List of winners of the Boston Marathon

The Boston Marathon, one of the six World Marathon Majors, is a 26.2-mile (42.2 km) race which has been held in the Greater Boston area in Massachusetts since 1897.[1] It is the oldest annual marathon in the world.[2] The event is held on Patriots' Day, the third Monday of April. Various factors meant that until 1957 the course varied in length, due to which the marathon recognizes several course records that are slower than previous records due to being run on longer courses.[3][4] The first Boston Marathon included only 15 runners, all of whom were men, and was won by John McDermott.[3] The race was cancelled for the first time in its history in 2020, due to the COVID-19 pandemic.[1] The winners have represented 27 different countries: Americans have won the marathon the most, doing so on 108 occasions; Kenyans have won 34 times; and Canadians 21 times. Ernst van Dyk is the most successful individual athlete, having won the men's wheelchair division ten times. The current course records are held by Geoffrey Mutai, Buzunesh Deba, Marcel Hug and Manuela Schär.

Ernst van Dyk has won the Boston Marathon ten times, more than any other athlete.

Clarence DeMar won the men's open race seven times, more than any other runner, achieving his first victory in 1911 and his last in 1930.[5] Women were only officially allowed to run the race beginning in 1972, though female runners had unofficially participated beginning in 1966 despite breaching the rules of the Amateur Athletic Union.[3] The first six victories in the women's open division, between 1966 and 1971, were officially recognized in 1996. Bobbi Gibb was the first woman to finish the race in 1966,[6] while Nina Kuscsik was the first official winner in 1972.[3] Catherine Ndereba's four victories between 2000 and 2005 are the most in the women's open division.[5] The Boston Marathon became the first major marathon to include a wheelchair division, in 1975, which was won by Robert Hall,[3] though the first person to complete the race in a wheelchair had been Eugene Roberts in 1970.[7] The first female wheelchair finisher, Sharon Rahn, came in 1977. Ernst van Dyk's ten wins in the men's wheelchair division are the most of any athlete at Boston, while Jean Driscoll leads the women's wheelchair division with seven wins, and holds the overall record for the most consecutive victories, also seven.[5] A handcyclist division was recognized for the first time in 2017, though handcyclists had been taking part prior to that.[8] Tom Davis has won all three men's handcyclist races since it was officially recognized, while the women's race has had a different winner each year.

The course was designed to replicate the original marathon in Greece; a hilly point-to-point race, and as such has not been the venue for many world records.[lower-alpha 1] Suh Yun-bok set the only World Athletics-ratified men's open division world record in 1947, in a time of 2:25:39.[10][9] Two apparent world record times set between 1951 and 1956 by Keizo Yamada and Antti Viskari were later struck when the course was found to be over 1,000 yards (910 m) short.[11][12] In 1975, Liane Winter took advantage of a 25 miles per hour (40 km/h) following wind to set a world record in the women's open race of 2:42:24,[13] and eight years later, Joan Benoit beat a world record that had only been set the day before at the London Marathon, finishing in 2:22:43.[10] Since 1990, the Boston Marathon has been ineligible for world records, as the start and finish are too far away from each other, and the race is a net downhill.[14] In 2011, Geoffrey Mutai won the race in 2:03:02, which was the world's fastest time for the marathon, beating the official world record by 57 seconds.[15]

Winners

Key

  World record[lower-alpha 2]
  Current course record
  Course record
  Unofficial course record
  Short course

