Madame Tussauds

Madame Tussauds (UK: /tjˈsɔːdz/, US: /tˈsz/)[1][N. 1] is a wax museum in London; it has smaller museums in a number of other major cities. It was founded by wax sculptor Marie Tussaud in 1835. It used to be spelled as "Madame Tussaud's"; the apostrophe is no longer used.[2][3] Madame Tussauds is a major tourist attraction in London, displaying the waxworks of famous and historical figures, as well as popular film and television characters played by famous actors. The nearest station to the museum is Baker Street which is at the walking distance of 120 metres (390 ft).[4]

Madame Tussauds (cream building) includes the former London Planetarium (dome) since 2010
Entrance sign in London

History

Background

Waxwork of Marie Tussaud (sculpting a waxwork) and her memorial plaque at the wax museum she founded in London

Marie Tussaud was born as Marie Grosholtz in 1761 in Strasbourg, France. Her mother worked for Philippe Curtius in Bern, Switzerland, who was a physician skilled in wax modeling. Curtius taught Tussaud the art of wax modelling beginning when she was a child. He moved to Paris and took his young apprentice, then only 6 years old, with him.[5]

Grosholtz created her first wax sculpture in 1777 of Voltaire.[6] At the age of 17, she became the art tutor to Madame Elizabeth, the sister of King Louis XVI of France, at the Palace of Versailles. During the French Revolution, she was imprisoned for three months and awaiting execution, but was released after the intervention of an influential friend.[5] During the Revolution, she made models of many prominent victims.[7]

Grosholtz inherited Curtius's vast collection of wax models following his death in 1794. For the next 33 years she travelled around Europe with a touring show from the collection. She married Francois Tussaud in 1795 and took his surname. She renamed her show as Madame Tussaud's. In 1802, she accepted an invitation from Paul Philidor, a lantern and phantasmagoria pioneer, to exhibit her work alongside his show at the Lyceum Theatre, London. She did not fare particularly well financially, with Philidor taking half of her profits.

She was unable to return to France because of the Napoleonic Wars, so she traveled throughout Great Britain and Ireland exhibiting her collection. From 1831, she took a series of short leases on the upper floor of "Baker Street Bazaar" (on the west side of Baker Street, Dorset Street, and King Street in London).[8] This site was later featured in the Druce-Portland case sequence of trials of 1898–1907. This became Tussaud's first permanent home in 1836.[9]

Origins

Poster for the Tussaud wax figures exhibition, Baker Street, London 1835

By 1835, Marie Tussaud had settled down in Baker Street, London and opened a museum.[10] One of the main attractions of her museum was the Chamber of Horrors. The name is often credited to a contributor to Punch in 1845, but Tussaud appears to have originated it herself, using it in advertising as early as 1843.[11]

This part of the exhibition included victims of the French Revolution and newly created figures of murderers and other criminals. Other famous people were added, including Lord Nelson, the Duke of Wellington, Henry VIII and Queen Victoria.[12]

Some sculptures still exist that were made by Marie Tussaud herself. The gallery originally contained some 400 different figures, but fire damage in 1925, coupled with German bombs in 1941, severely damaged most of such older models. The casts themselves have survived, allowing the historical waxworks to be remade, and these can be seen in the museum's history exhibit. The oldest figure on display is that of Madame du Barry, the work of Curtius from 1765 and part of the waxworks left to Grosholtz at his death. Other faces from the time of Tussaud include Robespierre and George III. In 1842, she made a self-portrait, which is now on display at the entrance of her museum. She died in her sleep in London on 16 April 1850.[13]

First Mortgage Debenture Stock of Madame Tussaud's Ltd., issued 15. September 1949

By 1883, the restricted space and rising cost of the Baker Street site prompted her grandson Joseph Randall to commission construction of a building at the museum's current location on Marylebone Road. The new exhibition galleries were opened on 14 July 1884 and were a great success.[14] But Randall had bought out his cousin Louisa's half share in the business in 1881, and that plus the building costs resulted in his having too little capital. He formed a limited company in 1888 to attract fresh capital but it had to be dissolved after disagreements between the family shareholders. In February 1889 Tussaud's was sold to a group of businessmen, led by Edwin Josiah Poyser.[15] The first wax sculpture of a young Winston Churchill was made in 1908; a total of ten have been made since.[16] The first overseas branch of Madame Tussauds was opened in Amsterdam in 1970.[17]

