms, and externalizing disorders such as behavioral or substance use symptoms. A single general factor of psychopathology, similar to the g factor for intelligence, has been empirically supported. The p factor model supports the internalizing-externalizing distinction, but also supports the formation of a third dimension of thought disorders such as schizophrenia. Biological evidence also supports the validity of the internalizing-externalizing structure of mental disorders, with twin and adoption studies supporting heritable factors for externalizing and internalizing disorders.
Anxiety disorder: Anxiety or fear that interferes with normal functioning may be classified as an anxiety disorder. Commonly recognized categories include specific phobias, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, agoraphobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder.
Mood disorder: Other affective (emotion/mood) processes can also become disordered. Mood disorder involving unusually intense and sustained sadness, melancholia, or despair is known as major depression (also known as unipolar or clinical depression). Milder but still prolonged depression can be diagnosed as dysthymia. Bipolar disorder (also known as manic depression) involves abnormally "high" or pressured mood states, known as mania or hypomania, alternating with normal or depressed moods. The extent to which unipolar and bipolar mood phenomena represent distinct categories of disorder, or mix and merge along a dimension or spectrum of mood, is subject to some scientific debate.
Psychotic disorder: Patterns of belief, language use and perception of reality can become dysregulated (e.g., delusions, thought disorder, hallucinations). Psychotic disorders in this domain include schizophrenia, and delusional disorder. Schizoaffective disorder is a category used for individuals showing aspects of both schizophrenia and affective disorders. Schizotypy is a category used for individuals showing some of the characteristics associated with schizophrenia but without meeting cutoff criteria.
Personality disorder: Personality—the fundamental characteristics of a person that influence thoughts and behaviors across situations and time—may be considered disordered if judged to be abnormally rigid and maladaptive. Although treated separately by some, the commonly used categorical schemes include them as mental disorders, albeit on a separate "axis II" in the case of the DSM-IV. A number of different personality disorders are listed, including those sometimes classed as "eccentric", such as paranoid, schizoid and schizotypal personality disorders; types that have described as "dramatic" or "emotional", such as antisocial, borderline, histrionic or narcissistic personality disorders; and those sometimes classed as fear-related, such as anxious-avoidant, dependent, or obsessive-compulsive personality disorders. Personality disorders, in general, are defined as emerging in childhood, or at least by adolescence or early adulthood. The ICD also has a category for enduring personality change after a catastrophic experience or psychiatric illness. If an inability to sufficiently adjust to life circumstances begins within three months of a particular event or situation, and ends within six months after the stressor stops or is eliminated, it may instead be classed as an adjustment disorder. There is an emerging consensus that so-called "personality disorders", like personality traits in general, actually incorporate a mixture of acute dysfunctional behaviors that may resolve in short periods, and maladaptive temperamental traits that are more enduring. Furthermore, there are also non-categorical schemes that rate all individuals via a profile of different dimensions of personality without a symptom-based cutoff from normal personality variation, for example through schemes based on dimensional models.
Eating disorder: These disorders involve disproportionate concern in matters of food and weight. Categories of disorder in this area include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, exercise bulimia or binge eating disorder.
Sexual disorders and gender dysphoria: These disorders include dyspareunia and various kinds of paraphilia (sexual arousal to objects, situations, or individuals that are considered abnormal or harmful to the person or others).
Impulse control disorder: People who are abnormally unable to resist certain urges or impulses that could be harmful to themselves or others, may be classified as having an impulse control disorder, and disorders such as kleptomania (stealing) or pyromania (fire-setting). Various behavioral addictions, such as gambling addiction, may be classed as a disorder. Obsessive-compulsive disorder can sometimes involve an inability to resist certain acts but is classed separately as being primarily an anxiety disorder.
Substance use disorder: This disorder refers to the use of drugs (legal or illegal, including alcohol) that persists despite significant problems or harm related to its use. Substance dependence and substance abuse fall under this umbrella category in the DSM. Substance use disorder may be due to a pattern of compulsive and repetitive use of a drug that results in tolerance to its effects and withdrawal symptoms when use is reduced or stopped.
Dissociative disorder: People who suffer severe disturbances of their self-identity, memory, and general awareness of themselves and their surroundings may be classified as having these types of disorders, including depersonalization disorder or dissociative identity disorder (which was previously referred to as multiple personality disorder or "split personality").
Developmental disorder: These disorders initially occur in childhood. Some examples include autism spectrum disorders, oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which may continue into adulthood. Conduct disorder, if continuing into adulthood, may be diagnosed as antisocial personality disorder (dissocial personality disorder in the ICD). Popular labels such as psychopath (or sociopath) do not appear in the DSM or ICD but are linked by some to these diagnoses.
Somatoform disorders may be diagnosed when there are problems that appear to originate in the body that are thought to be manifestations of a mental disorder. This includes somatization disorder and conversion disorder. There are also disorders of how a person perceives their body, such as body dysmorphic disorder. Neurasthenia is an old diagnosis involving somatic complaints as well as fatigue and low spirits/depression, which is officially recognized by the ICD-10 but no longer by the DSM-IV.
Factitious disorders, such as Munchausen syndrome, are diagnosed where symptoms are thought to be experienced (deliberately produced) and/or reported (feigned) for personal gain.
There are attempts to introduce a category of relational disorder, where the diagnosis is of a relationship rather than on any one individual in that relationship. The relationship may be between children and their parents, between couples, or others. There already exists, under the category of psychosis, a diagnosis of shared psychotic disorder where two or more individuals share a particular delusion because of their close relationship with each other.
There are a number of uncommon psychiatric syndromes, which are often named after the person who first described them, such as Capgras syndrome, De Clerambault syndrome, Othello syndrome, Ganser syndrome, Cotard delusion, and Ekbom syndrome, and additional disorders such as the Couvade syndrome and Geschwind syndrome.
Various new types of mental disorder diagnoses are occasionally proposed. Among those controversially considered by the official committees of the diagnostic manuals include self-defeating personality disorder, sadistic personality disorder, passive-aggressive personality disorder and premenstrual dysphoric disorder.
Signs and symptoms
The onset of psychiatric disorders usually occurs from childhood to early adulthood. Impulse-control disorders and a few anxiety disorders tend to appear in childhood. Some other anxiety disorders, substance disorders and mood disorders emerge later in the mid-teens. Symptoms of schizophrenia typically manifest from late adolescence to early twenties.
The likely course and outcome of mental disorders vary and are dependent on numerous factors related to the disorder itself, the individual as a whole, and the social environment. Some disorders may last a brief period of time, while others may be long-term in nature.
All disorders can have a varied course. Long-term international studies of schizophrenia have found that over a half of individuals recover in terms of symptoms, and around a fifth to a third in terms of symptoms and functioning, with many requiring no medication. While some have serious difficulties and support needs for many years, "late" recovery is still plausible. The World Health Organization concluded that the long-term studies' findings converged with others in "relieving patients, carers and clinicians of the chronicity paradigm which dominated thinking throughout much of the 20th century."
A follow-up study by Tohen and coworkers revealed that around half of people initially diagnosed with bipolar disorder achieve symptomatic recovery (no longer meeting criteria for the diagnosis) within six weeks, and nearly all achieve it within two years, with nearly half regaining their prior occupational and residential status in that period. Less than half go on to experience a new episode of mania or major depression within the next two years.
Some disorders may be very limited in their functional effects, while others may involve substantial disability and support needs. The degree of ability or disability may vary over time and across different life domains. Furthermore, continued disability has been linked to institutionalization, discrimination and social exclusion as well as to the inherent effects of disorders. Alternatively, functioning may be affected by the stress of having to hide a condition in work or school, etc., by adverse effects of medications or other substances, or by mismatches between illness-related variations and demands for regularity.
It is also the case that, while often being characterized in purely negative terms, some mental traits or states labeled as disorders can also involve above-average creativity, non-conformity, goal-striving, meticulousness, or empathy. In addition, the public perception of the level of disability associated with mental disorders can change.
Nevertheless, internationally, people report equal or greater disability from commonly occurring mental conditions than from commonly occurring physical conditions, particularly in their social roles and personal relationships. The proportion with access to professional help for mental disorders is far lower, however, even among those assessed as having a severely disabling condition. Disability in this context may or may not involve such things as:
- Basic activities of daily living. Including looking after the self (health care, grooming, dressing, shopping, cooking etc.) or looking after accommodation (chores, DIY tasks, etc.)
- Interpersonal relationships. Including communication skills, ability to form relationships and sustain them, ability to leave the home or mix in crowds or particular settings
- Occupational functioning. Ability to acquire an employment and hold it, cognitive and social skills required for the job, dealing with workplace culture, or studying as a student.
In terms of total disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), which is an estimate of how many years of life are lost due to premature death or to being in a state of poor health and disability, mental disorders rank amongst the most disabling conditions. Unipolar (also known as Major) depressive disorder is the third leading cause of disability worldwide, of any condition mental or physical, accounting for 65.5 million years lost. The first systematic description of global disability arising in youth, in 2011, found that among 10- to 24-year-olds nearly half of all disability (current and as estimated to continue) was due to mental and neurological conditions, including substance use disorders and conditions involving self-harm. Second to this were accidental injuries (mainly traffic collisions) accounting for 12 percent of disability, followed by communicable diseases at 10 percent. The disorders associated with most disabilities in high-income countries were unipolar major depression (20%) and alcohol use disorder (11%). In the eastern Mediterranean region, it was unipolar major depression (12%) and schizophrenia (7%), and in Africa it was unipolar major depression (7%) and bipolar disorder (5%).
Suicide, which is often attributed to some underlying mental disorder, is a leading cause of death among teenagers and adults under 35. There are an estimated 10 to 20 million non-fatal attempted suicides every year worldwide.
The predominant view as of 2018 is that genetic, psychological, and environmental factors all contribute to the development or progression of mental disorders. Different risk factors may be present at different ages, with risk occurring as early as during prenatal period.
A number of psychiatric disorders are linked to a family history (including depression, narcissistic personality disorder and anxiety). Twin studies have also revealed a very high heritability for many mental disorders (especially autism and schizophrenia). Although researchers have been looking for decades for clear linkages between genetics and mental disorders, that work has not yielded specific genetic biomarkers yet that might lead to better diagnosis and better treatments.
Statistical research looking at eleven disorders found widespread assortative mating between people with mental illness. That means that individuals with one of these disorders were two to three times more likely than the general population to have a partner with a mental disorder. Sometimes people seemed to have preferred partners with the same mental illness. Thus, people with schizophrenia or ADHD are seven times more likely to have affected partners with the same disorder. This is even more pronounced for people with Autism spectrum disorders who are 10 times more likely to have a spouse with the same disorder.
During the prenatal stage, factors like unwanted pregnancy, lack of adaptation to pregnancy or substance use during pregnancy increases the risk of developing a mental disorder. Maternal stress and birth complications including prematurity and infections have also been implicated in increasing susceptibility for mental illness. Infants neglected or not provided optimal nutrition have a higher risk of developing cognitive impairment.
Social influences have also been found to be important, including abuse, neglect, bullying, social stress, traumatic events, and other negative or overwhelming life experiences. Aspects of the wider community have also been implicated, including employment problems, socioeconomic inequality, lack of social cohesion, problems linked to migration, and features of particular societies and cultures. The specific risks and pathways to particular disorders are less clear, however.
