There is a lack of consensus on how to define a mass shooting. Most definitions describe a minimum of three or four deaths due to gun violence (not including the shooter), although an Australian study from 2006 proscribed a minimum of five; and added a requirement that the victims actually died as opposed to being shot and injured but not necessarily killed.
The Investigative Assistance for Violent Crimes Act of 2012 defines mass killings as three or more killings in a single incident, however the Investigative Assistance for Violent Crimes Act of 2012 does not define mass shootings. Media outlets such as CNN and some crime violence research groups such as the Gun Violence Archive define mass shootings as involving "four or more shot (injured or killed) in a single incident, at the same general time and location, not including the shooter". Sometimes shootings involving three or more victims occur in non-public situations such as when one member of a family shoots all the other members in the family home. These killings are known as familicides and are not included in mass shooting statistics.
The motive for mass shootings (which occur in public situations) is a defining feature in that they are usually committed by deeply disgruntled individuals seeking revenge or payback for failures in school, career, romance and life in general. If multiple people are shot in a robbery or killed in a terrorist attack, these deaths are also not included under the definition of mass shootings.
- Under U.S. federal law, the Attorney General – on a request from a state – may assist in investigating “mass killings,” rather than mass shootings. The term is defined as the murder of four or more people with no cooling-off period but redefined by Congress in 2013 as being murder of three or more people.
- In “Behind the Bloodshed”, a report by USA Today, a mass killing is defined as: any incident in which four or more were killed, including familial killings.
- A crowdsourced data site cited by CNN, MSNBC, The New York Times, The Washington Post, The Economist, the BBC, etc., Mass Shooting Tracker, defines a mass shooting as any incident in which four or more people are shot, whether injured or killed.
- According to the Investigative Assistance for Violent Crimes Act of 2012, signed into law in January 2013, a mass killing is defined as a killing with at least three deaths, excluding the perpetrator.
- CBS defines that a mass shooting is an event involving the shooting (not necessarily resulting in death) of five or more people (sometimes four) with no cooling-off period.
- Crime violence research group Gun Violence Archive, whose research is used by all major American media outlets, defines mass shooting as “FOUR or more shot and killed in a single event [incident], at the same general time and location, not including the shooter,” differentiating between mass shooting and mass murder and not counting shooters as victims.
- Though there are several different definitions of a mass shooting, there are also certain inclusions and exclusions. University of Pennsylvania says no matter how many people are killed, if a shooting occurs by a foreign terrorist that is not included. Another exclusion is if 10 people are shot but only 2 die. Also if 5 people are run over by a car that does not count because no firearm was used. Some inclusions are multiple deaths caused by an armed robbery. Deaths as a result of gang wars are also sometimes included.
By continent and region
Mass shootings have occurred on the African continent, including the 1927 shooting in South Africa perpetrated by Stephanus Swart, the 2016 Grand Bassam attack in Côte d’Ivoire/Ivory Coast, and the 1994 Kampala wedding massacre in Kampala, Uganda. Whilst incidents of mass violence resulting from terrorism and ethnic conflict have occurred on the continent, “mass shootings” as generally understood are rare in Africa.
Various shootings include both the 1997 Luxor massacre and the 2013 Meet al-Attar shooting in Egypt.
On 2 April 2015, armed terrorists stormed a public university in the North Eastern part of the country and killed 148 people.
Several mass shootings have occurred in Asia, including the 1878 Hyderabad shooting and 1983 Pashupatinath Temple shooting in India, the 1938 Tsuyama massacre in Japan, the 1948 Babrra massacre in Pakistan, the 1993 Chongqing shooting and the 1994 Tian Mingjian incident in China, as well as the 2001 Nepalese royal massacre.
One of the earliest documented cases of a mass shooting in world history was the 1878 Hyderabad shooting, in which 6 were killed and a further 4 were injured by a sepoy in the British Indian Army in Hyderabad, Sindh, British Raj.
Republic of Korea
Mass shootings are extremely rare in Korea. The only mass shooting in South Korea was committed by Woo Bum-kon, leaving 56 dead. For many years, it was the deadliest mass shooting in modern history, until the 2011 Norway attacks surpassed it.
Japan has as few as two gun-related homicides per year. These numbers include all homicides in the country, not just mass shootings. The only mass shooting in Japanese history was the Tsuyama massacre.
There have been many mass shootings in Israel, including the 1972 Lod Airport Massacre, which killed 26 and injured 80, the 2002 Bat Mitzvah massacre in Hadera, the 2014 Jerusalem synagogue attack in Jerusalem and the June 2016 Tel Aviv shooting at the popular Sarona centre complex in Tel Aviv.