Ownership changes

In 2005, Madame Tussauds was sold to a company in Dubai, Dubai International Capital, for £800m (US$1.5bn). In May 2007 The Blackstone Group purchased The Tussauds Group from then-owner Dubai International Capital for US$1.9 billion;[18] the company was merged with Blackstone's Merlin Entertainments and operation of Madame Tussauds was taken over by Merlin.[18][19] After the Tussauds acquisition, Dubai International Capital gained 20% of Merlin Entertainment.[20]

On 17 July 2007, as part of the financing for the Tussauds deal, Merlin sold the freehold of Madame Tussauds to private investor Nick Leslau and his investment firm Prestbury under a sale and leaseback agreement.[21] Although the attraction sites are owned by Prestbury, they are operated by Merlin based on a renewable 35-year lease.[19]

Recent status

Waxwork of Elizabeth I in London

Madame Tussaud's wax museum became a major tourist attraction in London. Until 2010 it incorporated the London Planetarium in its west wing. A large animated dark ride, The Spirit of London, opened in 1993. Today's wax figures at Tussauds include historical and royal figures, film stars, sports stars, and famous murderers. It has been known since 2007 as "Madame Tussauds" museums (no apostrophe).[22]

In July 2008, Madame Tussauds' Berlin branch became embroiled in controversy when a 41-year-old German man brushed past two guards and decapitated a wax figure depicting Adolf Hitler. This was believed to be an act of protest against showing the ruthless dictator alongside sports heroes, movie stars, and other historical figures. The statue has since been repaired, and the perpetrator has admitted that he attacked the statue to win a bet.[23] The original model of Hitler was unveiled in Madame Tussauds London in April 1933; it was frequently vandalised and a 1936 replacement had to be carefully guarded.[24][25][26] In January 2016, the statue of Adolf Hitler was removed from the Chamber of Horrors section in the London museum in response to an open letter sent by a staff writer of The Jewish Journal of Greater Los Angeles, followed by significant support for its removal from social media.[27]

The first Madame Tussauds in India opened in New Delhi on 1 December 2017. Its operator, Merlin Entertainments, planned an investment of 50 million pounds over the next 10 years.[28][29][30] It features over 50 wax models, including political and entertainment figures such as Ariana Grande, Amitabh Bachchan, Salman Khan, Katrina Kaif, Sachin Tendulkar, Kim Kardashian, Tom Cruise, Leonardo DiCaprio, Scarlett Johansson, Angelina Jolie, Asha Bhosle, Kapil Dev, and Mary Kom.[31]

On 30 December 2020, the holding company of Madame Tussauds Wax Museum in Delhi, India confirmed a permanent shutdown of the Museum.[32]

Museum locations

Entry of Madame Tussauds in Berlin
Madame Tussauds in New York City opened in 2000
Madame Tussauds opened in Washington, D.C. in 2007
Madame Tussauds opened in Hollywood in 2009
Wax figure of Queen Elizabeth II at Madame Tussauds in Shanghai, China

Asia

  • Beijing, China (2014) [33]
  • Chongqing, China (2016) [34]
  • Shanghai, China (2006)[35]
  • Wuhan, China (2013)[36]
  • Hong Kong (2000)[37]
  • New Delhi, India (2017)[38]
  • Tokyo, Japan (2013)[39]
  • Singapore (2014)[40]
  • Bangkok, Thailand (2010)[41]
  • Dubai, United Arab Emirates (2021)[42]

Europe

  • Amsterdam, Netherlands (1972) [43]
  • Berlin, Germany (2008)[44]
  • Blackpool, United Kingdom (2011)[45]
  • Budapest, Hungary (2022)[46]
  • Istanbul, Turkey (2016)[47]
  • London, United Kingdom (1835)[48]
  • Prague, Czech Republic (Unknown)[49]
  • Vienna, Austria (2011)[50]

North America

  • Hollywood, United States (2009)[51]
  • Las Vegas, United States (1999)[52]
  • Nashville, United States (2017)[53]
  • New York, United States (2000)[54]
  • Orlando, United States (2015)[55]
  • San Francisco, United States (2014)[56]
  • Washington, D.C., United States (2007)[57]

Oceania

  • Sydney, Australia (2012)[58]

Celebrity poses with their wax figures

Many times celebrities pose like their wax figures as pranks and publicity stunts.