Men's open division

John McDermott won the first Boston Marathon in 1897.
Clarence DeMar has won the Boston Marathon seven times, more than any other runner in the Men's open division.
Suh Yun-bok set a world record at the 1947 Boston Marathon.
John J. Kelley won the 1957 Boston Marathon with a course record.
Aurèle Vandendriessche won back-to-back marathons in 1963 and 1964.
Ron Hill set a course record at the 1970 Boston Marathon.
Bill Rodgers won the race four times between 1975 and 1980.
Robert Kipkoech Cheruiyot won the race four times, and set two course records.
Geoffrey Mutai holds the current course record, 2:03:02, set in 2011.
Winners: Men's open division[4][5]
Year Winner Country Time Distance Notes
1897 John McDermott United States2:55:1024.5 miles (39.4 km)
1898 Ronald MacDonald Canada2:42:00
1899 Lawrence Brignolia United States2:54:38
1900 Jack Caffery Canada2:39:44
1901 Jack Caffery Canada2:29:23Second victory
1902 Sammy Mellor United States2:43:12
1903 John Lordan United States2:41:29
1904 Michael Spring United States2:38:04
1905 Frederick Lorz United States2:38:25
1906 Timothy Ford United States2:45:45
1907 Tom Longboat Canada2:24:24
1908 Thomas Morrissey United States2:25:43
1909 Henri Renaud United States2:53:36
1910 Fred S. Cameron Canada2:28:52
1911 Clarence DeMar United States2:21:39
1912 Michael J. Ryan United States2:21:18
1913 Fritz Carlson United States2:25:14
1914 Jimmy Duffy Canada2:25:14
1915 Édouard Fabre Canada2:31:41
1916 Arthur Roth United States2:27:16
1917 Bill Kennedy United States2:28:37
1918 Camp Devens relay team United States2:29:53Due to World War I, the race was a 10-man relay for military teams.
1919 Carl Linder United States2:29:13
1920 Peter Trivoulides Greece2:29:31
1921 Frank Zuna United States2:18:57
1922 Clarence DeMar United States2:18:10Second victory; 24.5-mile course record
1923 Clarence DeMar United States2:23:47Third victory
1924 Clarence DeMar United States2:29:4026.1 miles (42.0 km)Fourth victory
1925 Charles Mellor United States2:33:00
1926 Johnny Miles Canada2:25:40
1927 Clarence DeMar United States2:40:2226.2 miles (42.2 km)Course record, fifth victory
1928 Clarence DeMar United States2:37:07Course record, sixth victory
1929 Johnny Miles Canada2:33:08Course record, second victory
1930 Clarence DeMar United States2:34:48Seventh victory
1931 James Henigan United States2:46:45
1932 Paul de Bruyn Germany2:33:36
1933 Les Pawson United States2:31:01Course record
1934 Dave Komonen Canada2:32:53
1935 Johnny Kelley United States2:32:07
1936 Ellison Brown United States2:33:40
1937 Walter Young Canada2:33:20
1938 Les Pawson United States2:35:34Second victory
1939 Ellison Brown United States2:28:51Course record, second victory
1940 Gérard Côté Canada2:28:28Course record
1941 Les Pawson United States2:30:38Third victory
1942 Joe Smith United States2:26:51Course record
1943 Gérard Côté Canada2:28:25Second victory
1944 Gérard Côté Canada2:31:50Third victory
1945 Johnny Kelley United States2:30:40Second victory
1946 Stylianos Kyriakides Greece2:29:27
1947 Suh Yun-bok South Korea2:25:39World record
1948 Gérard Côté Canada2:31:02Fourth victory
1949 Gösta Leandersson Sweden2:31:50
1950 Ham Kee-yong South Korea2:32:39