In anxiety, risk factors may include parenting factors including parental rejection, lack of parental warmth, high hostility, harsh discipline, high maternal negative affect, anxious childrearing, modelling of dysfunctional and drug-abusing behaviour, and child abuse (emotional, physical and sexual). Adults with imbalance work to life are at higher risk for developing anxiety.
For bipolar disorder, stress (such as childhood adversity) is not a specific cause, but does place genetically and biologically vulnerable individuals at risk for a more severe course of illness.
Mental disorders are associated with drug use including: cannabis, alcohol and caffeine, use of which appears to promote anxiety. For psychosis and schizophrenia, usage of a number of drugs has been associated with development of the disorder, including cannabis, cocaine, and amphetamines. There has been debate regarding the relationship between usage of cannabis and bipolar disorder. Cannabis has also been associated with depression. Adolescents are at increased risk for tobacco, alcohol and drug use; Peer pressure is the main reason why adolescents start using substances. At this age, the use of substances could be detrimental to the development of the brain and place them at higher risk of developing a mental disorder.
People living with chronic conditions like HIV and diabetes are at higher risk of developing a mental disorder. People living with diabetes experience significant stress from biological impact of the disease, which places them at risk for developing anxiety and depression. Diabetic patients also have to deal with emotional stress trying to manage the disease. Conditions like heart disease, stroke, respiratory conditions, cancer, and arthritis increase the risk of developing a mental disorder when compared to the general population.
Mental disorders can arise from multiple sources, and in many cases there is no single accepted or consistent cause currently established. An eclectic or pluralistic mix of models may be used to explain particular disorders. The primary paradigm of contemporary mainstream Western psychiatry is said to be the biopsychosocial model which incorporates biological, psychological and social factors, although this may not always be applied in practice.
Biological psychiatry follows a biomedical model where many mental disorders are conceptualized as disorders of brain circuits likely caused by developmental processes shaped by a complex interplay of genetics and experience. A common assumption is that disorders may have resulted from genetic and developmental vulnerabilities, exposed by stress in life (for example in a diathesis–stress model), although there are various views on what causes differences between individuals. Some types of mental disorders may be viewed as primarily neurodevelopmental disorders.
Evolutionary psychology may be used as an overall explanatory theory, while attachment theory is another kind of evolutionary-psychological approach sometimes applied in the context of mental disorders. Psychoanalytic theories have continued to evolve alongside and cognitive-behavioral and systemic-family approaches. A distinction is sometimes made between a "medical model" or a "social model" of disorder and disability.
Psychiatrists seek to provide a medical diagnosis of individuals by an assessment of symptoms, signs and impairment associated with particular types of mental disorder. Other mental health professionals, such as clinical psychologists, may or may not apply the same diagnostic categories to their clinical formulation of a client's difficulties and circumstances. The majority of mental health problems are, at least initially, assessed and treated by family physicians (in the UK general practitioners) during consultations, who may refer a patient on for more specialist diagnosis in acute or chronic cases.
Routine diagnostic practice in mental health services typically involves an interview known as a mental status examination, where evaluations are made of appearance and behavior, self-reported symptoms, mental health history, and current life circumstances. The views of other professionals, relatives, or other third parties may be taken into account. A physical examination to check for ill health or the effects of medications or other drugs may be conducted. Psychological testing is sometimes used via paper-and-pen or computerized questionnaires, which may include algorithms based on ticking off standardized diagnostic criteria, and in rare specialist cases neuroimaging tests may be requested, but such methods are more commonly found in research studies than routine clinical practice.
Time and budgetary constraints often limit practicing psychiatrists from conducting more thorough diagnostic evaluations. It has been found that most clinicians evaluate patients using an unstructured, open-ended approach, with limited training in evidence-based assessment methods, and that inaccurate diagnosis may be common in routine practice. In addition, comorbidity is very common in psychiatric diagnosis, where the same person meets the criteria for more than one disorder. On the other hand, a person may have several different difficulties only some of which meet the criteria for being diagnosed. There may be specific problems with accurate diagnosis in developing countries.
More structured approaches are being increasingly used to measure levels of mental illness.
- HoNOS is the most widely used measure in English mental health services, being used by at least 61 trusts. In HoNOS a score of 0–4 is given for each of 12 factors, based on functional living capacity. Research has been supportive of HoNOS, although some questions have been asked about whether it provides adequate coverage of the range and complexity of mental illness problems, and whether the fact that often only 3 of the 12 scales vary over time gives enough subtlety to accurately measure outcomes of treatment.
Since the 1980s, Paula Caplan has been concerned about the subjectivity of psychiatric diagnosis, and people being arbitrarily "slapped with a psychiatric label." Caplan says because psychiatric diagnosis is unregulated, doctors are not required to spend much time interviewing patients or to seek a second opinion. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders can lead a psychiatrist to focus on narrow checklists of symptoms, with little consideration of what is actually causing the person's problems. So, according to Caplan, getting a psychiatric diagnosis and label often stands in the way of recovery.
In 2013, psychiatrist Allen Frances wrote a paper entitled "The New Crisis of Confidence in Psychiatric Diagnosis", which said that "psychiatric diagnosis... still relies exclusively on fallible subjective judgments rather than objective biological tests." Frances was also concerned about "unpredictable overdiagnosis." For many years, marginalized psychiatrists (such as Peter Breggin, Thomas Szasz) and outside critics (such as Stuart A. Kirk) have "been accusing psychiatry of engaging in the systematic medicalization of normality." More recently these concerns have come from insiders who have worked for and promoted the American Psychiatric Association (e.g., Robert Spitzer, Allen Frances). A 2002 editorial in the British Medical Journal warned of inappropriate medicalization leading to disease mongering, where the boundaries of the definition of illnesses are expanded to include personal problems as medical problems or risks of diseases are emphasized to broaden the market for medications.
The 2004 WHO report "Prevention of Mental Disorders" stated that "Prevention of these disorders is obviously one of the most effective ways to reduce the [disease] burden." The 2011 European Psychiatric Association (EPA) guidance on prevention of mental disorders states "There is considerable evidence that various psychiatric conditions can be prevented through the implementation of effective evidence-based interventions." A 2011 UK Department of Health report on the economic case for mental health promotion and mental illness prevention found that "many interventions are outstandingly good value for money, low in cost and often become self-financing over time, saving public expenditure". In 2016, the National Institute of Mental Health re-affirmed prevention as a research priority area.
Universal prevention (aimed at a population that has no increased risk for developing a mental disorder, such as school programs or mass media campaigns) need very high numbers of people to show effect (sometimes known as the "power" problem). Approaches to overcome this are (1) focus on high-incidence groups (e.g. by targeting groups with high risk factors), (2) use multiple interventions to achieve greater, and thus more statistically valid, effects, (3) use cumulative meta-analyses of many trials, and (4) run very large trials.
Treatment and support for mental disorders are provided in psychiatric hospitals, clinics or a range of community mental health services. In some countries services are increasingly based on a recovery approach, intended to support individual's personal journey to gain the kind of life they want.
There is a range of different types of treatment and what is most suitable depends on the disorder and the individual. Many things have been found to help at least some people, and a placebo effect may play a role in any intervention or medication. In a minority of cases, individuals may be treated against their will, which can cause particular difficulties depending on how it is carried out and perceived. Compulsory treatment while in the community versus non-compulsory treatment does not appear to make much of a difference except by maybe decreasing victimization.
There is also a wide range of psychotherapists (including family therapy), counselors, and public health professionals. In addition, there are peer support roles where personal experience of similar issues is the primary source of expertise.
A major option for many mental disorders is psychotherapy. There are several main types. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is widely used and is based on modifying the patterns of thought and behavior associated with a particular disorder. Other psychotherapies include dialectic behavioral therapy (DBT) and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT). Psychoanalysis, addressing underlying psychic conflicts and defenses, has been a dominant school of psychotherapy and is still in use. Systemic therapy or family therapy is sometimes used, addressing a network of significant others as well as an individual.
Some psychotherapies are based on a humanistic approach. There are many specific therapies used for particular disorders, which may be offshoots or hybrids of the above types. Mental health professionals often employ an eclectic or integrative approach. Much may depend on the therapeutic relationship, and there may be problems with trust, confidentiality and engagement.
A major option for many mental disorders is psychiatric medication and there are several main groups. Antidepressants are used for the treatment of clinical depression, as well as often for anxiety and a range of other disorders. Anxiolytics (including sedatives) are used for anxiety disorders and related problems such as insomnia. Mood stabilizers are used primarily in bipolar disorder. Antipsychotics are used for psychotic disorders, notably for positive symptoms in schizophrenia, and also increasingly for a range of other disorders. Stimulants are commonly used, notably for ADHD.
Despite the different conventional names of the drug groups, there may be considerable overlap in the disorders for which they are actually indicated, and there may also be off-label use of medications. There can be problems with adverse effects of medication and adherence to them, and there is also criticism of pharmaceutical marketing and professional conflicts of interest. However, these medications in combination with non-pharmacological methods, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) are seen to be most effective in treating mental disorders.
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is sometimes used in severe cases when other interventions for severe intractable depression have failed. ECT is usually indicated for treatment resistant depression, severe vegetative symptoms, psychotic depression, intense suicidal ideation, depression during pregnancy, and catonia. Psychosurgery is considered experimental but is advocated by some neurologists in certain rare cases.
Counseling (professional) and co-counseling (between peers) may be used. Psychoeducation programs may provide people with the information to understand and manage their problems. Creative therapies are sometimes used, including music therapy, art therapy or drama therapy. Lifestyle adjustments and supportive measures are often used, including peer support, self-help groups for mental health and supported housing or supported employment (including social firms). Some advocate dietary supplements.
Reasonable accommodations (adjustments and supports) might be put in place to help an individual cope and succeed in environments despite potential disability related to mental health problems. This could include an emotional support animal or specifically trained psychiatric service dog. As of 2019 cannabis is specifically not recommended as a treatment.
Mental disorders are common. Worldwide, more than one in three people in most countries report sufficient criteria for at least one at some point in their life. In the United States, 46% qualify for a mental illness at some point. An ongoing survey indicates that anxiety disorders are the most common in all but one country, followed by mood disorders in all but two countries, while substance disorders and impulse-control disorders were consistently less prevalent. Rates varied by region.
A review of anxiety disorder surveys in different countries found average lifetime prevalence estimates of 16.6%, with women having higher rates on average. A review of mood disorder surveys in different countries found lifetime rates of 6.7% for major depressive disorder (higher in some studies, and in women) and 0.8% for Bipolar I disorder.
A 2004 cross-Europe study found that approximately one in four people reported meeting criteria at some point in their life for at least one of the DSM-IV disorders assessed, which included mood disorders (13.9%), anxiety disorders (13.6%), or alcohol disorder (5.2%). Approximately one in ten met the criteria within a 12-month period. Women and younger people of either gender showed more cases of the disorder. A 2005 review of surveys in 16 European countries found that 27% of adult Europeans are affected by at least one mental disorder in a 12-month period.
Studies of the prevalence of personality disorders (PDs) have been fewer and smaller-scale, but one broad Norwegian survey found a five-year prevalence of almost 1 in 7 (13.4%). Rates for specific disorders ranged from 0.8% to 2.8%, differing across countries, and by gender, educational level and other factors. A US survey that incidentally screened for personality disorder found a rate of 14.79%.
Approximately 7% of a preschool pediatric sample were given a psychiatric diagnosis in one clinical study, and approximately 10% of 1- and 2-year-olds receiving developmental screening have been assessed as having significant emotional/behavioral problems based on parent and pediatrician reports.
