List of prime ministers of the United Kingdom

The prime minister of the United Kingdom is the head of the Government of the United Kingdom, and chair of the British Cabinet. There is no specific date for when the office of prime minister first appeared, as the role was not created but rather evolved over a period of time through a merger of duties.[1] However, the term was regularly, if informally, used of Walpole by the 1730s.[2] It was used in the House of Commons as early as 1805,[3] and it was certainly in parliamentary use by the 1880s.[4] In 1905 the post of prime minister was officially given recognition in the order of precedence.[5] Modern historians generally consider Sir Robert Walpole, who led the government of Great Britain for over twenty years from 1721,[6] as the first prime minister. Walpole is also the longest-serving British prime minister by this definition.[7] However, Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman was the first and Margaret Thatcher the longest-serving prime minister officially referred to as such in the order of precedence.[8] The first to use the title in an official act was Benjamin Disraeli, who signed the Treaty of Berlin as "Prime Minister of her Britannic Majesty" in 1878.[9]

Strictly speaking, the first prime minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was William Pitt the Younger.[10] The first prime minister of the current United Kingdom, i.e. the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, was Bonar Law,[11] although the country was not renamed officially until 1927, when Stanley Baldwin was the serving prime minister.[12]

Due to the gradual evolution of the post of prime minister, the title is applied to early prime ministers only retrospectively;[13] this has sometimes given rise to academic dispute. Lord Bath and Lord Waldegrave are sometimes listed as prime ministers.[14] Bath was invited to form a ministry by George II when Henry Pelham resigned in 1746,[15] as was Waldegrave in 1757 after the dismissal of William Pitt the Elder,[16] who dominated the affairs of government during the Seven Years' War. Neither was able to command sufficient parliamentary support to form a government; Bath stepped down after two days,[14] and Waldegrave after three.[16] Modern academic consensus does not consider either man to have held office as prime minister,[17] and they are therefore listed separately.

Before 1721

Prior to the Georgian era, the Treasury of England was led by the Lord High Treasurer.[18] By the late Tudor period, the Lord High Treasurer was regarded as one of the Great Officers of State,[18] and was often (though not always) the dominant figure in government: Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset (Lord High Treasurer, 1547–1549),[19] served as Lord Protector to his prepubescent nephew Edward VI;[19] William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley (Lord High Treasurer, 1572–1598),[20] was the dominant minister to Elizabeth I;[20] Burghley's son Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury, succeeded his father as chief minister to Elizabeth I (1598–1603) and was eventually appointed by James I as Lord High Treasurer (1608–1612).[21]

By the late Stuart period, the Treasury was often run not by a single individual (i.e., the Lord High Treasurer) but by a commission of Lords of the Treasury,[22] led by the First Lord of the Treasury. The last Lords High Treasurer, Lord Godolphin (1702–1710) and Lord Oxford (1711–1714),[23] ran the government of Queen Anne.[24]

After the succession of George I in 1714, the arrangement of a commission of Lords of the Treasury (as opposed to a single Lord High Treasurer) became permanent.[25] For the next three years, the government was headed by Lord Townshend, who was appointed Secretary of State for the Northern Department.[26] Subsequently, Lord Stanhope and Lord Sunderland ran the government jointly,[27] with Stanhope managing foreign affairs and Sunderland domestic.[27] Stanhope died in February 1721 and Sunderland resigned two months later;[27] Townshend and Robert Walpole were then invited to form the next government.[28] From that point, the holder of the office of First Lord also usually (albeit unofficially) held the status of prime minister. It was not until the Edwardian era that the title prime minister was constitutionally recognised.[13] The prime minister still holds the office of First Lord by constitutional convention,[29] the only exceptions being Lord Chatham (1766–1768) and Lord Salisbury (1885–1886, 1887–1892, 1895–1902).[30]