There have been two mass shootings by Jews in Israel. Ami Popper was convicted of murdering seven Palestinian men in a mass shooting carried out in 1990. In 1994 Baruch Goldstein murdered 29 Muslims worshipping and injuring a further 125 in Hebron. Also known as the Cave of the Patriarchs massacre.
There have been many mass shootings in Europe as well. Recent examples including the 1987 Hungerford massacre; the 1996 Dunblane massacre and the 2010 Cumbria shootings in the United Kingdom; the 1990 Puerto Hurraco massacre in Spain; the 2001 Zug massacre in Switzerland; the 2002 Erfurt school massacre, the 2009 Winnenden school shooting, the 2011 Frankfurt Airport shooting, the 2016 Munich shooting, and the 2020 Hanau shootings in Germany; the 2007 Jokela school shooting and the 2008 Kauhajoki school shooting in Finland; the 2010 Bratislava shooting in Slovakia; the 2011 Alphen aan den Rijn shopping mall shooting in The Netherlands; the 2012 Toulouse and Montauban shootings, the January 2015 Île-de-France attacks and the November 2015 Paris attacks in France; and the 2018 Macerata shooting in Italy. The deadliest mass shooting by a lone individual in modern history occurred in Europe with the 2011 Norway attacks in Norway, in which 77 people died. Of them 67 died of gunshot wounds. 8 other victims were killed by a bomb and 2 indirectly.
Notable mass shootings that occurred in the Russian Empire, Soviet Union (Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic) and Russia include the Pogroms in the Russian Empire, 1992 Tatarstan shooting, the 2002 Yaroslavsky shooting, the 2002 Moscow theater hostage crisis, the 2012 Moscow shooting and the 2014 Moscow school shooting, the 2004 Beslan school siege , the 2013 Belgorod shooting, and the 2021 Kazan school shooting.
Notable mass shootings in Canada include the 1989 École Polytechnique massacre (which led to stronger gun control in Canada), the 1992 Concordia University massacre, the 2006 Dawson College shooting in Montreal, the 2012 Danzig Street shooting, the 2014 Edmonton killings in Edmonton, the 2017 Quebec City mosque shooting in Quebec City, the 2018 Toronto shooting, and the 2020 Nova Scotia attacks. Following the attacks in Nova Scotia, which was the deadliest rampage in Canada, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau banned the use, sale, purchase, and import of AR-15s – the military-style semiautomatic rifle used in the shooting and many other shootings in the US.
The United States has had the most mass shootings of any country. In one 2017 study published in Time magazine by criminologist Adam Lankford, it was estimated that 31% of public mass shootings occur in the US, although it has only 5% of the world's population. The study concludes that “The United States and other nations with high firearm ownership rates may be particularly susceptible to future public mass shootings, even if they are relatively peaceful or mentally healthy according to other national indicators.”
Criminologist Gary Kleck criticized Lankford's findings, stating the study merely shows a proportional relationship, but fails to prove that gun ownership causes mass shootings. Kleck claims that Lankford has been unwilling to share a list of his cases, provide a list of the number of attacks per country, or even list his sources so that others can check his numbers. Backlash from economist and gun rights advocate John Lott also raised objections to Lankford's methodology and refusal to share his data. He speculated that Lankford had overlooked a significant number of mass shootings outside the US, which if accounted for would adjust the nation's share closer to 2.88%; slightly below the world average. Adam Lankford has since followed up on his research, clarifying that although the United States is not significantly more likely than most other countries to have mass shootings that are committed by more than one person, such as the university massacre in Kenya, the United States from 1998-2012 did in fact have more than six times its global share of public mass shooters who attacked alone. Using the data from Lott and Moody's 2019 study of mass shootings, Lankford explains that "41 of all 138 public mass shootings by single perpetrators worldwide were committed in the United States. That represents 29.7%. Because America had in those years approximately 4.5% of the world's population (according to Lott and Moody's calculations), this indicates that based on their own data, the United States had more than six times its global share of public mass shooters who attacked alone (29.7/4.5 = 6.6).
Notable mass shootings in Argentina include the 2004 Carmen de Patagones school shooting in Carmen de Patagones.
Notable mass shootings in Australia include the 1987 Hoddle Street massacre in Hoddle Street, Clifton Hill, Melbourne; and the 1996 Port Arthur massacre in Port Arthur, Tasmania. There were 13 mass shootings with five or more deaths between 1979 and 1996, and three mass shootings involving four or more deaths have occurred since the introduction of new gun laws following the Port Arthur incident.