  • On 3 November 2009, the museum's New York City branch was featured in a segment on NBC's Today in which weatherman Al Roker posed in place of his lifelike wax figure for two hours and startled unsuspecting visitors, who were at first led to believe they were viewing Roker's wax counterpart.[59]
  • In 2010, Ozzy Osbourne did similarly in New York to promote his Scream (2010) album.[60]
  • NBA players Carmelo Anthony and Jeremy Lin pranked fans during the unveiling of their statues at the New York and San Francisco museums, respectively.[61][62]
  • In 2015, Arnold Schwarzenegger posed as the Terminator statue in the Hollywood museum, to promote a charity event.[63]
  • Ant and Dec pranked Olly Murs by tricking him into using a machine that will "scan every part of Olly's face and body to create the most accurate wax figure ever" as a part of their annual Undercover segment on their show, Ant and Dec's Saturday Night Takeaway.

Films

  • Some sequences of the film Housefull 3 were shot in the Madame Tussauds, London.
  • Parts of the film Fan (2016) were shot at Madame Tussauds, making it the first Indian film to be shot there.
  • Madame Tussauds features in the film Shanghai Knights (2003).

Games

  • Marie Tussaud is featured in an Assassin's Creed Unity side mission, where the player is tasked with retrieving the severed heads of which Madame Tussaud was commissioned to make replicas.

Literature

  • There is a brief reference to Madame Tussaud's work in the Sherlock Holmes story "The Mazarin Stone".
  • In Jules Verne novel Around the World in Eighty Days, his author says that the only thing the wax figures sculpted by Madame Tussaud lack is speech.
  • In Elizabeth Bowen's novel The Death of the Heart (1938), Portia and Eddie have tea at Madame Tussaud's and Portia is disappointed that the waitresses are real and not made of wax.
  • In the novel Edgar Allan Poe and the London Monster (2016) by Karen Lee Street, Madame Tussaud meets twice with Edgar Allan Poe and C. Auguste Dupin at her exhibition halls.

Music

  • In Gilbert and Sullivan's song "My Object All Sublime", from The Mikado (1885), the title character sings of punishments fitting the crime, including:

The amateur tenor, whose vocal villainies
All desire to shirk,
Shall, during off-hours
Exhibit his powers
To Madame Tussaud's waxwork.

  • Madame Tussauds is the focus of Steve Taylor's song "Meltdown (at Madame Tussauds)", which describes someone turning up the thermostat and causing the wax figures to melt.[64] Taylor wrote the song as "a new metaphor to ask [the] same question" as Jesus, "What good is it for a man to gain the whole world, yet forfeit his soul?"[65]
  • The Beatles had their wax figures featured along with cardboard cutouts of various famous people in the cover art for Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band (1967).[66]
  • Several sculptures from the London branch (including George Bush and Tony Blair) appear in the music video "Pop!ular" by singer-songwriter Darren Hayes.
  • Madame Tussauds sculptures are used on the cover of Rick Wakeman's album The Six Wives of Henry VIII. A waxwork of Richard Nixon also appears in the background.

Stage productions

  • Marie Tussaud is mentioned in The Scarlet Pimpernel (first run on stage in 1903, first publication 1905).