From 1721

Contents by century
18th century 19th century 20th century 21st century
  Whig (16)   Tory (10)   Conservative (19)   Liberal (7)   Labour (6)   National Labour (1)   Peelite (1) Monarch Ref.
Portrait Title
Prime Minister
Office
(Birth–Death)
Term of office & mandate[lower-alpha 1]
Duration in years and days
Ministerial offices
held as prime minister
Party Government
Sir Robert Walpole
(1676–1745)
3 April
1721
11 February
1742
1722
Whig Walpole–Townshend George I

1714–1727

[31]
1727 George II

1727–1760

1734 Walpole
1741
20 years and 315 days
Spencer Compton
1st Earl of Wilmington
(1673–1743)
16 February
1742
2 July
1743
  • First Lord of the Treasury
Whig Carteret [32]
1 year and 137 days[†]
Henry Pelham
(1694–1754)
27 August
1743
6 March
1754
Whig [33]
Broad Bottom I
1747 Broad Bottom II
10 years and 192 days[†]
Thomas Pelham-Holles
1st Duke of Newcastle
(1693–1768)
16 March
1754
11 November
1756
1754
  • First Lord of the Treasury
  • Leader of the House of Lords
Whig Newcastle I [34]
2 years and 241 days
William Cavendish
4th Duke of Devonshire
(1720–1764)
16 November
1756
29 June
1757
  • First Lord of the Treasury
  • Leader of the House of Lords
  • Lord Treasurer of Ireland
Whig Pitt–Devonshire [35]
1757 Caretaker
226 days
Thomas Pelham-Holles
1st Duke of Newcastle
(1693–1768)
29 June
1757
26 May
1762
1761
  • First Lord of the Treasury
  • Leader of the House of Lords
Whig Pitt–Newcastle [36]
Bute–Newcastle
(Tory–Whig)
George III

1760–1820

4 years and 332 days
John Stuart
3rd Earl of Bute
(1713–1792)
26 May
1762
8 April
1763
  • First Lord of the Treasury
  • Leader of the House of Lords
Tory Bute [37]
318 days
George Grenville
(1712–1770)
16 April
1763
10 July
1765
Whig
(Grenvillite)
Grenville
(mainly Whig)
[38]
2 years and 86 days
Charles Watson-Wentworth
2nd Marquess of Rockingham
(1730–1782)
13 July
1765
30 July
1766
  • First Lord of the Treasury
  • Leader of the House of Lords
Whig
(Rockinghamite)
Rockingham I [39]
1 year and 18 days
William Pitt the Elder
1st Earl of Chatham

(1708–1778)
30 July
1766
14 October
1768
1768 Whig
(Chathamite)
Chatham [40]
2 years and 77 days
Augustus FitzRoy
3rd Duke of Grafton
(1735–1811)
14 October
1768
28 January
1770
  • First Lord of the Treasury
  • Leader of the House of Lords
Whig
(Chathamite)
Grafton [41]
1 year and 107 days
Frederick North
Lord North

(1732–1792)
28 January
1770
27 March
1782
1774
Tory
(Northite)
North [42]
1780
12 years and 59 days
Charles Watson-Wentworth
2nd Marquess of Rockingham
(1730–1782)
27 March
1782
1 July
1782
  • First Lord of the Treasury
Whig
(Rockinghamite)
Rockingham II [39]
97 days[†]
William Petty
2nd Earl of Shelburne
(1737–1805)
4 July
1782
26 March
1783
  • First Lord of the Treasury
  • Leader of the House of Lords
Whig
(Chathamite)
Shelburne [43]
266 days
William Cavendish-Bentinck
3rd Duke of Portland
(1738–1809)
2 April
1783
18 December
1783
  • First Lord of the Treasury
  • Leader of the House of Lords
Whig Fox–North [44]
261 days
William Pitt the Younger
(1759–1806)
19 December
1783
14 March
1801
1784
Tory
(Pittite)
Pitt I [45]
1790
1796
17 years and 86 days
Henry Addington
(1757–1844)
17 March
1801
10 May
1804
1801
Tory
(Addingtonian)
Addington [46]
1802
3 years and 55 days
William Pitt the Younger
(1759–1806)
10 May
1804
23 January
1806
Tory
(Pittite)
Pitt II [47]
1 year and 259 days[†]
William Grenville
1st Baron Grenville
(1759–1834)
11 February
1806
25 March
1807
1806
  • First Lord of the Treasury
  • Leader of the House of Lords
Whig All the Talents
(Whig–Tory)
[48]
1 year and 43 days
William Cavendish-Bentinck
3rd Duke of Portland
(1738–1809)
31 March
1807
4 October
1809
1807
  • First Lord of the Treasury
Tory
(Pittite)
Portland II [49]
2 years and 188 days
Spencer Perceval
(1762–1812)
4 October
1809
11 May
1812
  • Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
  • Chancellor of the Exchequer
  • Commissioner of the Treasury for Ireland (1810–1812)
  • First Lord of the Treasury
  • Leader of the House of Commons
Tory
(Pittite)
Perceval [50]
2 years and 221 days[†]
Robert Jenkinson
2nd Earl of Liverpool