1951 Shigeki Tanaka Japan2:27:4525.7 miles (41.4 km)
1952 Mateo Flores Guatemala2:31:53
1953 Keizo Yamada Japan2:18:51Considered a world record until it was discovered that the course was short.[11]
1954 Veikko Karvonen Finland2:20:39
1955 Hideo Hamamura Japan2:18:22
1956 Antti Viskari Finland2:14:1425.7-mile (41.4 km) course record; considered a world record until it was discovered that the course was short.[12]
1957 John J. Kelley United States2:20:0526.2 miles (42.2 km)Course record
1958 Franjo Mihalic Yugoslavia2:25:54
1959 Eino Oksanen Finland2:22:42
1960 Paavo Kotila Finland2:20:54
1961 Eino Oksanen Finland2:23:39Second victory
1962 Eino Oksanen Finland2:23:48Third victory
1963 Aurèle Vandendriessche Belgium2:18:58Course record
1964 Aurèle Vandendriessche Belgium2:19:59Second victory
1965 Morio Shigematsu Japan2:16:33Course record
1966 Kenji Kimihara Japan2:17:11
1967 Dave McKenzie New Zealand2:15:45Course record
1968 Amby Burfoot United States2:22:17
1969 Yoshiaki Unetani Japan2:13:49Course record
1970 Ron Hill United Kingdom2:10:30Course record
1971 Álvaro Mejía Colombia2:18:45
1972 Olavi Suomalainen Finland2:15:39
1973 Jon Anderson United States2:16:03
1974 Neil Cusack Ireland2:13:39
1975 Bill Rodgers United States2:09:55Course record
1976 Jack Fultz United States2:20:19
1977 Jerome Drayton Canada2:14:46
1978 Bill Rodgers United States2:10:13Second victory
1979 Bill Rodgers United States2:09:27Course record, third victory
1980 Bill Rodgers United States2:12:11Fourth victory
1981 Toshihiko Seko Japan2:09:26Course record
1982 Alberto Salazar United States2:08:52Course record
1983 Greg Meyer United States2:09:00
1984 Geoff Smith United Kingdom2:10:34
1985 Geoff Smith United Kingdom2:14:05Second victory
1986 Robert de Castella Australia2:07:51Course record
1987 Toshihiko Seko Japan2:11:50Second victory
1988 Ibrahim Hussein Kenya2:08:43
1989 Abebe Mekonnen Ethiopia2:09:06
1990 Gelindo Bordin Italy2:08:19
1991 Ibrahim Hussein Kenya2:11:06Second victory
1992 Ibrahim Hussein Kenya2:08:14Third victory
1993 Cosmas Ndeti Kenya2:09:33
1994 Cosmas Ndeti Kenya2:07:15Course record, second victory
1995 Cosmas Ndeti Kenya2:09:22Third victory
1996 Moses Tanui Kenya2:09:15
1997 Lameck Aguta Kenya2:10:34
1998 Moses Tanui Kenya2:07:34Second victory
1999 Joseph Chebet Kenya2:09:52
2000 Elijah Lagat Kenya2:09:47
2001 Lee Bong-ju South Korea2:09:43
2002 Rodgers Rop Kenya2:09:02
2003 Robert Kipkoech Cheruiyot Kenya2:10:11
2004 Timothy Cherigat Kenya2:10:37
2005 Hailu Negussie Ethiopia2:11:44
2006 Robert Kipkoech Cheruiyot Kenya2:07:14Course record, second victory
2007 Robert Kipkoech Cheruiyot Kenya2:14:13Third victory
2008 Robert Kipkoech Cheruiyot Kenya2:07:45Fourth victory
2009 Deriba Merga Ethiopia2:08:42
2010 Robert Kiprono Cheruiyot Kenya2:05:52Course record
2011 Geoffrey Mutai Kenya2:03:02Current men's course record; world's fastest time[lower-alpha 3]
2012 Wesley Korir Kenya2:12:40
2013 Lelisa Desisa Ethiopia2:10:22
2014 Meb Keflezighi United States2:08:37
2015 Lelisa Desisa Ethiopia2:09:17Second victory
2016 Lemi Berhanu Hayle Ethiopia2:12:45
2017 Geoffrey Kirui Kenya2:09:37
2018 Yuki Kawauchi Japan2:15:58
2019 Lawrence Cherono Kenya2:07:57
2020 Canceled due to the COVID-19 pandemic