While rates of psychological disorders are often the same for men and women, women tend to have a higher rate of depression. Each year 73 million women are affected by major depression, and suicide is ranked 7th as the cause of death for women between the ages of 20–59. Depressive disorders account for close to 41.9% of the disability from neuropsychiatric disorders among women compared to 29.3% among men.
Ancient civilizations described and treated a number of mental disorders. Mental illnesses were well known in ancient Mesopotamia, where diseases and mental disorders were believed to be caused by specific deities. Because hands symbolized control over a person, mental illnesses were known as "hands" of certain deities. One psychological illness was known as Qāt Ištar, meaning "Hand of Ishtar". Others were known as "Hand of Shamash", "Hand of the Ghost", and "Hand of the God". Descriptions of these illnesses, however, are so vague that it is usually impossible to determine which illnesses they correspond to in modern terminology. Mesopotamian doctors kept detailed record of their patients' hallucinations and assigned spiritual meanings to them. The royal family of Elam was notorious for its members frequently suffering from insanity. The Greeks coined terms for melancholy, hysteria and phobia and developed the humorism theory. Mental disorders were described, and treatments developed, in Persia, Arabia and in the medieval Islamic world.
Conceptions of madness in the Middle Ages in Christian Europe were a mixture of the divine, diabolical, magical and humoral, and transcendental. In the early modern period, some people with mental disorders may have been victims of the witch-hunts. While not every witch and sorcerer accused were mentally ill, all mentally ill were considered to be witches or sorcerers. Many terms for mental disorders that found their way into everyday use first became popular in the 16th and 17th centuries.
By the end of the 17th century and into the Enlightenment, madness was increasingly seen as an organic physical phenomenon with no connection to the soul or moral responsibility. Asylum care was often harsh and treated people like wild animals, but towards the end of the 18th century a moral treatment movement gradually developed. Clear descriptions of some syndromes may be rare before the 19th century.
Industrialization and population growth led to a massive expansion of the number and size of insane asylums in every Western country in the 19th century. Numerous different classification schemes and diagnostic terms were developed by different authorities, and the term psychiatry was coined (1808), though medical superintendents were still known as alienists.
The turn of the 20th century saw the development of psychoanalysis, which would later come to the fore, along with Kraepelin's classification scheme. Asylum "inmates" were increasingly referred to as "patients", and asylums were renamed as hospitals.
Europe and the United States
Early in the 20th century in the United States, a mental hygiene movement developed, aiming to prevent mental disorders. Clinical psychology and social work developed as professions. World War I saw a massive increase of conditions that came to be termed "shell shock".
World War II saw the development in the U.S. of a new psychiatric manual for categorizing mental disorders, which along with existing systems for collecting census and hospital statistics led to the first Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) also developed a section on mental disorders. The term stress, having emerged from endocrinology work in the 1930s, was increasingly applied to mental disorders.
Electroconvulsive therapy, insulin shock therapy, lobotomies and the "neuroleptic" chlorpromazine came to be used by mid-century. In the 1960s there were many challenges to the concept of mental illness itself. These challenges came from psychiatrists like Thomas Szasz who argued that mental illness was a myth used to disguise moral conflicts; from sociologists such as Erving Goffman who said that mental illness was merely another example of how society labels and controls non-conformists; from behavioral psychologists who challenged psychiatry's fundamental reliance on unobservable phenomena; and from gay rights activists who criticised the APA's listing of homosexuality as a mental disorder. A study published in Science by Rosenhan received much publicity and was viewed as an attack on the efficacy of psychiatric diagnosis.
Deinstitutionalization gradually occurred in the West, with isolated psychiatric hospitals being closed down in favor of community mental health services. A consumer/survivor movement gained momentum. Other kinds of psychiatric medication gradually came into use, such as "psychic energizers" (later antidepressants) and lithium. Benzodiazepines gained widespread use in the 1970s for anxiety and depression, until dependency problems curtailed their popularity.
Advances in neuroscience, genetics, and psychology led to new research agendas. Cognitive behavioral therapy and other psychotherapies developed. The DSM and then ICD adopted new criteria-based classifications, and the number of "official" diagnoses saw a large expansion. Through the 1990s, new SSRI-type antidepressants became some of the most widely prescribed drugs in the world, as later did antipsychotics. Also during the 1990s, a recovery approach developed.
Society and culture
Different societies or cultures, even different individuals in a subculture, can disagree as to what constitutes optimal versus pathological biological and psychological functioning. Research has demonstrated that cultures vary in the relative importance placed on, for example, happiness, autonomy, or social relationships for pleasure. Likewise, the fact that a behavior pattern is valued, accepted, encouraged, or even statistically normative in a culture does not necessarily mean that it is conducive to optimal psychological functioning.
People in all cultures find some behaviors bizarre or even incomprehensible. But just what they feel is bizarre or incomprehensible is ambiguous and subjective. These differences in determination can become highly contentious. The process by which conditions and difficulties come to be defined and treated as medical conditions and problems, and thus come under the authority of doctors and other health professionals, is known as medicalization or pathologization.
Religious, spiritual, or transpersonal experiences and beliefs meet many criteria of delusional or psychotic disorders. A belief or experience can sometimes be shown to produce distress or disability—the ordinary standard for judging mental disorders. There is a link between religion and schizophrenia, a complex mental disorder characterized by a difficulty in recognizing reality, regulating emotional responses, and thinking in a clear and logical manner. Those with schizophrenia commonly report some type of religious delusion, and religion itself may be a trigger for schizophrenia.
Controversy has often surrounded psychiatry, and the term anti-psychiatry was coined by the psychiatrist David Cooper in 1967. The anti-psychiatry message is that psychiatric treatments are ultimately more damaging than helpful to patients, and psychiatry's history involves what may now be seen as dangerous treatments. Electroconvulsive therapy was one of these, which was used widely between the 1930s and 1960s. Lobotomy was another practice that was ultimately seen as too invasive and brutal. Diazepam and other sedatives were sometimes over-prescribed, which led to an epidemic of dependence. There was also concern about the large increase in prescribing psychiatric drugs for children. Some charismatic psychiatrists came to personify the movement against psychiatry. The most influential of these was R.D. Laing who wrote a series of best-selling books, including The Divided Self. Thomas Szasz wrote The Myth of Mental Illness. Some ex-patient groups have become militantly anti-psychiatric, often referring to themselves as "survivors". Giorgio Antonucci has questioned the basis of psychiatry through his work on the dismantling of two psychiatric hospitals (in the city of Imola), carried out from 1973 to 1996.
The consumer/survivor movement (also known as user/survivor movement) is made up of individuals (and organizations representing them) who are clients of mental health services or who consider themselves survivors of psychiatric interventions. Activists campaign for improved mental health services and for more involvement and empowerment within mental health services, policies and wider society. Patient advocacy organizations have expanded with increasing deinstitutionalization in developed countries, working to challenge the stereotypes, stigma and exclusion associated with psychiatric conditions. There is also a carers rights movement of people who help and support people with mental health conditions, who may be relatives, and who often work in difficult and time-consuming circumstances with little acknowledgement and without pay. An anti-psychiatry movement fundamentally challenges mainstream psychiatric theory and practice, including in some cases asserting that psychiatric concepts and diagnoses of 'mental illness' are neither real nor useful.
Alternatively, a movement for global mental health has emerged, defined as 'the area of study, research and practice that places a priority on improving mental health and achieving equity in mental health for all people worldwide'.
Current diagnostic guidelines, namely the DSM and to some extent the ICD, have been criticized as having a fundamentally Euro-American outlook. Opponents argue that even when diagnostic criteria are used across different cultures, it does not mean that the underlying constructs have validity within those cultures, as even reliable application can prove only consistency, not legitimacy. Advocating a more culturally sensitive approach, critics such as Carl Bell and Marcello Maviglia contend that the cultural and ethnic diversity of individuals is often discounted by researchers and service providers.
Cross-cultural psychiatrist Arthur Kleinman contends that the Western bias is ironically illustrated in the introduction of cultural factors to the DSM-IV. Disorders or concepts from non-Western or non-mainstream cultures are described as "culture-bound", whereas standard psychiatric diagnoses are given no cultural qualification whatsoever, revealing to Kleinman an underlying assumption that Western cultural phenomena are universal. Kleinman's negative view towards the culture-bound syndrome is largely shared by other cross-cultural critics. Common responses included both disappointment over the large number of documented non-Western mental disorders still left out and frustration that even those included are often misinterpreted or misrepresented.
Many mainstream psychiatrists are dissatisfied with the new culture-bound diagnoses, although for partly different reasons. Robert Spitzer, a lead architect of the DSM-III, has argued that adding cultural formulations was an attempt to appease cultural critics, and has stated that they lack any scientific rationale or support. Spitzer also posits that the new culture-bound diagnoses are rarely used, maintaining that the standard diagnoses apply regardless of the culture involved. In general, mainstream psychiatric opinion remains that if a diagnostic category is valid, cross-cultural factors are either irrelevant or are significant only to specific symptom presentations.
Clinical conceptions of mental illness also overlap with personal and cultural values in the domain of morality, so much so that it is sometimes argued that separating the two is impossible without fundamentally redefining the essence of being a particular person in a society. In clinical psychiatry, persistent distress and disability indicate an internal disorder requiring treatment; but in another context, that same distress and disability can be seen as an indicator of emotional struggle and the need to address social and structural problems. This dichotomy has led some academics and clinicians to advocate a postmodernist conceptualization of mental distress and well-being.
Such approaches, along with cross-cultural and "heretical" psychologies centered on alternative cultural and ethnic and race-based identities and experiences, stand in contrast to the mainstream psychiatric community's alleged avoidance of any explicit involvement with either morality or culture. In many countries there are attempts to challenge perceived prejudice against minority groups, including alleged institutional racism within psychiatric services. There are also ongoing attempts to improve professional cross cultural sensitivity.
Laws and policies
Three-quarters of countries around the world have mental health legislation. Compulsory admission to mental health facilities (also known as involuntary commitment) is a controversial topic. It can impinge on personal liberty and the right to choose, and carry the risk of abuse for political, social, and other reasons; yet it can potentially prevent harm to self and others, and assist some people in attaining their right to healthcare when they may be unable to decide in their own interests. Because of this it is a concern of medical ethics.
All human rights oriented mental health laws require proof of the presence of a mental disorder as defined by internationally accepted standards, but the type and severity of disorder that counts can vary in different jurisdictions. The two most often used grounds for involuntary admission are said to be serious likelihood of immediate or imminent danger to self or others, and the need for treatment. Applications for someone to be involuntarily admitted usually come from a mental health practitioner, a family member, a close relative, or a guardian. Human-rights-oriented laws usually stipulate that independent medical practitioners or other accredited mental health practitioners must examine the patient separately and that there should be regular, time-bound review by an independent review body. The individual should also have personal access to independent advocacy.
For involuntary treatment to be administered (by force if necessary), it should be shown that an individual lacks the mental capacity for informed consent (i.e. to understand treatment information and its implications, and therefore be able to make an informed choice to either accept or refuse). Legal challenges in some areas have resulted in supreme court decisions that a person does not have to agree with a psychiatrist's characterization of the issues as constituting an "illness", nor agree with a psychiatrist's conviction in medication, but only recognize the issues and the information about treatment options.
