Macapá

Macapá (Portuguese pronunciation: [makaˈpa]) is a city in Brazil with a population of 493,634 (2018 estimation).[2] It is the capital of Amapá state in the country's North Region. It is located on the northern channel of the Amazon River near its mouth on the Atlantic Ocean. The city is on a small plateau on the Amazon in the southeast of the state of Amapá. The only access by road from outside the province is from French Guiana, although there are regular ferries to Belem, Brazil. Macapá is linked by road with some other cities in Amapá. The equator runs through the middle of the city, leading residents to refer to Macapá as "The capital of the middle of the world." It covers 6,407.12 square kilometres (2,473.80 sq mi) and is located northwest of the large inland island of Marajó and south of the border with French Guiana.[3][4]

Macapá
Municipality
The Municipality of Macapá
Images of Macapá
Flag
Seal
Nickname(s): 
"A Capital do Meio do Mundo" ("The Capital of the Middle of the World")
Motto(s): 
"Macapá, cidade forte" ("Macapá, strong city")
Location of Macapá in the State of Amapá
Macapá
Location in Brazil
Coordinates: 0°2′2″N 51°3′59″W
CountryBrazil
RegionNorth
State Amapá
FoundedFebruary 4, 1758
Government
  MayorAntônio Furlan (Cidadania)
Area
  Total6,407.12 km2 (2,473.80 sq mi)
Elevation
12 m (39 ft)
Population
 (2020 est.[1])
  Total512,902
  Density80/km2 (210/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC−3 (BRT)
Postal code
68900-001 a 68914-999
Area code+55 96
Websitewww.macapa-ap.com.br

History

Macapá is a corruption of the Tupi word macapaba, or "place of many bacabas", the fruit of the local palm tree. The Spaniard Francisco de Orellana claimed the region in 1544 and called it Nueva Andalucía (New Andalusia).[5] The modern town began as the base of a Portuguese military detachment, stationed there in 1738. On February 4, 1758, Sebastião Veiga Cabral, the illegitimate child of the military governor of Trás-os-Montes, Sebastião Veiga Cabral, founded the town of São José de Macapá, under the authority of the governor of Pará, Francisco Xavier de Mendonça Furtado. The fortress of São José de Macapá was first laid out in 1764, but took 18 years to complete, due to illness among the Indian workers, and numerous escapes made by black slaves.[5] Macapá experienced an intense hurricane in the Summer of 1811 causing extensive damage to the fortifications there but leaving much of the city intact. Around 1834 Macapá a strange month long storm cause flooding upwards of six inches a day for the region. Macapá was elevated to city status in 1854.[3]

Macapá gained international notoriety in December 2001 when international yachtsman Peter Blake, from New Zealand, was murdered while anchored on his explorer yacht Seamaster in Macapá port.[6] According to Business Insider, Macapá is the 45th most violent city in the world, with 32.06 homicides per 100,000 people.[7]

Demography

Macapá has a population of 499,163 in its metropolitan area, the 3rd largest in the North Region. The city alone accounts for sixty percent of the population of state of Amapá and 3.50% of the population of the entire northern region of Brazil. According to the 2010 census, the city has a population of 397,913, of which 97.92% live in urban areas and 2.08% live in rural districts. With an area of 6,563 square kilometres (2,534 sq mi), the population density of Macapá is approximately 60.62 inhabitants per km².

Transportation

Macapá has a few roads to other cities in Brazil but is mainly connected to the rest of the country by air and sea. Macapá is located 345 kilometres (214 mi) from Belém, but the cities are separated by the large inland island of Marajó and have no direct highway connections; the city is accessible only by boat or airplane.[4] Macapá is connected to French Guiana by the Brazilian federal highway BR-156, which runs north of the city through the Amazonian jungle.[5] The city is connected with the rest of the North Region via the following highways: the AP-010, linking Macapá to Santana to the southwest; the AP-030, linking to the city of Mazagão; the BR-156, linking the south of Amapá and Laranjal do Jari to the northern town of Oiapoque.[8] The Oyapoque River Bridge has been open to traffic since March 20, 2017, linking Brazil and French Guiana by road for the first time.