List of notable wax figures

London

Advertising man pasting a bill for Madame Tussaud's Chamber of Horrors, London 1877. Early exhibits included Burke and Hare. The chamber closed on 11 April 2016 and was replaced by the Sherlock Holmes Experience.[67]
Film Music Sports Leaders and History Marvel
Hrithik Roshan Amy Winehouse Jessica Ennis-Hill Napoleon Bonaparte Black Panther
Terminator Michael Jackson Muhammad Ali Elizabeth II Captain Marvel
Katniss Everdeen Taylor Swift Usain Bolt Donald Trump Spider-Man
E.T. Madonna David Beckham Richard Branson Captain America
Darth Vader Lady Gaga Mo Farah Nelson Mandela Hawkeye
Audrey Hepburn One Direction Tom Daley Barack Obama Iron Man
Steven Spielberg Miley Cyrus Rafael Nadal Vincent van Gogh Hulk
Kate Winslet Adele Sachin Tendulkar Albert Einstein Nick Fury
King Kong Britney Spears Virat Kohli Charles Dickens Thor
James Conrad Rihanna Cristiano Ronaldo Stephen Hawking Invisible Woman
Michael Caine Bob Marley Bobby Moore Pablo Picasso Wolverine
Alfred Hitchcock Freddie Mercury Mohamed Salah William Shakespeare
Daniel Craig Ed Sheeran Princess Diana
Robert Pattinson Dua Lipa Narendra Modi
Shah Rukh Khan Kylie Minogue Elizabeth I
Anthony Hopkins The Beatles Mahatma Gandhi
Notes:[68]

Hollywood

The '90s Spirit of Hollywood Modern Classics Movies Pop Icons Marvel Country A-List Party
Sarah Michelle Gellar Bette Davis Sylvester Stallone Robin Williams Whitney Houston Iron Man Paul Newman Jennifer Lopez
Whoopi Goldberg Marilyn Monroe Tom Hanks Edward Scissorhands Michael Jackson Thor Clint Eastwood Betty White
Britney Spears Alfred Hitchcock John Travolta Jim Carrey Madonna Wolverine John Wayne Kylie Jenner
Selena Quintanilla Elvis Presley E.T. Aaliyah Jason Derulo
Audrey Hepburn Demi Lovato
Joan Rivers Taylor Swift
Judy Garland Zoe Saldana
Lady Gaga
Justin Timberlake
Snoop Dogg
Rihanna
Ariana Grande

Nashville

Admissions Recording Studio Soul/Jazz MTV Opry Finale
Taylor Swift Elvis Presley Louis Armstrong Rihanna Keith Urban
Johnny Cash Carl Perkins Diana Ross Beyonce Reba McEntire
Jerry Lee Lewis Stevie Wonder Katy Perry Carrie Underwood
Johnny Cash Ella Fitzgerald Miley Cyrus Alan Jackson
Justin Timberlake Eric Church
Bruno Mars Jason Aldean
Trisha Yearwood
Kid Rock

Beijing

Leaders and History Sports Music Industry Entertainment Industry Film
Elizabeth II David Beckham Lady Gaga Nicky Wu Benedict Cumberbatch
Prince William, Duke of Cambridge Li Xiaopeng Elvis Presley Yang Lan Johnny Depp
Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge Lang Ping Cui Jian Liu Xiao Ling Tong Leonardo DiCaprio
Barack Obama Kobe Bryant Luhan Yang Mi Kate Winslet
Vladimir Putin Zhang Yixing Leslie Cheung
Lao She Avril Lavigne Jackie Chan
Yang Liwei Michael Jackson Deng Chao
Mei Lanfang Liu Wen
Hou Baolin Yang Yang
Zhao Liying
Huang Xiaoming
Notes:[69][70][71][72]

Washington, D.C.

U.S Presidents First Ladies Cultural Icons A-List Music Sports Entertainment
Donald Trump Michelle Obama Uncle Sam Marilyn Monroe Marvin Gaye Babe Ruth Jimmy Fallon
Abraham Lincoln Hillary Clinton Rosa Parks Zac Efron Taylor Swift Tyra Banks
Barack Obama Nancy Reagan George Clooney Miley Cyrus
George Washington Brad Pitt Beyonce
Angelina Jolie Rihanna
Johnny Depp Justin Bieber
Michael Jackson