Proxy consent (also known as surrogate or substituted decision-making) may be transferred to a personal representative, a family member, or a legally appointed guardian. Moreover, patients may be able to make, when they are considered well, an advance directive stipulating how they wish to be treated should they be deemed to lack mental capacity in the future. The right to supported decision-making, where a person is helped to understand and choose treatment options before they can be declared to lack capacity, may also be included in the legislation. There should at the very least be shared decision-making as far as possible. Involuntary treatment laws are increasingly extended to those living in the community, for example outpatient commitment laws (known by different names) are used in New Zealand, Australia, the United Kingdom, and most of the United States.
The World Health Organization reports that in many instances national mental health legislation takes away the rights of persons with mental disorders rather than protecting rights, and is often outdated. In 1991, the United Nations adopted the Principles for the Protection of Persons with Mental Illness and the Improvement of Mental Health Care, which established minimum human rights standards of practice in the mental health field. In 2006, the UN formally agreed the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities to protect and enhance the rights and opportunities of disabled people, including those with psychosocial disabilities.
The term insanity, sometimes used colloquially as a synonym for mental illness, is often used technically as a legal term. The insanity defense may be used in a legal trial (known as the mental disorder defence in some countries).
Perception and discrimination
The social stigma associated with mental disorders is a widespread problem. The US Surgeon General stated in 1999 that: "Powerful and pervasive, stigma prevents people from acknowledging their own mental health problems, much less disclosing them to others." In the United States, racial and ethnic minorities are more likely to experience mental health disorders often due to low socioeconomic status, and discrimination. In Taiwan, those with mental disorders are subject to general public's misperception that the root causes of the mental disorders are "over-thinking", "having a lot of time and nothing better to do", "stagnant", "not serious in life", "not paying enough attention to the real life affairs", "mentally weak", "refusing to be resilient", "turning back to perfectionistic strivings", "not bravery" and so forth.
Employment discrimination is reported to play a significant part in the high rate of unemployment among those with a diagnosis of mental illness. An Australian study found that having a mental illness is a bigger barrier to employment than a physical disability. The mentally ill are stigmatized in Chinese society and can not legally marry.
Media and general public
Media coverage of mental illness comprises predominantly negative and pejorative depictions, for example, of incompetence, violence or criminality, with far less coverage of positive issues such as accomplishments or human rights issues. Such negative depictions, including in children's cartoons, are thought to contribute to stigma and negative attitudes in the public and in those with mental health problems themselves, although more sensitive or serious cinematic portrayals have increased in prevalence.
In the United States, the Carter Center has created fellowships for journalists in South Africa, the U.S., and Romania, to enable reporters to research and write stories on mental health topics. Former US First Lady Rosalynn Carter began the fellowships not only to train reporters in how to sensitively and accurately discuss mental health and mental illness, but also to increase the number of stories on these topics in the news media. There is also a World Mental Health Day, which in the US and Canada falls within a Mental Illness Awareness Week.
The general public have been found to hold a strong stereotype of dangerousness and desire for social distance from individuals described as mentally ill. A US national survey found that a higher percentage of people rate individuals described as displaying the characteristics of a mental disorder as "likely to do something violent to others", compared to the percentage of people who are rating individuals described as being "troubled".
Recent depictions in media have included leading characters successfully living with and managing a mental illness, including in bipolar disorder in Homeland (2011) and posttraumatic stress disorder in Iron Man 3 (2013).
Despite public or media opinion, national studies have indicated that severe mental illness does not independently predict future violent behavior, on average, and is not a leading cause of violence in society. There is a statistical association with various factors that do relate to violence (in anyone), such as substance use and various personal, social, and economic factors. A 2015 review found that in the United States, about 4% of violence is attributable to people diagnosed with mental illness, and a 2014 study found that 7.5% of crimes committed by mentally ill people were directly related to the symptoms of their mental illness. The majority of people with serious mental illness are never violent.
In fact, findings consistently indicate that it is many times more likely that people diagnosed with a serious mental illness living in the community will be the victims rather than the perpetrators of violence. In a study of individuals diagnosed with "severe mental illness" living in a US inner-city area, a quarter were found to have been victims of at least one violent crime over the course of a year, a proportion eleven times higher than the inner-city average, and higher in every category of crime including violent assaults and theft. People with a diagnosis may find it more difficult to secure prosecutions, however, due in part to prejudice and being seen as less credible.
However, there are some specific diagnoses, such as childhood conduct disorder or adult antisocial personality disorder or psychopathy, which are defined by, or are inherently associated with, conduct problems and violence. There are conflicting findings about the extent to which certain specific symptoms, notably some kinds of psychosis (hallucinations or delusions) that can occur in disorders such as schizophrenia, delusional disorder or mood disorder, are linked to an increased risk of serious violence on average. The mediating factors of violent acts, however, are most consistently found to be mainly socio-demographic and socio-economic factors such as being young, male, of lower socioeconomic status and, in particular, substance use (including alcohol use) to which some people may be particularly vulnerable.
High-profile cases have led to fears that serious crimes, such as homicide, have increased due to deinstitutionalization, but the evidence does not support this conclusion. Violence that does occur in relation to mental disorder (against the mentally ill or by the mentally ill) typically occurs in the context of complex social interactions, often in a family setting rather than between strangers. It is also an issue in health care settings and the wider community.
The recognition and understanding of mental health conditions have changed over time and across cultures and there are still variations in definition, assessment, and classification, although standard guideline criteria are widely used. In many cases, there appears to be a continuum between mental health and mental illness, making diagnosis complex.:39 According to the World Health Organization (WHO), over a third of people in most countries report problems at some time in their life which meet the criteria for diagnosis of one or more of the common types of mental disorder. Corey M Keyes has created a two continua model of mental illness and health which holds that both are related, but distinct dimensions: one continuum indicates the presence or absence of mental health, the other the presence or absence of mental illness. For example, people with optimal mental health can also have a mental illness, and people who have no mental illness can also have poor mental health.
Psychopathology in non-human primates has been studied since the mid-20th century. Over 20 behavioral patterns in captive chimpanzees have been documented as (statistically) abnormal for frequency, severity or oddness—some of which have also been observed in the wild. Captive great apes show gross behavioral abnormalities such as stereotypy of movements, self-mutilation, disturbed emotional reactions (mainly fear or aggression) towards companions, lack of species-typical communications, and generalized learned helplessness. In some cases such behaviors are hypothesized to be equivalent to symptoms associated with psychiatric disorders in humans such as depression, anxiety disorders, eating disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder. Concepts of antisocial, borderline and schizoid personality disorders have also been applied to non-human great apes.
The risk of anthropomorphism is often raised concerning such comparisons, and assessment of non-human animals cannot incorporate evidence from linguistic communication. However, available evidence may range from nonverbal behaviors—including physiological responses and homologous facial displays and acoustic utterances—to neurochemical studies. It is pointed out that human psychiatric classification is often based on statistical description and judgment of behaviors (especially when speech or language is impaired) and that the use of verbal self-report is itself problematic and unreliable.
Psychopathology has generally been traced, at least in captivity, to adverse rearing conditions such as early separation of infants from mothers; early sensory deprivation; and extended periods of social isolation. Studies have also indicated individual variation in temperament, such as sociability or impulsiveness. Particular causes of problems in captivity have included integration of strangers into existing groups and a lack of individual space, in which context some pathological behaviors have also been seen as coping mechanisms. Remedial interventions have included careful individually tailored re-socialization programs, behavior therapy, environment enrichment, and on rare occasions psychiatric drugs. Socialization has been found to work 90% of the time in disturbed chimpanzees, although restoration of functional sexuality and caregiving is often not achieved.
Laboratory researchers sometimes try to develop animal models of human mental disorders, including by inducing or treating symptoms in animals through genetic, neurological, chemical or behavioral manipulation, but this has been criticized on empirical grounds and opposed on animal rights grounds.
- Mental illness portrayed in media
- Mental disorders in film
- Mental illness in fiction
- Mental illness in American prisons
- Parity of esteem
- Psychological evaluation
- "Mental illness – Symptoms and causes". Mayo Clinic. 8 June 2019. Retrieved 3 May 2020.
- "Any Mental Illness (AMI) Among U.S. Adults". National Institute of Mental Health. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Archived from the original on 7 April 2017. Retrieved 28 April 2017.
- "Mental Disorders". Medline Plus. U.S. National Library of Medicine. 15 September 2014. Archived from the original on 8 May 2016. Retrieved 10 June 2016.
- Bolton D (2008). What is Mental Disorder?: An Essay in Philosophy, Science, and Values. OUP Oxford. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-19-856592-5.
- "Mental disorders". World Health Organization. 9 April 2018. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 2 February 2019.
- "Mental disorders". World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 29 March 2016. Retrieved 9 April 2016.
- "Mental disorders". World Health Organization. October 2014. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 13 May 2015.
- American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. pp. 101–05. ISBN 978-0-89042-555-8.
- Jacka FN (March 2017). "Nutritional Psychiatry: Where to Next?". EBioMedicine (Review). 17 (17): 24–29. doi:10.1016/j.ebiom.2017.02.020. PMC 5360575. PMID 28242200.
- "Mental Disorders". World Health Organization. World Health Organization. Retrieved 20 July 2020.
- Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders : DSM-5 (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association. 2013. p. 31. ISBN 9780890425541.
- Stein DJ (December 2013). "What is a mental disorder? A perspective from cognitive-affective science". Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. 58 (12): 656–62. doi:10.1177/070674371305801202. PMID 24331284.
- Stein DJ, Phillips KA, Bolton D, Fulford KW, Sadler JZ, Kendler KS (November 2010). "What is a mental/psychiatric disorder? From DSM-IV to DSM-V". Psychological Medicine. 40 (11): 1759–65. doi:10.1017/S0033291709992261. OCLC 01588231. PMC 3101504. PMID 20624327.
In DSM-IV, each of the mental disorders is conceptualized as a clinically significant behavioral or psychological syndrome or pattern that occurs in an individual and that is associated with present distress (e.g., a painful symptom) or disability (i.e., impairment in one or more important areas of functioning) or with a significantly increased risk of suffering death, pain, disability, or an important loss of freedom. In addition, this syndrome or pattern must not be merely an expectable and culturally sanctioned response to a particular event, for example, the death of a loved one. Whatever its original cause, it must currently be considered a manifestation of behavioral, psychological, or biological dysfunction in the individual. Neither deviant behavior (e.g., political, religious, or sexual) nor conflicts that are primarily between the individual and society are mental disorders unless the deviance or conflict is a symptom of a dysfunction in the individual, as described above.
- Stein DJ, Phillips KA, Bolton D, Fulford KW, Sadler JZ, Kendler KS (November 2010). "What is a mental/psychiatric disorder? From DSM-IV to DSM-V". Psychological Medicine. 40 (11): 1759–65. doi:10.1017/S0033291709992261. OCLC 01588231. PMC 3101504. PMID 20624327.
- Stein DJ, Phillips KA, Bolton D, Fulford KW, Sadler JZ, Kendler KS (November 2010). "What is a mental/psychiatric disorder? From DSM-IV to DSM-V". Psychological Medicine. 40 (11): 1759–65. doi:10.1017/S0033291709992261. OCLC 01588231. PMC 3101504. PMID 20624327.
... although this manual provides a classification of mental disorders, it must be admitted that no definition adequately specifies precise boundaries for the concept of ‘mental disorder.’ The concept of mental disorder, like many other concepts in medicine and science, lacks a consistent operational definition that covers all situations. All medical conditions are defined on various levels of abstraction—for example, structural pathology (e.g., ulcerative colitis), symptom presentation (e.g., migraine), deviance from a physiological norm (e.g., hypertension), and etiology (e.g., pneumococcal pneumonia). Mental disorders have also been defined by a variety of concepts (e.g., distress, dyscontrol, disadvantage, disability, inflexibility, irrationality, syndromal pattern, etiology, and statistical deviation). Each is a useful indicator for a mental disorder, but none is equivalent to the concept, and different situations call for different definitions.
