Lithium (from Greek: λίθος, romanized: lithos, lit. 'stone') is a chemical element with the symbol Li and atomic number 3. It is a soft, silvery-white alkali metal. Under standard conditions, it is the lightest metal and the lightest solid element. Like all alkali metals, lithium is highly reactive and flammable, and must be stored in vacuum, inert atmosphere or inert liquid such as purified kerosene or mineral oil. When cut, it exhibits a metallic luster, but moist air corrodes it quickly to a dull silvery gray, then black tarnish. It never occurs freely in nature, but only in (usually ionic) compounds, such as pegmatitic minerals, which were once the main source of lithium. Due to its solubility as an ion, it is present in ocean water and is commonly obtained from brines. Lithium metal is isolated electrolytically from a mixture of lithium chloride and potassium chloride.
|Standard atomic weight Ar, std(Li)||[6.938, 6.997] conventional: 6.94|
|Lithium in the periodic table|
|Atomic number (Z)||3|
|Group||group 1: hydrogen and alkali metals|
|Electron configuration||[He] 2s1|
|Electrons per shell||2, 1|
|Phase at STP||solid|
|Melting point||453.65 K (180.50 °C, 356.90 °F)|
|Boiling point||1603 K (1330 °C, 2426 °F)|
|Density (near r.t.)||0.534 g/cm3|
|when liquid (at m.p.)||0.512 g/cm3|
|Critical point||3220 K, 67 MPa (extrapolated)|
|Heat of fusion||3.00 kJ/mol|
|Heat of vaporization||136 kJ/mol|
|Molar heat capacity||24.860 J/(mol·K)|
|Oxidation states||+1 (a strongly basic oxide)|
|Electronegativity||Pauling scale: 0.98|
|Atomic radius||empirical: 152 pm|
|Covalent radius||128±7 pm|
|Van der Waals radius||182 pm|
|Crystal structure|| body-centered cubic (bcc)|
|Speed of sound thin rod||6000 m/s (at 20 °C)|
|Thermal expansion||46 µm/(m⋅K) (at 25 °C)|
|Thermal conductivity||84.8 W/(m⋅K)|
|Electrical resistivity||92.8 nΩ⋅m (at 20 °C)|
|Molar magnetic susceptibility||+14.2×10−6 cm3/mol (298 K)|
|Young's modulus||4.9 GPa|
|Shear modulus||4.2 GPa|
|Bulk modulus||11 GPa|
|Brinell hardness||5 MPa|
|Discovery||Johan August Arfwedson (1817)|
|First isolation||William Thomas Brande (1821)|
|Main isotopes of lithium|
The nucleus of the lithium atom verges on instability, since the two stable lithium isotopes found in nature have among the lowest binding energies per nucleon of all stable nuclides. Because of its relative nuclear instability, lithium is less common in the solar system than 25 of the first 32 chemical elements even though its nuclei are very light: it is an exception to the trend that heavier nuclei are less common. For related reasons, lithium has important uses in nuclear physics. The transmutation of lithium atoms to helium in 1932 was the first fully man-made nuclear reaction, and lithium deuteride serves as a fusion fuel in staged thermonuclear weapons.
Lithium and its compounds have several industrial applications, including heat-resistant glass and ceramics, lithium grease lubricants, flux additives for iron, steel and aluminium production, lithium batteries, and lithium-ion batteries. These uses consume more than three-quarters of lithium production.
Atomic and physical
Like the other alkali metals, lithium has a single valence electron that is easily given up to form a cation. Because of this, lithium is a good conductor of heat and electricity as well as a highly reactive element, though it is the least reactive of the alkali metals. Lithium's low reactivity is due to the proximity of its valence electron to its nucleus (the remaining two electrons are in the 1s orbital, much lower in energy, and do not participate in chemical bonds). However, molten lithium is significantly more reactive than its solid form.
Lithium metal is soft enough to be cut with a knife. When cut, it possesses a silvery-white color that quickly changes to gray as it oxidizes to lithium oxide. Its melting point of 180 °C (453 K; 356 °F) is the highest of all the alkali metals.
Lithium has a very low density (0.534 g/cm3), comparable with pine wood. It is the least dense of all elements that are solids at room temperature; the next lightest solid element (potassium, at 0.862 g/cm3) is more than 60% denser. Furthermore, apart from helium and hydrogen, as a solid it is less dense than any other element as a liquid, being only two-thirds as dense as liquid nitrogen (0.808 g/cm3). Lithium can float on the lightest hydrocarbon oils and is one of only three metals that can float on water, the other two being sodium and potassium.
Lithium's coefficient of thermal expansion is twice that of aluminium and almost four times that of iron. Lithium is superconductive below 400 μK at standard pressure and at higher temperatures (more than 9 K) at very high pressures (>20 GPa). At temperatures below 70 K, lithium, like sodium, undergoes diffusionless phase change transformations. At 4.2 K it has a rhombohedral crystal system (with a nine-layer repeat spacing); at higher temperatures it transforms to face-centered cubic and then body-centered cubic. At liquid-helium temperatures (4 K) the rhombohedral structure is prevalent. Multiple allotropic forms have been identified for lithium at high pressures.
Lithium has a mass specific heat capacity of 3.58 kilojoules per kilogram-kelvin, the highest of all solids. Because of this, lithium metal is often used in coolants for heat transfer applications.
Naturally occurring lithium is composed of two stable isotopes, 6Li and 7Li, the latter being the more abundant (92.5% natural abundance). Both natural isotopes have anomalously low nuclear binding energy per nucleon (compared to the neighboring elements on the periodic table, helium and beryllium); lithium is the only low numbered element that can produce net energy through nuclear fission. The two lithium nuclei have lower binding energies per nucleon than any other stable nuclides other than deuterium and helium-3. As a result of this, though very light in atomic weight, lithium is less common in the Solar System than 25 of the first 32 chemical elements. Seven radioisotopes have been characterized, the most stable being 8Li with a half-life of 838 ms and 9Li with a half-life of 178 ms. All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives that are shorter than 8.6 ms. The shortest-lived isotope of lithium is 4Li, which decays through proton emission and has a half-life of 7.6 × 10−23 s.
7Li is one of the primordial elements (or, more properly, primordial nuclides) produced in Big Bang nucleosynthesis. A small amount of both 6Li and 7Li are produced in stars, but are thought to be "burned" as fast as produced. Additional small amounts of both 6Li and 7Li may be generated from solar wind, cosmic rays hitting heavier atoms, and from early solar system 7Be and 10Be radioactive decay. While lithium is created in stars during stellar nucleosynthesis, it is further burned. 7Li can also be generated in carbon stars.
Lithium isotopes fractionate substantially during a wide variety of natural processes, including mineral formation (chemical precipitation), metabolism, and ion exchange. Lithium ions substitute for magnesium and iron in octahedral sites in clay minerals, where 6Li is preferred to 7Li, resulting in enrichment of the light isotope in processes of hyperfiltration and rock alteration. The exotic 11Li is known to exhibit a nuclear halo. The process known as laser isotope separation can be used to separate lithium isotopes, in particular 7Li from 6Li.
Nuclear weapons manufacture and other nuclear physics applications are a major source of artificial lithium fractionation, with the light isotope 6Li being retained by industry and military stockpiles to such an extent that it has caused slight but measurable change in the 6Li to 7Li ratios in natural sources, such as rivers. This has led to unusual uncertainty in the standardized atomic weight of lithium, since this quantity depends on the natural abundance ratios of these naturally-occurring stable lithium isotopes, as they are available in commercial lithium mineral sources.
Both stable isotopes of lithium can be laser cooled and were used to produce the first quantum degenerate Bose-Fermi mixture.
Although it was synthesized in the Big Bang, lithium (together with beryllium and boron) is markedly less abundant in the universe than other elements. This is a result of the comparatively low stellar temperatures necessary to destroy lithium, along with a lack of common processes to produce it.
According to modern cosmological theory, lithium—in both stable isotopes (lithium-6 and lithium-7)—was one of the three elements synthesized in the Big Bang. Though the amount of lithium generated in Big Bang nucleosynthesis is dependent upon the number of photons per baryon, for accepted values the lithium abundance can be calculated, and there is a "cosmological lithium discrepancy" in the universe: older stars seem to have less lithium than they should, and some younger stars have much more. The lack of lithium in older stars is apparently caused by the "mixing" of lithium into the interior of stars, where it is destroyed, while lithium is produced in younger stars. Though it transmutes into two atoms of helium due to collision with a proton at temperatures above 2.4 million degrees Celsius (most stars easily attain this temperature in their interiors), lithium is more abundant than current computations would predict in later-generation stars.
Lithium is also found in brown dwarf substellar objects and certain anomalous orange stars. Because lithium is present in cooler, less-massive brown dwarfs, but is destroyed in hotter red dwarf stars, its presence in the stars' spectra can be used in the "lithium test" to differentiate the two, as both are smaller than the Sun. Certain orange stars can also contain a high concentration of lithium. Those orange stars found to have a higher than usual concentration of lithium (such as Centaurus X-4) orbit massive objects—neutron stars or black holes—whose gravity evidently pulls heavier lithium to the surface of a hydrogen-helium star, causing more lithium to be observed.
On 27 May 2020, astronomers reported that classical nova explosions are galactic producers of lithium-7.
Although lithium is widely distributed on Earth, it does not naturally occur in elemental form due to its high reactivity. The total lithium content of seawater is very large and is estimated as 230 billion tonnes, where the element exists at a relatively constant concentration of 0.14 to 0.25 parts per million (ppm), or 25 micromolar; higher concentrations approaching 7 ppm are found near hydrothermal vents.
