Lumberjacks are mostly North American workers in the logging industry who perform the initial harvesting and transport of trees for ultimate processing into forest products. The term usually refers to loggers in the era (before 1945 in the United States) when trees were felled using hand tools and dragged by oxen to rivers. The work was difficult, dangerous, intermittent, low-paying, and involved living in primitive conditions. However, the men built a traditional culture that celebrated strength, masculinity, confrontation with danger, and resistance to modernization.
The term lumberjack is of Canadian derivation. The first attested use of the word comes from an 1831 letter to the Cobourg Star and General Advertiser in the following passage: "my misfortunes have been brought upon me chiefly by an incorrigible, though perhaps useful, race of mortals called lumberjacks, whom, however, I would name the Cossack's of Upper Canada, who, having been reared among the oaks and pines of the wild forest, have never been subjected to the salutary restraint of laws."
The term lumberjack is primarily historical; logger is used by workers in the 21st century. When lumberjack is used, it usually refers to a logger from an earlier time before the advent of chainsaws, feller-bunchers and other modern logging equipment. Other terms for the occupation include woodcutter, shanty boy and the colloquial term woodhick (Pennsylvania, US).
A logger employed in driving logs down a river was known locally in northern North America as a river pig, catty-man, river hog, or river rat. The term lumberjill has been known for a woman who does this work; for example, in Britain during World War II. In Australia, the occupation is referred to as timber cutter or cool cutters.
Lumberjacks worked in lumber camps and often lived a migratory life, following timber harvesting jobs as they opened. Being a lumberjack was seasonal work. Lumberjacks were exclusively men. They usually lived in bunkhouses or tents. Common equipment included the axe and cross-cut saw. Lumberjacks could be found wherever there were vast forests to be harvested and a demand for wood, most likely in Scandinavia, Canada, and parts of the United States. In the U.S., many lumberjacks were of Scandinavian ancestry, continuing the family tradition. American lumberjacks were first centred in north-eastern states such as Maine. They then followed the general westward migration on the continent to the Upper Midwest, and finally the Pacific Northwest. Stewart Holbrook documented the emergence and westward migration of the classic American lumberjack in his first book, Holy Old Mackinaw: A Natural History of the American Lumberjack. He often wrote colourfully about lumberjacks in his subsequent books, romanticizing them as hard-drinking, hard-working men. Logging camps were slowly phased out between World War II and the early 1960s as crews could by then be transported to remote logging sites in motor vehicles.
Division of labour
The division of labour in lumber camps led to several specialized jobs on logging crews, such as whistle punk, chaser, and high climber. The whistle punk's job was to sound a whistle (usually at the Steam donkey) as a signal to the yarder operator controlling the movement of logs. He also had to act as a safety lookout. A good whistle punk had to be alert and think fast as others' safety depended on him. The high climber (also known as a tree topper) used iron climbing hooks and rope to ascend a tall tree in the landing area of the logging site, where he would chop off limbs as he climbed, chop off the top of the tree, and finally attach pulleys and rigging to the tree. After that, it could be used as a spar so logs could be skidded into the landing. High climbers and whistle punks were both phased out in the 1960s to early 1970s when portable steel towers replaced spar trees and radio equipment replaced steam whistles for communication. The choker setters attached steel cables (or chokers) to downed logs so they could be dragged into the landing by the yarder. The chasers removed the chokers once the logs were at the landing. Choker setters and chasers were often entry-level positions on logging crews, with more experienced loggers seeking to move up to more skill-intensive positions such as yarder operator and high climber or supervisory positions such as hook tender. Despite the common perception that all loggers cut trees, the actual felling, and bucking of trees were also specialized job positions done by fallers and buckers. Faller and bucker were once two separate job titles, but they are now combined.