Notable mass shootings in New Zealand include the 1990 Aramoana massacre in which 14 people were killed (including the perpetrator) in Aramoana and the 2019 Christchurch mosque shootings in Christchurch, which resulted in 51 deaths and is the largest mass shooting in New Zealand history.
Victims and survivors
After mass shootings, some survivors have written about their experiences and their experiences have been covered by journalists. A survivor of the Knoxville Unitarian Universalist church shooting wrote about his reaction to other mass shooting incidents. The father of a victim in a mass shooting at a movie theater in Aurora, Colorado, wrote about witnessing other mass shootings after the loss of his son. The survivors of the 2011 Norway attacks recounted their experience to GQ magazine. In addition, one paper studied Swedish police officers’ reactions to a mass shooting.
Survivors of mass shootings can suffer from Post-traumatic stress disorder.
Sex and ethnicity
The overwhelming majority of mass shooters in the U.S. are male, with some sources showing males account for 98% of mass shooters. According to Sky News, male perpetrators committed 110 out of 114 school shootings (96%) in the period 1982-2019, compared to homicides in general in the United States, where 85.3% of homicides were committed by males.
A study by Statista showed that 65 out of 116 (56%) U.S. mass shootings in a period from 1982 to 2019 involved "white" shooters, roughly in line with the roughly 60% of the U.S. population regarded as white in 2018. According to a database compiled by Mother Jones magazine, the race of the shooters is approximately proportionate to the overall U.S. population, although Asians are overrepresented and Latinos underrepresented.
A fact-checking review by PolitiFact suggests that although white male perpetrators are greatly over-represented compared to white males in the general U.S. population, this is more likely to be because of their being men, as opposed to their being white.
Criminal records and mental health
Criminologist James Allen Fox said that most mass murderers do not have a criminal record, or involuntary incarceration at a mental health centre, although an article in The New York Times in December 2015 about 15 recent mass shootings found that six perpetrators had had run-ins with law enforcement, and six had mental health issues.
Mass shootings can be motivated by religious extremism (e.g., Islamic extremism), political ideologies (e.g., neo-Nazism, terrorism), racism, sexual orientation, misogyny, mental illness, and extensive bullying, among other reasons. Forensic psychologist Stephen Ross cites extreme anger and the notion of working for a cause—rather than mental illness—as primary explanations. A study by Vanderbilt University researchers found that “fewer than 5% of the 120,000 gun-related killings in the United States between 2001 and 2010 were perpetrated by people diagnosed with mental illness.” John Roman of the Urban Institute argues that, while better access to mental health care, restricting high powered weapons, and creating a defensive infrastructure to combat terrorism are constructive, they do not address the greater issue, which is “we have a lot of really angry young men in our country and in the world.”
Author Dave Cullen, in his 2009 book Columbine on the infamous 1999 Columbine High School massacre and its perpetrators Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold, described Harris as an “injustice collector.” He expanded on the concept in a 2015 New Republic essay on injustice collectors, identifying several notorious killers as fitting the category, including Christopher Dorner, Elliot Rodger, Vester Flanagan, and Andrew Kehoe. Likewise, mass shooting expert and former FBI profiler Mary O’Toole also uses the phrase “injustice collector” in characterizing motives of some mass shooting perpetrators. In relation, criminologist James Alan Fox contends that mass murderers are “enabled by social isolation” and typically experience “years of disappointment and failure that produce a mix of profound hopelessness and deep-seated resentment.” Jillian Peterson, an assistant professor of criminology at Hamline University who is participating in the construction of a database on mass shooters, noted that two phenomena surface repeatedly in the statistics: hopelessness and a need for notoriety in life or in death. Notoriety was first suggested as a possible motive and researched by Justin Nutt. Nutt stated in a 2013 article, “those who feel nameless and as though no one will care or remember them when they are gone may feel doing something such as a school shooting will make sure they are remembered and listed in the history books.”
In a 2019 op-ed for the Los Angeles Times, Jillian Peterson and James Densley of The Violence Project think tank presented a new, hopeful, framework to understand mass shootings. Based on a study funded by the National Institute of Justice, Peterson and Densley found mass shooters had four things in common: (1) early childhood trauma and exposure to violence at a young age; (2) an identifiable grievance or crisis point; (3) validation for their belief system, have studied past shootings to find inspiration; and (4) the means to carry out an attack. This new framework highlights the complexity of the pathway to a mass shooting, including how each one can be “socially contagious,” but also provides a blueprint to prevent the next mass shooting. Each one of the four themes represents an opportunity for intervention. By reducing access to firearms (means), slowing contagion (validation), training in crisis intervention de-escalation (crisis), and increasing access to affordable mental healthcare (trauma), a mass shooting can be averted.