Estimates for the Earth's crustal content range from 20 to 70 ppm by weight. Lithium constitutes about 0.002 percent of Earth's crust. In keeping with its name, lithium forms a minor part of igneous rocks, with the largest concentrations in granites. Granitic pegmatites also provide the greatest abundance of lithium-containing minerals, with spodumene and petalite being the most commercially viable sources. Another significant mineral of lithium is lepidolite which is now an obsolete name for a series formed by polylithionite and trilithionite. A newer source for lithium is hectorite clay, the only active development of which is through the Western Lithium Corporation in the United States. At 20 mg lithium per kg of Earth's crust, lithium is the 25th most abundant element.
According to the Handbook of Lithium and Natural Calcium, "Lithium is a comparatively rare element, although it is found in many rocks and some brines, but always in very low concentrations. There are a fairly large number of both lithium mineral and brine deposits but only comparatively few of them are of actual or potential commercial value. Many are very small, others are too low in grade."
The US Geological Survey estimates that in 2020, Chile had the largest reserves by far (9.2 million tonnes), and Australia the highest annual production (40,000 tonnes). One of the largest reserve bases of lithium is in the Salar de Uyuni area of Bolivia, which has 5.4 million tonnes. Other major suppliers include Australia, Argentina and China. As of 2015, the Czech Geological Survey considered the entire Ore Mountains in the Czech Republic as lithium province. Five deposits are registered, one near Cínovec is considered as a potentially economical deposit, with 160 000 tonnes of lithium. In December 2019, Finnish mining company Keliber Oy reported its Rapasaari lithium deposit has estimated proven and probable ore reserves of 5.280 million tonnes.
In June 2010, The New York Times reported that American geologists were conducting ground surveys on dry salt lakes in western Afghanistan believing that large deposits of lithium are located there. These estimates are "based principally on old data, which was gathered mainly by the Soviets during their occupation of Afghanistan from 1979–1989". In Cornwall, England, the presence of brine rich in lithium was well-known due to the region's historic mining industry, and private investors have conducted tests to investigate potential lithium extraction in this area.
Lithium is found in trace amount in numerous plants, plankton, and invertebrates, at concentrations of 69 to 5,760 parts per billion (ppb). In vertebrates the concentration is slightly lower, and nearly all vertebrate tissue and body fluids contain lithium ranging from 21 to 763 ppb. Marine organisms tend to bioaccumulate lithium more than terrestrial organisms. Whether lithium has a physiological role in any of these organisms is unknown.
Petalite (LiAlSi4O10) was discovered in 1800 by the Brazilian chemist and statesman José Bonifácio de Andrada e Silva in a mine on the island of Utö, Sweden. However, it was not until 1817 that Johan August Arfwedson, then working in the laboratory of the chemist Jöns Jakob Berzelius, detected the presence of a new element while analyzing petalite ore. This element formed compounds similar to those of sodium and potassium, though its carbonate and hydroxide were less soluble in water and less alkaline. Berzelius gave the alkaline material the name "lithion/lithina", from the Greek word λιθoς (transliterated as lithos, meaning "stone"), to reflect its discovery in a solid mineral, as opposed to potassium, which had been discovered in plant ashes, and sodium, which was known partly for its high abundance in animal blood. He named the metal inside the material "lithium".
Arfwedson later showed that this same element was present in the minerals spodumene and lepidolite. In 1818, Christian Gmelin was the first to observe that lithium salts give a bright red color to flame. However, both Arfwedson and Gmelin tried and failed to isolate the pure element from its salts. It was not isolated until 1821, when William Thomas Brande obtained it by electrolysis of lithium oxide, a process that had previously been employed by the chemist Sir Humphry Davy to isolate the alkali metals potassium and sodium. Brande also described some pure salts of lithium, such as the chloride, and, estimating that lithia (lithium oxide) contained about 55% metal, estimated the atomic weight of lithium to be around 9.8 g/mol (modern value ~6.94 g/mol). In 1855, larger quantities of lithium were produced through the electrolysis of lithium chloride by Robert Bunsen and Augustus Matthiessen. The discovery of this procedure led to commercial production of lithium in 1923 by the German company Metallgesellschaft AG, which performed an electrolysis of a liquid mixture of lithium chloride and potassium chloride.
Australian psychiatrist John Cade is credited with reintroducing and popularizing the use of lithium to treat mania in 1949. Shortly after, throughout the mid 20th century, lithium's mood stabilizing applicability for mania and depression took off in Europe and the United States.
The production and use of lithium underwent several drastic changes in history. The first major application of lithium was in high-temperature lithium greases for aircraft engines and similar applications in World War II and shortly after. This use was supported by the fact that lithium-based soaps have a higher melting point than other alkali soaps, and are less corrosive than calcium based soaps. The small demand for lithium soaps and lubricating greases was supported by several small mining operations, mostly in the US.
The demand for lithium increased dramatically during the Cold War with the production of nuclear fusion weapons. Both lithium-6 and lithium-7 produce tritium when irradiated by neutrons, and are thus useful for the production of tritium by itself, as well as a form of solid fusion fuel used inside hydrogen bombs in the form of lithium deuteride. The US became the prime producer of lithium between the late 1950s and the mid 1980s. At the end, the stockpile of lithium was roughly 42,000 tonnes of lithium hydroxide. The stockpiled lithium was depleted in lithium-6 by 75%, which was enough to affect the measured atomic weight of lithium in many standardized chemicals, and even the atomic weight of lithium in some "natural sources" of lithium ion which had been "contaminated" by lithium salts discharged from isotope separation facilities, which had found its way into ground water.
Lithium is used to decrease the melting temperature of glass and to improve the melting behavior of aluminium oxide in the Hall-Héroult process. These two uses dominated the market until the middle of the 1990s. After the end of the nuclear arms race, the demand for lithium decreased and the sale of department of energy stockpiles on the open market further reduced prices. In the mid 1990s, several companies started to isolate lithium from brine which proved to be a less expensive option than underground or open-pit mining. Most of the mines closed or shifted their focus to other materials because only the ore from zoned pegmatites could be mined for a competitive price. For example, the US mines near Kings Mountain, North Carolina closed before the beginning of the 21st century.
The development of lithium ion batteries increased the demand for lithium and became the dominant use in 2007. With the surge of lithium demand in batteries in the 2000s, new companies have expanded brine isolation efforts to meet the rising demand.
It has been argued that lithium will be one of the main objects of geopolitical competition in a world running on renewable energy and dependent on batteries, but this perspective has also been criticised for underestimating the power of economic incentives for expanded production.
Chemistry and compounds
Lithium reacts with water easily, but with noticeably less vigor than other alkali metals. The reaction forms hydrogen gas and lithium hydroxide in aqueous solution. Because of its reactivity with water, lithium is usually stored in a hydrocarbon sealant, often petroleum jelly. Though the heavier alkali metals can be stored in denser substances such as mineral oil, lithium is not dense enough to fully submerge itself in these liquids. In moist air, lithium rapidly tarnishes to form a black coating of lithium hydroxide (LiOH and LiOH·H2O), lithium nitride (Li3N) and lithium carbonate (Li2CO3, the result of a secondary reaction between LiOH and CO2).
When placed over a flame, lithium compounds give off a striking crimson color, but when the metal burns strongly, the flame becomes a brilliant silver. Lithium will ignite and burn in oxygen when exposed to water or water vapors. Lithium is flammable, and it is potentially explosive when exposed to air and especially to water, though less so than the other alkali metals. The lithium-water reaction at normal temperatures is brisk but nonviolent because the hydrogen produced does not ignite on its own. As with all alkali metals, lithium fires are difficult to extinguish, requiring dry powder fire extinguishers (Class D type). Lithium is one of the few metals that react with nitrogen under normal conditions.
Lithium has a diagonal relationship with magnesium, an element of similar atomic and ionic radius. Chemical resemblances between the two metals include the formation of a nitride by reaction with N2, the formation of an oxide (Li
2O) and peroxide (Li
2) when burnt in O2, salts with similar solubilities, and thermal instability of the carbonates and nitrides. The metal reacts with hydrogen gas at high temperatures to produce lithium hydride (LiH).
Other known binary compounds include halides (LiF, LiCl, LiBr, LiI), sulfide (Li
2S), superoxide (LiO
2), and carbide (Li
2). Many other inorganic compounds are known in which lithium combines with anions to form salts: borates, amides, carbonate, nitrate, or borohydride (LiBH
4). Lithium aluminium hydride (LiAlH
4) is commonly used as a reducing agent in organic synthesis.
Unlike other elements in group 1, inorganic compounds of lithium follow the duet rule, rather than the octet rule.
Organolithium reagents are known in which there is a direct bond between carbon and lithium atoms. These compounds feature covalent metal–carbon bonds that are strongly polarized towards the carbon, allowing them to effectively serve as a metal-stabilized carbanions, although their solution and solid-state structures are more complex than this simplistic view suggests due to the formation of oligomeric clusters. Thus, these are extremely powerful bases and nucleophiles. They have also been applied in asymmetric synthesis in the pharmaceutical industry. For laboratory organic synthesis, many organolithium reagents are commercially available in solution form. These reagents are highly reactive, and are sometimes pyrophoric.
Like its inorganic compounds, almost all organic compounds of lithium formally follow the duet rule (e.g., BuLi, MeLi). However, it is important to note that in the absence of coordinating solvents or ligands, organolithium compounds form dimeric, tetrameric, and hexameric clusters (e.g., BuLi is actually [BuLi]6 and MeLi is actually [MeLi]4) which feature multi-center bonding and increase the coordination number around lithium. These clusters are broken down into smaller or monomeric units in the presence of solvents like dimethoxyethane (DME) or ligands like tetramethylethylenediamine (TMEDA). As an exception to the duet rule, a two-coordinate lithate complex with four electrons around lithium, [Li(thf)4]+[((Me3Si)3C)2Li]–, has been characterized crystallographically.