Before the era of modern diesel or gasoline powered equipment, the existing machinery was steam powered. Animal or steam-powered skidders could be used to haul harvested logs to nearby rail roads for shipment to sawmills. Horse driven logging wheels were a means used for moving logs out of the woods. Another way for transporting logs to sawmills was to float them down a body of water or a specially-constructed log flume. Log rolling, the art of staying on top of a floating log while "rolling" the log by walking, was another skill much in demand among lumberjacks. Spiked boots known as "caulks" or "corks" were used for log rolling and often worn by lumberjacks as their regular footwear.
The term "skid row", which today means a poor city neighbourhood frequented by homeless people, originated in a way in which harvested logs were once transported. Logs could be "skidded" down hills or along a corduroy road. One such street in Seattle was named Skid Road. This street later became frequented by people down on their luck, and both the name and its meaning morphed into the modern term.
Among the living history museums that preserve and interpret the forest industry are:
- BC Forest Discovery Centre, Duncan
- Camp Five Museum, Laona, Wisconsin
- The Lumberjack Steam Train, a passenger excursion train, operates as part of the museum.
- Central New Brunswick Woodsmen's Museum, Boiestown, New Brunswick
- Coos County Logging Museum, Myrtle Point, Oregon
- Cradle of Forestry in America historic site, near Asheville, North Carolina
- Forest History Center, Grand Rapids, Minnesota
- Hartwick Pines Logging Museum, near Grayling, Michigan
- Lumberman's Monument, near Oscoda, Michigan
- Maine Forest & Logging Museum, Bradley, Maine
- Pennsylvania Lumber Museum, near Galeton, Pennsylvania
- Algonquin Logging Museum in Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario
Tomczik (2008) has investigated the lifestyle of lumberjacks from 1840 to 1940, using records from mostly Maine and Minnesota logging camps. In a period of industrial development and modernization in urban areas, logging remained a traditional business in which the workers exhibited pride in their craft, their physical strength and masculinity, and guarded their individualism. Their camps were a bastion of the traditional workplace as they defied modern rationalized management, and built a culture around masculinity. At the peak in 1906 there were 500,000 lumberjacks, who took special pride in their work. Logging camps were located in isolated areas that provided room and board as well as a workplace. With few females present other than the wives of cooks and foremen, lumberjacks lived an independent life style that emphasized manly virtues in doing dangerous tasks. Men earned praise for their skills in doing their work, for being competitive, and for being aggressive. When not at work, they played rough games, told tall tales, and won reputations for consuming large amounts of food. By 1940, the business was undergoing major changes, as access roads and automobiles ended residential logging camps, chain saws replaced crosscut saws, and managers installed modern industrial methods.
A specialty form of logging involving the felling of trees for the production of railroad ties was known as tie hacking. These lumberjacks, called tie hacks, used saws to fell trees and cut to length, and a broad-axe to flatten two or all four sides of the log to create railroad ties. Later, portable saw mills were used to cut and shape ties. Tie hacking was an important form of logging in Wyoming and northern Colorado and the remains of tie hacking camps can be found on National Forest land. The remains of flumes can be seen near Dubois, Wyoming, and Old Roach, Colorado. In addition, a decaying splash dam exists near the Old Roach site as well. There, tie hacks attempted to float logs down to the Laramie River for the annual spring tie drives, and the splash dam was used to collect winter snow-melt to increase the water flow for the tie drive.
Modern technology changed the job of the modern logger considerably. Although the basic task of harvesting trees is still the same, the machinery and tasks are no longer the same. Many of the old job specialties on logging crews are now obsolete.
Chainsaws, harvesters, and feller bunchers are now used to cut or fell trees. The tree is turned into logs by removing the limbs (delimbing) and cutting it into logs of optimal length (bucking). The felled tree or logs are moved from the stump to the landing. Ground vehicles such as a skidder or forwarder can pull, carry, or shovel the logs. Cable systems "cars" can pull logs to the landing. Logs can also be flown to the landing by helicopter. Logs are commonly transported to the sawmill using trucks. Harvesting methods may include clear cutting or selective cutting. Concerns over the environmental impact have led to controversy about modern logging practices. In certain areas of forest loggers re-plant their crop for future generations.
