Member of Parliament, Lok Sabha
A Member of Parliament in Lok Sabha (abbreviated: MP) is the representative of the Indian people in the Lok Sabha; the lower house of the Parliament of India. Members of parliament of Lok Sabha are chosen by direct elections on the basis of the adult suffrage. Parliament of India is bicameral with two houses; Rajya Sabha (upper house i.e. Council of States) and the Lok Sabha (lower house i.e. House of the People). The maximum permitted strength of members of parliament in the Lok Sabha is 550. This includes maximum 530 members to represent the constituencies and states and up to 20 members to represent the union territories (both chosen by direct elections). Between 1952 and 2020, two seats were reserved for members of the Anglo-Indian community. The current elected strength of the Lok Sabha is 543. The party—or coalition of parties—having a majority in the Lok Sabha chooses the Prime Minister of India.
|Member of Parliament|
|Member of||Lok Sabha|
|Seat||Parliament of India|
|Term length||5 years; renewable|
|Constituting instrument||Article 81 of Constitution of India|
|Formation||26 January 1950|
|First holder||17 April 1952|
Politics of India
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The first instance of member of parliament equivalent in India dates back to 9 December 1946, the day Constituent Assembly of India was formed with the purpose of drafting a constitution for India. As opposed to be elected on the basis of adult suffrage, the Constituent Assembly of India consisted of indirectly elected representatives and were not categorised between Rajya Sabha and Lok Sabha. Muslims and Sikhs were given special representation as minorities. The Constituent Assembly of India took 2 years, 11 months and 18 days to draft the constitution for independent India and was dissolved in 1949.
On 26 January 1950, the Indian constitution came into force and the first general elections (under the new constitution) were held in 1951-1952. The 1st Lok Sabha was constituted on 17 April 1952 and had 489 constituencies, thereby first set of elected members of parliament of Lok Sabha in India.
A person must satisfy all following conditions to be qualified to become a member of parliament of the Lok Sabha;
- Must be a citizen of India.
- Must not be less than 25 years of age.
- Must be a voter for any parliamentary constituency in India.
- Candidate of a recognised political party needs one proposer from his constituency for his nomination.
- An independent candidate needs ten proposers.
- Candidates are required to make a security deposit of ₹25,000 (US$350).
A person would be ineligible for being a Member of the Lok Sabha if the person;
- Holds any office of profit under the Government of India (other than an office permitted by Parliament of India by law).
- Is of unsound mind.
- Is an insolvent.
- Has ceased to be a citizen of India.
- Is so disqualified by any law made by the Indian parliament.
- Is so disqualified on the ground of defection.
- Has been convicted, among other things, for promoting enmity between different groups.
- Has been convicted for offence of bribery.
- Has been punished for preaching and practising social crimes such as untouchability, dowry, or sati.
- Has been convicted for an offence and sentenced to imprisonment of more than two years.
- Has been dismissed for corruption or for disloyalty to the state (in case of a government servant).
The term of a member of parliament of Lok Sabha (dissolved) is five years from the date appointment for its first meeting. During a state of emergency, the term however can be extended by the Parliament of India by law for a period not exceeding one year at a time. After the state of emergency ends, the extension cannot exceed beyond a period of six months.
Responsibilities of members of parliament
Broad responsibilities of the members of parliament of Lok Sabha are;
- Legislative responsibility: To pass Laws of India in the Lok Sabha.
- Oversight responsibility: To ensure that the executive (i.e. government) performs its duties satisfactorily.
- Representative responsibility: To represent the views and aspirations of the people of their constituency in the Parliament of India (Lok Sabha).
- Power of the purse responsibility: To approve and oversee the revenues and expenditures proposed by the government.
- The Union Council of Ministers, who are also members of parliament have an additional responsibility of the executive as compared to those who are not in the Council of Ministers.
Salary, allowances and entitlements
India paid ₹176 crore (equivalent to ₹214 crore or US$30 million in 2019) to its 543 Lok Sabha members in salaries and expenses over 2015, or just over ₹2.7 lakh (equivalent to ₹3.3 lakh or US$4,600 in 2019) per month per member of parliament in including pensions to dependents of ex MPs . The Salary, allowances and pension of Member of the Lok Sabha is governed by the Members of Parliament Act, 1954. The act is in pursuance to the constitutional provisions where article 106 of the Constitution of India provides that the members of either House of Parliament shall be entitled to receive such salaries and allowances as may from time to time be determined by Parliament by law.