Lithium production has greatly increased since the end of World War II. The main sources of lithium are brines and ores.
Worldwide identified reserves in 2020 and 2021 were estimated by the US Geological Survey (USGS) to be 17 million and 21 million tonnes, respectively. An accurate estimate of world lithium reserves is difficult. One reason for this is that most lithium classification schemes are developed for solid ore deposits, whereas brine is a fluid that is problematic to treat with the same classification scheme due to varying concentrations and pumping effects.
Worldwide lithium resources identified by USGS started to increase in 2017 owing to continuing exploration. Identified resources in 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019 and 2020 were 41, 47, 54, 62 and 80 million tonnes, respectively.
The world in 2013 was estimated to contain about 15 million tonnes of lithium reserves, while 65 million tonnes of known resources were reasonable. A total of 75% of everything could typically be found in the ten largest deposits of the world. Another study noted that 83% of the geological resources of lithium are located in six brine, two pegmatite, and two sedimentary deposits.
The world's top four lithium-producing countries from 2019, as reported by the US Geological Survey are Australia, Chile, China and Argentina. The intersection of Chile, Bolivia, and Argentina make up the region known as the Lithium Triangle. The Lithium Triangle is known for its high quality salt flats including Bolivia's Salar de Uyuni, Chile's Salar de Atacama, and Argentina's Salar de Arizaro. The Lithium Triangle is believed to contain over 75% of existing known lithium reserves. Deposits are found in South America throughout the Andes mountain chain. Chile is the leading producer, followed by Argentina. Both countries recover lithium from brine pools. According to USGS, Bolivia's Uyuni Desert has 5.4 million tonnes of lithium. Half the world's known reserves are located in Bolivia along the central eastern slope of the Andes. In 2009, Bolivia negotiated with Japanese, French, and Korean firms to begin isolation.
|People's Republic of China||14,000||1,500,000||5,100,000|
In the US, lithium is recovered from brine pools in Nevada. A deposit discovered in 2013 in Wyoming's Rock Springs Uplift is estimated to contain 228,000 tons. Additional deposits in the same formation were estimated to be as much as 18 million tons.
Since 2018 the Democratic Republic of Congo is known to have the largest lithium spodumene hard rock deposit in the world. The total resource of the deposit located in Manono, central DRC, has the potential to be in the magnitude of 1.5 billion tons of lithium spodumene hard-rock. The two largest pegmatites (known as the Carriere de l'Este Pegmatite and the Roche Dure Pegmatite) are each of similar size or larger than the famous Greenbushes Pegmatite in Western Australia. In the near future by 2023, the Democratic Republic of Congo is expected to be a significant supplier of lithium to the world with its high grade and low impurities.
According to a later 2011 study by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the University of California, Berkeley, the then estimated reserve base of lithium should not be a limiting factor for large-scale battery production for electric vehicles because an estimated 1 billion 40 kWh Li-based batteries could be built with those reserves - about 10 kg of lithium per car. Another 2011 study at the University of Michigan and Ford Motor Company found enough resources to support global demand until 2100, including the lithium required for the potential widespread transportation use. The study estimated global reserves at 39 million tons, and total demand for lithium during the 90-year period annualized at 12–20 million tons, depending on the scenarios regarding economic growth and recycling rates.
In 2014, The Financialist stated that demand for lithium was growing at more than 12% a year. According to Credit Suisse, this rate exceeded projected availability by 25%. The publication compared the 2014 lithium situation with oil, whereby "higher oil prices spurred investment in expensive deepwater and oil sands production techniques"; that is, the price of lithium would continue to rise until more expensive production methods that could boost total output would receive the attention of investors.
In 2019, world production of lithium from spodumene was around 80,000t per annum, primarily from the Greenbushes pegmatite and from some Chinese and Chilean sources. The Talison mine in Greenbushes is reported to be the largest and to have the highest grade of ore at 2.4% Li2O (2012 figures).
In 1998, the price of lithium metal was about 95 USD/kg (or US$43/lb). After the 2007 financial crisis, major suppliers, such as Sociedad Química y Minera (SQM), dropped lithium carbonate pricing by 20%. Prices rose in 2012. A 2012 Business Week article outlined an oligopoly in the lithium space: "SQM, controlled by billionaire Julio Ponce, is the second-largest, followed by Rockwood, which is backed by Henry Kravis’s KKR & Co., and Philadelphia-based FMC", with Talison mentioned as the biggest producer. Global consumption may jump to 300,000 metric tons a year by 2020 from about 150,000 tons in 2012, to match the demand for lithium batteries that has been growing at about 25% a year, outpacing the 4% to 5% overall gain in lithium production.
Extraction and isolation
Lithium and its compounds were historically isolated and extracted from hard rock but by the 1990s mineral springs, brine pools, and brine deposits had become the dominant source. Most of these were in Chile, Argentina and Bolivia. by 2018 hard rock had once again become a significant contributor, and by 2020 Australia expanded spodumene mining to become the leading lithium producing country in the world. By early 2021, much of the lithium mined globally comes from either "spodumene, the mineral contained in hard rocks found in places such as Australia and North Carolina" or from the salty brine pumped directly out of the ground, as it is in locations in Chile.
In one method of making lithium intermediates from brine, the brine is first pumped up from underground pools and concentrated by solar evaporation. When the lithium concentration is sufficient, lithium carbonate and lithium hydroxide are precipitated by addition of sodium carbonate and calcium hydroxide respectively. Each batch takes from 18 to 24 months.
The use of electrodialysis and electrochemical intercalation has been proposed to extract lithium compounds from seawater (which contains lithium at 0.2 parts per million), but it is not yet commercially viable.
Another potential source of lithium. As of 2012 was identified as the leachates of geothermal wells, which are carried to the surface. Recovery of this type of lithium has been demonstrated in the field; the lithium is separated by simple filtration. Reserves are more limited than those of brine reservoirs and hard rock.
With substantial demand growth for lithium occurring in the 2020s, lithium mining and production companies are growing and some are experiencing marked increases in market valuation. Lithium Americas, Piedmont Lithium, AVZ Minerals and MP Materials stock prices have increased substantially as a result of the increased importance of lithium to the global economy. In 2021, AVZ Minerals, an Australian company, is developing the Manono Lithium and Tin project in Manono, DRC, the resource has high grade low impurities at 1.65% Li2O (Lithium oxide) spodumene hard-rock based on studies and drilling of Roche Dure, one of several pegmatites in the deposit. There is a push globally by the EU and major car manufacturers (OEM) for all lithium to be produced and sourced sustainably with ESG initiatives and zero to low carbon footprint. The AVZ Minerals Manono project has completed a GHG greenhouse study in 2021 into its future carbon footprint. This has become more commonplace now for batteries supply chain companies to comply with Environmental, social, and governance (ESG), sustainable practices, compliance with government environmental regulations, EIA and low carbon footprint performance, in order to be considered for financing/Investment activities and funds portfolios. Responsible investments is critical to help meet the Paris Agreement and the UN SDGs. The study shows the AVZ Minerals DRC Manono project to likely have one of the lowest carbon footprint of all the spodumene hard rock producers by 30% to 40% and some brine producers throughout the world. AVZ Minerals recently signed a long-term offtake partnership with major Ganfeng Lithium, China's largest lithium compounds producer. Importantly, the partnership makes provisions for both parties to focus on environmental, social and governance (ESG) development.
As of early 2021, Piedmont Lithium Ltd—an Australian company founded in 2016—is exploring 2,300 acres (930 ha) of land it owns or has mineral rights to in Gaston County, North Carolina. "The modern lithium-mining industry started in this North Carolina region in the 1950s, when the metal was used to make components for nuclear bombs. One of the world’s biggest lithium miners by production, Albemarle Corp, is based in nearby Charlotte. Nearly all of its lithium today, however, is extracted in Australia and Chile, which have large, accessible deposits of the metal." As of 2021, just one percent of global lithium supply is both mined and processed in the United States (3,150 t (6,940,000 lb)), while 233,550 t (514,890,000 lb) is produced in Australia and Chile.
It is expected that lithium will be recycled from end-of-life lithium-ion batteries in the future but as of 2020, there are insufficient quantities of batteries to recycle, and the technology is not well developed. In any case, the most valuable component is likely to remain the NCM cathode material, and the recovery of this material is expected to be the driver.
The manufacturing processes of lithium, including the solvent and mining waste, presents significant environmental and health hazards. Lithium extraction can be fatal to aquatic life due to water pollution. It is known to cause surface water contamination, drinking water contamination, respiratory problems, ecosystem degradation and landscape damage. It also leads to unsustainable water consumption in arid regions (1.9 million liters per ton of lithium). Massive byproduct generation of lithium extraction also presents unsolved problems, such as large amounts of magnesium and lime waste.
In the United States, there is active competition between environmentally catastrophic open-pit mining, mountaintop removal mining and less damaging brine extraction mining in an effort to drastically expand domestic lithium mining capacity. Environmental concerns include wildlife habitat degradation, potable water pollution including arsenic and antimony contamination, unsustainable water table reduction, and massive mining waste, including radioactive uranium byproduct and sulfuric acid discharge.
Currently, there are a number of options available in the marketplace to invest in the metal. While buying physical stock of lithium is hardly possible, investors can buy shares of companies engaged in lithium mining and producing. Also, investors can purchase a dedicated lithium ETF offering exposure to a group of commodity producers.
Lithium-ion batteries and Rechargeable batteries
By 2020 the dominant use for lithium produced, is in the manufacture of lithium ion batteries and electronic batteries for electric vehicles (EV) and portable electronics; mobile phones, tablets, laptops and numerous other wireless electronics finding their way to a new and large consumer market.