A Wall Street Journal survey on the best jobs in the United States ended by listing being a logger as the "worst" 3D's job, citing "work instability, poor income, and pure danger". According to a Wall St. review studying the 71 most dangerous jobs, the most dangerous job was identified as that of logging workers in 2020.
Lumberjacks and loggers have one of the most dangerous jobs in the United States. The constant danger of being around heavy equipment and chainsaws in unsafe areas maximizes the danger. Proper PPE for those in this field consist of eye protection, head protection, ear protection, long sleeves, chaps (if working with a chainsaw), and lastly steel toe boots. When entering this profession, it is emphasized to be on one's toes because individuals are responsible for their own safety to guard against many uncontrollable hazards in the timber. For example, the weather can cause a dangerous situation quicker than one may realize. Additionally, logs and trees often plummet down a mountainside with no regard for what is in its way. In the United States, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has resources dedicated for logging safety, and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has identified logging as a priority area of safety research under the National Occupational Research Agenda.
The sport of Loggersports grew out of competitions in lumber camps aimed at determining the best woodcutters. Today, these competitions are used to acknowledge the rich history of forestry and logging and to keep traditions alive.
STIHL Timbersports Series - Worldwide
The STIHL Timbersports Series was founded in 1985, and brings competitors from across the world to compete in six woodsman or wood chopping competitions. The events are broadcast worldwide on a variety of networks, including ESPN, ABC, and Eurosport.
Squamish Days Loggers Sports - Canada
In Canada, Squamish Days Loggers Sports in Squamish, British Columbia, attracts the finest competitors to its weekend festival in August each year. The event has entertainers such as Johnny Cash, who, in 1991, performed at the 5,000-seat Loggers Sports grounds during his Roadshow tour.
The Woodsmen's Days - New York, United States
The Woodsmen's Days events at Tupper Lake, New York commemorate the lumberjack with logging competitions and demonstrations during mid-July. Many colleges have woodsmen teams or forestry clubs who compete regionally, nationally, and internationally. The Association of Southern Forestry Clubs, for example, sponsors an annual Forestry Conclave with 250 contestants and a variety of events.
Lumberjack Tours - United States
There are also lumberjack shows which tour the United States, demonstrating traditional logging practices to the general public. The annual Lumberjack World Championships have been held in Hayward, Wisconsin since 1960. Over 12,000 visitors come to the event each year in late July to watch men and women compete in 21 different events, including log rolling, chopping, timed hot (power) and bucksaw cutting, and tree climbing.
A "lumbersexual" or "urban lumberjack" is a man who, despite not being a lumberjack, has adopted style traits stereotypical of a traditional lumberjack; namely a beard, plaid shirt, and work boots, substituting otherwise clean-cut and refined style choices. They are also often adorned by neck tattoos and "sleeve" tattoos, and may wear large gauged piercings in their earlobes. Denver Nicks described the trend as perhaps an attempt to "reclaim masculinity". The term "lumbersexual" is a near antonymous play on the earlier "metrosexual", which was coined in the 1990s.
In popular culture, the stereotypical lumberjack is a strong, burly, usually bearded man who lives to brave the natural environment. He is depicted wearing suspenders, a long-sleeved plaid flannel shirt, and heavy caulk boots, and is often characterized as having a voracious appetite, especially for flapjacks. He works by cutting down trees with either an axe or with the help of another lumberjack and a crosscut saw, as opposed to the modern chainsaw.
Known for their many exploits, many real life loggers have become renowned for their extraordinary strength, intuition, and knowledge of the woods. Men such as Jigger Johnson, the Maine woodsman who supposedly kicked knots off frozen logs barefooted, and Joseph Montferrand (better known as Big Joe Mufferaw), the French-Canadian known for his physical prowess and desire to protect the French-speaking logger, have been celebrated as folk heroes throughout North America, and have contributed to the myths of the Lumberjack.