- American Psychiatric Association (2013). "Use of the Manual". Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.). American Psychiatric Publishing. doi:10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596.UseofDSM5. ISBN 978-0-89042-559-6.
- "Chapter 6 on mental, behavioural and neurodevelopmental disorders". ICD-11 for Mortality and Morbidity Statistics, 2018 version.
- Pickering N (2006). The Metaphor of Mental Illness. Oxford University Press. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-19-853087-9.
- Rapport LJ, Todd RM, Lumley MA, Fisicaro SA (October 1998). "The diagnostic meaning of "nervous breakdown" among lay populations". Journal of Personality Assessment. 71 (2): 242–52. doi:10.1207/s15327752jpa7102_11. PMID 9857496.
- Mayo Clinic Mental Breakdown
- Australia, Healthdirect (14 February 2019). "Nervous breakdown". www.healthdirect.gov.au. Retrieved 25 March 2019.
- Edward Shorter (2013) How Everyone Became Depressed: The Rise and Fall of the Nervous Breakdown, Oxford University Press ISBN 978-0-19-994808-6
- David Healy (2013) Pharmageddon, University of California Press ISBN 978-0-520-27576-8
- Peter Tyrer (2013) Models for Mental Disorder, Wiley-Blackwell ISBN 978-1-118-54052-7
- Berrios GE (April 1999). "Classifications in psychiatry: a conceptual history". The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. 33 (2): 145–60. doi:10.1046/j.1440-1614.1999.00555.x. PMID 10336212. S2CID 25866251.
- Perring, C. (2005) Mental Illness Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
- Katschnig H (February 2010). "Are psychiatrists an endangered species? Observations on internal and external challenges to the profession". World Psychiatry. 9 (1): 21–8. doi:10.1002/j.2051-5545.2010.tb00257.x. PMC 2816922. PMID 20148149.
- Kato T (October 2011). "A renovation of psychiatry is needed". World Psychiatry. 10 (3): 198–9. doi:10.1002/j.2051-5545.2011.tb00056.x. PMC 3188773. PMID 21991278.
- Doward J (11 May 2013). "Medicine's big new battleground: does mental illness really exist?". The Guardian.
- "NIMH » Mental Disorders as Brain Disorders: Thomas Insel at TEDxCaltech". National Institute of Mental Health. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 23 April 2013. Archived from the original on 7 May 2013.
- Hankin BL, Snyder HR, Gulley LD, Schweizer TH, Bijttebier P, Nelis S, et al. (November 2016). "Understanding comorbidity among internalizing problems: Integrating latent structural models of psychopathology and risk mechanisms". Development and Psychopathology. 28 (4pt1): 987–1012. doi:10.1017/S0954579416000663. PMC 5119897. PMID 27739389.
- Caspi A, Houts RM, Belsky DW, Goldman-Mellor SJ, Harrington H, Israel S, et al. (March 2014). "The p Factor: One General Psychopathology Factor in the Structure of Psychiatric Disorders?". Clinical Psychological Science. 2 (2): 119–137. doi:10.1177/2167702613497473. PMC 4209412. PMID 25360393.
- Forbes MK, Tackett JL, Markon KE, Krueger RF (November 2016). "Beyond comorbidity: Toward a dimensional and hierarchical approach to understanding psychopathology across the life span". Development and Psychopathology. 28 (4pt1): 971–986. doi:10.1017/S0954579416000651. PMC 5098269. PMID 27739384.
- Gizer IR (November 2016). "Molecular genetic approaches to understanding the comorbidity of psychiatric disorders". Development and Psychopathology. 28 (4pt1): 1089–1101. doi:10.1017/S0954579416000717. PMC 5079621. PMID 27739393.
- Lahey BB, Krueger RF, Rathouz PJ, Waldman ID, Zald DH (February 2017). "A hierarchical causal taxonomy of psychopathology across the life span". Psychological Bulletin. 143 (2): 142–186. doi:10.1037/bul0000069. PMC 5269437. PMID 28004947.
- Gazzaniga, M.S., & Heatherton, T.F. (2006). Psychological Science. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.
- "Mental Health: Types of Mental Illness". WebMD. 1 July 2005. Retrieved 29 September 2009.
- Office of the Surgeon General; Center for Mental Health Services; National Institute of Mental Health (1999). "The Fundamentals of Mental Health and Mental Illness" (PDF). Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General. National Institute of Mental Health. pp. 26–50. ISBN 978-0-16-050300-9.
- NIMH (2005) Teacher's Guide: Information about Mental Illness and the Brain Archived 12 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine Curriculum supplement from The NIH Curriculum Supplements Series
- Akiskal HS, Benazzi F (May 2006). "The DSM-IV and ICD-10 categories of recurrent [major] depressive and bipolar II disorders: evidence that they lie on a dimensional spectrum". Journal of Affective Disorders. 92 (1): 45–54. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2005.12.035. PMID 16488021.
- McIntyre, Roger S. (7 March 2017). "Mixed features and mixed states in psychiatry: from calculus to geometry" (PDF). Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 23 October 2020.
- Clark LA (2007). "Assessment and diagnosis of personality disorder: perennial issues and an emerging reconceptualization". Annual Review of Psychology. 58 (1): 227–57. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.57.102904.190200. PMID 16903806. S2CID 2728977.
- Morey LC, Hopwood CJ, Gunderson JG, Skodol AE, Shea MT, Yen S, et al. (July 2007). "Comparison of alternative models for personality disorders". Psychological Medicine. 37 (7): 983–94. doi:10.1017/S0033291706009482. PMID 17121690. S2CID 15568151.
- "Eating Disorders". National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI). Retrieved 6 May 2019.
- "NIMH » Eating Disorders". www.nimh.nih.gov. Retrieved 6 May 2019.
- Gamma A, Angst J, Ajdacic V, Eich D, Rössler W (March 2007). "The spectra of neurasthenia and depression: course, stability and transitions" (PDF). European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience. 257 (2): 120–7. doi:10.1007/s00406-006-0699-6. PMID 17131216. S2CID 21221326.
- Trimble M (2002). "Uncommon psychiatric syndromes, 4th edn". Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry. 73 (2): 211–c. doi:10.1136/jnnp.73.2.211-c. PMC 1738003.
- Kessler RC, Amminger GP, Aguilar-Gaxiola S, Alonso J, Lee S, Ustün TB (July 2007). "Age of onset of mental disorders: a review of recent literature". Current Opinion in Psychiatry. 20 (4): 359–64. doi:10.1097/YCO.0b013e32816ebc8c. PMC 1925038. PMID 17551351.
- Paus T, Keshavan M, Giedd JN (December 2008). "Why do many psychiatric disorders emerge during adolescence?". Nature Reviews. Neuroscience. 9 (12): 947–57. doi:10.1038/nrn2513. PMC 2762785. PMID 19002191.
- van Os J, Kapur S (August 2009). "Schizophrenia". Lancet. 374 (9690): 635–45. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(09)60995-8. PMID 19700006. S2CID 208792724.
- Harrison G, Hopper K, Craig T, Laska E, Siegel C, Wanderling J, et al. (June 2001). "Recovery from psychotic illness: a 15- and 25-year international follow-up study". The British Journal of Psychiatry. 178 (6): 506–17. doi:10.1192/bjp.178.6.506. PMID 11388966.
- Jobe TH, Harrow M (December 2005). "Long-term outcome of patients with schizophrenia: a review". Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. 50 (14): 892–900. doi:10.1177/070674370505001403. PMID 16494258.
- Tohen M, Zarate CA, Hennen J, Khalsa HM, Strakowski SM, Gebre-Medhin P, et al. (December 2003). "The McLean-Harvard First-Episode Mania Study: prediction of recovery and first recurrence". The American Journal of Psychiatry. 160 (12): 2099–107. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.160.12.2099. PMID 14638578. S2CID 30881311.
- Collins PY, Patel V, Joestl SS, March D, Insel TR, Daar AS, et al. (July 2011). "Grand challenges in global mental health". Nature. 475 (7354): 27–30. doi:10.1038/475027a. PMC 3173804. PMID 21734685.
- Center for Psychiatric Rehabilitation What is Psychiatric Disability and Mental Illness? Archived 4 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine Boston University, Retrieved January 2012
- Pilgrim, David; Rogers, Anne (2005). A sociology of mental health and illness (3rd ed.). Milton Keynes: Open University Press. ISBN 978-0-335-21583-6.
- Ferney, V. (2003) The Hierarchy of Mental Illness: Which diagnosis is the least debilitating? New York City Voices Jan/March
- Ormel J, Petukhova M, Chatterji S, Aguilar-Gaxiola S, Alonso J, Angermeyer MC, et al. (May 2008). "Disability and treatment of specific mental and physical disorders across the world". The British Journal of Psychiatry. 192 (5): 368–75. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.107.039107. PMC 2681238. PMID 18450663.
- Gore FM, Bloem PJ, Patton GC, Ferguson J, Joseph V, Coffey C, et al. (June 2011). "Global burden of disease in young people aged 10–24 years: a systematic analysis". Lancet. 377 (9783): 2093–102. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60512-6. PMID 21652063. S2CID 205962371.
- "CIS: UN Body Takes On Rising Suicide Rates – Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty 2006".
- O'Connor R, Sheehy N (29 January 2000). Understanding suicidal behaviour. Leicester: BPS Books. pp. 33–37. ISBN 978-1-85433-290-5.
- Bertolote JM, Fleischmann A (October 2002). "Suicide and psychiatric diagnosis: a worldwide perspective". World Psychiatry. 1 (3): 181–5. PMC 1489848. PMID 16946849.
- Arango C, Díaz-Caneja CM, McGorry PD, Rapoport J, Sommer IE, Vorstman JA, et al. (July 2018). "Preventive strategies for mental health". The Lancet. Psychiatry. 5 (7): 591–604. doi:10.1016/S2215-0366(18)30057-9. hdl:11370/92f1a79c-f53d-47ae-be92-7a4c8d4b4e25. PMID 29773478.
- "Risks To Mental Health: An Overview Of Vulnerabilities And Risk Factors" (PDF). WHO.int. 2012.
- Torgersen S, Lygren S, Oien PA, Skre I, Onstad S, Edvardsen J, et al. (December 2000). "A twin study of personality disorders". Comprehensive Psychiatry. 41 (6): 416–25. doi:10.1053/comp.2000.16560. PMID 11086146.
- Reichborn-Kjennerud T (1 March 2010). "The genetic epidemiology of personality disorders". Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience. 12 (1): 103–14. doi:10.31887/DCNS.2010.12.1/trkjennerud. PMC 3181941. PMID 20373672.
- Bienvenu OJ, Ginsburg GS (December 2007). "Prevention of anxiety disorders". International Review of Psychiatry. 19 (6): 647–54. doi:10.1080/09540260701797837. PMID 18092242. S2CID 95140.
- Insel TR (April 2009). "Disruptive insights in psychiatry: transforming a clinical discipline". The Journal of Clinical Investigation. 119 (4): 700–5. doi:10.1172/jci38832. PMC 2662575. PMID 19339761.