(1770–1828)
8 June
1812
9 April
1827
1812
  • First Lord of the Treasury
  • Leader of the House of Lords
Tory
(Pittite)
Liverpool [51]
1818 George IV

1820–1830

1820
1826
14 years and 306 days
George Canning
(1770–1827)
12 April
1827
8 August
1827
Tory
(Canningite)
Canning
(Canningite–Whig)
[52]
119 days[†]
Frederick John Robinson
1st Viscount Goderich
(1782–1859)
31 August
1827
8 January
1828
  • First Lord of the Treasury
  • Leader of the House of Lords
Tory
(Canningite)
Goderich [53]
131 days
Arthur Wellesley
1st Duke of Wellington

(1769–1852)
22 January
1828
16 November
1830
1830
  • First Lord of the Treasury
  • Leader of the House of Lords
Tory Wellington–Peel [54]
2 years and 299 days William IV

1830–1837

Charles Grey
2nd Earl Grey
(1764–1845)
22 November
1830
9 July
1834
1831
  • First Lord of the Treasury
  • Leader of the House of Lords
Whig Grey [55]
1832
3 years and 230 days
William Lamb
2nd Viscount Melbourne
(1779–1848)
16 July
1834
14 November
1834
  • First Lord of the Treasury
  • Leader of the House of Lords
Whig Melbourne I [56]
122 days
Arthur Wellesley
1st Duke of Wellington

(1769–1852)
17 November
1834
9 December
1834
  • First Lord of the Treasury
  • Leader of the House of Lords
  • Sec. of State for Foreign Affairs
  • Sec. of State for the Home Dept
  • Sec. of State for War & Colonies
Tory Wellington Caretaker [57]
23 days
Sir Robert Peel
(1788–1850)
10 December
1834
8 April
1835
Conservative Peel I [58]
120 days
William Lamb
2nd Viscount Melbourne
(1779–1848)
18 April
1835
30 August
1841
1835
  • First Lord of the Treasury
  • Leader of the House of Lords
Whig Melbourne II [59]
1837 Victoria

1837–1901

6 years and 135 days
Sir Robert Peel
(1788–1850)
30 August
1841
29 June
1846
1841
  • First Lord of the Treasury
  • Leader of the House of Commons
Conservative Peel II [58]
4 years and 304 days
Lord John Russell
(1792–1878)
30 June
1846
21 February
1852
1847
  • First Lord of the Treasury
  • Leader of the House of Commons
Whig Russell I [60]
5 years and 237 days
Edward Smith-Stanley
14th Earl of Derby
(1799–1869)
23 February
1852
17 December
1852
1852
  • First Lord of the Treasury
  • Leader of the House of Lords
Conservative Who? Who? [61]
299 days
George Hamilton-Gordon
4th Earl of Aberdeen
(1784–1860)
19 December
1852
30 January
1855
  • First Lord of the Treasury
  • Leader of the House of Lords
Peelite Aberdeen
(Peelite–Whig–et al.)
[62]
2 years and 43 days
Henry John Temple
3rd Viscount Palmerston