- Blackwater Ben, 2003, by William Durbin, about a boy who gets to live with his father as a cook in a lumberjack camp
- Sometimes a Great Notion, 1964, by Ken Kesey (1964), about an Oregon family of gyppo loggers
- Lumberjack, 1974, by William Kurelek, about his days working in a logging camp.
- The Alphabet of Manliness, 2006, by Maddox, lists the lumberjack as one of 26 examples (each corresponding to a letter of the alphabet) of the pinnacle of manliness
- Come and Get It, 1936 film directed by Howard Hawks and William Wyler
- The Howards of Virginia, 1940 film directed by Frank Lloyd
- Wild Geese Calling, 1941 film directed by John Brahm
- The Enchanted Forest, a 1945 film directed by Lew Landers
- The Strange Woman, a 1946 film directed by Edgar G. Ulmer
- The Big Trees, 1952 film directed by Felix E. Feist
- Seven Brides for Seven Brothers, 1954 film directed by Stanley Donen
- North to Alaska, a 1960 film directed by Henry Hathaway
- Sometimes a Great Notion, 1970 film adaptation of the novel of the same name, directed by Paul Newman
- Ferngully: The Last Rainforest, 1992 animated film directed by Bill Kroyer
- Fargo, 1996 film directed by Joel Coen
- X-Men Origins: Wolverine, 2009 film directed by Gavin Hood
- The Lumber Baron, 2019 film directed by Barry Andersson
The lives of loggers have been featured on the following American television series:
- Lumberjacks rapidly developed their own distinctive musical culture of work songs. Many were based on traditional European folk tunes, with lyrics that reflected the lives, experiences and concerns of lumberjacks, with the themes of cutting, hauling, rolling, and driving, as well as narrative songs that involved romance.
- Big Joe Mufferaw, a song recorded and performed by Stompin' Tom Connors, one of Canada's most prolific and well-known country and folk singer-songwriters, about legendary folk hero Joseph Montferrand, a French-Canadian logger. This song appears on the album Stompin' Tom Meets Big Joe Mufferaw (1970), on the live album Live At The Horseshoe (1971), and on the album Move Along With Stompin' Tom (1999).
- The Log Driver's Waltz, a 1956 song by Wade Hemsworth on his album Folk Songs of the Canadian North Woods
- Lumberjack, a 1960 song by Johnny Cash on his album Ride This Train
- The Lumberjack, a song by Hal Willis
- The Lumberjack, a song featuring a chainsaw solo, by the American rock band Jackyl
- The Lumberjack Song, a song by Monty Python, known for its refrain: "I'm a lumberjack and I'm okay / I sleep all night and I work all day. ..."
- Log boom
- Log scaler
- Log driving
- Hayner, Norman S. (April 1945). "Taming the Lumberjack". American Sociological Review. 10 (2): 217–225. doi:10.2307/2085640. JSTOR 2085640.
- Holbrook, Stewart (1938). Holy Old MacKinaw: A Natural History of the American Lumberjack, The Macmillan Company, New York. ISBN 1-112-55989-2.
- World Film News and Television Progress, vol. 3, no. 6, London Cinema Contact Ldt., October, 1938.
- Pike, Robert E. (1967). Tall Trees, Tough Men, W. W. Norton & Company, New York. ISBN 0393319172.
- Holbrook, Stewart (1961). Yankee Loggers: A Recollection of Woodsmen, Cooks, and River Drivers, The International Paper Company, New York. ISBN 9781258435714.
- "Occupational Image: Lumberjacks". Tyler Rudd Putman. 2012-06-05. Archived from the original on 2014-03-08. Retrieved 2013-05-12.
- "Logging Industry Workers". Vault.
- Benjamin C. Mukkala (1997). "The Shanty Boys" (PDF). Forest History Today. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-06-21. Retrieved 16 January 2017.
- "WW2 People's War - The Lumberjills of Scotland". BBC History. 2005-08-03. Archived from the original on 2013-09-23. Retrieved 2010-09-12.