- American Psychiatric Association 3 May 2013 Release Number 13-33
- Nordsletten AE, Larsson H, Crowley JJ, Almqvist C, Lichtenstein P, Mataix-Cols D (April 2016). "Patterns of Nonrandom Mating Within and Across 11 Major Psychiatric Disorders". JAMA Psychiatry. 73 (4): 354–61. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2015.3192. PMC 5082975. PMID 26913486.
- Fumagalli F, Molteni R, Racagni G, Riva MA (March 2007). "Stress during development: Impact on neuroplasticity and relevance to psychopathology". Progress in Neurobiology. 81 (4): 197–217. doi:10.1016/j.pneurobio.2007.01.002. PMID 17350153. S2CID 22224892.
- Hiday VA (June 1995). "The social context of mental illness and violence". Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 36 (2): 122–37. doi:10.2307/2137220. JSTOR 2137220. PMID 9113138.
- Krabbendam L, van Os J (October 2005). "Schizophrenia and urbanicity: a major environmental influence—conditional on genetic risk". Schizophrenia Bulletin. 31 (4): 795–9. doi:10.1093/schbul/sbi060. PMID 16150958.
- Sarris J, Logan AC, Akbaraly TN, Amminger GP, Balanzá-Martínez V, Freeman MP, et al. (March 2015). "Nutritional medicine as mainstream in psychiatry". The Lancet. Psychiatry (Review). 2 (3): 271–4. doi:10.1016/S2215-0366(14)00051-0. PMID 26359904.
- "The Report". The Schizophrenia Commission. 13 November 2012. Archived from the original on 5 April 2013. Retrieved 23 April 2013.
- O'Connell ME, Boat T, Warner KE (2009). "Table E-4 Risk Factors for Anxiety". Prevention of Mental Disorders, Substance Abuse, and Problem Behaviors: A Developmental Perspective. National Academies Press. pp. 530–531. doi:10.17226/12480. ISBN 978-0-309-12674-8. PMID 20662125. S2CID 142581788.
- Miklowitz DJ, Chang KD (2008). "Prevention of bipolar disorder in at-risk children: theoretical assumptions and empirical foundations". Development and Psychopathology. 20 (3): 881–97. doi:10.1017/S0954579408000424. PMC 2504732. PMID 18606036.
- "Cannabis and mental health". Royal College of Psychiatrists. Retrieved 23 April 2013.
- Fergusson DM, Boden JM, Horwood LJ (March 2009). "Tests of causal links between alcohol abuse or dependence and major depression". Archives of General Psychiatry. 66 (3): 260–6. doi:10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2008.543. PMID 19255375.
- Winston AP, Hardwick E, Jaberi N (October 2005). "Neuropsychiatric effects of caffeine". Advances in Psychiatric Treatment. 11 (6): 432–39. doi:10.1192/apt.11.6.432.
- Vilarim MM, Rocha Araujo DM, Nardi AE (August 2011). "Caffeine challenge test and panic disorder: a systematic literature review". Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics. 11 (8): 1185–95. doi:10.1586/ern.11.83. PMID 21797659. S2CID 5364016.
- Picchioni MM, Murray RM (July 2007). "Schizophrenia". BMJ. 335 (7610): 91–5. doi:10.1136/bmj.39227.616447.BE. PMC 1914490. PMID 17626963.
- Khan MA, Akella S (December 2009). "Cannabis-induced bipolar disorder with psychotic features: a case report". Psychiatry. 6 (12): 44–8. PMC 2811144. PMID 20104292.
- "The Relationship between Mental Health, Mental Illness and Chronic Physical Conditions". ontario.cmha.ca. Retrieved 21 November 2019.
- Jeronimus BF, Kotov R, Riese H, Ormel J (October 2016). "Neuroticism's prospective association with mental disorders halves after adjustment for baseline symptoms and psychiatric history, but the adjusted association hardly decays with time: a meta-analysis on 59 longitudinal/prospective studies with 443 313 participants". Psychological Medicine. 46 (14): 2883–2906. doi:10.1017/S0033291716001653. PMID 27523506. S2CID 23548727.
- Ormel J, Jeronimus BF, Kotov R, Riese H, Bos EH, Hankin B, et al. (July 2013). "Neuroticism and common mental disorders: meaning and utility of a complex relationship". Clinical Psychology Review. 33 (5): 686–697. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2013.04.003. PMC 4382368. PMID 23702592.
- Kendler KS (April 2012). "The dappled nature of causes of psychiatric illness: replacing the organic-functional/hardware-software dichotomy with empirically based pluralism". Molecular Psychiatry. 17 (4): 377–88. doi:10.1038/mp.2011.182. PMC 3312951. PMID 22230881.
- Kinderman P, Lobban F (2000). "Evolving Formulations: Sharing Complex Information with Clients". Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy. 28 (3): 307–10. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.500.5290. doi:10.1017/S1352465800003118. S2CID 16787375.
- HealthWise (2004) Mental Health Assessment. Archived 26 June 2006 at the Wayback Machine Yahoo! Health
- Davies T (May 1997). "ABC of mental health. Mental health assessment". BMJ. 314 (7093): 1536–9. doi:10.1136/bmj.314.7093.1536. PMC 2126757. PMID 9183204.
- Kashner TM, Rush AJ, Surís A, Biggs MM, Gajewski VL, Hooker DJ, et al. (May 2003). "Impact of structured clinical interviews on physicians' practices in community mental health settings". Psychiatric Services. 54 (5): 712–8. doi:10.1176/appi.ps.54.5.712. PMID 12719503.
- Shear MK, Greeno C, Kang J, Ludewig D, Frank E, Swartz HA, Hanekamp M (April 2000). "Diagnosis of nonpsychotic patients in community clinics". The American Journal of Psychiatry. 157 (4): 581–7. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.157.4.581. PMID 10739417.
- "What is HoNOS?". Royal College of Psychiatrists.
- "Introduction to HoNOS". Royal College of Psychiatrists.
- Pirkis JE, Burgess PM, Kirk PK, Dodson S, Coombs TJ, Williamson MK (November 2005). "A review of the psychometric properties of the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS) family of measures". Health and Quality of Life Outcomes. 3 (1): 76. doi:10.1186/1477-7525-3-76. PMC 1315350. PMID 16313678.
- Audin K, Margison FR, Clark JM, Barkham M (June 2001). "Value of HoNOS in assessing patient change in NHS psychotherapy and psychological treatment services". The British Journal of Psychiatry. 178 (6): 561–6. doi:10.1192/bjp.178.6.561. PMID 11388975.
- Caplan PJ (28 April 2012). "Psychiatry's bible, the DSM, is doing more harm than good". Opinions. Washington Post.
- Frances A (August 2013). "The new crisis of confidence in psychiatric diagnosis". Ideas and Opinions. Annals of Internal Medicine. 159 (3): 221–2. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-159-3-201308060-00655. PMID 23685989.
Unfortunately, the extensive research has had no effect on psychiatric diagnosis, which still relies exclusively on fallible subjective judgments rather than objective biological tests. … In the past 20 years, the rate of attention-deficit disorder tripled, the rate of bipolar disorder doubled, and the rate of autism increased more than 20-fold (4). The lesson should be clear that every change in the diagnostic system can lead to unpredictable overdiagnosis.
- Kirk SA, Gomory T, Cohen D (2013). Mad Science: Psychiatric Coercion, Diagnosis, and Drugs. Transaction Publishers. p. 185.
- Moynihan R, Heath I, Henry D (April 2002). "Selling sickness: the pharmaceutical industry and disease mongering". Education And Debate; Commentary. BMJ. 324 (7342): 886–91. doi:10.1136/bmj.324.7342.886. PMC 1122833. PMID 11950740.
- World Health Organization, Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse; Prevention Research Centre of the Universities of Nijmegen and Maastricht (2004). Prevention of mental disorders: effective interventions and policy options: summary report (PDF). Geneva: World Health Organization. ISBN 978-92-4-159215-4.
- Campion J, Bhui K, Bhugra D (February 2012). "European Psychiatric Association (EPA) guidance on prevention of mental disorders". European Psychiatry. 27 (2): 68–80. doi:10.1016/j.eurpsy.2011.10.004. PMID 22285092. S2CID 15874608.
- "Mental health promotion and mental illness prevention: The economic case". London School of Economics and Political Science. 2 February 2011. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
- "NIMH » Research Priorities for Strategic Objective 3".
- Barth RP (2009). "Preventing child abuse and neglect with parent training: evidence and opportunities". The Future of Children. 19 (2): 95–118. doi:10.1353/foc.0.0031. JSTOR 27795049. PMID 19719024. S2CID 2548960.
- Stewart-Brown SL, Schrader-McMillan A (December 2011). "Parenting for mental health: what does the evidence say we need to do? Report of Workpackage 2 of the DataPrev project". Health Promotion International. 26 (Suppl 1): i10-28. doi:10.1093/heapro/dar056. PMID 22079931.
- Muñoz RF, Cuijpers P, Smit F, Barrera AZ, Leykin Y (2010). "Prevention of major depression". Annual Review of Clinical Psychology. 6: 181–212. doi:10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-033109-132040. PMID 20192789.
- Cuijpers P (August 2003). "Examining the effects of prevention programs on the incidence of new cases of mental disorders: the lack of statistical power". The American Journal of Psychiatry. 160 (8): 1385–91. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.160.8.1385. PMID 12900296.
- Kisely SR, Campbell LA, O'Reilly R (March 2017). "Compulsory community and involuntary outpatient treatment for people with severe mental disorders". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 3: CD004408. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004408.pub5. PMC 4393705. PMID 28303578.
- Marx W, Moseley G, Berk M, Jacka F (November 2017). "Nutritional psychiatry: the present state of the evidence". The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society (Review). 76 (4): 427–436. doi:10.1017/S0029665117002026. PMID 28942748.
- Goldstrom ID, Campbell J, Rogers JA, Lambert DB, Blacklow B, Henderson MJ, Manderscheid RW (January 2006). "National estimates for mental health mutual support groups, self-help organizations, and consumer-operated services" (PDF). Administration and Policy in Mental Health. 33 (1): 92–103. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.476.1948. doi:10.1007/s10488-005-0019-x. PMID 16240075. S2CID 27310867.
- The Joseph Rowntree Foundation (1998) The experiences of mental health service users as mental health professionals Archived 28 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine
- Chamberlin J (2011). "User/consumer involvement in mental health service delivery". Epidemiologia e Psichiatria Sociale. 14 (1): 10–4. doi:10.1017/S1121189X00001871. PMID 15792289. S2CID 22521457.
- McCann TV, Baird J, Clark E, Lu S (December 2006). "Beliefs about using consumer consultants in inpatient psychiatric units". International Journal of Mental Health Nursing. 15 (4): 258–65. doi:10.1111/j.1447-0349.2006.00432.x. PMID 17064322.
- "NIMH » Mental Health Medications". www.nimh.nih.gov. Retrieved 6 May 2019.
- Mind Disorders Encyclopedia Psychosurgery [Retrieved on 5 August 2008]
- Mashour GA, Walker EE, Martuza RL (June 2005). "Psychosurgery: past, present, and future". Brain Research. Brain Research Reviews. 48 (3): 409–19. doi:10.1016/j.brainresrev.2004.09.002. PMID 15914249. S2CID 10303872.
- Lakhan SE, Vieira KF (January 2008). "Nutritional therapies for mental disorders". Nutrition Journal. 7 (1): 2. doi:10.1186/1475-2891-7-2. PMC 2248201. PMID 18208598.