(1784–1865)
6 February
1855
19 February
1858
1857
  • First Lord of the Treasury
  • Leader of the House of Commons
Whig Palmerston I [63]
3 years and 14 days
Edward Smith-Stanley
14th Earl of Derby
(1799–1869)
20 February
1858
11 June
1859
  • First Lord of the Treasury
  • Leader of the House of Lords
Conservative Derby–Disraeli II [64]
1 year and 112 days
Henry John Temple
3rd Viscount Palmerston

(1784–1865)
12 June
1859
18 October
1865
1859
  • First Lord of the Treasury
  • Leader of the House of Commons
Liberal Palmerston II [65]
1865
6 years and 129 days[†]
John Russell
1st Earl Russell

(1792–1878)
29 October
1865
26 June
1866
  • First Lord of the Treasury
  • Leader of the House of Lords
Liberal Russell II [60]
241 days
Edward Smith-Stanley
14th Earl of Derby
(1799–1869)
28 June
1866
25 February
1868
  • First Lord of the Treasury
  • Leader of the House of Lords
Conservative Derby–Disraeli III [66]
1 year and 243 days
Benjamin Disraeli
(1804–1881)
See also § Main articles:1
  • First Lord of the Treasury
  • Leader of the House of Commons
Conservative [67]
27 February
1868
1 December
1868
279 days
William Ewart Gladstone
(1809–1898)
See also § Main articles:2
Liberal Gladstone I [68]
3 December
1868
17 February
1874
1868
5 years and 77 days
Benjamin Disraeli
1st Earl of Beaconsfield

(1804–1881)
See also § Main articles:1
  • First Lord of the Treasury
  • Leader of the House of Commons (1874–1876)
  • Leader of the House of Lords (1876–1880)
  • Lord Privy Seal (1876–1878)
Conservative Disraeli II [69]
20 February
1874
21 April
1880
1874
6 years and 62 days
William Ewart Gladstone
(1809–1898)
See also § Main articles:2
Liberal Gladstone II [70]
23 April
1880
9 June
1885
1880
5 years and 48 days
Robert Gascoyne-Cecil
3rd Marquess of Salisbury

(1830–1903)
23 June
1885
28 January
1886
  • Leader of the House of Lords
  • Sec. of State for Foreign Affairs
Conservative Salisbury I [71]
220 days
William Ewart Gladstone
(1809–1898)
See also § Main articles:2
Liberal Gladstone III [70]
1 February
1886
20 July
1886
1885
170 days
Robert Gascoyne-Cecil
3rd Marquess of Salisbury

(1830–1903)
25 July
1886
11 August
1892
1886
  • First Lord of the Treasury (1886–1887)
  • Leader of the House of Lords
  • Sec. of State for Foreign Affairs (1887–1892)
Conservative Salisbury II [72]
6 years and 18 days
William Ewart Gladstone
(1809–1898)
See also § Main articles:2
Liberal Gladstone IV [70]
15 August
1892
2 March
1894
1892
1 year and 200 days
Archibald Primrose
5th Earl of Rosebery

(1847–1929)
5 March
1894
22 June
1895
Liberal Rosebery [73]
1 year and 110 days
Robert Gascoyne-Cecil
3rd Marquess of Salisbury

(1830–1903)
25 June
1895
11 July
1902
1895
  • Leader of the House of Lords
  • Lord Privy Seal (1900–1902)
  • Sec. of State for Foreign Affairs (1895–1900)
Conservative Salisbury III
(Con.–Lib.U.)
[74]
1900 Salisbury IV Edward VII

1901–1910

7 years and 17 days
Arthur Balfour
(1848–1930)
12 July
1902
4 December
1905
  • First Lord of the Treasury
  • Leader of the House of Commons
  • Lord Privy Seal (1902–1903)
Conservative Balfour [75]
3 years and 146 days
Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman
(1836–1908)
5 December
1905
3 April
1908
1906
  • First Lord of the Treasury
  • Leader of the House of Commons
Liberal Campbell-Bannerman [76]
2 years and 121 days
H. H. Asquith
(1852–1928)
8 April
1908
5 December
1916
  • First Lord of the Treasury
  • Leader of the House of Commons
  • Sec. of State for War (1914)
Liberal Asquith I [77]
Jan.1910 Asquith II George V