The rules governing salaries, allowances and facilities such as medical, housing, telephone facilities, daily allowance etc... is looked after by a joint committee of both the houses (Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha). The committee is constituted from time to time after consultation with the Government of India.
Article 81 of the Constitution of India 1949 has specified maximum strength of members of parliament in the Lok Sabha to be 552. The number of members of parliament is distributed among the States in such a way that the ratio between the number of seats allotted to each State and the population of the State is, so far as practicable, the same for all States. Out of the maximum permitted strength,
- Not more than 530 members to be chosen by direct election from territorial constituencies in the Indian states.
- Not more than 20 members to represent the union territories, chosen in such manner as Parliament of India may by law provide.
- Total permitted maximum strength of 550 members.
"Strength of Member of Parliament in Lok Sabha as defined in Article 81 of the Constitution of India",
- (1) Subject to the provisions of article 331, the House of the People shall consist of
- (a) not more than 530 (five hundred and thirty members) chosen by direct election from territorial constituencies in the States, and
- (b) not more than 20 (twenty members) to represent the Union territories, chosen in such manner as Parliament may by law provide.
- (2) For the purposes of sub-clause (a) of clause (1),
- (a) there shall be allotted to each State a number of seats in the House of the People in such manner that the ratio between that number and the population of the State is, so far as practicable, the same for all States; and
- (b) each State shall be divided into territorial constituencies in such manner that the ratio between the population of each constituency and the number of seats allotted to it is, so far as practicable, the same throughout the State:
- (Provided that the provisions of sub-clause (a) of this clause shall not be applicable for the purpose of allotment of seats in the House of the People to any State so long as the population of that State does not exceed six millions.)
- (3) In this article, the expression “population” means the population as ascertained at the last preceding census of which the relevant figures have been published:
- (Provided that the reference in this clause to the last preceding census of which the relevant figures have been published shall, until the relevant figures for the first census taken after the year 2016 have been published).
- (i) for the purposes of sub-clause (a) of clause (2) and the proviso to that clause, as a reference to the 1971 census; and
- (ii) for the purposes of sub-clause (b) of clause (2) as a reference to the 2001 census.— Ministry of Law and Justice, Constitution of India (Part V—The Union.—Article 81.)
Members of the Lok Sabha
Members of the lower house of the Indian Parliament (Lok Sabha) were elected in the Indian general election, 2019 held in April–May 2019. The total strength of the 17th Lok Sabha is 544, against the then-approved strength of 552.
Number of constituencies: 1951-2019
The following is a list of the number of constituencies in the Lok Sabha in each election year, beginning in 1951. The numbers do not include two seats from the Anglo-Indian community, to which individuals were nominated by the President of India.
|1||1st Lok Sabha||Apr 1951||488|
|2||2nd Lok Sabha||Apr 1957||494|
|3||3rd Lok Sabha||Apr 1962||494|
|4||4th Lok Sabha||Mar 1967||520|
|5||5th Lok Sabha||Mar 1971||518|
|6||6th Lok Sabha||Mar 1977||542|
|7||7th Lok Sabha||Jan 1980||542|
|8||8th Lok Sabha||Dec 1984||541|
|9||9th Lok Sabha||Dec 1989||529|
|10||10th Lok Sabha||Jun 1991||534|
|11||11th Lok Sabha||May 1996||543|
|12||12th Lok Sabha||Mar 1998||543|
|13||13th Lok Sabha||Oct 1999||543|
|14||14th Lok Sabha||May 2004||543|
|15||15th Lok Sabha||May 2009||543|
|16||16th Lok Sabha||May 2014||543|
|17||17th Lok Sabha||May 2019||543|
In January 2020, the Anglo-Indian reserved seats in the Parliament and State Legislatures of India was discontinued by the 126th Constitutional Amendment Bill of 2019, when enacted as 104th Constitutional Amendment Act, 2019. As a result the maximum permitted strength of the Lok Sabha was reduced from 552 to 550.
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