Bangkok

History Leaders Arts/Sciences Sport Music Film Indian Film TV Hollywood
Princess Diana Queen Elizabeth II Albert Einstein Wayne Rooney Katy Perry Hugh Jackman Shah Rukh Khan Oprah Winfrey Jackie Chan
Mahatma Gandhi Michelle Obama Mark Zuckerberg Yao Ming Madonna Mario Maurer Katrina Kaif Anne Thongprasom Vin Diesel
Prince Mahidol Adulyadej Aung San Suu Kyi Ludwig van Beethoven Serena Williams Nichkun Horvejkul Leonardo DiCaprio Hrithik Roshan Theeradej Wongpuapan Brad Pitt
Princess Srinagarindra Barack Obama Pablo Picasso Cristiano Ronaldo Beyoncé Johnny Depp Prabhas Lady Gaga
Plaek Phibunsongkhram Sunthorn Phu David Beckham Michael Jackson Nicole Kidman Bruce Lee
Pridi Banomyong Silpa Bhirasri Khaosai Galaxy Tata Young Will Smith Angelina Jolie
Ariana Grande

Blackpool

Music StarsSportsComedyBest of British
Lady GagaJoe HartJohn BishopQueen Elizabeth II
Michael JacksonKen DoddThe Duchess of Cambridge
Britney SpearsAlan CarrThe Duke of Cambridge
Freddie MercuryThe Two RonniesJoanna Lumley
The BeatlesMorecambe and WiseHugh Bonneville
Shirley BasseyPaddy McGuinnessJane Horrocks
Tom JonesKeith LemonSusan Boyle
Johnny RottenTommy CooperCheryl
Ariana GrandeBenny HillSimon Cowell
Dame Helen Mirren
Marvel Super HeroesStrictly Come DancingCoronation StreetI'm A Celebrity... Get Me Out Of Here!
Captain MarvelBruce ForsythDeirdre BarlowAnthony McPartlin
ThorCraig Revel HorwoodBet LynchDeclan Donnelly
HulkTess DalyKen BarlowBushtucker trial
Spider-ManClaudia WinklemanJack and Vera Duckworth
GrootHilda Ogden
Rocket RaccoonMichelle Connor
Iron Man
Notes:[73]

Las Vegas

TV StarsHollywood StarsPop StarsAthletes
Sofia VergaraSandra BullockBritney SpearsMuhammad Ali
Simon CowellLeonardo DiCaprioWhitney HoustonChuck Liddell
Eva LongoriaHalle BerryLady GagaTiger Woods
Kathy GriffinHugh HefnerMichael JacksonShaquille O'Neal
Notes:[74]

New York

ActorsMusiciansAthletesLeadersIconsCharactersTelevisionFashion
Jennifer AnistonPharrell WilliamsCarmelo AnthonyBarack ObamaAlbert EinsteinETJimmy FallonAdriana Lima
Leonardo DiCaprioSelena GomezLionel MessiRonald ReaganMarilyn MonroeIron ManMichael StrahanSofía Vergara
Jodie FosterRihannaMuhammad AliAbraham LincolnCharlie ChaplinCaptain MarvelJon Hamm
Angelina JolieKaty PerryEli ManningJohn F. KennedyJacqueline KennedyThe Incredible HulkAnderson Cooper
Whoopi GoldbergTaylor SwiftDerek JeterMahatma GandhiJames DeanKing KongTyra Banks
Julia RobertsEd SheeranCristiano RonaldoMartin Luther King Jr.Jenna MarblesNick Fury
Priyanka ChopraAvicii Michael Jordan Dalai Lama
Salman Khan
Notes:[75]

Orlando

Justice League Film Party History & World Leaders Sports Music TV
Aquaman Audrey Hepburn Selena Gomez Donald Trump David Beckham Justin Bieber Neil Patrick Harris
Wonder Woman Kung Fu Panda Anne Hathaway Albert Einstein Serena Williams Pitbull Jim Parsons
Superman Marilyn Monroe Ryan Gosling Abraham Lincoln Miley Cyrus Oprah Winfrey
Batman Jackie Chan Jennifer Aniston Madame Marie Tussaud Ricky Martin Jimmy Fallon
E.T Will Smith Neil Armstrong Madonna Sofia Vergara
Shrek and Princess Fiona Angelina Jolie Walt Disney Katy Perry
Jennifer Lawrence Brad Pitt Rihanna
Channing Tatum Michael Jackson
Johnny Depp Elvis Presley
Taylor Swift