- "Govt works towards timber cutter compo". ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation). 2005-05-17. Retrieved 2010-09-12.
- "Our house: histories of Australian homes - Koongalba, The timber getter's residence". Environment.gov.au. 2008-08-07. Archived from the original on 2010-12-06. Retrieved 2010-09-12.
- Archived July 19, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
- Rohe, 1986
- "Michigan Axe Pattern, Uses and Origin". clutchaxes.com.
- Smith (1972)
- Radford (1987)
- Sorden and Vallier, 1986
- "Algonquin Logging Museum". Algonquin Provincial Park. The Friends of Algonquin Park. Archived from the original on 2018-06-18. Retrieved 17 June 2018.
- Adam Tomczik, "'He-men Could Talk to He-men in He-man Language'": Lumberjack Work Culture in Maine and Minnesota, 1840–1940," Historian Winter 2008, Vol. 70 Issue 4, pp 697-715
- Pinkerton, Joan (1981). Knights of the Broadax; the Story of the Wyoming Tie Hack. ISBN 0-87004-283-1.
- Jones, Keith. History of Jelm, Wyoming. 1. p. 17.
- "Career & Job News, Work, Employment & Salary Trends - Wall Street Journal - WSJ.com". Careerjournal.com. Archived from the original on 2008-01-20. Retrieved 2010-09-12.
- Clanton, Nancy; Journal-Constitution, The Atlanta. "These are the most dangerous jobs in America". ajc. Retrieved 2020-11-19.
- "Logging - Overview | Occupational Safety and Health Administration". www.osha.gov. Retrieved 2020-11-19.
- "CDC - NIOSH - NORA Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing Sector Council". www.cdc.gov. Center for Disease Controllanguage=en-us. 2019-02-11. Retrieved 2020-12-09.
- "STIHL TIMBERSPORTS | Lumberjack Competition Series". www.stihlusa.com. Archived from the original on 2016-07-08. Retrieved 2016-07-08.
- Sylvie Paillard (2010-07-25). "The spectacle on the world stage". Squamishchief.com. Retrieved 2015-10-15.
- Murphy McGinnis Interactive. "Hayward, Wisconsin". Lumberjack World Championships. Archived from the original on 2010-10-24. Retrieved 2010-09-12.
- "Lumberjack World Championships | Hayward, WI". www.lumberjackworldchampionships.com. Retrieved 2020-01-15.
- Baxter, Holly. "Out of the woods, here he comes: the lumbersexual". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 2015-01-28. Retrieved 6 February 2015.
- Nicks, Denver. "Confessions of a Lumbersexual". Time. Archived from the original on 2015-02-08. Retrieved 6 February 2015.
- Mychaskiw, Marianne (September 24, 2015). "Leonardo DiCaprio Chops Off His Man Bun". InStyle. Archived from the original on January 25, 2016. Retrieved January 5, 2016.
- Tang, Dennis (Jun 25, 2015). "Why 'Athleisure' Replaced the Urban Lumberjack". Esquire. Archived from the original on January 12, 2016. Retrieved January 5, 2016.
- Lumbersexuality and Its Discontents Archived 2017-03-03 at the Wayback Machine by Willa Brown (December 10, 2014), The Atlantic
- "Mighty Lumberjack". TV Tropes.
- Samuel, R.; Thompson, P. R. (1990). The Myths We Live By. London: Taylor & Francis. pp. 132–136.
- Dorson, R. M. (1977) . American folklore: with revised bibliographical notes (2nd ed.). University of Chicago Press. p. 216.
- Lehtinen, Lasse: Nätti Watchdog. Finnish adventurer biography. Espoo: Paasilinna, 2012. ISBN 978-952-5856-65-1
- Monahan, Robert. "Jigger Johnson", New Hampshire Profiles magazine, Northeast Publications, Concord, New Hampshire, April, 1957.
- Colombo, J. R. (1984). Canadian literary landmarks. Dundurn Press. p. 158.