In considering the frequency of mass shootings in the United States, criminologist Peter Squires says that the individualistic culture in the United States puts the country at greater risk for mass shootings than other countries, noting that “many other countries where gun ownership is high, such as Norway, Finland, Switzerland and Israel . . . tend to have more tight-knit societies where a strong social bond supports people through crises, and mass killings are fewer.” He is an advocate of gun control, but contends there is more to mass shootings than the prevalence of guns. The Italian Marxist academic Franco Berardi argues that the hyper-individualism, social alienation and competitiveness fomented by neoliberal ideology and capitalism creates mass shooters by causing people to “malfunction.”
Social science and family structure
A noteworthy connection has been reported in the U.S. between mass shootings and domestic or family violence, with a current or former intimate partner or family member killed in 76 of 133 cases (57%), and a perpetrator having previously been charged with domestic violence in 21.
Moynihan said that “almost all school shooters come from families where the parents are either divorced or alienated,” and Cook argued that “perhaps they wouldn’t need more gun control if they had better divorce control.”
Some people have considered whether media attention revolving around the perpetrators of mass shootings is a factor in sparking further incidents. In response to this, some in law enforcement have decided against naming mass shooting suspects in media-related events to avoid giving them notoriety.
The effects of messages used in the coverage of mass shootings has been studied. Researchers studied the role the coverage plays in shaping attitudes toward persons with serious mental illness and public support for gun control policies.
In 2015 a paper written by a physicist and statistician, Sherry Towers, along with four colleagues was published, which proved that there is indeed mass shooting contagion using mathematical modeling. However, in 2017 Towers said in an interview that she prefers self-regulation to censorship to address this issue, just like years ago major news outlets successfully prevent copycat suicide.
In 2016 the American Psychological Association published a press release, claiming that mass shooting contagion does exist and news media and social media enthusiasts should withhold the name(s) and face(s) of the victimizer(s) when reporting a mass shooting to deny the fame the shooter(s) want to curb contagion.
Some news media have weighed in on the gun control debate. After the 2015 San Bernardino attack, the New York Daily News’ front-page headline, “God isn’t fixing this,” was accompanied by “images of tweets from leading Republicans who shared their ‘thoughts’ and ‘prayers’ for the shooting victims.” Since the 2014 Isla Vista killings, satirical news website The Onion has repeatedly republished the story “‘No Way To Prevent This’, Says Only Nation Where This Regularly Happens” with minor edits after major mass shootings, to satirise the popular consensus that there is a lack of political power in the United States to prevent mass shootings.
Gun law reform
Responses to mass shootings take a variety of forms, depending on the country and political climate.
In the aftermath of the Christchurch mosque shootings in New Zealand, the country announced a ban on almost all semiautomatic military-style weapons.
As a result of the mass shootings Hungerford massacre in Hungerford, England and Dunblane school massacre in Stirling, Scotland, the United Kingdom enacted tough gun laws and a buyback program to remove specific classes of firearms (The Firearms Amendment Act 1988 limiting rifles and shotguns, and the 1997 Firearms Amendment Acts which restricted or made illegal many handguns) from private ownership. There has been one mass shooting since the laws were restricted, the Cumbria shootings in 2010 which killed 13 people.
In the United States, support for gun law reform varies considerably by political party, with Democrats generally more supportive and Republicans generally more opposed. Some in the U.S. believe that tightening gun laws would prevent future mass shootings. Some politicians in the U.S. introduced legislation to reform the background check system for purchasing a gun. A vast majority of Americans support tighter background checks. “According to a poll by Quinnipiac University in Connecticut, 93 percent of registered voters said they would support universal background checks for all gun buyers.”
Others contend that mass shootings should not be the main focus in the gun law reform debate because these shootings account for less than one percent of the U.S. homicide rate and believe that these shootings are hard to stop. They often argue that civilians with concealed guns will be able to stop shootings.
According to British criminologist Peter Squires who has studied gun violence in different countries, mass shootings may be more due to the “individualistic culture” in the U.S. than its firearm laws.