San Francisco

SportsHistory and LeadersMusicFilm
Jeremy LinEdwin LeeJimi HendrixLeonardo DiCaprio
Muhammed AliSteve JobsAdeleAlfred Hitchcock
Joe MontanaBarack ObamaMichael JacksonWhoopi Goldberg
Tiger WoodsAbraham LincolnLady GagaSteven Spielberg
Serena WilliamsGeorge WashingtonMadonnaMarilyn Monroe
Stephen CurryMartin Luther King Jr.RihannaAudrey Hepburn
Notes:[76]

Shanghai

SportsHistory and leadersMusicFilm TV show
Sun Yang Vladimir Putin Teresa Teng Bruce Lee He Jiong
David BeckhamBarack ObamaElvis PresleyBrad Pitt Kangxi Lai Le
Michael JordanNelson MandelaMichael JacksonNicole Kidman Zhou Libo
RonaldoBill ClintonLady GagaAngelina Jolie Fan Bingbing
Kobe BryantWinston Churchill MadonnaMarilyn Monroe Nicky Wu
Liu Xiang Kylie MinogueAudrey Hepburn Sun Li
Yao Ming Wu Yifan Donnie Yen Hu Ge
S.H.E Jackie Chan Yang Yang
Andy Lau Yao Chen William Chan
Nicholas Tse Chen Kun Lee Minho
Joker Xue Zhang Yixing
Notes:[77]

Hong Kong

Sports History and Leaders Music Film
David Beckham Mao Zedong Elvis Presley Nicole Kidman
Yao Ming Deng Xiaoping Madonna Brad Pitt
Tiger Woods Queen Elizabeth II Beyonce Angelina Jolie
Ronaldinho Diana, Princess of Wales Britney Spears Sir Alfred Hitchcock
Rudy Hartono Sukarno Lady Gaga Johnny Depp
Maria Sharapova Joko Widodo Anita Mui Jackie Chan
William Shakespeare Anggun Bruce Lee
Mahatma Gandhi Lang Lang Michelle Yeoh
Jiang Zemin Siwon Choi Amitabh Bachchan
Pablo Picasso Nichkhun Donnie Yen
Saddam Hussein Jay Chou Andy Lau
Adolf Hitler One Direction Jacky Cheung
Narendra Modi Michael Jackson Leslie Cheung
The Beatles Leon Lai
Jackson Wang Audrey Hepburn
Zhang Yixing Kim Soo-hyun
Ariana Grande Bae Yong-joon
Hugh Jackman (as Wolverine)
Astroboy
Pia Wurtzbach
Varun Dhawan

Amsterdam

A-list Music Marvel Fashion Sport World Leaders DJ's Film
George Clooney Taylor Swift Loki Justin Bieber Rafael van der Vaart Barack Obama Martin Garrix E.T.
Zayn Malik Ariana Grande Thor Doutzen Kroes Rafael Nadal Angela Merkel Afrojack Marilyn Monroe
Ryan Gosling Adele Hulk Kate Moss Dalai Lama Daniel Craig
Angelina Jolie Lady Gaga Captain America
Johnny Depp Dua Lipa Iron Man

Vienna

World War II Party & Hollywood Sport Film Politicians & Visionaries Arts & Culture Music History
Oskar Schindler Angelina Jolie Renate Götschl Julie Andrews Dalai Lama Gottfried Helnwein Freddie Mercury Marie Antoinette
Winston Churchill Taylor Swift David Alaba Daniel Craig Queen Elizabeth II Friedensreich Hundertwasser Conchita Wurst Napoleon
Leopold Figl Benedict Cumberbatch Hermann Maier Alfred Hitchcock Barack Obama Ludwig Van Beethoven Udo Jürgens Maria Theresia
Karl Renner Morgan Freeman Herbert Prohaska Sandra Bullock Angela Merkel Gustav Klimt Michael Jackson Anne Frank
Kate Winslet Peter Alexander Luciano Pavarotti Katy Perry
Will Smith Audrey Hepburn Sigmund Freud Hansi Hinterseer
Lady Gaga Romy Schneider Elvis Presley
Johnny Depp
Leonardo DiCaprio
Quentin Tarantino