Airport

Macapá International Airport (officially: Aeroporto Internacional de Macapá – Alberto Alcolumbre) is located 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) from the city center and serves as a vital link between Macapá and other cities in Brazil. Commercial flights connect the Macapá to Belém, Brasília, Fortaleza, Recife Airport, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador, and São Paulo. The airport traces its history to a small air base built by the United States during World War II to secure strategic bases in the South Atlantic region.[9]

Economy

Macapá's Skyline

Macapá is an economic center of northern Brazil and serves as a commercial hub of the state of Amapá. Gold, iron, lumber, manganese, oil, timber, and tin ore from the interior of the state pass through Amapá on to Port of Santana in the neighboring municipality of Santana.[3][10]

It is the fifth wealthiest city in northern Brazil, with a GDP of R$2,826,458,000 (2005).[11] The city has a notably high rate of economic growth and a per capita income of R$7,950 (2005).[12]

Education

Portuguese is the official national language, and thus the primary language taught in schools. However, English and French are part of the official high school curriculum due to Macapá's proximity to French Guiana and Guyana.

Educational institutions

  • Universidade Federal do Amapá (UNIFAP)
  • Universidade Estadual do Amapá (UEAP)
  • Instituto Federal do Amapá (IFAP)
  • Faculdade de Macapá (Fama)
  • Faculdade de Tecnologia do Amapá (META)
  • Instituto Macapaense do Melhor Ensino Superior (IMMES)
  • Faculdade Seama

Landmarks

Fortress of St. Joseph

Fortress of St. Joseph
The Marco Zero Monument marks the equator line

The fortress of St. Joseph is a Vauban-style star fort built between 1764 and 1782 to replace two previous fortifications located in the city. It was built to safeguard the northern extremity of Brazil and to control the estuary of the Amazon. It is one of the main sights of the city of Macapa.

Marco Zero monument

The Marco Zero monument was built to mark the position of the equator in the city and to show the passage of the sun. At the spring and the autumn equinox the sun rises and sets on the line of the equator and shines on the monument along the Avenue Equatorial, which runs for a mile due east of it.

St. Joseph's Church

Milton Corrêa stadium

The Estádio Milton Corrêa, usually known as the Zerão ("Big Zero", from its position on the equator), is a multi-purpose stadium located in central Macapá on the R. Ilvaldo Alves Veras east of the university (UNIFAP). The stadium has a maximum capacity of 10,000 people and was built in 1990. It is used mostly for football matches and hosts the home matches of several local teams.

Geography

The municipality contains the 111-hectare (270-acre) Parazinho Biological Reserve, created in 1985 to protect an island in the Amazon river.[13] It contains the 21,676-hectare (53,560-acre) Rio Curiaú Environmental Protection Area, created in 1992 to protect an area near the urban center from city sprawl, and to protect the culture of the traditional inhabitants.[14] It contains the 137-hectare (340-acre) Fazendinha Environmental Protection Area, created in 2004.[15]

Climate

The Macapá region includes large tracts of tropical rainforest and experiences relatively high rainfall. Macapá features a tropical monsoon climate (Am) under the Köppen climate classification, with a lengthy wet season from December through July, and a relatively short dry season that covers the remaining four months. However, a noticeable amount of rain is observed even during the dry season, a trait common to a number of other areas with this climate.[16] Average temperatures are relatively consistent throughout the year, hovering around 23 °C (73 °F) in the mornings[16] and 31 °C (88 °F) in the afternoon.[16]