Gun control policies may cause a lot of controversy due to divided opinions on who should be able to carry a weapon. An opinion survey was conducted by the firm GfK Knowledge Networks to differentiate between the different attitudes towards gun control. There was a gun policy survey and a mental illness survey. Studies showed that over 85% of those questioned supported national background checks into the mental health records of citizens attempting to purchase a gun. More than 50% of people felt that those with mental health issues were more deviant and threatening than those who had good mental health. The study also found that there is large interest in contributing to mental health awareness as well as simply prohibiting those with mental illness from purchasing guns. Nearly two thirds of respondents supported greater government spending on mental health, with more than 60% of people believing this would reduce gun violence in the USA. (Colleen L. Barry, 2013)
As of June 2016, U.S. President Barack Obama had spoken in the aftermath of fourteen mass shootings during his eight-year presidency, repeatedly calling for more gun safety laws in the United States. After the Charleston church shooting, U.S. President Barack Obama said, “At some point, we as a country will have to reckon with the fact that this type of mass violence does not happen in other advanced countries. It doesn’t happen in other places with this kind of frequency.” After the December 2015 San Bernardino attack, Obama renewed his call for reforming gun-safety laws and also said that the frequency of mass shootings in the United States has “no parallel in the world.” After the February 2018 attack at Florida's Parkland school shooting at Stoneman Douglas High School, the school's student survivors, teachers, and parents became strong leaders in the effort to ban assault weapon sales and easy accessibility to weapons.
- Chapman, S. (December 2006). "Australia's 1996 gun law reforms: faster falls in firearm deaths, firearm suicides, and a decade without mass shootings". Injury Prevention. 12 (6): 365–72. doi:10.1136/ip.2006.013714. PMC 2704353. PMID 17170183.
- "Text - H.R.2076 - 112th Congress (2011-2012): Investigative Assistance for Violent Crimes Act of 2012". www.congress.gov. 2013-01-14.
- "General Methodology | Gun Violence Archive". www.gunviolencearchive.org. Retrieved 2020-01-07.
- Fox & DeLateur. Mass shootings in America: moving beyond Newtown. Homicide Studies, Vol 8(1), pp 125-145.
- Bjelopera, Jerome P. (March 18, 2013). "Public Mass Shootings in the United States: Selected Implications for Federal Public Health and Safety Policy" (PDF). CRS Report for Congress. Congressional Research Service. Retrieved December 8, 2015. "There is no broadly agreed-to, specific conceptualization of this issue, so this report uses its own definition for public mass shootings."
- Weiss, Jeffrey (December 6, 2015). "Mass shootings in the U.S. this year? 353 — or 4, depending on your definition". The Dallas Morning News. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
- Follman, Mark (December 3, 2015). "How Many Mass Shootings Are There, Really?". The New York Times. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
Follman, Mark. "What Exactly Is A Mass Shooting". Mother Jones. Retrieved August 9, 2015.
What is a mass shooting? Broadly speaking, the term refers to an incident involving three or more deaths due to gun violence. But there is no official set of criteria or definition for a mass shooting, according to criminology experts and FBI officials contacted by Mother Jones.
- "PUBLIC LAW 112–265" (PDF). United States Congress. January 14, 2013. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
- "Behind the Bloodshed". USA Today. Retrieved December 3, 2015.
- "About the Mass Shooting Tracker". Mass Shooting Tracker. Archived from the original on 4 January 2018. Retrieved 13 June 2016.
- "Orlando club shootings: Full fury of gun battle emerges". - BBC News. 13 June 2016. Retrieved 13 June 2016. Cites Mass Shooting Tracker
- "H.R. 2076 (112th): Investigative Assistance for Violent Crimes Act of 2012". govtrack.us. United States Congress. Retrieved 20 February 2018.
(I)the term mass killings means 3 or more killings in a single incident;
- Greenberg, Jon; Valverde, Miriam; Jacobson, Louis. "What we know about mass shootings". PolitiFact.
In January 2013, a mandate for federal investigation of mass shootings authorized by President Barack Obama lowered that baseline to three or more victims killed
- "Report: U.S. averages nearly one mass shooting per day so far in 2017". Retrieved 15 February 2018.
- team, Guardian US interactive; Morris, Sam; team, Guardian US interactive; Morris, Sam. "1,516 mass shootings in 1,735 days: America's gun crisis – in one chart". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 February 2018 – via www.theguardian.com.
- "General Methodology – Gun Violence Archive". www.gunviolencearchive.org.
- "What is a Mass Shooting? What Can Be Done? | Department of Criminology". crim.sas.upenn.edu. Retrieved 2020-06-03.