1910–1936

Dec.1910 Asquith III
Asquith Coalition
(Lib.Con.–et al.)
8 years and 243 days
David Lloyd George
(1863–1945)
6 December
1916
19 October
1922
  • First Lord of the Treasury
Liberal Lloyd George War [78]
1918 Lloyd George II
(Lib.Con.)
5 years and 318 days
Andrew Bonar Law
(1858–1923)
23 October
1922
20 May
1923
1922
  • First Lord of the Treasury
  • Leader of the House of Commons
Conservative
(Scot.U.)
Law [79]
210 days
Stanley Baldwin
(1867–1947)
22 May
1923
22 January
1924
Conservative Baldwin I [80]
246 days
Ramsay MacDonald
(1866–1937)
22 January
1924
4 November
1924
1923
  • First Lord of the Treasury
  • Leader of the House of Commons
  • Sec. of State for Foreign Affairs
Labour MacDonald I [81]
288 days
Stanley Baldwin
(1867–1947)
4 November
1924
4 June
1929
1924
  • First Lord of the Treasury
  • Leader of the House of Commons
Conservative Baldwin II [82]
4 years and 213 days
Ramsay MacDonald
(1866–1937)
5 June
1929
7 June
1935
1929
  • First Lord of the Treasury
  • Leader of the House of Commons
Labour MacDonald II [83]
National Labour National I
(N.Lab.–Con.–et al.)
1931 National II
6 years and 3 days
Stanley Baldwin
(1867–1947)
7 June
1935
28 May
1937
1935
  • First Lord of the Treasury
  • Leader of the House of Commons
Conservative National III [84]
Edward VIII

1936

1 year and 356 days George VI

1936–1952

Neville Chamberlain
(1869–1940)
28 May
1937
10 May
1940
  • First Lord of the Treasury
  • Leader of the House of Commons
Conservative National IV [85]
Chamberlain War
2 years and 349 days
Winston Churchill
(1874–1965)
10 May
1940
26 July
1945
  • First Lord of the Treasury
  • Leader of the House of Commons (1940–1942)
  • Minister of Defence
Conservative Churchill War [86]
5 years and 78 days Churchill Caretaker
(Con.–L.Nat.)
Clement Attlee
(1883–1967)
26 July
1945
26 October
1951
1945
  • First Lord of the Treasury
  • Minister of Defence (1945–1946)
Labour Attlee I [87]
1950 Attlee II
6 years and 93 days
Sir Winston Churchill
(1874–1965)
26 October
1951
5 April
1955
1951
  • First Lord of the Treasury
  • Minister of Defence (1951–1952)
Conservative Churchill III [88]
3 years and 162 days Elizabeth II