Women's open division

Bobbi Gibb, pictured in 2016, won the first three, unofficial, women's marathons.
Joan Benoit set a world record at the 1983 Boston Marathon.
Uta Pippig, pictured in 2019, won three consecutive Boston Marathons from 1994 to 1996.
Catherine Ndereba won the Boston Marathon four times between 2000 and 2005.
Winners: Women's open division[5][18]
Year Winner Country Time Notes
1966 Bobbi Gibb United States3:21:40Unofficial era, course record
1967 Bobbi Gibb United States3:27:17Unofficial era, second victory
1968 Bobbi Gibb United States3:30:00Unofficial era, third victory
1969 Sara Mae Berman United States3:22:46Unofficial era
1970 Sara Mae Berman United States3:05:07Unofficial era, course record, second victory
1971 Sara Mae Berman United States3:08:30Unofficial era, third victory
1972 Nina Kuscsik United States3:10:26First year that women were officially sanctioned, official course record
1973 Jacqueline Hansen United States3:05:59Official course record
1974 Miki Gorman United States2:47:11Course record
1975 Liane Winter West Germany2:42:24World record
1976 Kim Merritt United States2:47:10
1977 Miki Gorman United States2:48:33Second victory
1978 Gayle Barron United States2:44:52
1979 Joan Benoit United States2:35:15Course record
1980 Jacqueline Gareau Canada2:34:28Course record
1981 Allison Roe New Zealand2:26:46Course record
1982 Charlotte Teske West Germany2:29:33
1983 Joan Benoit United States2:22:43World record, second victory
1984 Lorraine Moller New Zealand2:29:28
1985 Lisa Larsen Weidenbach United States2:34:06
1986 Ingrid Kristiansen Norway2:24:55
1987 Rosa Mota Portugal2:25:21
1988 Rosa Mota Portugal2:24:30Second victory
1989 Ingrid Kristiansen Norway2:24:33Second victory
1990 Rosa Mota Portugal2:25:24Third victory
1991 Wanda Panfil Poland2:24:18
1992 Olga Markova Russia2:23:43
1993 Olga Markova Russia2:25:27Second victory
1994 Uta Pippig Germany2:21:45Course record
1995 Uta Pippig Germany2:25:11Second victory
1996 Uta Pippig Germany2:27:12Third victory
1997 Fatuma Roba Ethiopia2:26:23
1998 Fatuma Roba Ethiopia2:23:21Second victory
1999 Fatuma Roba Ethiopia2:23:25Third victory
2000 Catherine Ndereba Kenya2:26:11
2001 Catherine Ndereba Kenya2:23:53Second victory
2002 Margaret Okayo Kenya2:20:43Course record
2003 Svetlana Zakharova Russia2:25:19
2004 Catherine Ndereba Kenya2:24:27Third victory
2005 Catherine Ndereba Kenya2:25:12Fourth victory
2006 Rita Jeptoo Kenya2:23:38
2007 Lidiya Grigoryeva Russia2:29:18
2008 Dire Tune Ethiopia2:25:25
2009 Salina Kosgei Kenya2:32:16
2010 Teyba Erkesso Ethiopia2:26:11
2011 Caroline Kilel Kenya2:22:36
2012 Sharon Cherop Kenya2:31:50
2013 Rita Jeptoo Kenya2:26:25Second victory
2014 Buzunesh Deba Ethiopia2:19:59Current course record;[19] Rita Jeptoo originally won the 2014 race, but was subsequently disqualified for taking performance-enhancing drugs.[20]
2015 Caroline Rotich Kenya2:24:55
2016 Atsede Baysa Ethiopia2:29:19
2017 Edna Kiplagat Kenya2:21:52
2018 Desiree Linden United States2:39:54
2019 Worknesh Degefa Ethiopia2:23:31
2020 Canceled due to the COVID-19 pandemic