- Mark Follman (December 18, 2015). "No, There Has Not Been a Mass Shooting Every Day This Year". Mother Jones.
- Ana Swanson (3 December 2015). "When should a shooting really be called 'terrorism'?". The Washington Post. Retrieved 27 June 2016.
- Fisher, Max (July 23, 2012). "A Land Without Guns: How Japan Has Virtually Eliminated Shooting Deaths". The Atlantic. Retrieved December 16, 2015.
- Herring, Keely; Jacobson, Louis. "Is Barack Obama correct that mass killings don't happen in other countries?". www.politifact.com.
- "Canada just banned military-style assault weapons after its deadliest mass shooting". Vox. Retrieved 2 May 2020.
- "US Mass Shootings, 1982–2018: Data From Mother Jones' Investigation".
- Palazzolo, Joe; Flynn, Alexis (October 3, 2015). "U.S. Leads World in Mass Shootings". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved October 2, 2017.
- Christensen, Jen (October 5, 2017). "Why the US has the most mass shootings". CNN. Retrieved November 6, 2017.
- Healy, Melissa (August 24, 2015). "Why the U.S. is No. 1 – in mass shootings". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 2, 2017.
- Michaels, Samantha (August 23, 2015). "The United States Has Had More Mass Shootings Than Any Other Country". Mother Jones. Retrieved October 2, 2017.
- Fox, Kara (March 9, 2018). "How US gun culture compares with the world in five charts". CNN.
- Why the U.S. Has 31% of the World's Mass Shootings. TIME. Retrieved: October 2, 2017.
- Lankford, Adam (2016). "Public Mass Shooters and Firearms: A Cross-National Study of 171 Countries". Violence and Victims. 31 (2): 187–199. doi:10.1891/0886-6708.VV-D-15-00093. ISSN 0886-6708. PMID 26822013. S2CID 207266615. (subscription required)
- Lott, Maxim (28 July 2016). "Critics shoot holes in widely cited gun study".
- Dinan, Stephen (16 December 2018). "Shock study: U.S. had far fewer mass shootings than previously reported". washingtontimes.
- Lott, John (16 December 2018). "How a Botched Study Fooled the World About the U.S. Share of Mass Public Shootings: U.S. Rate is Lower than Global Average". Social Science Research Network. SSRN 3238736. Cite journal requires
- Adam, Lankford (March 2019). "Confirmation That the United States Has Six Times Its Global Share of Public Mass Shooters, Courtesy of Lott and Moody's Data".
- Moody, Lott (March 2019). "Is the United States an Outlier in Public Mass Shootings? A Comment on Adam Lankford" (PDF).
- Lankford, Adam (March 2019). "Confirmation That the United States Has Six Times Its Global Share of Public Mass Shooters, Courtesy of Lott and Moody's Data" (PDF).
- Stroebe, Wolfgang; Leander, N. Pontus; Kruglanski, Arie W. (2017-08-11). "The impact of the Orlando mass shooting on fear of victimization and gun-purchasing intentions: Not what one might expect". PLOS ONE. 12 (8): e0182408. Bibcode:2017PLoSO..1282408S. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0182408. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 5553639. PMID 28800365.
- "At least 4 killed and multiple crime scenes after shooting in Australia". cbsnews.com. Retrieved 5 June 2019.
- Nunn, Gary (5 June 2019). "Darwin shooting: Why mass shooting feels unfamiliar to Australia". BBC. Retrieved 1 January 2020.
- "NZ memories: Thirteen killed in Aramoana massacre". New Zealand Herald. 13 September 2012. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
- "Turkish man wounded in Christchurch mosque shootings has died, bringing toll to 51". Retrieved 2019-05-03.
- Regan, Helen. "Parts of New Zealand city of Christchurch in lockdown as police respond to reported mass shooting at mosque". CNN. Retrieved 2019-03-15.
- Follman, Mark (July 27, 2012). "'I Was a Survivor': Recalling a Mass Shooting 4 Years Ago Today". Mother Jones. Retrieved August 11, 2015.
- Teves, Tom (July 31, 2015). "'Something is very wrong in our society': Father of mass-shooting victim calls for an end to the carnage". Salon. Retrieved August 12, 2015.
- Flynn, Sean (July 30, 2012). "Is he coming? Is he? Oh God, I think he is". GQ. Retrieved August 12, 2015.
- Karlsson, Ingemar. "Memories of traumatic events among swedish police officers". Stockholm University. Retrieved August 11, 2015.