Ceramics and glass
Lithium oxide is widely used as a flux for processing silica, reducing the melting point and viscosity of the material and leading to glazes with improved physical properties including low coefficients of thermal expansion. Worldwide, this is one of the largest use for lithium compounds. Glazes containing lithium oxides are used for ovenware. Lithium carbonate (Li2CO3) is generally used in this application because it converts to the oxide upon heating.
Electrical and electronics
Late in the 20th century, lithium became an important component of battery electrolytes and electrodes, because of its high electrode potential. Because of its low atomic mass, it has a high charge- and power-to-weight ratio. A typical lithium-ion battery can generate approximately 3 volts per cell, compared with 2.1 volts for lead-acid and 1.5 volts for zinc-carbon. Lithium-ion batteries, which are rechargeable and have a high energy density, differ from lithium batteries, which are disposable (primary) batteries with lithium or its compounds as the anode. Other rechargeable batteries that use lithium include the lithium-ion polymer battery, lithium iron phosphate battery, and the nanowire battery.
Over the years opinions have been differing about potential growth. A 2008 study concluded that "realistically achievable lithium carbonate production would be sufficient for only a small fraction of future PHEV and EV global market requirements", that "demand from the portable electronics sector will absorb much of the planned production increases in the next decade", and that "mass production of lithium carbonate is not environmentally sound, it will cause irreparable ecological damage to ecosystems that should be protected and that LiIon propulsion is incompatible with the notion of the 'Green Car'".
The third most common use of lithium is in greases. Lithium hydroxide is a strong base and, when heated with a fat, produces a soap made of lithium stearate. Lithium soap has the ability to thicken oils, and it is used to manufacture all-purpose, high-temperature lubricating greases.
Lithium (e.g. as lithium carbonate) is used as an additive to continuous casting mould flux slags where it increases fluidity, a use which accounts for 5% of global lithium use (2011). Lithium compounds are also used as additives (fluxes) to foundry sand for iron casting to reduce veining.
Lithium (as lithium fluoride) is used as an additive to aluminium smelters (Hall–Héroult process), reducing melting temperature and increasing electrical resistance, a use which accounts for 3% of production (2011).
When used as a flux for welding or soldering, metallic lithium promotes the fusing of metals during the process and eliminates the forming of oxides by absorbing impurities. Alloys of the metal with aluminium, cadmium, copper and manganese are used to make high-performance aircraft parts (see also Lithium-aluminium alloys).
Other chemical and industrial uses
Lithium chloride and lithium bromide are hygroscopic and are used as desiccants for gas streams. Lithium hydroxide and lithium peroxide are the salts most used in confined areas, such as aboard spacecraft and submarines, for carbon dioxide removal and air purification. Lithium hydroxide absorbs carbon dioxide from the air by forming lithium carbonate, and is preferred over other alkaline hydroxides for its low weight.
- 2 Li2O2 + 2 CO2 → 2 Li2CO3 + O2.
Some of the aforementioned compounds, as well as lithium perchlorate, are used in oxygen candles that supply submarines with oxygen. These can also include small amounts of boron, magnesium, aluminum, silicon, titanium, manganese, and iron.
Lithium fluoride, artificially grown as crystal, is clear and transparent and often used in specialist optics for IR, UV and VUV (vacuum UV) applications. It has one of the lowest refractive indexes and the furthest transmission range in the deep UV of most common materials. Finely divided lithium fluoride powder has been used for thermoluminescent radiation dosimetry (TLD): when a sample of such is exposed to radiation, it accumulates crystal defects which, when heated, resolve via a release of bluish light whose intensity is proportional to the absorbed dose, thus allowing this to be quantified. Lithium fluoride is sometimes used in focal lenses of telescopes.
The high non-linearity of lithium niobate also makes it useful in non-linear optics applications. It is used extensively in telecommunication products such as mobile phones and optical modulators, for such components as resonant crystals. Lithium applications are used in more than 60% of mobile phones.
Organic and polymer chemistry
Organolithium compounds are widely used in the production of polymer and fine-chemicals. In the polymer industry, which is the dominant consumer of these reagents, alkyl lithium compounds are catalysts/initiators. in anionic polymerization of unfunctionalized olefins. For the production of fine chemicals, organolithium compounds function as strong bases and as reagents for the formation of carbon-carbon bonds. Organolithium compounds are prepared from lithium metal and alkyl halides.
Many other lithium compounds are used as reagents to prepare organic compounds. Some popular compounds include lithium aluminium hydride (LiAlH4), lithium triethylborohydride, n-butyllithium and tert-butyllithium.
Metallic lithium and its complex hydrides, such as Li[AlH4], are used as high-energy additives to rocket propellants. Lithium aluminum hydride can also be used by itself as a solid fuel.
The Mark 50 torpedo stored chemical energy propulsion system (SCEPS) uses a small tank of sulfur hexafluoride, which is sprayed over a block of solid lithium. The reaction generates heat, creating steam to propel the torpedo in a closed Rankine cycle.
Lithium hydride containing lithium-6 is used in thermonuclear weapons, where it serves as fuel for the fusion stage of the bomb.
Lithium-6 is valued as a source material for tritium production and as a neutron absorber in nuclear fusion. Natural lithium contains about 7.5% lithium-6 from which large amounts of lithium-6 have been produced by isotope separation for use in nuclear weapons. Lithium-7 gained interest for use in nuclear reactor coolants.
Lithium deuteride was the fusion fuel of choice in early versions of the hydrogen bomb. When bombarded by neutrons, both 6Li and 7Li produce tritium — this reaction, which was not fully understood when hydrogen bombs were first tested, was responsible for the runaway yield of the Castle Bravo nuclear test. Tritium fuses with deuterium in a fusion reaction that is relatively easy to achieve. Although details remain secret, lithium-6 deuteride apparently still plays a role in modern nuclear weapons as a fusion material.
Lithium fluoride, when highly enriched in the lithium-7 isotope, forms the basic constituent of the fluoride salt mixture LiF-BeF2 used in liquid fluoride nuclear reactors. Lithium fluoride is exceptionally chemically stable and LiF-BeF2 mixtures have low melting points. In addition, 7Li, Be, and F are among the few nuclides with low enough thermal neutron capture cross-sections not to poison the fission reactions inside a nuclear fission reactor.
In conceptualized (hypothetical) nuclear fusion power plants, lithium will be used to produce tritium in magnetically confined reactors using deuterium and tritium as the fuel. Naturally occurring tritium is extremely rare, and must be synthetically produced by surrounding the reacting plasma with a 'blanket' containing lithium where neutrons from the deuterium-tritium reaction in the plasma will fission the lithium to produce more tritium:
- 6Li + n → 4He + 3H.
Lithium is also used as a source for alpha particles, or helium nuclei. When 7Li is bombarded by accelerated protons 8Be is formed, which undergoes fission to form two alpha particles. This feat, called "splitting the atom" at the time, was the first fully man-made nuclear reaction. It was produced by Cockroft and Walton in 1932.
In 2013, the US Government Accountability Office said a shortage of lithium-7 critical to the operation of 65 out of 100 American nuclear reactors "places their ability to continue to provide electricity at some risk". Castle Bravo first used lithium-7, in the Shrimp, its first device, which weighed only 10 tons, and generated massive nuclear atmospheric contamination of Bikini Atoll. This perhaps accounts for the decline of US nuclear infrastructure. The equipment needed to separate lithium-6 from lithium-7 is mostly a cold war leftover. The US shut down most of this machinery in 1963, when it had a huge surplus of separated lithium, mostly consumed during the twentieth century. The report said it would take five years and $10 million to $12 million to reestablish the ability to separate lithium-6 from lithium-7.
Reactors that use lithium-7 heat water under high pressure and transfer heat through heat exchangers that are prone to corrosion. The reactors use lithium to counteract the corrosive effects of boric acid, which is added to the water to absorb excess neutrons.
Lithium is useful in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Lithium salts may also be helpful for related diagnoses, such as schizoaffective disorder and cyclic major depression. The active part of these salts is the lithium ion Li+. They may increase the risk of developing Ebstein's cardiac anomaly in infants born to women who take lithium during the first trimester of pregnancy.
Primary food sources of lithium are grains and vegetables, and, in some areas, drinking water also contains significant amounts. Human intake varies depending on location and diet.
Lithium was first detected in human organs and fetal tissues in the late 19th century. In humans there are no defined lithium deficiency diseases, but low lithium intakes from water supplies were associated with increased rates of suicides, homicides and the arrest rates for drug use and other crimes. The biochemical mechanisms of action of lithium appear to be multifactorial and are intercorrelated with the functions of several enzymes, hormones and vitamins, as well as with growth and transforming factors.
|GHS Signal word||Danger|
GHS hazard statements
GHS precautionary statements
|P223, P231+232, P280, P305+351+338, P370+378, P422|
|NFPA 704 (fire diamond)|
Lithium metal is corrosive and requires special handling to avoid skin contact. Breathing lithium dust or lithium compounds (which are often alkaline) initially irritate the nose and throat, while higher exposure can cause a buildup of fluid in the lungs, leading to pulmonary edema. The metal itself is a handling hazard because contact with moisture produces the caustic lithium hydroxide. Lithium is safely stored in non-reactive compounds such as naphtha.
- Cosmological lithium problem
- Halo nucleus
- Isotopes of lithium
- List of countries by lithium production
- Lithia water
- Lithium–air battery
- Lithium as an investment
- Lithium burning
- Lithium compounds (category)
- Lithium-ion battery
- Appendixes Archived 6 November 2011 at the Wayback Machine. By USGS definitions, the reserve base "may encompass those parts of the resources that have a reasonable potential for becoming economically available within planning horizons beyond those that assume proven technology and current economics. The reserve base includes those resources that are currently economic (reserves), marginally economic (marginal reserves), and some of those that are currently subeconomic (subeconomic resources)."