Men's wheelchair division

André Viger won the men's wheelchair division three times between 1984 and 1987.
Heinz Frei's 1994 course record stood for ten years.
Franz Nietlispach won the race five times in six years.
Joshua Cassidy set a course record at the 2012 Boston Marathon.
Marcel Hug has won the race four times, and holds the current course record.
Winners: Men's wheelchair division[5][21]
Year Winner Country Time Notes
1975 Robert Hall United States2:58:00Course record
1976 No competitors
1977 Robert Hall United States2:40:10Course record, second victory
1978 George Murray United States2:26:57Not listed as a course record by BAA[lower-alpha 4]
1979 Ken Archer United States2:38:59Not listed as a course record by BAA
1980 Curt Brinkman United States1:55:00Course record
1981 Jim Martinson United States2:00:41
1982 Jim Knaub United States1:51:31
1983 Jim Knaub United States1:47:10Course record, second victory
1984 André Viger Canada2:05:20
1985 George Murray United States1:45:34Course record, second victory
1986 André Viger Canada1:43:25Course record, second victory
1987 André Viger Canada1:55:42Third victory
1988 Mustapha Badid France1:43:19Course record
1989 Philippe Couprie France1:36:04Course record
1990 Mustapha Badid France1:29:53Course record, second victory
1991 Jim Knaub United States1:30:44Third victory
1992 Jim Knaub United States1:26:28Course record, fourth victory
1993 Jim Knaub United States1:22:17Course record, fifth victory
1994 Heinz Frei  Switzerland1:21:23Course record
1995 Franz Nietlispach  Switzerland1:25:59
1996 Heinz Frei  Switzerland1:30:14Second victory
1997 Franz Nietlispach  Switzerland1:28:14Second victory
1998 Franz Nietlispach  Switzerland1:21:52Third victory
1999 Franz Nietlispach  Switzerland1:21:36Fourth victory
2000 Franz Nietlispach  Switzerland1:33:32Fifth victory
2001 Ernst van Dyk South Africa1:25:12
2002 Ernst van Dyk South Africa1:23:19Second victory
2003 Ernst van Dyk South Africa1:28:32Third victory
2004 Ernst van Dyk South Africa1:18:27Course record, fourth victory
2005 Ernst van Dyk South Africa1:24:11Fifth victory
2006 Ernst van Dyk South Africa1:25:29Sixth victory
2007 Masazumi Soejima Japan1:29:16
2008 Ernst van Dyk South Africa1:26:49Seventh victory
2009 Ernst van Dyk South Africa1:33:29Eighth victory
2010 Ernst van Dyk South Africa1:26:53Ninth victory
2011 Masazumi Soejima Japan1:18:50Second victory
2012 Joshua Cassidy Canada1:18:25Course record
2013 Hiroyuki Yamamoto Japan1:25:33
2014 Ernst van Dyk South Africa1:20:36Tenth victory
2015 Marcel Hug  Switzerland1:29:53
2016 Marcel Hug  Switzerland1:24:01Second victory
2017 Marcel Hug  Switzerland1:18:03Current course record, third victory
2018 Marcel Hug  Switzerland1:46:26Fourth victory
2019 Daniel Romanchuk United States1:21:36
2020 Canceled due to the COVID-19 pandemic

Women's wheelchair division

Louise Sauvage won the women's wheelchair division in three consecutive Boston Marathons, between 1997 and 1999.
Edith Hunkeler won the race twice, in 2002 and 2006.
Wakako Tsuchida won the race in five consecutive years from 2007 to 2011.
Tatyana McFadden won the race five times between 2013 and 2018.
Manuela Schär holds the current course record, 1:28:17, set in 2017.
Winners: Women's wheelchair division[5][22]
Year Winner Country Time Notes
1977 Sharon Rahn United States3:48:51Course record
1978 Susan Shapiro United States3:52:35
1979 Sheryl Bair United States3:27:56Course record
1980 Sharon Limpert United States2:49:04Not listed as a course record by BAA
1981 Candace Cable-Brookes United States2:38:41Not listed as a course record by BAA
1982 Candace Cable-Brookes United States2:12:43Course record, second victory
1983 Sherry Ramsey United States2:27:07
1984 Sherry Ramsey United States2:56:51Second victory
1985 Candace Cable-Brookes United States2:05:26Course record, third victory
1986 Candace Cable-Brookes United States2:09:28Fourth victory
1987 Candace Cable-Brookes United States2:19:55Fifth victory
1988 Candace Cable-Brookes United States2:10:44Sixth victory
1989 Connie Hansen Denmark1:50:06Course record
1990 Jean Driscoll United States1:43:17Course record
1991 Jean Driscoll United States1:42:42Course record, second victory
1992 Jean Driscoll United States1:36:52Course record, third victory
1993 Jean Driscoll United States1:34:50Course record, fourth victory
1994 Jean Driscoll United States1:34:22Course record, fifth victory
1995 Jean Driscoll United States1:40:42Sixth victory
1996 Jean Driscoll United States1:52:56Seventh victory
1997 Louise Sauvage Australia1:54:28
1998 Louise Sauvage Australia1:41:19Second victory
1999 Louise Sauvage Australia1:42:23Third victory
2000 Jean Driscoll United States2:00:52Eighth victory
2001 Louise Sauvage Australia1:53:54Fourth victory
2002 Edith Hunkeler  Switzerland1:45:57
2003 Christina Ripp United States1:54:47
2004 Cheri Blauwet United States1:39:53
2005 Cheri Blauwet United States1:47:45Second victory
2006 Edith Hunkeler  Switzerland1:43:42Second victory
2007 Wakako Tsuchida Japan1:53:30
2008 Wakako Tsuchida Japan1:48:32Second victory
2009 Wakako Tsuchida Japan1:54:37Third victory
2010 Wakako Tsuchida Japan1:43:32Fourth victory
2011 Wakako Tsuchida Japan1:34:06Course record, fifth victory
2012 Shirley Reilly United States1:37:36
2013 Tatyana McFadden United States1:45:25
2014 Tatyana McFadden United States1:35:06Second victory
2015 Tatyana McFadden United States1:52:54Third victory
2016 Tatyana McFadden United States1:42:16Fourth victory
2017 Manuela Schär  Switzerland1:28:17Current course record[23]
2018 Tatyana McFadden United States2:04:39Fifth victory
2019 Manuela Schär  Switzerland1:34:19Second victory
2020 Canceled due to the COVID-19 pandemic