Climate data for Macapá, 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1967–present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 36.0
(96.8)
35.0
(95.0)
39.3
(102.7)
38.3
(100.9)
36.0
(96.8)
36.0
(96.8)
37.0
(98.6)
37.0
(98.6)
37.0
(98.6)
36.6
(97.9)
39.6
(103.3)
38.0
(100.4)
39.6
(103.3)
Average high °C (°F) 30.2
(86.4)
29.9
(85.8)
30.0
(86.0)
30.4
(86.7)
30.8
(87.4)
31.3
(88.3)
31.6
(88.9)
32.4
(90.3)
33.1
(91.6)
33.3
(91.9)
33.0
(91.4)
31.9
(89.4)
31.5
(88.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) 26.3
(79.3)
26.0
(78.8)
26.2
(79.2)
26.5
(79.7)
26.7
(80.1)
26.7
(80.1)
26.7
(80.1)
27.5
(81.5)
28.2
(82.8)
28.5
(83.3)
28.3
(82.9)
27.5
(81.5)
27.1
(80.8)
Average low °C (°F) 23.4
(74.1)
23.4
(74.1)
23.6
(74.5)
23.9
(75.0)
24.0
(75.2)
23.7
(74.7)
23.5
(74.3)
24.0
(75.2)
24.0
(75.2)
24.0
(75.2)
24.1
(75.4)
23.9
(75.0)
23.8
(74.8)
Record low °C (°F) 19.6
(67.3)
20.4
(68.7)
21.1
(70.0)
20.2
(68.4)
21.4
(70.5)
21.0
(69.8)
20.2
(68.4)
21.0
(69.8)
21.0
(69.8)
21.0
(69.8)
21.0
(69.8)
20.4
(68.7)
19.6
(67.3)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 294.7
(11.60)
343.3
(13.52)
394.2
(15.52)
384.0
(15.12)
319.5
(12.58)
244.7
(9.63)
190.8
(7.51)
92.4
(3.64)
28.0
(1.10)
34.8
(1.37)
69.8
(2.75)
153.5
(6.04)
2,549.7
(100.38)
Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm) 18 19 21 21 21 19 16 9 3 3 4 10 164
Average relative humidity (%) 85.9 87.8 87.9 88.1 87.5 85.6 83.5 79.8 74.1 72.5 73.7 79.5 82.2
Mean monthly sunshine hours 158.1 117.1 120.9 125.8 164.5 198.9 234.3 267.6 273.6 285.3 254.9 215.0 2,416
Average ultraviolet index 12 12 12 12 12 11 11 12 12 12 12 12 12
Source 1: Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia[16]
Source 2: Meteo Climat (record highs and lows)[17] and Weather Atlas (UV index)[18]
Climate data for Macapá, elevation: 15 m or 49 ft, 1961–1990 normals and extremes
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 29.7
(85.5)
29.2
(84.6)
29.3
(84.7)
29.5
(85.1)
30.0
(86.0)
30.3
(86.5)
30.6
(87.1)
31.5
(88.7)
32.1
(89.8)
32.6
(90.7)
32.3
(90.1)
31.4
(88.5)
30.7
(87.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) 26.0
(78.8)
25.7
(78.3)
25.7
(78.3)
25.9
(78.6)
26.1
(79.0)
26.2
(79.2)
26.1
(79.0)
26.8
(80.2)
27.5
(81.5)
27.9
(82.2)
27.7
(81.9)
27.0
(80.6)
26.6
(79.8)
Average low °C (°F) 23.0
(73.4)
23.1
(73.6)
23.2
(73.8)
23.5
(74.3)
23.5
(74.3)
23.2
(73.8)
22.9
(73.2)
23.3
(73.9)
23.4
(74.1)
23.5
(74.3)
23.5
(74.3)
23.4
(74.1)
23.3
(73.9)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 299.6
(11.80)
347.0
(13.66)
407.2
(16.03)
384.3
(15.13)
351.5
(13.84)
220.1
(8.67)
184.8
(7.28)
98.0
(3.86)
42.6
(1.68)
35.5
(1.40)
58.4
(2.30)
142.5
(5.61)
2,571.5
(101.26)
Average relative humidity (%) 86.0 87.0 88.0 89.0 88.0 86.0 85.0 81.0 76.0 75.0 76.0 80.0 83.1
Mean monthly sunshine hours 147.3 110.1 109.2 114.8 152.0 190.1 227.1 271.4 272.5 282.4 252.9 205.4 2,335.2
Source: NOAA[19]