- In 2013
- Beryllium and fluorine occur only as one isotope, 9Be and 19F respectively. These two, together with 7Li, as well as 2H, 11B, 15N, 209Bi, and the stable isotopes of C, and O, are the only nuclides with low enough thermal neutron capture cross sections aside from actinides to serve as major constituents of a molten salt breeder reactor fuel.
- Weast, Robert (1984). CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. pp. E110. ISBN 0-8493-0464-4.
- Numerical data from: Lodders, Katharina (10 July 2003). "Solar System Abundances and Condensation Temperatures of the Elements" (PDF). The Astrophysical Journal. The American Astronomical Society. 591 (2): 1220–1247. Bibcode:2003ApJ...591.1220L. doi:10.1086/375492. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 November 2015. Retrieved 1 September 2015. Graphed at File:SolarSystemAbundances.jpg
- Nuclear Weapon Design. Federation of American Scientists (21 October 1998). fas.org
- Krebs, Robert E. (2006). The History and Use of Our Earth's Chemical Elements: A Reference Guide. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0-313-33438-2.
- Huang, Chuanfu; Kresin, Vitaly V. (June 2016). "Note: Contamination-free loading of lithium metal into a nozzle source". Review of Scientific Instruments. 87 (6): 066105. Bibcode:2016RScI...87f6105H. doi:10.1063/1.4953918. ISSN 0034-6748. PMID 27370506.
- Addison, C. C. (1984). The chemistry of the liquid alkali metals. Chichester [West Sussex]: Wiley. ISBN 978-0471905080. OCLC 10751785.
- "It's Elemental - The Element Lithium". education.jlab.org. Archived from the original on 5 October 2019. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
- "Nitrogen, N2, Physical properties, safety, MSDS, enthalpy, material compatibility, gas liquid equilibrium, density, viscosity, inflammability, transport properties". Encyclopedia.airliquide.com. Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 29 September 2010.
- "Coefficients of Linear Expansion". Engineering Toolbox. Archived from the original on 30 November 2012. Retrieved 9 January 2011.
- Tuoriniemi, Juha; Juntunen-Nurmilaukas, Kirsi; Uusvuori, Johanna; Pentti, Elias; Salmela, Anssi; Sebedash, Alexander (2007). "Superconductivity in lithium below 0.4 millikelvin at ambient pressure". Nature. 447 (7141): 187–9. Bibcode:2007Natur.447..187T. doi:10.1038/nature05820. PMID 17495921. S2CID 4430500. Archived from the original on 25 June 2019. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
- Struzhkin, V. V.; Eremets, M. I.; Gan, W; Mao, H. K.; Hemley, R. J. (2002). "Superconductivity in dense lithium". Science. 298 (5596): 1213–5. Bibcode:2002Sci...298.1213S. doi:10.1126/science.1078535. PMID 12386338. S2CID 21030510.
- Overhauser, A. W. (1984). "Crystal Structure of Lithium at 4.2 K". Physical Review Letters. 53 (1): 64–65. Bibcode:1984PhRvL..53...64O. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.53.64.
- Schwarz, Ulrich (2004). "Metallic high-pressure modifications of main group elements". Zeitschrift für Kristallographie. 219 (6–2004): 376–390. Bibcode:2004ZK....219..376S. doi:10.1524/zkri.219.6.376.34637. S2CID 56006683.
- Hammond, C. R. (2000). The Elements, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (81st ed.). CRC press. ISBN 978-0-8493-0481-1.
- SPECIFIC HEAT OF SOLIDS. bradley.edu
- Emsley, John (2001). Nature's Building Blocks. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-850341-5.
- "Isotopes of Lithium". Berkeley National Laboratory, The Isotopes Project. Archived from the original on 13 May 2008. Retrieved 21 April 2008.
- File:Binding energy curve - common isotopes.svg shows binding energies of stable nuclides graphically; the source of the data-set is given in the figure background.
- Sonzogni, Alejandro. "Interactive Chart of Nuclides". National Nuclear Data Center: Brookhaven National Laboratory. Archived from the original on 23 July 2007. Retrieved 6 June 2008.
- Asplund, M.; et al. (2006). "Lithium Isotopic Abundances in Metal-poor Halo Stars". The Astrophysical Journal. 644 (1): 229–259. arXiv:astro-ph/0510636. Bibcode:2006ApJ...644..229A. doi:10.1086/503538. S2CID 394822.
- Chaussidon, M.; Robert, F.; McKeegan, K. D. (2006). "Li and B isotopic variations in an Allende CAI: Evidence for the in situ decay of short-lived 10Be and for the possible presence of the short−lived nuclide 7Be in the early solar system" (PDF). Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 70 (1): 224–245. Bibcode:2006GeCoA..70..224C. doi:10.1016/j.gca.2005.08.016. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 July 2010.
- Denissenkov, P. A.; Weiss, A. (2000). "Episodic lithium production by extra-mixing in red giants". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 358: L49–L52. arXiv:astro-ph/0005356. Bibcode:2000A&A...358L..49D.
- Seitz, H. M.; Brey, G. P.; Lahaye, Y.; Durali, S.; Weyer, S. (2004). "Lithium isotopic signatures of peridotite xenoliths and isotopic fractionation at high temperature between olivine and pyroxenes". Chemical Geology. 212 (1–2): 163–177. Bibcode:2004ChGeo.212..163S. doi:10.1016/j.chemgeo.2004.08.009.
- Duarte, F. J (2009). Tunable Laser Applications. CRC Press. p. 330. ISBN 978-1-4200-6009-6.
- Coplen, T. B.; Bohlke, J. K.; De Bievre, P.; Ding, T.; Holden, N. E.; Hopple, J. A.; Krouse, H. R.; Lamberty, A.; Peiser, H. S.; et al. (2002). "Isotope-abundance variations of selected elements (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure and Applied Chemistry. 74 (10): 1987. doi:10.1351/pac200274101987.
- Truscott, Andrew G.; Strecker, Kevin E.; McAlexander, William I.; Partridge, Guthrie B.; Hulet, Randall G. (30 March 2001). "Observation of Fermi Pressure in a Gas of Trapped Atoms". Science. 291 (5513): 2570–2572. Bibcode:2001Sci...291.2570T. doi:10.1126/science.1059318. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 11283362. S2CID 31126288. Archived from the original on 13 March 2021. Retrieved 11 January 2020.
- "Element Abundances" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 September 2006. Retrieved 17 November 2009.
- Boesgaard, A. M.; Steigman, G. (1985). "Big bang nucleosynthesis – Theories and observations". Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics. Palo Alto, CA. 23: 319–378. Bibcode:1985ARA&A..23..319B. doi:10.1146/annurev.aa.23.090185.001535. A86-14507 04–90.
- Woo, Marcus (21 February 2017). "The Cosmic Explosions That Made the Universe". earth. BBC. Archived from the original on 21 February 2017. Retrieved 21 February 2017.
A mysterious cosmic factory is producing lithium. Scientists are now getting closer at finding out where it comes from
- Cain, Fraser (16 August 2006). "Why Old Stars Seem to Lack Lithium". Archived from the original on 4 June 2016.
- "First Detection of Lithium from an Exploding Star". Archived from the original on 1 August 2015. Retrieved 29 July 2015.
- Cain, Fraser. "Brown Dwarf". Universe Today. Archived from the original on 25 February 2011. Retrieved 17 November 2009.
- Reid, Neill (10 March 2002). "L Dwarf Classification". Archived from the original on 21 May 2013. Retrieved 6 March 2013.
- Arizona State University (1 June 2020). "Class of stellar explosions found to be galactic producers of lithium". EurekAlert!. Archived from the original on 3 June 2020. Retrieved 2 June 2020.
- Starrfield, Sumner; et al. (27 May 2020). "Carbon–Oxygen Classical Novae Are Galactic 7Li Producers as well as Potential Supernova Ia Progenitors". The Astrophysical Journal. 895 (1): 70. arXiv:1910.00575. Bibcode:2020ApJ...895...70S. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ab8d23. S2CID 203610207.
- "Lithium Occurrence". Institute of Ocean Energy, Saga University, Japan. Archived from the original on 2 May 2009. Retrieved 13 March 2009.
- "Some Facts about Lithium". ENC Labs. Archived from the original on 10 July 2011. Retrieved 15 October 2010.
- Schwochau, Klaus (1984). "Extraction of metals from sea water". Inorganic Chemistry. Topics in Current Chemistry. 124. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. pp. 91–133. doi:10.1007/3-540-13534-0_3. ISBN 978-3-540-13534-0.
- Kamienski, Conrad W.; McDonald, Daniel P.; Stark, Marshall W.; Papcun, John R. (2004). "Lithium and lithium compounds". Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. doi:10.1002/0471238961.1209200811011309.a01.pub2. ISBN 978-0471238966.
- "lithium". Britannica encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 5 August 2020. Retrieved 4 August 2020.
- Atkins, Peter (2010). Shriver & Atkins' Inorganic Chemistry (5th ed.). New York: W. H. Freeman and Company. p. 296. ISBN 978-0199236176.
- "Mindat.org - Mines, Minerals and More". www.mindat.org. Archived from the original on 22 April 2011. Retrieved 4 August 2019.
- Moores, S. (June 2007). "Between a rock and a salt lake". Industrial Minerals. 477: 58.
- Taylor, S. R.; McLennan, S. M.; The continental crust: Its composition and evolution, Blackwell Sci. Publ., Oxford, 330 pp. (1985). Cited in Abundances of the elements (data page)
- Garrett, Donald (2004) Handbook of Lithium and Natural Calcium, Academic Press, cited in The Trouble with Lithium 2 Archived 14 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Meridian International Research (2008)
- "Mineral Commodity Summaries 2021" (PDF). U.S. Geological Survey. February 2021. Retrieved 17 March 2021.