- Black N, Stockings E, Campbell G, Tran LT, Zagic D, Hall WD, et al. (December 2019). "Cannabinoids for the treatment of mental disorders and symptoms of mental disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis". The Lancet. Psychiatry. 6 (12): 995–1010. doi:10.1016/S2215-0366(19)30401-8. PMC 6949116. PMID 31672337.
- "Cross-national comparisons of the prevalences and correlates of mental disorders. WHO International Consortium in Psychiatric Epidemiology". Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 78 (4): 413–26. 2000. hdl:10665/57240. PMC 2560724. PMID 10885160.
- Kessler RC, Berglund P, Demler O, Jin R, Merikangas KR, Walters EE (June 2005). "Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication". Archives of General Psychiatry. 62 (6): 593–602. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.62.6.593. PMID 15939837.
- "The World Mental Health Survey Initiative". Harvard School of Medicine. 2005.
- Demyttenaere K, Bruffaerts R, Posada-Villa J, Gasquet I, Kovess V, Lepine JP, et al. (June 2004). "Prevalence, severity, and unmet need for treatment of mental disorders in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys". JAMA. 291 (21): 2581–90. doi:10.1001/jama.291.21.2581. PMID 15173149.
- Somers JM, Goldner EM, Waraich P, Hsu L (February 2006). "Prevalence and incidence studies of anxiety disorders: a systematic review of the literature". Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. 51 (2): 100–13. doi:10.1177/070674370605100206. PMID 16989109.
- Waraich P, Goldner EM, Somers JM, Hsu L (February 2004). "Prevalence and incidence studies of mood disorders: a systematic review of the literature". Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. 49 (2): 124–38. doi:10.1177/070674370404900208. PMID 15065747.
- Kessler RC, Chiu WT, Demler O, Merikangas KR, Walters EE (June 2005). "Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of 12-month DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication". Archives of General Psychiatry. 62 (6): 617–27. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.62.6.617. PMC 2847357. PMID 15939839.
- "The Numbers Count: Mental Disorders in America". National Institute of Mental Health. 24 May 2013. Archived from the original on 24 May 2013. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
- Alonso J, Angermeyer MC, Bernert S, Bruffaerts R, Brugha TS, Bryson H, et al. (2004). "Prevalence of mental disorders in Europe: results from the European Study of the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders (ESEMeD) project". Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. Supplementum. 109 (420): 21–7. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0047.2004.00327.x. PMID 15128384. S2CID 24499847.
- Wittchen HU, Jacobi F (August 2005). "Size and burden of mental disorders in Europe—a critical review and appraisal of 27 studies" (PDF). European Neuropsychopharmacology. 15 (4): 357–76. doi:10.1016/j.euroneuro.2005.04.012. PMID 15961293. S2CID 26089761.
- Saha S, Chant D, Welham J, McGrath J (May 2005). "A systematic review of the prevalence of schizophrenia". PLOS Medicine. 2 (5): e141. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0020141. PMC 1140952. PMID 15916472.
- Torgersen S, Kringlen E, Cramer V (June 2001). "The prevalence of personality disorders in a community sample". Archives of General Psychiatry. 58 (6): 590–6. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.58.6.590. PMID 11386989.
- Grant BF, Hasin DS, Stinson FS, Dawson DA, Chou SP, Ruan WJ, Pickering RP (July 2004). "Prevalence, correlates, and disability of personality disorders in the United States: results from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions". The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 65 (7): 948–58. doi:10.4088/JCP.v65n0711. PMID 15291684. S2CID 29235629.
- Carter AS, Briggs-Gowan MJ, Davis NO (January 2004). "Assessment of young children's social-emotional development and psychopathology: recent advances and recommendations for practice". Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines. 45 (1): 109–34. doi:10.1046/j.0021-9630.2003.00316.x. PMID 14959805.
- "Gender disparities and mental health: The Facts". World Health Organization. Retrieved 12 January 2012.
- Nemet-Nejat KR (1998). Daily Life in Ancient Mesopotamia. Daily Life. Santa Barbara, California: Greenwood. pp. 80–81. ISBN 978-0-313-29497-6.
- Black J, Green A (1992). Gods, Demons and Symbols of Ancient Mesopotamia: An Illustrated Dictionary. The British Museum Press. p. 102. ISBN 978-0-7141-1705-8.
- Wenzel, Amy (2017). The SAGE encyclopedia of abnormal and clinical psychology. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4833-6583-1. OCLC 982958263.
- Schoeneman TJ (October 1977). "The role of mental illness in the European witch hunts of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries: an assessment". Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences. 13 (4): 337–51. doi:10.1002/1520-6696(197710)13:4<337::aid-jhbs2300130406>3.0.co;2-g. PMID 336681.
- Bangen, Hans: Geschichte der medikamentösen Therapie der Schizophrenie. Berlin 1992, ISBN 3-927408-82-4
- Kirk SA, Kutchins H (1994). "The Myth of the Reliability of DSM". Journal of Mind and Behavior. 15 (1&2). Archived from the original on 7 March 2008.
- Heinimaa M (2002). "Incomprehensibility: the role of the concept in DSM-IV definition of schizophrenic delusions". Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy. 5 (3): 291–5. doi:10.1023/A:1021164602485. PMID 12517037. S2CID 28266198.
- Pierre JM (May 2001). "Faith or delusion? At the crossroads of religion and psychosis". Journal of Psychiatric Practice. 7 (3): 163–72. doi:10.1097/00131746-200105000-00004. PMID 15990520. S2CID 22897500.
- Johnson CV, Friedman HL (2008). "Enlightened or Delusional?: Differentiating Religious, Spiritual, and Transpersonal Experiences from Psychopathology". Journal of Humanistic Psychology. 48 (4): 505–27. doi:10.1177/0022167808314174. S2CID 145541617.
- Clarke I (2010). Psychosis and Spirituality: Consolidating the New Paradigm. John Wiley & Sons. p. 240. ISBN 978-0-470-97029-4.
- Siddle R, Haddock G, Tarrier N, Faragher EB (March 2002). "Religious delusions in patients admitted to hospital with schizophrenia". Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. 37 (3): 130–8. doi:10.1007/s001270200005. PMID 11990010. S2CID 8949296.
- Mohr S, Borras L, Betrisey C, Pierre-Yves B, Gilliéron C, Huguelet P (1 June 2010). "Delusions with religious content in patients with psychosis: how they interact with spiritual coping". Psychiatry. 73 (2): 158–72. doi:10.1521/psyc.2010.73.2.158. PMID 20557227. S2CID 207509518.
- Suhail K, Ghauri S (1 April 2010). "Phenomenology of delusions and hallucinations in schizophrenia by religious convictions". Mental Health, Religion & Culture. 13 (3): 245–59. doi:10.1080/13674670903313722. S2CID 145793759.
- Mohr S, Borras L, Rieben I, Betrisey C, Gillieron C, Brandt PY, et al. (November 2010). "Evolution of spirituality and religiousness in chronic schizophrenia or schizo-affective disorders: a 3-years follow-up study" (PDF). Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. 45 (11): 1095–103. doi:10.1007/s00127-009-0151-0. PMID 19821066. S2CID 13042932.
- Tom Burns (2006). Psychiatry:A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-157939-4.
- Everett B (1994). "Something is happening: the contemporary consumer and psychiatric survivor movement in historical context". Journal of Mind and Behavior. 15 (1–2): 55–70.
- Rissmiller DJ, Rissmiller JH (June 2006). "Evolution of the antipsychiatry movement into mental health consumerism". Psychiatric Services. 57 (6): 863–6. doi:10.1176/appi.ps.57.6.863. PMID 16754765. S2CID 19635873.
- Oaks D (August 2006). "The evolution of the consumer movement". Psychiatric Services. 57 (8): 1212, author reply 1216. doi:10.1176/appi.ps.57.8.1212. PMID 16870979.
- The Antipsychiatry Coalition. (26 November 2005). The Antipsychiatry Coalition. Retrieved 19 April 2007, from antipsychiatry.org
- O'Brien AP, Woods M, Palmer C (March 2001). "The emancipation of nursing practice: applying anti-psychiatry to the therapeutic community". The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Mental Health Nursing. 10 (1): 3–9. doi:10.1046/j.1440-0979.2001.00183.x. PMID 11421968.
- Weitz D (2003). "Call me antipsychiatry activist--not "consumer"". Ethical Human Sciences and Services. 5 (1): 71–2. PMID 15279009. Republished from Weitz D (Spring 2002). "Call me antipsychiatry activist—not "consumer"". Ethical Human Sciences and Services. 5 (1): 71–2. PMID 15279009. Archived from the original on 3 January 2014.
- Patel V, Prince M (May 2010). "Global mental health: a new global health field comes of age". JAMA. 303 (19): 1976–7. doi:10.1001/jama.2010.616. PMC 3432444. PMID 20483977.
- Widiger TA, Sankis LM (2000). "Adult psychopathology: issues and controversies". Annual Review of Psychology. 51 (1): 377–404. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.51.1.377. PMID 10751976.
- Vedantam S (26 June 2005). "Psychiatry's Missing Diagnosis: Patients' Diversity Is Often Discounted". The Washington Post.
- Kleinman A (1997). "Triumph or pyrrhic victory? The inclusion of culture in DSM-IV". Harvard Review of Psychiatry. 4 (6): 343–4. doi:10.3109/10673229709030563. PMID 9385013. S2CID 43256486.
- Bhugra D, Munro A (1997). Troublesome Disguises: Underdiagnosed Psychiatric Syndromes. Blackwell Science.
- Clark LA (2006). "The Role of Moral Judgment in Personality Disorder Diagnosis". Journal of Personality Disorders. 20 (2): 184–85. doi:10.1521/pedi.2006.20.2.184.
- Karasz A (April 2005). "Cultural differences in conceptual models of depression". Social Science & Medicine. 60 (7): 1625–35. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2004.08.011. PMID 15652693.
- Tilbury F, Rapley M (2004). "'There are orphans in Africa still looking for my hands': African women refugees and the sources of emotional distress". Health Sociology Review. 13: 54–64. doi:10.5172/hesr.13.1.54. S2CID 145545714.
- Bracken P, Thomas P (March 2001). "Postpsychiatry: a new direction for mental health". BMJ. 322 (7288): 724–7. doi:10.1136/bmj.322.7288.724. PMC 1119907. PMID 11264215.
- Lewis B (2000). "Psychiatry and Postmodern Theory". Journal of Medical Humanities. 21 (2): 71–84. doi:10.1023/A:1009018429802. S2CID 53444644.
- Kwate NO (2005). "The heresy of African-centered psychology". The Journal of Medical Humanities. 26 (4): 215–35. doi:10.1007/s10912-005-7698-x. PMID 16333686. S2CID 20638428.
- Patel K, Heginbotham C (2007). "Institutional racism in mental health services does not imply racism in individual psychiatrists: Commentary on... Institutional racism in psychiatry". Psychiatric Bulletin. 31 (10): 367–68. doi:10.1192/pb.bp.107.017137.
- WHO Resource Book on Mental Health: Human rights and legislation (PDF). World Health Organization. 2005. ISBN 978-92-4-156282-9. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 October 2013.
- Sklar R (June 2007). "Starson v. Swayze: the Supreme Court speaks out (not all that clearly) on the question of "capacity"". Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. 52 (6): 390–6. doi:10.1177/070674370705200609. PMID 17696026.