- Simmons, Laura (June 29, 2014). "Post Traumatic Stress Disorder in Mass Shooting Survivors". Liberty Voice. Retrieved August 11, 2015.
- "Impact of Mass Shootings on Individual Adjustment" (PDF). ptsd.va.gov. National Center for PTSD. Retrieved August 11, 2015.
- Frum, David (June 23, 2015). "Mass Shootings Are Preventable". The Atlantic. Retrieved August 11, 2015.
- Kluger, Jeffrey (May 25, 2014). "Why Mass Killers Are Always Male". Time. Retrieved August 11, 2015.
- Ford, Dana (July 24, 2015). "Who commits mass shootings?". CNN.
- "Why are white men carrying out more mass shootings?". Sky News. Retrieved 2020-01-06.
- Kellermann, A. L.; Mercy, J. A. (July 1992). "Men, women, and murder: gender-specific differences in rates of fatal violence and victimization". The Journal of Trauma. 33 (1): 1–5. ISSN 0022-5282. PMID 1635092.
- "U.S.: mass shootings by race 1982-2019". Statista. Retrieved 2020-01-06.
- "The US white majority will soon disappear forever". phys.org. Retrieved 2020-01-06.
- "Do white males account for a majority of mass shootings?". @politifact. Retrieved 2020-01-06.
- Peters, Justin (2013-12-19). "Mass shootings in America: Northeastern criminologists James Alan Fox, Monica J. DeLateur in Homicide Studies refute common myths about mass murder". Slate.com. Retrieved 2016-07-08.
- Buchanan, Larry (December 3, 2015). "How They Got Their Guns". The New York Times. Retrieved June 12, 2016.
- De Freitas, Julian, and Mina Cikara. "Deep down my enemy is good: Thinking about the true self reduces intergroup bias." (2017)
- "High school students demand action on gun control following Parkland shooting – rabble.ca". rabble.ca. Retrieved 2 July 2018.
- Van Brunt, Brian, and W. Scott Lewis. "Costuming, misogyny, and objectification as risk factors in targeted violence." Violence and gender 1.1 (2014): 25–35.
- Rocque, Michael. "Exploring school rampage shootings: Research, theory, and policy." The Social Science Journal 49.3 (2012): 304–313.
- Campbell, Holly (December 2, 2015). "Inside the mind of a mass murderer". WANE.com. Retrieved December 10, 2015.
- Wolf, Amy (December 11, 2014). "Mental Illness is the wrong scapegoat after mass shootings". Vanderbilt University. Retrieved August 12, 2015.
- Angry young Men and Mass Killings. The Huffington Post. June 16, 2016.
- "Finally understand why. Dave Cullen's Edgar-winning Columbine book: the Columbine killers, shooting & myths". davecullen.com. Retrieved September 27, 2015.
- Cullen, Dave (August 31, 2015). "Inside the Warped Mind of Vester Flanagan and Other Shooters". The New Republic. Retrieved September 27, 2015.
- Bekiempis, Victoria (September 4, 2015). "Meet Mass-Shooting Expert Mary Ellen O'Toole". Newsweek. Retrieved September 6, 2015.
- Fox, James Alan (January 16, 2011). "The real causes of mass murder". Boston.com. Retrieved November 25, 2015.
- "James Alan Fox: In San Bernardino, focus on the murderous partnership". USA Today. December 3, 2015.
- Wanamaker, John (October 8, 2017). "'This shooter is a little different': Hamline professor studies mass shootings". MPR News. Retrieved October 9, 2017.
- "School Shootings and Possible Causes". 14 December 2013. Archived from the original on 2014-12-16. Retrieved 15 February 2018.
- "Op-Ed: We have studied every mass shooting since 1966. Here's what we've learned about the shooters". Los Angeles Times. 2019-08-04. Retrieved 2019-08-11.
- "Mass shootings: Experts say violence is contagious, and 24/7 news cycle doesn't help". NBC News. Retrieved 2019-08-11.
- Dorell, Oren (December 18, 2012). "In Europe, fewer mass killings due to culture not guns". USA Today. Retrieved August 11, 2015.
- McIntyre, Niamh (April 16, 2015). "This Theorist Believes That Capitalism Creates Mass Murderers by Causing People to 'Malfunction'". Vice. Retrieved March 11, 2019.
- Melissa Jeltsen (18 July 2014). "Mass Shooting Analysis Finds Strong Domestic Violence Connection". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 13 June 2016.