- Lithium Statistics and Information, U.S. Geological Survey, 2018, archived from the original on 3 March 2016, retrieved 25 July 2002
- "The Trouble with Lithium 2" (PDF). Meridian International Research. 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 July 2011. Retrieved 29 September 2010.
- Czech Geological Survey (October 2015). Mineral Commodity Summaries of the Czech Republic 2015 (PDF). Prague: Czech Geological Survey. p. 373. ISBN 978-80-7075-904-2. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 January 2017.
- "Ore Reserve grows its Finland lithium deposit by 50%". 2019. Archived from the original on 10 December 2019. Retrieved 10 December 2019.
- Risen, James (13 June 2010). "U.S. Identifies Vast Riches of Minerals in Afghanistan". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 17 June 2010. Retrieved 13 June 2010.
- Page, Jeremy; Evans, Michael (15 June 2010). "Taleban zones mineral riches may rival Saudi Arabia says Pentagon". The Times. London. Archived from the original on 14 May 2011.
- Bliss, Dominic (28 May 2021). "National Geographic". In Cornwall, ruinous tin and copper mines are yielding battery-grade lithium. Here's what that means. Retrieved 13 June 2021.
- "Cornwall lithium deposits 'globally significant'". BBC. 17 September 2020. Retrieved 13 June 2021.
- Chassard-Bouchaud, C.; Galle, P.; Escaig, F.; Miyawaki, M. (1984). "Bioaccumulation of lithium by marine organisms in European, American, and Asian coastal zones: microanalytic study using secondary ion emission". Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences, Série III. 299 (18): 719–24. PMID 6440674.
- D'Andraba (1800). "Des caractères et des propriétés de plusieurs nouveaux minérauxde Suède et de Norwège, avec quelques observations chimiques faites sur ces substances". Journal de Physique, de Chimie, d'Histoire Naturelle, et des Arts. 51: 239. Archived from the original on 13 July 2015.
- "Petalite Mineral Information". Mindat.org. Archived from the original on 16 February 2009. Retrieved 10 August 2009.
- "Lithium:Historical information". Archived from the original on 16 October 2009. Retrieved 10 August 2009.
- Weeks, Mary (2003). Discovery of the Elements. Whitefish, Montana, United States: Kessinger Publishing. p. 124. ISBN 978-0-7661-3872-8. Retrieved 10 August 2009.
- Berzelius (1817). "Ein neues mineralisches Alkali und ein neues Metall" [A new mineral alkali and a new metal]. Journal für Chemie und Physik. 21: 44–48. Archived from the original on 3 December 2016. From p. 45: "Herr August Arfwedson, ein junger sehr verdienstvoller Chemiker, der seit einem Jahre in meinem Laboratorie arbeitet, fand bei einer Analyse des Petalits von Uto's Eisengrube, einen alkalischen Bestandtheil, … Wir haben es Lithion genannt, um dadurch auf seine erste Entdeckung im Mineralreich anzuspielen, da die beiden anderen erst in der organischen Natur entdeckt wurden. Sein Radical wird dann Lithium genannt werden." (Mr. August Arfwedson, a young, very meritorious chemist, who has worked in my laboratory for a year, found during an analysis of petalite from Uto's iron mine, an alkaline component … We've named it lithion, in order to allude thereby to its first discovery in the mineral realm, since the two others were first discovered in organic nature. Its radical will then be named "lithium".)
- "Johan August Arfwedson". Periodic Table Live!. Archived from the original on 7 October 2010. Retrieved 10 August 2009.
- "Johan Arfwedson". Archived from the original on 5 June 2008. Retrieved 10 August 2009.
- van der Krogt, Peter. "Lithium". Elementymology & Elements Multidict. Archived from the original on 16 June 2011. Retrieved 5 October 2010.
- Clark, Jim (2005). "Compounds of the Group 1 Elements". Archived from the original on 11 March 2009. Retrieved 10 August 2009.
- Arwedson, Aug. (1818) "Undersökning af några vid Utö Jernmalmsbrott förekommende Fossilier, och af ett deri funnet eget Eldfast Alkali" Archived 25 November 2017 at the Wayback Machine, Afhandlingar i Fysik, Kemi och Mineralogi, 6 : 145–172. (in Swedish)
- Arwedson, Aug. (1818) "Untersuchung einiger bei der Eisen-Grube von Utö vorkommenden Fossilien und von einem darin gefundenen neuen feuerfesten Alkali" Archived 13 March 2021 at the Wayback Machine (Investigation of some minerals occurring at the iron mines of Utö and of a new refractory alkali found therein), Journal für Chemie und Physik, 22 (1) : 93–117. (in German)
- Gmelin, C. G. (1818). "Von dem Lithon" [On lithium]. Annalen der Physik. 59 (7): 238–241. Bibcode:1818AnP....59..229G. doi:10.1002/andp.18180590702. Archived from the original on 9 November 2015.
p. 238 Es löste sich in diesem ein Salz auf, das an der Luft zerfloss, und nach Art der Strontiansalze den Alkohol mit einer purpurrothen Flamme brennen machte. (There dissolved in this [solvent; namely, absolute alcohol] a salt that deliquesced in air, and in the manner of strontium salts, caused the alcohol to burn with a purple-red flame.)
- Enghag, Per (2004). Encyclopedia of the Elements: Technical Data – History –Processing – Applications. Wiley. pp. 287–300. ISBN 978-3-527-30666-4.
- Brande, William Thomas (1821) A Manual of Chemistry, 2nd ed. London, England: John Murray, vol. 2, pp. 57-58. Archived 22 November 2015 at the Wayback Machine
- Various authors (1818). "The Quarterly journal of science and the arts". The Quarterly Journal of Science and the Arts. Royal Institution of Great Britain. 5: 338. Archived from the original on 13 March 2021. Retrieved 5 October 2010.
- "Timeline science and engineering". DiracDelta Science & Engineering Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 5 December 2008. Retrieved 18 September 2008.
- Brande, William Thomas; MacNeven, William James (1821). A manual of chemistry. Long. p. 191. Retrieved 8 October 2010.
- Bunsen, R. (1855). "Darstellung des Lithiums" [Preparation of lithium]. Annalen der Chemie und Pharmacie. 94: 107–111. doi:10.1002/jlac.18550940112. Archived from the original on 6 November 2018. Retrieved 13 August 2015.
- Green, Thomas (11 June 2006). "Analysis of the Element Lithium". echeat. Archived from the original on 21 April 2012.
- Garrett, Donald E. (5 April 2004). Handbook of Lithium and Natural Calcium Chloride. p. 99. ISBN 9780080472904. Archived from the original on 3 December 2016.
- Shorter, Edward (June 2009). "The history of lithium therapy". Bipolar Disorders. 11 (Suppl 2): 4–9. doi:10.1111/j.1399-5618.2009.00706.x. ISSN 1398-5647. PMC 3712976. PMID 19538681.
- Ober, Joyce A. (1994). "Commodity Report 1994: Lithium" (PDF). United States Geological Survey. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 June 2010. Retrieved 3 November 2010.
- Deberitz, Jürgen; Boche, Gernot (2003). "Lithium und seine Verbindungen - Industrielle, medizinische und wissenschaftliche Bedeutung". Chemie in unserer Zeit. 37 (4): 258–266. doi:10.1002/ciuz.200300264.
- Bauer, Richard (1985). "Lithium - wie es nicht im Lehrbuch steht". Chemie in unserer Zeit. 19 (5): 167–173. doi:10.1002/ciuz.19850190505.
- Ober, Joyce A. (1994). "Minerals Yearbook 2007 : Lithium" (PDF). United States Geological Survey. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 July 2010. Retrieved 3 November 2010.
- Kogel, Jessica Elzea (2006). "Lithium". Industrial minerals & rocks: commodities, markets, and uses. Littleton, Colo.: Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration. p. 599. ISBN 978-0-87335-233-8. Archived from the original on 7 November 2020. Retrieved 6 November 2020.
- McKetta, John J. (18 July 2007). Encyclopedia of Chemical Processing and Design: Volume 28 – Lactic Acid to Magnesium Supply-Demand Relationships. M. Dekker. ISBN 978-0-8247-2478-8. Archived from the original on 28 May 2013.
- Overland, Indra (1 March 2019). "The geopolitics of renewable energy: Debunking four emerging myths" (PDF). Energy Research & Social Science. 49: 36–40. doi:10.1016/j.erss.2018.10.018. ISSN 2214-6296. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 March 2021. Retrieved 25 August 2019.
- "XXIV.—On chemical analysis by spectrum-observations". Quarterly Journal of the Chemical Society of London. 13 (3): 270. 1861. doi:10.1039/QJ8611300270.
- Krebs, Robert E. (2006). The history and use of our earth's chemical elements: a reference guide. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 47. ISBN 978-0-313-33438-2. Archived from the original on 4 August 2016.
- Institute, American Geological; Union, American Geophysical; Society, Geochemical (1 January 1994). "Geochemistry international". 31 (1–4): 115. Archived from the original on 4 June 2016. Cite journal requires
- Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1984). Chemistry of the Elements. Oxford: Pergamon Press. pp. 97–99. ISBN 978-0-08-022057-4.
- Beckford, Floyd. "University of Lyon course online (powerpoint) slideshow". Archived from the original on 4 November 2005. Retrieved 27 July 2008.
definitions:Slides 8–10 (Chapter 14)
- Bretislav Friedrich (8 April 2013). "APS Physics". Physics. 6: 42. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016.
- Sapse, Anne-Marie & von R. Schleyer, Paul (1995). Lithium chemistry: a theoretical and experimental overview. Wiley-IEEE. pp. 3–40. ISBN 978-0-471-54930-7. Archived from the original on 31 July 2016.