Men's handcycle division

Winners: Men's handcycle division
Year Winner Country Time Notes Refs
2017 Tom Davis United States0:58:36[24]
2018 Tom Davis United States1:18:41Second victory[25]
2019 Tom Davis United States1:01:22Third victory[26]
2020 Canceled due to the COVID-19 pandemic

Women's handcycle division

Winners: Women's handcycle division
Year Winner Country Time Notes Refs
2017 Michelle Love United States2:39:05Only female handcyclist finisher[24]
2018 Alicia Dana United States1:40:22[25]
2019 Devann Murphy United States2:01:02[26]
2020 Canceled due to the COVID-19 pandemic

Victories by nationality

Victories by nationality
Country Open division Wheelchair division Handcycle division Total
Men's Women's Men's Women's Men's Women's
 United States 44 16 13 29 3 3 108
 Kenya 22 12 0 0 0 0 34
 Canada 16 1 4 0 0 0 21
 Japan 9 0 3 5 0 0 17
  Switzerland 0 0 11 4 0 0 15
 Ethiopia 6 8 0 0 0 0 14
 South Africa 0 0 10 0 0 0 10
 Finland 7 0 0 0 0 0 7
 Germany[lower-alpha 5] 1 5 0 0 0 0 6
 Australia 1 0 0 4 0 0 5
 Russia 0 4 0 0 0 0 4
 France 0 0 3 0 0 0 3
 New Zealand 1 2 0 0 0 0 3
 Portugal 0 3 0 0 0 0 3
 South Korea 3 0 0 0 0 0 3
 United Kingdom 3 0 0 0 0 0 3
 Belgium 2 0 0 0 0 0 2
 Greece 2 0 0 0 0 0 2
 Norway 0 2 0 0 0 0 2
 Colombia 1 0 0 0 0 0 1
 Denmark 0 0 0 1 0 0 1
 Guatemala 1 0 0 0 0 0 1
 Ireland 1 0 0 0 0 0 1
 Italy 1 0 0 0 0 0 1
 Poland 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
 Sweden 1 0 0 0 0 0 1
 Yugoslavia 1 0 0 0 0 0 1

Notes and references

Notes

  1. World records for road races set before 2004 were retrospectively recognised by the IAAF (now World Athletics), and were not officially recognised before that time.[9]
  2. Since 1990, the Boston Marathon has been ineligible for world records, as the start and finish are too far away from each other, and the race is a net downhill.[16]
  3. Geoffrey Mutai's winning time in 2011 of 2:03:02 beat the world record by 57 seconds, making it the fastest marathon time recorded at the time.[15] It remained the fastest time until Dennis Kimetto set an official world record of 2:02:57 at the 2014 Berlin Marathon.[17]
  4. Wheelchair racers set off 15 minutes ahead of the other participants.
  5. Germany's victory total includes two victories by West German athletes.