- Manitoba Family Services and Housing. The Vulnerable Persons Living with a Mental Disability Act, 1996
- ENABLE website UN section on disability
- Office of the Surgeon General; Center for Mental Health Services; National Institute of Mental Health (1999). "A Vision for the Future" (PDF). Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General. National Institute of Mental Health. pp. 451–58. ISBN 978-0-16-050300-9.
- Lynsen A (24 September 2014). "Racial and Ethnic Minority Populations". www.samhsa.gov. Retrieved 18 December 2018.
- Gary FA (December 2005). "Stigma: barrier to mental health care among ethnic minorities". Issues in Mental Health Nursing. 26 (10): 979–99. doi:10.1080/01612840500280638. PMID 16283995. S2CID 26075592.
- MedPartner Taiwan (22 May 2019). "別再說「想太多」！一張表看懂憂鬱症身心症狀". 健康遠見 (in Chinese). Taiwan. Retrieved 9 July 2019.
- Stuart H (September 2006). "Mental illness and employment discrimination". Current Opinion in Psychiatry. 19 (5): 522–6. doi:10.1097/01.yco.0000238482.27270.5d. PMID 16874128. S2CID 45821626.
- Lucas C. "Stigma hurts job prospects". Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 20 January 2013. Retrieved 13 October 2012.
- Richard Spencer (21 August 2003). "China relaxes laws on love and marriage". The Telegraph. Retrieved 24 October 2013.
- "Stop Stigma". Bipolarworld-net.canadawebhosting.com. 29 April 2002. Archived from the original on 17 January 2013. Retrieved 23 April 2013.
- Read J, Haslam N, Sayce L, Davies E (November 2006). "Prejudice and schizophrenia: a review of the 'mental illness is an illness like any other' approach". Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. 114 (5): 303–18. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0447.2006.00824.x. PMID 17022790. S2CID 27738025.
- Coverdale J, Nairn R, Claasen D (October 2002). "Depictions of mental illness in print media: a prospective national sample". The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. 36 (5): 697–700. doi:10.1046/j.1440-1614.2002.00998.x. PMID 12225457. S2CID 19862722.
- Edney, RD. (2004) Mass Media and Mental Illness: A Literature Review Archived 12 September 2005 at the Wayback Machine Canadian Mental Health Association
- Diefenbach DL (1997). "The portrayal of mental illness on prime-time television". Journal of Community Psychology. 25 (3): 289–302. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1520-6629(199705)25:3<289::AID-JCOP5>3.0.CO;2-R.
- Sieff E (2003). "Media frames of mental illnesses: The potential impact of negative frames". Journal of Mental Health. 12 (3): 259–69. doi:10.1080/0963823031000118249. S2CID 145291023.
- Wahl OF (2003). "News Media Portrayal of Mental Illness: Implications for Public Policy". American Behavioral Scientist. 46 (12): 1594–600. doi:10.1177/0002764203254615. S2CID 145696394.
- "The Carter Center Awards 2008–2009 Rosalynn Carter Fellowships for Mental Health Journalism" (Press release). The Carter Center. 18 July 2008. Retrieved 28 May 2013.
- "The Rosalynn Carter Fellowships For Mental Health Journalism". The Carter Center. 2013. Retrieved 28 May 2013.
- "Rosalynn Carter's Leadership in Mental Health". The Carter Center. 19 July 2016. Archived from the original on 8 July 2017.
- Link BG, Phelan JC, Bresnahan M, Stueve A, Pescosolido BA (September 1999). "Public conceptions of mental illness: labels, causes, dangerousness, and social distance". American Journal of Public Health. 89 (9): 1328–33. doi:10.2105/AJPH.89.9.1328. PMC 1508784. PMID 10474548.
- Pescosolido BA, Monahan J, Link BG, Stueve A, Kikuzawa S (September 1999). "The public's view of the competence, dangerousness, and need for legal coercion of persons with mental health problems". American Journal of Public Health. 89 (9): 1339–45. doi:10.2105/AJPH.89.9.1339. PMC 1508769. PMID 10474550.
- Elbogen EB, Johnson SC (February 2009). "The intricate link between violence and mental disorder: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions". Archives of General Psychiatry. 66 (2): 152–61. doi:10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2008.537. PMID 19188537.
- Metzl JM, MacLeish KT (February 2015). "Mental illness, mass shootings, and the politics of American firearms". American Journal of Public Health. 105 (2): 240–9. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2014.302242. PMC 4318286. PMID 25496006.
- Peterson JK, Skeem J, Kennealy P, Bray B, Zvonkovic A (October 2014). "How often and how consistently do symptoms directly precede criminal behavior among offenders with mental illness?". Law and Human Behavior. 38 (5): 439–49. doi:10.1037/lhb0000075. PMID 24730388. S2CID 2228512.
- Swanson JW, McGinty EE, Fazel S, Mays VM (May 2015). "Mental illness and reduction of gun violence and suicide: bringing epidemiologic research to policy". Annals of Epidemiology. 25 (5): 366–76. doi:10.1016/j.annepidem.2014.03.004. PMC 4211925. PMID 24861430.
- Stuart H (June 2003). "Violence and mental illness: an overview". World Psychiatry. 2 (2): 121–4. PMC 1525086. PMID 16946914.
- Brekke JS, Prindle C, Bae SW, Long JD (October 2001). "Risks for individuals with schizophrenia who are living in the community". Psychiatric Services. 52 (10): 1358–66. doi:10.1176/appi.ps.52.10.1358. PMID 11585953.
- Teplin LA, McClelland GM, Abram KM, Weiner DA (August 2005). "Crime victimization in adults with severe mental illness: comparison with the National Crime Victimization Survey". Archives of General Psychiatry. 62 (8): 911–21. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.62.8.911. PMC 1389236. PMID 16061769.
- Petersilia JR (2001). "Crime Victims with Developmental Disabilities: A Review Essay". Criminal Justice and Behavior. 28 (6): 655–94. doi:10.1177/009385480102800601. S2CID 145599816.
- Steadman HJ, Mulvey EP, Monahan J, Robbins PC, Appelbaum PS, Grisso T, et al. (May 1998). "Violence by people discharged from acute psychiatric inpatient facilities and by others in the same neighborhoods". Archives of General Psychiatry. 55 (5): 393–401. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.55.5.393. PMID 9596041.
- Fazel S, Gulati G, Linsell L, Geddes JR, Grann M (August 2009). McGrath J (ed.). "Schizophrenia and violence: systematic review and meta-analysis". PLOS Medicine. 6 (8): e1000120. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1000120. PMC 2718581. PMID 19668362.
- Taylor PJ, Gunn J (January 1999). "Homicides by people with mental illness: myth and reality". The British Journal of Psychiatry. 174 (1): 9–14. doi:10.1192/bjp.174.1.9. PMID 10211145.
- Solomon PL, Cavanaugh MM, Gelles RJ (January 2005). "Family violence among adults with severe mental illness: a neglected area of research". Trauma, Violence & Abuse. 6 (1): 40–54. doi:10.1177/1524838004272464. PMID 15574672. S2CID 20067766.
- Chou KR, Lu RB, Chang M (December 2001). "Assaultive behavior by psychiatric in-patients and its related factors". The Journal of Nursing Research. 9 (5): 139–51. doi:10.1097/01.JNR.0000347572.60800.00. PMID 11779087.
- Lögdberg B, Nilsson LL, Levander MT, Levander S (August 2004). "Schizophrenia, neighbourhood, and crime". Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. 110 (2): 92–7. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0047.2004.00322.x. PMID 15233709. S2CID 12605241.
- Westerhof, Gerben J.; Keyes, Corey L. M. (June 2010). "Mental Illness and Mental Health: The Two Continua Model Across the Lifespan". Journal of Adult Development. 17 (2): 110–119. doi:10.1007/s10804-009-9082-y. ISSN 1068-0667. PMC 2866965. PMID 20502508.
- "What is Mental Health and Mental Illness? | Workplace Mental Health Promotion". Workplace Mental Health Promotion.
- Brüne M, Brüne-Cohrs U, McGrew WC, Preuschoft S (2006). "Psychopathology in great apes: concepts, treatment options and possible homologies to human psychiatric disorders". Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews. 30 (8): 1246–59. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2006.09.002. PMID 17141312. S2CID 10101196.
- Ferdowsian HR, Durham DL, Kimwele C, Kranendonk G, Otali E, Akugizibwe T, et al. (2011). Callaerts P (ed.). "Signs of mood and anxiety disorders in chimpanzees". PLOS ONE. 6 (6): e19855. Bibcode:2011PLoSO...619855F. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0019855. PMC 3116818. PMID 21698223.
- Fabrega H (2006). "Making sense of behavioral irregularities of great apes". Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews. 30 (8): 1260–73, discussion 1274–7. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2006.09.004. PMID 17079015. S2CID 20587935.
- Lilienfeld SO, Gershon J, Duke M, Marino L, de Waal FB (December 1999). "A preliminary investigation of the construct of psychopathic personality (psychopathy) in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)". Journal of Comparative Psychology. 113 (4): 365–75. doi:10.1037/0735-7036.113.4.365. PMID 10608560.
- Moran M (20 June 2003). "Animals Can Model Psychiatric Symptoms". Psychiatric News. 38 (12): 20–30. doi:10.1176/pn.38.12.0020.
- Sánchez MM, Ladd CO, Plotsky PM (2001). "Early adverse experience as a developmental risk factor for later psychopathology: evidence from rodent and primate models". Development and Psychopathology. 13 (3): 419–49. doi:10.1017/S0954579401003029. PMID 11523842. S2CID 25469071.
- Matthews K, Christmas D, Swan J, Sorrell E (2005). "Animal models of depression: navigating through the clinical fog". Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews. 29 (4–5): 503–13. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2005.03.005. PMID 15925695. S2CID 23468566.
- Atkinson J (2006). Private and Public Protection: Civil Mental Health Legislation. Edinburgh: Dunedin Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-903765-61-6.
- Hockenbury D, Hockenbury S (2004). Discovering Psychology. Worth Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7167-5704-7.
- Fried Y, Agassi J (1976). Paranoia: A Study in Diagnosis. Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science. 50. ISBN 978-90-277-0704-8.
- Fried Y, Agassi J (1983). Psychiatry as Medicine. The Hague: Nijhoff. ISBN 978-90-247-2837-4.
- National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (2016). Ending Discrimination Against People with Mental and Substance Use Disorders: The Evidence for Stigma Change. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. doi:10.17226/23442. ISBN 978-0-309-43912-1. PMID 27631043.
- Porter R (2002). Madness: a brief history. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-280266-8.
- Weller MP, Eysenck M (1992). The Scientific Basis of Psychiatry. London: W.B. Saunders.
- Wiencke M (2006). "Schizophrenie als Ergebnis von Wechselwirkungen: Georg Simmels Individualitätskonzept in der Klinischen Psychologie". In Kim D (ed.). Georg Simmel in Translation: Interdisciplinary Border-Crossings in Culture and Modernity. Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Press. pp. 123–55. ISBN 978-1-84718-060-5.
- Radden J (20 February 2019). "Mental Disorder (Illness)". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
- Management of physical health conditions in adults with severe mental disorders (PDF). WHO. 2018. ISBN 978-92-4-155038-3.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mental and behavioural diseases and disorders.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Travelling with a mental health condition.|
- NIMH.NIH.gov – National Institute of Mental Health
- International Committee of Women Leaders on Mental Health
- Adverse Childhood Experiences: Risk Factors for Substance Misuse and Mental Health U.S. Centers for Disease Control describes the relationship between childhood adversity and mental health (video)
|Library resources about |