1952–present

Sir Anthony Eden
(1897–1977)
6 April
1955
9 January
1957
1955
  • First Lord of the Treasury
Conservative Eden [89]
1 year and 279 days
Harold Macmillan
MP for Bromley
(1894–1986)
10 January
1957
18 October
1963
  • First Lord of the Treasury
Conservative Macmillan I [90]
1959 Macmillan II
6 years and 282 days
Sir Alec Douglas-Home[lower-alpha 2]
MP for Kinross and Western Perthshire
(1903–1995)
19 October
1963
16 October
1964
  • First Lord of the Treasury
Conservative
(Scot.U.)
Douglas-Home [91]
364 days
Harold Wilson
MP for Huyton
(1916–1995)
16 October
1964
19 June
1970
1964
  • First Lord of the Treasury
  • Minister for the Civil Service (1968–1970)
Labour Wilson I [92]
1966 Wilson II
5 years and 247 days
Edward Heath
MP for Bexley
(1916–2005)
19 June
1970
4 March
1974
1970
  • First Lord of the Treasury
  • Minister for the Civil Service
Conservative Heath [93]
3 years and 259 days
Harold Wilson
MP for Huyton
(1916–1995)
4 March
1974
5 April
1976
Feb.1974
  • First Lord of the Treasury
  • Minister for the Civil Service
Labour Wilson III [92]
Oct.1974 Wilson IV
2 years and 33 days
James Callaghan
MP for Cardiff South and Penarth
(1912–2005)
5 April
1976
4 May
1979
  • First Lord of the Treasury
  • Minister for the Civil Service
Labour Callaghan [94]
3 years and 30 days
Margaret Thatcher
MP for Finchley
(1925–2013)
See also § Main articles:3
  • First Lord of the Treasury
  • Minister for the Civil Service
Conservative Thatcher I [95]
4 May
1979
28 November
1990
1979
1983 Thatcher II
1987 Thatcher III
11 years and 209 days
John Major
(born 1943)
MP for Huntingdon
28 November
1990
2 May
1997
  • First Lord of the Treasury
  • Minister for the Civil Service
Conservative Major I [96]
1992 Major II
6 years and 156 days
Tony Blair
(born 1953)
MP for Sedgefield
See also § Main articles:4
  • First Lord of the Treasury
  • Minister for the Civil Service
Labour Blair I [97]
2 May
1997
27 June
2007
1997
2001 Blair II
2005 Blair III
10 years and 57 days
Gordon Brown
(born 1951)
MP for Kirkcaldy and Cowdenbeath
See also § Main articles:5
  • First Lord of the Treasury
  • Minister for the Civil Service
Labour Brown [98]
27 June
2007
11 May
2010
2 years and 319 days
David Cameron
(born 1966)
MP for Witney
See also § Main articles:6
  • First Lord of the Treasury
  • Minister for the Civil Service
Conservative Cameron–Clegg
(Con.Lib.Dems.)
[99]
11 May
2010
13 July
2016
2010
2015 Cameron II
6 years and 64 days
Theresa May
(born 1956)
MP for Maidenhead
See also § Main articles:7
  • First Lord of the Treasury
  • Minister for the Civil Service
Conservative May I [100]
13 July
2016
24 July
2019
2017 May II
3 years and 12 days
Boris Johnson
(born 1964)
MP for Uxbridge and South Ruislip
See also § Main articles:8
  • First Lord of the Treasury
  • Minister for the Civil Service
  • Minister for the Union
Conservative Johnson I
24 July
2019
Incumbent
2019 Johnson II
1 year and 313 days
Title
Prime Minister
Office
(Birth–Death)
Term of office & mandate Ministerial offices Party Government Monarch Ref.

Disputed

  Whig (2) Monarch
Title
Prime Minister
Office
(Birth–Death)
Term of office & mandate[lower-alpha 1]
Duration in years and days
Ministerial offices
held as prime minister
Party Government
William Pulteney
1st Earl of Bath
(1684–1764)
10 February
1746
12 February
1746
  • First Lord of the Treasury
Whig Short Lived George II

(1727–1760)

3 days
James Waldegrave
2nd Earl Waldegrave
(1715–1763)
8 June
1756
12 June
1756
Waldegrave
5 days

See also

Main articles
  • ^1: Premierships of Benjamin Disraeli
  • ^2: Premierships of William Ewart Gladstone
  • ^3: Premiership of Margaret Thatcher
  • ^4: Premiership of Tony Blair
  • ^5: Premiership of Gordon Brown
  • ^6: Premiership of David Cameron
  • ^7: Premiership of Theresa May
  • ^8: Premiership of Boris Johnson

Notes

  • Elevated to the British peerage
  • ^† Died in office
  • ^‡ Elected to a new constituency in a general election
  1. Legend for cells listed in the sixth column from right:
    • e.g.  1722  and  1841 —coloured containing a linked year
      indicates a general election won by the government (e.g. 1722) or one that led to its formation (e.g. 1841);
    • e.g.  1830 —shaded grey containing a linked year
      indicates an election resulting in no single party winning a Commons majority;
    • e.g.   —coloured containing a dash
      indicates the formation of a majority government without an election;
    • e.g.   —shaded grey containing a dash
      indicates the formation of a minority or coalition government during a hung parliament.
  2. Douglas Home disclaimed his peerage as the Earl of Home on 23 October 1963. He was elected an MP on 7 November.