Sydney

Bollywood Justice League Film & TV History & World Leaders Marvel Music Party Sports Fashion
Shah Rukh Khan Superman Eric Bana Dalai Lama Wolverine Lady Gaga Barack Obama Layne Beachley Megan Gale
Priyanka Chopra Jonas Aquaman Jackie Chan Mahatma Gandhi Spider-Man Pink Chris Hemsworth and Liam Hemsworth Don Bradman Miranda Kerr
Aishwarya Rai Wonder Woman Mel Gibson Queen Elizabeth II Iron Man Adele Rebel Wilson Tim Cahill Elle Macpherson
Batman Audrey Hepburn Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge and Prince William Taylor Swift Nicole Kidman Cathy Freeman
The Flash Alfred Hitchcock Meghan, Duchess of Sussex and Prince Harry John Farnham Ryan Gosling Lleyton Hewitt
Steve Irwin Bob Hawke Kylie Minogue Johnny Depp Rod Laver
Heath Ledger Ned Kelly Justin Bieber Rove McManus Glenn McGrath
Olivia Newton-John Arthur Phillip Keith Urban Dannii Minogue Yao Ming
Ray Meagher James Cook Katy Perry Angelina Jolie Sally Pearson
Marilyn Monroe Banjo Patterson Jimmy Barnes Cate Blanchett Ian Thorpe
Olivia Newton-John Charles Kingsford Smith Michael Hutchence Delta Goodrem Shane Warne
Ian Smith Julia Gillard Ricky Martin Leonardo DiCaprio Mark Webber Sachin Tendulkar
Curtis Stone Hu Jintao Rihanna
E.T. The Extra-Terrestrial Eddie Mabo Michael Jackson
Nelson Mandela Troye Sivan[78]
Albert Einstein
Madame Marie Tussaud
Mary MacKillop

Istanbul

Music Cinema Sport Science and Culture VIP Party History and Leaders Stars of The Middle East
Michael Jackson Marilyn Monroe Arda Turan Marie Tussaud Angelina Jolie Mehmed the Conqueror Maya Diab
Madonna Audrey Hepburn Maria Sharapova Albert Einstein Brad Pitt Mimar Sinan Bin Baz
Beyoncé Jennifer Lawrence Rafael Nadal Leonardo da Vinci Johnny Depp Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Nancy Ajram
Lady Gaga Steven Spielberg Lionel Messi Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Julia Roberts Tansu Çiller Elie Saab
Demi Lovato Tom Cruise Hedo Türkoğlu Sabiha Gökçen Leonardo DiCaprio Rumi
Bob Marley Tarık Akan Cristiano Ronaldo Steve Jobs Beren Saat
Zeki Müren Jackie Chan Muhammad Ali Yaşar Kemal Kıvanç Tatlıtuğ
Müslüm Gürses Spider-Man Usain Bolt Tolga Çevik
Murat Boz Harun Neymar Kerem Bürsin
Aleyna Tilki Vin Diesel Çağatay Ulusoy
Justin Bieber Bruce Wills David Beckham
MFÖ Shrek Ayşe Arman
Müslüm Gürses Tarık Akan Demet Akbağ
Barış Manço Adile Naşit
Neşet Ertaş E.T.
Notes:[79]

See also

  • Chamber of Horrors (Madame Tussauds), London
  • Marie Tussaud
  • Madame Tussauds Amsterdam
  • Madame Tussauds Beijing
  • Madame Tussauds Blackpool
  • Madame Tussauds Delhi
  • Madame Tussauds Hollywood
  • Madame Tussauds Hong Kong
  • Madame Tussauds Las Vegas
  • Madame Tussauds New York
  • Madame Tussauds Rock Circus (1989–2001, London)
  • Madame Tussauds San Francisco
  • Madame Tussauds Shanghai
  • Madame Tussauds Singapore
  • Madame Tussauds Sydney
  • Madame Tussauds Vienna
  • Madame Tussauds Washington D.C.
  • Merlin Entertainments