- "Analysis of Mass Shootings". Everytownresearch.org. 20 August 2015. Retrieved 13 June 2016. This analysis has later figures than reported in the article
- Moynihan, Carolyn. "Isn't father loss part of Nikolas Cruz's story?". www.mercatornet.com.
- "MercatorNet: 'An act of pure evil'". Retrieved 2 July 2018.
- Birch, Jenna (July 27, 2015). "Does Media Coverage After a Mass Shooting Do More Harm Than Good?". Yahoo! News. Retrieved August 11, 2015.
- Elinson, Zusha; Lazo, Alejandro (October 4, 2015). "More Police Decide Against Naming Mass-Shooting Suspects". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved October 5, 2015.
- McGinty, Emma (1 May 2013). "Effects of News Media Messages About Mass Shootings on Attitudes Toward Persons With Serious Mental Illness and Public Support for Gun Control Policies". American Journal of Psychiatry. 170 (5): 494–501. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2013.13010014. PMID 23511486.
- Towers, Sherry; Gomez-Lievano, Andres; Khan, Maryam; Mubayi, Anuj; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos (2 July 2015). Yukich, Joshua (ed.). "Contagion in Mass Killings and School Shootings". PLOS One. 10 (7): e0117259. Bibcode:2015PLoSO..1017259T. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0117259. PMC 4489652. PMID 26135941. Lay summary – Live Science (2 July 2015).
- Towers, Sherry (6 December 2017). "Newsmaker Sunday: Sherry Towers". Newsmaker Sunday (Interview). Interviewed by John Hook. Phoenix, Arizona, United States: Fox 10 Phoenix. Retrieved 14 June 2018.
- Johnston, Jennifer (4 August 2016). ""Media Contagion" Is Factor in Mass Shootings, Study Says" (Press release). American Psychological Association. Retrieved 16 June 2018.
- Colin Campbell (December 2, 2015). "Hard-hitting Daily News cover blasts Republicans for offering only 'prayers' after latest shooting". Business Insider. Retrieved December 3, 2015.
- Fang, Marina (December 2, 2015). "New York Daily News Skewers Politicians Refusing to Act on Gun Violence: 'God Isn't Fixing This'". Huffington Post. Retrieved December 2, 2015.
- "Why this Onion article goes viral after every mass shooting".
- Graham-McLay, Charlotte (April 10, 2019). "New Zealand Passes Law Banning Most Semiautomatic Weapons, Weeks After Massacre". The New York Times. Retrieved June 1, 2019.
- Hartmann, Margaret (October 2, 2015). "How Australia and Britain Tackled Gun Violence". Daily Intelligencer. Retrieved October 3, 2015.
- Tarabay, Jamie; Dewan, Angela. "What the UK and Australia did differently after mass shootings". CNN.
- Collins, Sam (July 28, 2015). "One Change To Our Gun Laws That Could Have Prevented The Last Mass Shooting". Think Progress. Retrieved August 12, 2015.
- Weinberg, Ali (October 2, 2015). "These 6 Stalled Bills Aimed at Mass Shootings Like Umpqua Flounder in Congress". ABC News. Retrieved October 3, 2015.
- Andrews, Becca (October 1, 2015). "An Overwhelming Majority of Americans Still Support Universal Background Checks". Mother Jones. Retrieved December 16, 2015.
- Volokh, Eugene (October 3, 2015). "Do civilians with guns ever stop mass shootings?". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 5, 2015.
- Dorell, Oren. "In Europe, fewer mass killings due to culture not guns". USA TODAY.
- Korte, Gregory (October 2, 2015). "11 mass shootings, 11 speeches: How Obama has responded". USA Today. Retrieved October 3, 2015.
- Benen, Steve (June 23, 2015). "Comparing U.S. mass shootings to the rest of the world". MSNBC. Retrieved August 11, 2015.
- Tani, Maxwell (December 2, 2015). "OBAMA: 'We have a pattern now of mass shootings ... that has no parallel'". Business Insider. Retrieved December 16, 2015.
- Witt, Emily (19 February 2018). "How the Survivors of Parkland Began the Never Again Movement". The New Yorker. Retrieved 20 February 2018.
- Timeline: Deadliest U.S. mass shootings
- Public Mass Shootings in the United States: Selected Policy Implications Congressional Research Service
- Algoworld: Scientific Ways To Predict Mass Shootings
- Washington Case Revives Debate About ‘Contagious’ Mass Shootings
- Yes, Mass Shootings Are Occurring More Often. Mother Jones. October 21, 2014.