References

Citations

  1. Hennessy 2001, pp. 39–40.
  2. Stephen Taylor ODNB.
  3. Castlereagh 1805.
  4. Eardley-Wilmot 1885; Macfarlane 1885.
  5. Marriott 1923, p. 83.
  6. Clarke 1999, p. 266; Hennessy 2001, pp. 39–40.
  7. BBC News 1998.
  8. Mackay 1987; Marriott 1923, p. 83.
  9. Bogdanor 1997.
  10. Burt 1874, p. 106; Castlereagh 1805.
  11. Law 1922.
  12. Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act 1927.
  13. Leonard 2010, p. 1.
  14. Carpenter 1992, p. 37.
  15. Leonard 2010, p. 47.
  16. Leonard 2010, p. 65.
  17. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography 2011.
  18. Chisholm 1911f.
  19. Pollard 1904.
  20. Chisholm 1911a.
  21. Chisholm 1911c.
  22. Chapman 2002.
  23. Fisher Russell Barker 1890; Stephen 1890.
  24. Morrill 2018.
  25. Chapman 2002, p. 15.
  26. McMullen Rigg 1899.
  27. Chisholm 1911d; Chisholm 1911e.
  28. Chisholm 1911b; McMullen Rigg 1899.
  29. UK Government 2013.
  30. Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, p. 413; Locker-Lampson 1907, p. 497.
  31. Eccleshall & Walker 2002, pp. 1, 5; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 1–5; Pryde et al. 1996, pp. 45–46.
  32. Cook & Stevenson 1988, p. 41; Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 14; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 7–10; Jones & Jones 1986, p. 222.
  33. Cook & Stevenson 1988, pp. 41–42; Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 17; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 11–15.
  34. Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 28; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 16–21.
  35. Cook & Stevenson 1988, p. 44; Courthope 1838, p. 19; Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 34; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 23–26; Schumann & Schweizer 2012, p. 143.
  36. Cook & Stevenson 1980, p. 11; Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 28; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 16–21; Pryde et al. 1996, p. 46; Tout 1910, p. 740.
  37. Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 36; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 28–31; Jones & Jones 1986, p. 223; Tout 1910, p. 740.
  38. Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 42; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 33–35; Tout 1910, p. 740.
  39. The British Magazine and Review 1782, p. 79; Eccleshall & Walker 2002, pp. 46, 50; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 39–43.
  40. Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 54; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 45–50; Kebbel 1864, p. 143; Venning 2005, p. 93.
  41. Courthope 1838, p. 9; Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 61; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 52–56; Venning 2005, p. 93; Vincitorio 1968, p. 156.
  42. Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 64; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 58–62; Whiteley 1996, p. 24.
  43. Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 73; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 64–68; Venning 2005, p. 93.
  44. Cook & Stevenson 1980, p. 11; Courthope 1838, p. 25; Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 77; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 69–74; Venning 2005, p. 93.
  45. Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 85; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 75–78; Evans 2008, p. 4.
  46. Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 94; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 83–85; Styles 1829, p. 266.
  47. Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 85; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 75–77; Evans 2008, p. 4.
  48. Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 98; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 90–92; Tout 1910, p. 740.
  49. Courthope 1838, p. 25; Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 77; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 69–74; Evans 2008, p. 4.
  50. Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 101; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 98–101; Evans 2008, p. 4.
  51. Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 106; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 104–108; Evans 2008, p. 4; Pryde et al. 1996, p. 47.
  52. Eccleshall & Walker 2002, pp. 116, 133; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 110–115.
  53. Eccleshall & Walker 2002, pp. 120, 133; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 118–120.
  54. Courthope 1838, p. 33; Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 123; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 124–130; Pryde et al. 1996, p. 47; Shaw 1906, p. 447; Tout 1910, p. 740.
  55. Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 128; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 133–139.
  56. Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 136; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 141–143.
  57. Courthope 1838, p. 33; Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 123; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 124–130; Evans 2001, p. 471; Mahon & Cardwell 1856, p. 17; Shaw 1906, p. 447.
  58. Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 142; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 148–153.
  59. Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 136; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 141–145; Pryde et al. 1996, p. 47.
  60. Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 151; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 155–160.
  61. Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 161; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 162–164.