Notes

  1. The family themselves pronounce it /ˈts/.

References

  1. Wells, John C. (2009). "Tussaud's". Longman Pronunciation Dictionary. London: Pearson Longman. ISBN 978-1-4058-8118-0.
  2. Rothstein, Edward (24 August 2007). "Ripley's Believe It or Not – Madame Tussauds". The New York Times. Retrieved 12 May 2010. Madame Tussaud (who gave the attraction its now-jettisoned apostrophe) ...
  3. Times Online Style Guide – M: "Madame Tussauds (no longer an apostrophe)."
  4. "Madame Tussauds". 29 December 2020.
  5. "The Baker Street Bazaar". 26 May 2012.
  6. Du Plessis, Amelia. "England—Madame Tussauds". Informational site about England. Archived from the original on 13 December 2011. Retrieved 12 July 2011.
  7. "Marie Tussaud Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Marie Tussaud". www.encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 28 March 2016.
  8. Pilbeam (2006) pp. 102–106
  9. Pilbeam (2006) pp. 100–104
  10. "The History of Madame Tussauds". Madame Tussauds.com.
  11. Berridge, Kate...But now British actress Emma Watson is already to set and appear here... (2006). Madame Tussaud: A life in wax. New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-052847-8.
  12. Timbs, John (1868). Curiosities of London: Exhibiting the Most Rare and Remarkable Objects of Interest in the Metropolis, with Nearly Sixty Years' Personal Recollections. Longmans, Green, Reader, and Dyer. p. 819.
  13. Wilson, Scott (16 September 2016). Resting Places: The Burial Sites of More Than 14,000 Famous Persons, 3d ed. McFarland. p. 762. ISBN 9781476625997. Retrieved 30 November 2017.
  14. Pilbeam, ibid. pp. 166, 168–9.
  15. Pilbeam, ibid. p. 170.
  16. Pamela Pilbeam Madame Tussaud: And the History of Waxworks. P.199.
  17. "Madame Tussauds' to open shop in Delhi – Times of India".
  18. Cho, David (6 March 2007). "Blackstone Buys Madame Tussauds Chain". The Washington Post.
  19. "Merlin conjures up leaseback deal". The Daily Telegraph. 17 July 2007.
  20. "Tussauds firm bought in £1bn deal". BBC News. 5 March 2007.
  21. "Alton Towers sold in £622m deal". BBC News. 17 July 2007. Retrieved 12 May 2010.
  22. "10 Things You Might Not Know About Madame Tussauds Wax Museum". Mental Floss. Retrieved 15 May 2021.
  23. "Adolf Hitler returns to Berlin museum after beheading". meeja.com.au. 14 September 2008. Archived from the original on 19 September 2008. Retrieved 14 September 2008.
  24. Pilbeam, ibid. p. 199.
  25. "Madame Tussauds to repair beheaded Hitler". Associated Press. 7 July 2008. Retrieved 7 July 2008.
  26. Carrel, Paul (5 July 2008). "Man rips head from Hitler wax figure". Reuters.
  27. Gur-Arieh, Noga (6 January 2016). "Madame Tussauds Museum in London Removed Hitler Figure". The Jewish Journal of Greater Los Angeles. Retrieved 14 June 2021.
  28. : "Madame Tussauds (no longer an apostrophe)."
  29. "Madame Tussauds debuts in Delhi". BBC News. 1 December 2017. Retrieved 1 December 2017.
  30. "Madame Tussauds Delhi to officially open for public on December 1". The Indian Express. 30 November 2017. Retrieved 1 December 2017.
  31. "Take a sneak peek into India's first Madame Tussauds in Delhi – Wax figure of PM Narendra Modi". The Economic Times.
  32. "Wax museum feels Delhi heat, Madame Tussauds shuts". The Indian Express. 30 December 2020. Retrieved 31 December 2020.
  33. "Madame Tussauds Beijing" (in Chinese). madametussauds.com. Retrieved 4 May 2017.
  34. "Madame Tussauds Chongqing" (in Chinese). madametussauds.com. Retrieved 4 May 2017.
  35. "Madame Tussauds Shanghai" (in Chinese). madametussauds.com. Retrieved 4 May 2017.
  36. "Madame Tussauds Wuhan" (in Chinese). madametussauds.com. Retrieved 4 May 2017.
  37. "Madame Tussauds Hong Kong" (in Chinese). madametussauds.com. Retrieved 4 May 2017.
  38. "Madame Tussauds Delhi". madametussauds.com. Retrieved 4 May 2017.
  39. "Madame Tussauds Tokyo" (in Japanese). madametussauds.com. Retrieved 4 May 2017.
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Bibliography

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