- Nichols, Michael A.; Williard, Paul G. (1 February 1993). "Solid-state structures of n-butyllithium-TMEDA, -THF, and -DME complexes". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 115 (4): 1568–1572. doi:10.1021/ja00057a050. ISSN 0002-7863.
- C., Mehrotra, R. (2009). Organometallic chemistry : a unified approach. [Place of publication not identified]: New Age International Pvt. ISBN 978-8122412581. OCLC 946063142.
- Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. p. 73. ISBN 978-0-08-037941-8.
- Tarascon, J. M. (2010). "Is lithium the new gold?". Nature Chemistry. 2 (6): 510. Bibcode:2010NatCh...2..510T. doi:10.1038/nchem.680. PMID 20489722.
- Woody, Todd (19 October 2011). "Lithium: The New California Gold Rush". Forbes. Archived from the original on 19 December 2014.
- Houston, J.; Butcher, A.; Ehren, P.; Evans, K.; Godfrey, L. (2011). "The Evaluation of Brine Prospects and the Requirement for Modifications to Filing Standards" (PDF). Economic Geology. 106 (7): 1225–1239. doi:10.2113/econgeo.106.7.1225. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 July 2018. Retrieved 28 June 2019.
- Vikström, H.; Davidsson, S.; Höök, M. (2013). "Lithium availability and future production outlooks". Applied Energy. 110 (10): 252–266. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2013.04.005. Archived from the original on 11 October 2017. Retrieved 11 October 2017.
- Grosjean, P.W.; Medina, P.A.; Keoleian, G.A.; Kesler, S.E.; Everson, M.P; Wallington, T.J. (2011). "Global Lithium Availability: A Constraint for Electric Vehicles?". Journal of Industrial Ecology. 15 (5): 760–775. doi:10.1111/j.1530-9290.2011.00359.x. hdl:2027.42/87046. S2CID 4734596.
- Halpern, Abel (30 January 2014). "The Lithium Triangle". Latin Trade. Archived from the original on 10 June 2018.
- Romero, Simon (2 February 2009). "In Bolivia, a Tight Grip on the Next Big Resource". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 1 July 2017.
- "USGS Mineral Commodities Summaries 2009" (PDF). USGS. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 June 2010.
- Money Game Contributors (26 April 2013). "New Wyoming Lithium Deposit". Business Insider. Archived from the original on 3 May 2013.
- "This Congo project could supply the world with lithium". MiningDotCom. 10 December 2018. Retrieved 26 March 2021.
- Wadia, Cyrus; Albertus, Paul; Srinivasan, Venkat (2011). "Resource constraints on the battery energy storage potential for grid and transportation applications". Journal of Power Sources. 196 (3): 1593–8. Bibcode:2011JPS...196.1593W. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2010.08.056. Archived from the original on 13 March 2021. Retrieved 28 June 2019.
- Gaines, LL.; Nelson, P. (2010). "Lithium-Ion Batteries: Examining Material Demand and Recycling Issues". Argonne National Laboratory. Archived from the original on 3 August 2016. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- "University of Michigan and Ford researchers see plentiful lithium resources for electric vehicles". Green Car Congress. 3 August 2011. Archived from the original on 16 September 2011.
- "The Precious Mobile Metal". The Financialist. Credit Suisse. 9 June 2014. Archived from the original on 23 February 2016. Retrieved 19 June 2014.
- "Plateau Energy Metals Peru unit finds large lithium resources". Reuters. 16 July 2018. Archived from the original on 26 July 2018.
- "Greenbushes Lithium Mine". Golden Dragon Capital. Archived from the original on 19 January 2019. Retrieved 18 January 2019.
- Sixie Yang; Fan Zhang; Huaiping Ding; Ping He (19 September 2018). "Lithium Metal Extraction from Seawater". Joule. Elsevier. 2 (9): 1648–1651. doi:10.1016/j.joule.2018.07.006. Archived from the original on 19 January 2021. Retrieved 21 October 2020.
- Ober, Joyce A. "Lithium" (PDF). United States Geological Survey. pp. 77–78. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 July 2007. Retrieved 19 August 2007.
- "SQM Announces New Lithium Prices – SANTIAGO, Chile". PR Newswire. 30 September 2009. Archived from the original on 30 May 2013.
- Riseborough, Jesse. "IPad Boom Strains Lithium Supplies After Prices Triple". Bloomberg BusinessWeek. Archived from the original on 22 June 2012. Retrieved 1 May 2013.
- Patterson, Scott; Ramkumar, Amrith (9 March 2021). "America's Battery-Powered Car Hopes Ride on Lithium. One Producer Paves the Way". Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 12 March 2021. Retrieved 13 March 2021.
- Cafariello, Joseph (10 March 2014). "Lithium: A Long-Term Investment Buy Lithium!". wealthdaily.com. Archived from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 24 April 2015.
- Kaskey, Jack (16 July 2014). "Largest Lithium Deal Triggered by Smartphones and Teslas". bloomberg.com. Archived from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 24 April 2015.
- Marcelo Azevedo, Nicolò Campagnol, Toralf Hagenbruch, Ken Hoffman, Ajay Lala, Oliver Ramsbottom (June 2018). "Lithium and cobalt – a tale of two commodities". McKinsey. p. 9. Archived from the original on 11 December 2019. Retrieved 29 January 2020.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- "An Overview of Commercial Lithium Production by Terence Bell, Updated May 15, 2017". Archived from the original on 4 August 2020. Retrieved 15 November 2020.
- Martin, Richard (8 June 2015). "Quest to Mine Seawater for Lithium Advances". MIT Technology Review. Retrieved 10 February 2016.
- Chong Liu, Yanbin Li, Dingchang Lin, Po-Chun Hsu, Bofei Liu, Gangbin Yan, Tong Wu Yi Cui & Steven Chu (2020). "Lithium Extraction from Seawater through Pulsed Electrochemical Intercalation". Joule. 4 (7): 1459–1469. doi:10.1016/j.joule.2020.05.017. Archived from the original on 13 March 2021. Retrieved 26 December 2020.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
- Tsuyoshi Hoshino (2015). "Innovative lithium recovery technique from seawater by using world-first dialysis with a lithium ionic superconductor". Desalination. 359: 59–63. doi:10.1016/j.desal.2014.12.018. Archived from the original on 16 November 2020. Retrieved 26 December 2020.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
- Robert F. Service (13 July 2020). "Seawater could provide nearly unlimited amounts of critical battery material". Science. Archived from the original on 13 January 2021. Retrieved 26 December 2020.
- Parker, Ann. Mining Geothermal Resources Archived 17 September 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
- Patel, P. (16 November 2011) Startup to Capture Lithium from Geothermal Plants. technologyreview.com
- Smith, Rich (1 March 2021). "Why Lithium Americas, Piedmont Lithium, and MP Materials Stocks Popped Today". Motley Fool. Archived from the original on 4 March 2021. Retrieved 13 March 2021.
- "AVZ Minerals Limited". AVZ Minerals. Retrieved 25 March 2021.
- "AVZ Minerals Definitive Feasibility Study (DFS - April 2020)". AVZ Minerals.
- "Green Deal: Sustainable batteries for a circular and climate neutral economy". European Commission. 10 December 2020.
- "AVZ Minerals: Independent Greenhouse Study states Manono Project likely to have one of the lowest carbon footprints of any global hard rock lithium miner". Small Caps.
- "The Investor Revolution - Shareholders are getting serious about sustainability". Harvard Business Review. 19 June 2019. Retrieved 26 March 2021.
- "The beginning of the ESG regulatory journey Asset managers navigate the EU's sweeping sustainability regulations". 26 May 2020. Retrieved 26 March 2021.
- Harper, Gavin; Sommerville, Roberto; Kendrick, Emma; Driscoll, Laura; Slater, Peter; Stolkin, Rustam; Walton, Allan; Christensen, Paul; Heidrich, Oliver; Lambert, Simon; Abbott, Andrew; Ryder, Karl; Gaines, Linda; Anderson, Paul (November 2019). "Recycling lithium-ion batteries from electric vehicles". Nature. 575 (7781): 75–86. doi:10.1038/s41586-019-1682-5. PMID 31695206.
- Amui, Rachid (February 2020). "Commodities At a Glance: Special issue on strategic battery raw materials" (PDF). United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. 13 (UNCTAD/DITC/COM/2019/5). Retrieved 10 February 2021.
- Application of Life-Cycle Assessment to Nanoscale Technology: Lithium-ion Batteries for Electric Vehicles (Report). Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 2013. EPA 744-R-12-001.
- "Can Nanotech Improve Li-ion Battery Performance". Environmental Leader. 30 May 2013. Archived from the original on 21 August 2016. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
- Katwala, Amit. "The spiralling environmental cost of our lithium battery addiction". Wired. Condé Nast Publications. Retrieved 10 February 2021.
- Draper, Robert. "This metal is powering today's technology—at what price?". National Geographic (February 2019). National Geographic Partners. Retrieved 10 February 2021.
- "The Lithium Gold Rush: Inside the Race to Power Electric Vehicles". The New York Times. 6 May 2021. Retrieved 6 May 2021.
- "How to Invest in Lithium". commodityhq.com. Archived from the original on 11 April 2015. Retrieved 24 April 2015.
- "Lithium" (PDF). 2016. Archived (PDF) from the original on 30 November 2016. Retrieved 29 November 2016 – via US Geological Survey (USGS).
- "Lithium" (PDF). USGS. USGS. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 November 2020. Retrieved 15 November 2020.
- "Fmclithium.com" (PDF). www.fmclithium.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 September 2014.
- Clark, Jim (2005). "Some Compounds of the Group 1 Elements". chemguide.co.uk. Archived from the original on 27 June 2013. Retrieved 8 August 2013.