  62. Eccleshall & Walker 2002, pp. 159, 167; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 169–174; Royal Society of Edinburgh 2006, p. 375; Tout 1910, p. 741.
  63. Disraeli 1855; Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 174; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 177–184; Royal Society 2007, p. 349.
  64. Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 161; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 162–164; Tout 1910, p. 741.
  65. Balfour 1910; Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 174; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 177–184; Royal Society 2007, p. 349.
  66. Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 161; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 162–167; Tout 1910, p. 741.
  67. Disraeli 1868; Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 183; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 187–189; Tout 1910, p. 741.
  68. Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 196; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 195–198; Royal Statistical Society 1892, p. 9.
  69. Chamberlain 1884; Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 183; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 187–192.
  70. Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 196; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 195–202; Royal Statistical Society 1892, p. 9.
  71. Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 213; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 205–210; Mosley 2003, p. 3505.
  72. Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 213; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 205–210; Locker-Lampson 1907, p. 497; Mosley 2003, p. 3505; Sandys 1910, p. 287.
  73. Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 222; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 212–215.
  74. Eccleshall & Walker 2002, pp. 213, 221; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 205–210; Mosley 2003, p. 3505; Pryde et al. 1996, p. 47; Sandys 1910, p. 287.
  75. Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 231; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 217–221; Mosley 1999, p. 173; Tout 1910, p. 741.
  76. Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 239; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 223–227.
  77. Butler & Butler 2010, p. 5; Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 244; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 229–235; Pryde et al. 1996, p. 48.
  78. Butler & Butler 2010, pp. 6–9; The Constitutional Yearbook 1919, p. 42; Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 252; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 237–243.
  79. Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 262; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 246–248; Scully 2018.
  80. Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 273; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 253–255; Mosley 1999, p. 172.
  81. Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 281; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 262–264.
  82. Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 273; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 253–259; Mosley 1999, p. 172.
  83. Butler & Butler 2010, p. 13; Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 281; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 262–268.
  84. Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 273; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 253–259; Mosley 1999, p. 172; Pryde et al. 1996, p. 48.
  85. The Annual Register 1941, p. 11; Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 289; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 270–274.
  86. The Annual Register 1946, p. 11; Butler & Butler 2010, pp. 17–21, 77; Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 295; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 276–282; The London Gazette 1924.
  87. Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 305; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 284–289.
  88. BBC On This Day 2005; Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 295; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 276–282; The London Gazette 1924; Mosley 1999, p. 1868; Pryde et al. 1996, p. 48.
  89. Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 315; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 291–295.
  90. Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 320; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 297–303.
  91. Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 329; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 306–310; Scully 2018.
  92. Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 333; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 313–320.
  93. Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 343; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 322–328; UK Parliament 2005a.
  94. Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 350; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 331–333; UK Parliament 2005b.
  95. Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 358; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 340–347; UK Parliament 2013.
  96. Butler & Butler 2010, p. 61; Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 384; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 350–352.
  97. Butler & Butler 2010, pp. 61, 270; Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 392; Seldon 2007, pp. 77, 371, 647; UK Parliament 2017b.
  98. Butler & Butler 2010, pp. 61, 86; UK Parliament 2012.
  99. Butler & Butler 2010, pp. 61, 65; Lee & Beech 2011; Royal Communications 2016; Wheeler 2016.
  100. BBC News 2017; Stamp 2016; UK Parliament 2017a.

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