- Appalachia Appalachian Mountain Club, 1964.
- Kurelek, William (1974). Lumberjack. ISBN 0-88776-378-2.
- Mood, T. A. (2004). American Regional Folklore: A Sourcebook and Research Guide. ABC-CLIO. pp. 220–222.
- Levy, Joel (December 8, 2016). "The History of The Log Driver's Waltz". The Toronto Guardian. Archived from the original on 2016-12-11. Retrieved March 28, 2017.
- Brock, Emily K. Money Trees: The Douglas Fir and American Forestry, 1900-1944 (Oregon State University Press, 2015). 272 pp.
- Chaney, Michael P. White Pine on the Saco River: An Oral History of River Driving in Southern Maine (University of Maine Press, 1993)
- Cox, Thomas R. The Lumberman's Frontier: Three Centuries of Land Use, Society, and Change in America's Forests (Oregon State University Press, 2010); 560 pages; examines successive frontier regions prized for lumber rather than farming, beginning with northern New England in the 17th century
- Griffiths, Bus. Now You're Logging, Harbour Publishing, 1978.
- Hayner, Norman S. "Taming the Lumberjack," American Sociological Review, Vol. 10, No. 2, (April, 1945), pp. 217–225 in JSTOR, description of lifestyle
- Holbrook, Stewart H. Holy Old Mackinaw: A Natural History of the American Lumberjack, 1938, popular
- Holbrook, Stewart H. The American Lumberjack (Collier Books, 1962), popular account
- Karamanski, Theodore J. Deep Woods Frontier: A History of Logging in Northern Michigan (1989)
- Lee, David. Lumber Kings and Shantymen. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: 2006.
- Lemonds, James. Deadfall: Generations of Logging in the Pacific Northwest. Missoula: Mountain Press, 2001.
- Mackay, Donald. "The Canadian Logging Frontier," Journal of Forest History 1979 23(1): 4-17
- Radforth, Ian. Bushworkers and Bosses: Logging in Northern Ontario, 1900–1980 (University of Toronto Press, 1987).
- Robbins, William G. Lumberjacks and Legislators: Political Economy of the U.S. Lumber Industry, 1890-1941 (Texas A. & M. U. Press, 1982). 268 pp.
- Roberge, Earl. Timber Country. Caldwell, Idaho: Caxton Printers, 1973.
- Rohe, Randall E. (1986). The Evolution of the Great Lakes Logging Camp, 1830-1930. Journal of Forest History. 30. pp. 17–28.
- Smith, David C. A History of Lumbering in Maine, 1861–1960 (University of Maine Press, 1972)
- Sorden, L. G. and Vallier, Jacque. Lumberjack Lingo: A Dictionary of the Logging Era. (Ashland, Wis.: NorthWord, 1986). 288 pp.
- Tomczik, Adam, "'He-men Could Talk to He-men in He-man Language'": Lumberjack Work Culture in Maine and Minnesota, 1840–1940," Historian Winter 2008, Vol. 70 Issue 4, pp 697–715
|Look up lumberjack in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lumberjacks.|
- William Reed (Timber getter) c.1930 - photo from the Jones-Mashman Collection at Lake Macquarie Library.
- University of Washington Libraries: Digital Collections:
- Clark Kinsey Photographs Over 1000 images by commercial photographer Clark and his brother Darius Kinsey documenting the logging and milling camps and other forest related activities in Washington State, ca. 1910–1945.
- Industry and Occupations Photographs An ongoing and expanding collection devoted to the workers in the Pacific Northwest from the 1880s to the 1940s. Many occupations and industries are represented including the logging and lumber industry.
- Man to Machine: Peninsula Logging Online museum exhibit based upon the Clark Kinsey Logging Photographs Collection and the recollections of Harry C. Hall, who worked as a logger on the Olympic Peninsula in the early 20th century. Includes a video on the Hobi family logging history (late 19th century – early 20th century).
- OSHA.gov An overview of logging operations along with safety standards and other important safety links.