- "Disposable Batteries - Choosing between Alkaline and Lithium Disposable Batteries". Batteryreview.org. Archived from the original on 6 January 2014. Retrieved 10 October 2013.
- "Battery Anodes > Batteries & Fuel Cells > Research > The Energy Materials Center at Cornell". Emc2.cornell.edu. Archived from the original on 22 December 2013. Retrieved 10 October 2013.
- Totten, George E.; Westbrook, Steven R. & Shah, Rajesh J. (2003). Fuels and lubricants handbook: technology, properties, performance, and testing. 1. ASTM International. p. 559. ISBN 978-0-8031-2096-9. Archived from the original on 23 July 2016.
- Rand, Salvatore J. (2003). Significance of tests for petroleum products. ASTM International. pp. 150–152. ISBN 978-0-8031-2097-6. Archived from the original on 31 July 2016.
- The Theory and Practice of Mold Fluxes Used in Continuous Casting: A Compilation of Papers on Continuous Casting Fluxes Given at the 61st and 62nd Steelmaking Conference, Iron and Steel Society
- Lu, Y. Q.; Zhang, G. D.; Jiang, M. F.; Liu, H. X.; Li, T. (2011). "Effects of Li2CO3 on Properties of Mould Flux for High Speed Continuous Casting". Materials Science Forum. 675–677: 877–880. doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.675-677.877. S2CID 136666669.
- "Testing 1-2-3: Eliminating Veining Defects", Modern Casting, July 2014, archived from the original on 2 April 2015, retrieved 15 March 2015
- Haupin, W. (1987), Mamantov, Gleb; Marassi, Roberto (eds.), "Chemical and Physical Properties of the Hall-Héroult Electrolyte", Molten Salt Chemistry: An Introduction and Selected Applications, Springer, p. 449
- Garrett, Donald E. (5 April 2004). Handbook of Lithium and Natural Calcium Chloride. Academic Press. p. 200. ISBN 9780080472904. Archived from the original on 3 December 2016.
- Prasad, N. Eswara; Gokhale, Amol; Wanhill, R. J. H. (20 September 2013). Aluminum-Lithium Alloys: Processing, Properties, and Applications. Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 9780124016798. Archived from the original on 1 January 2021. Retrieved 6 November 2020.
- Davis, Joseph R. ASM International. Handbook Committee (1993). Aluminum and aluminum alloys. ASM International. pp. 121–. ISBN 978-0-87170-496-2. Archived from the original on 28 May 2013. Retrieved 16 May 2011.
- Karki, Khim; Epstein, Eric; Cho, Jeong-Hyun; Jia, Zheng; Li, Teng; Picraux, S. Tom; Wang, Chunsheng; Cumings, John (2012). "Lithium-Assisted Electrochemical Welding in Silicon Nanowire Battery Electrodes" (PDF). Nano Letters. 12 (3): 1392–7. Bibcode:2012NanoL..12.1392K. doi:10.1021/nl204063u. PMID 22339576. Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 August 2017.
- Koch, Ernst-Christian (2004). "Special Materials in Pyrotechnics: III. Application of Lithium and its Compounds in Energetic Systems". Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics. 29 (2): 67–80. doi:10.1002/prep.200400032.
- Wiberg, Egon; Wiberg, Nils and Holleman, Arnold Frederick (2001) Inorganic chemistry Archived 18 June 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-352651-5, p. 1089
- Mulloth, L.M. & Finn, J.E. (2005). "Air Quality Systems for Related Enclosed Spaces: Spacecraft Air". The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry. 4H. pp. 383–404. doi:10.1007/b107253. ISBN 978-3-540-25019-7.
- "Application of lithium chemicals for air regeneration of manned spacecraft". Lithium Corporation of America & Aerospace Medical Research Laboratories. 1965. Archived from the original on 7 October 2012.
- Markowitz, M. M.; Boryta, D. A.; Stewart, Harvey (1964). "Lithium Perchlorate Oxygen Candle. Pyrochemical Source of Pure Oxygen". Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Product Research and Development. 3 (4): 321–30. doi:10.1021/i360012a016.
- Hobbs, Philip C. D. (2009). Building Electro-Optical Systems: Making It All Work. John Wiley and Sons. p. 149. ISBN 978-0-470-40229-0. Archived from the original on 23 June 2016.
- Point Defects in Lithium Fluoride Films Induced by Gamma Irradiation. Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Advanced Technology & Particle Physics: (ICATPP-7): Villa Olmo, Como, Italy. 2001. World Scientific. 2002. p. 819. ISBN 978-981-238-180-4. Archived from the original on 6 June 2016.
- Sinton, William M. (1962). "Infrared Spectroscopy of Planets and Stars". Applied Optics. 1 (2): 105. Bibcode:1962ApOpt...1..105S. doi:10.1364/AO.1.000105.
- "You've got the power: the evolution of batteries and the future of fuel cells" (PDF). Toshiba. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 July 2011. Retrieved 17 May 2009.
- "Organometallics". IHS Chemicals. February 2012. Archived from the original on 7 July 2012. Retrieved 2 January 2012.
- Yurkovetskii, A. V.; Kofman, V. L.; Makovetskii, K. L. (2005). "Polymerization of 1,2-dimethylenecyclobutane by organolithium initiators". Russian Chemical Bulletin. 37 (9): 1782–1784. doi:10.1007/BF00962487. S2CID 94017312.
- Quirk, Roderic P.; Cheng, Pao Luo (1986). "Functionalization of polymeric organolithium compounds. Amination of poly(styryl)lithium". Macromolecules. 19 (5): 1291–1294. Bibcode:1986MaMol..19.1291Q. doi:10.1021/ma00159a001.
- Stone, F. G. A.; West, Robert (1980). Advances in organometallic chemistry. Academic Press. p. 55. ISBN 978-0-12-031118-7. Archived from the original on 13 March 2021. Retrieved 6 November 2020.
- Bansal, Raj K. (1996). Synthetic approaches in organic chemistry. p. 192. ISBN 978-0-7637-0665-4. Archived from the original on 18 June 2016.
- (PDF). 28 June 2003 https://web.archive.org/web/20030628230627/http://media.armadilloaerospace.com/misc/LiAl-Hydride.pdf. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 June 2003. Missing or empty
- Hughes, T.G.; Smith, R.B. & Kiely, D.H. (1983). "Stored Chemical Energy Propulsion System for Underwater Applications". Journal of Energy. 7 (2): 128–133. Bibcode:1983JEner...7..128H. doi:10.2514/3.62644.
- Emsley, John (2011). Nature's Building Blocks.
- Makhijani, Arjun & Yih, Katherine (2000). Nuclear Wastelands: A Global Guide to Nuclear Weapons Production and Its Health and Environmental Effects. MIT Press. pp. 59–60. ISBN 978-0-262-63204-1. Archived from the original on 13 June 2016.
- National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Separations Technology and Transmutation Systems (1996). Nuclear wastes: technologies for separations and transmutation. National Academies Press. p. 278. ISBN 978-0-309-05226-9. Archived from the original on 13 June 2016.
- Barnaby, Frank (1993). How nuclear weapons spread: nuclear-weapon proliferation in the 1990s. Routledge. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-415-07674-6. Archived from the original on 9 June 2016.
- Baesjr, C. (1974). "The chemistry and thermodynamics of molten salt reactor fuels". Journal of Nuclear Materials. 51 (1): 149–162. Bibcode:1974JNuM...51..149B. doi:10.1016/0022-3115(74)90124-X. OSTI 4470742. Archived from the original on 13 March 2021. Retrieved 28 June 2019.
- Agarwal, Arun (2008). Nobel Prize Winners in Physics. APH Publishing. p. 139. ISBN 978-81-7648-743-6. Archived from the original on 29 June 2016.
- "'Splitting the Atom': Cockcroft and Walton, 1932: 9. Rays or Particles?" Archived 2 September 2012 at the Wayback Machine Department of Physics, University of Cambridge
- Elements, American. "Lithium-7 Metal Isotope". American Elements. Archived from the original on 18 August 2019.
- Wald, Matthew L. (8 October 2013). "Report Says a Shortage of Nuclear Ingredient Looms". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 1 July 2017.
- Kean, Sam (2011). The Disappearing Spoon.
- Yacobi S; Ornoy A (2008). "Is lithium a real teratogen? What can we conclude from the prospective versus retrospective studies? A review". Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci. 45 (2): 95–106. PMID 18982835.
- Lieb, J.; Zeff (1978). "Lithium treatment of chronic cluster headaches" (PDF). The British Journal of Psychiatry. 133 (6): 556–558. doi:10.1192/bjp.133.6.556. PMID 737393. S2CID 34585893. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 February 2020. Retrieved 26 December 2020.
- Schrauzer, G. N (2002). "Lithium: Occurrence, dietary intakes, nutritional essentiality". Journal of the American College of Nutrition. 21 (1): 14–21. doi:10.1080/07315724.2002.10719188. PMID 11838882. S2CID 25752882.
- "Lithium 265969". Sigma-Aldrich. Archived from the original on 13 March 2021. Retrieved 1 October 2018.
- Technical data for Lithium Archived 23 March 2015 at the Wayback Machine. periodictable.com
- Furr, A. K. (2000). CRC handbook of laboratory safety. Boca Raton: CRC Press. pp. 244–246. ISBN 978-0-8493-2523-6. Archived from the original on 13 March 2021. Retrieved 6 November 2020.
- McKinsey review of 2018
- Lithium at The Periodic Table of Videos (University of Nottingham)
- International Lithium Alliance
- USGS: Lithium Statistics and Information
- Lithium Supply & Markets 2009 IM Conference 2009 Sustainable lithium supplies through 2020 in the face of sustainable market growth
- University of Southampton, Mountbatten Centre for International Studies, Nuclear History Working Paper No5.
- Lithium preserves by Country at investingnews.com