Citations

  1. Ashlock, Alex (May 29, 2020). "4 Things To Know About The Cancellation Of The Boston Marathon". WBUR-FM. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
  2. "Boston Marathon is the oldest in the world". Daily Telegraph. April 15, 2013. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
  3. "History of the Boston Marathon". Boston Athletic Association. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
  4. "Boston Marathon History: Course Records". Boston Athletic Association. Retrieved May 17, 2020.
  5. "Champions of the Boston Marathon". Boston Athletic Association. Retrieved May 30, 2020.
  6. Huebsch, Time (April 18, 2016). "Boston Marathon celebrates 50 years of female participation". Canadian Running Magazine. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
  7. Connelly, Michael (2014). 26.2 Miles to Boston: A Journey into the Heart of the Boston Marathon. Guilford, Connecticut: Lyons Press. p. 100. ISBN 978-0-7627-9635-9.
  8. "B.A.A. to Implement Changes to Boston Marathon Handcycle Program". Boston Athletic Association. Retrieved June 27, 2020.
  9. Butler, Mark, ed. (2011). 13th IAAF World Championships in Athletics – IAAF Statistics Handbook – Daegu 2011 (PDF). IAAF Media & Public Relations Department. pp. 612, 614, 707. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
  10. Powers, John (April 13, 2012). "Famous record-setting marathon runs". Boston Globe. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
  11. Broadbent, Rick (2016). Endurance: The Extraordinary Life and Times of Emil Zátopek. London: Bloomsbury. p. 211. ISBN 978-1-4729-2022-5.
  12. Benyo, Richard; Henderson, Joe (2002). Running Encyclopedia. Champaign, Illinois: Human Kinetics. p. 171. ISBN 978-0-7360-3734-1.
  13. Peters, Gil (April 22, 1975). "New Marathon mark". The Bryan Times. UPI. p. 12. Retrieved July 24, 2020.
  14. Bird, Hayden (March 18, 2019). "Why a world record set in the Boston Marathon wouldn't officially count". Boston Globe. Retrieved May 17, 2020.
  15. May, Peter (April 18, 2011). "Kenyan Runs Fastest Marathon in Boston". The New York Times. Retrieved July 24, 2020.
  16. Bird, Hayden (March 18, 2019). "Why a world record set in the Boston Marathon wouldn't officially count". Boston Globe. Retrieved May 17, 2020.
  17. Fahey, Ciaran (September 28, 2014). "Dennis Kimetto sets new world record at Berlin Marathon beating Wilson Kipsang by 16 seconds". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved July 24, 2020.
  18. "Boston Marathon History: Course Records". Boston Athletic Association. Retrieved May 17, 2020.
  19. Yang, Nicole (April 13, 2017). "These Boston Marathon course records are waiting to be broken". Boston Globe Media Partners. Retrieved April 17, 2019.
  20. "IAAF Appeal Upheld – Rita Jeptoo Suspended for Four Years by The Court of Arbitration For Sport" (PDF). www.tas-cas.org. Retrieved April 13, 2017.
  21. "Boston Marathon History: Course Records". Boston Athletic Association. Retrieved May 17, 2020.
  22. "Boston Marathon History: Course Records". Boston Athletic Association. Retrieved May 17, 2020.
  23. Rich Tenorio (April 12, 2018). "Manuela Schar Is Ready To Defend Her Boston Title And World Record". Women's Running. Retrieved April 17, 2018.
  24. "2017 Boston Marathon Top Finishers". Boston Athletic Association. Retrieved June 27, 2020.
  25. "2018 Boston Marathon Top Finishers". Boston Athletic Association. Retrieved June 27, 2020.
  26. "2019 Boston Marathon Top Finishers". Boston Athletic Association. Retrieved June 27, 2020.


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