Subdivisions

Sunset in Vila Progresso, Bailique

The municipality is subdivided in five districts:[20]

  • Macapá, the city proper
  • Bailique
  • Carapanantuba
  • Fazendinha
  • São Joaquim do Pacuí

In 1992, the villages of Curiaú de Dentro, Curiaú de Fora, Casa Grande, Curralinho and Mocambo in the municipality of Macapá were recognised as quilombos, settlements by escaped slaves, resulting in the establishment of the Rio Curiaú Environmental Protection Area.[21]

References

  1. IBGE 2020
  2. "Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics" (PDF) (in Portuguese). 2018. Retrieved March 6, 2019. 2018 Estimates of Population
  3. "Macapá". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. 2015. Retrieved May 13, 2015.
  4. Nunes Torrinha, Mário (2015). Macapá : redes, comércio, tempo e espaço na formação do labirinto urbano (in Portuguese). Judiaí, SP: Paco Editorial. ISBN 9788581488516.
  5. História de Macapá Archived May 24, 2007, at the Wayback Machine in Portuguese
  6. "Sir Peter Blake Murdered". TV NZ. Retrieved June 6, 2013.
  7. Pamela Engel; Christina Sterbenz; Gus Lubin (November 27, 2013). "The Most Violent Cities In The World". Business Insider. Retrieved November 30, 2013.
  8. "BR – 156". Archived from the original on September 12, 2012. Retrieved April 5, 2021.
  9. "Aeroporto Internacional de Macapá – Alberto Alcolumbre" (in Portuguese). Brasília DF, Brazil: Ifraaero. 2015. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved May 13, 2015.
  10. Ports & Terminals Guide. 1. Redhill: IHS Maritime and Trade. 2014. p. 526. ISBN 9781906313753.
  11. GDP (PDF) (in Portuguese). Macapá, Brazil: IBGE. 2005. ISBN 85-240-3919-1. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 2, 2008. Retrieved July 18, 2007.
  12. per capita income (PDF) (in Portuguese). Macapá, Brazil: IBGE. 2005. ISBN 85-240-3919-1. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 2, 2008. Retrieved July 18, 2007.
  13. REBIO do Parazinho (in Portuguese), ISA: Instituto Socioambiental, retrieved November 5, 2016
  14. Novos conselheiros da Area de Protecao Ambiental do Rio Curiau sao empossados (in Portuguese), SEMA: Secretaria de Estado de Meio Ambiente (AP), December 9, 2013, retrieved November 6, 2016
  15. APA da Fazendinha (in Portuguese), ISA: Instituto Socioambiental, retrieved November 5, 2016
  16. "Normais Climatológicas Do Brasil 1981–2010" (in Portuguese). Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia. Retrieved November 15, 2018.
  17. "Station Macapa" (in French). Meteo Climat. Retrieved November 15, 2018.
  18. d.o.o, Yu Media Group. "Macapá, Brazil – Detailed climate information and monthly weather forecast". Weather Atlas. Retrieved June 28, 2019.
  19. "Macapa (82098) – WMO Weather Station". NOAA. Retrieved March 27, 2019.
  20. "Macapá". IBGE (in Portuguese). Retrieved April 1, 2021.
  21. Lima e Silva, Raullyan Borja; Freitas, João da Luz; Moreira dos Santos, João Ubiratan; Picanço Souto, Raimundo Nonato (2013). "Caracterização agroecológica e socioeconômica dos moradores da comunidade quilombola do Curiaú" (PDF). Biota Amazônia (in Portuguese). Macapá. 3 (3): 113. doi:10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v3n3p113-138. ISSN 2179-5746. Retrieved April 4, 2021.
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