List of first ladies of the United States

The first lady of the United States is the hostess of the White House. The position is traditionally filled by the wife of the president of the United States, but, on occasion, the title has been applied to women who were not presidents’ wives, such as when the president was a bachelor or widower, or when the wife of the president was unable to fulfill the duties of the first lady. The first lady is not an elected position; it carries no official duties and receives no salary. Nonetheless, she attends many official ceremonies and functions of state either along with or in place of the president. Traditionally, the first lady does not hold outside employment while occupying the office,[1] although Eleanor Roosevelt earned money writing and giving lectures, but gave most of it to charity.[2] She has her own staff, including the White House social secretary, the chief of staff, the press secretary, the chief floral designer, and the executive chef. The Office of the First Lady is also in charge of all social and ceremonial events of the White House, and is a branch of the Executive Office of the President.

First Lady of the
United States of America
Currently in role
Jill Biden
since January 20, 2021
StyleMadam First Lady
ResidenceWhite House
Inaugural holderMartha Washington
WebsiteFirst Ladies

There have been total of 54 first ladies including 43 official and 11 acting, within 46 first ladyships. This discrepancy exists because some presidents had multiple first ladies. Following Joe Biden's inauguration on January 20, 2021, his wife, Jill Biden, became the 43rd official first lady.

There are five living former first ladies: Rosalynn Carter, married to Jimmy Carter; Hillary Clinton, married to Bill Clinton; Laura Bush, married to George W. Bush, Michelle Obama, married to Barack Obama; and Melania Trump, married to Donald Trump. The first first lady was Martha Washington, married to George Washington. Presidents John Tyler and Woodrow Wilson had two official first ladies; both remarried during their presidential tenures. The wives of four presidents died before their husbands were sworn into office but are still considered first ladies by the White House and National First Ladies' Library: Martha Wayles Skelton, married to Thomas Jefferson;[3][4] Rachel Jackson, married to Andrew Jackson;[5][6] Hannah Van Buren, married to Martin Van Buren;[7][8] and Ellen Lewis Herndon Arthur, married to Chester A. Arthur.[9][10] One woman who was not married to a president is still considered an official first lady: Harriet Lane, niece of bachelor James Buchanan. The other non-spousal relatives who served as White House hostesses are not recognized by the First Ladies' Library.

In 2007, the United States Mint began releasing a set of half-ounce $10 gold coins under the First Spouse Program with engravings of portraits of the first ladies on the obverse.[11] When a president served without a spouse, a gold coin was issued that bears an obverse image emblematic of Liberty as depicted on a circulating coin of that era and a reverse image emblematic of themes of that president's life. This is true for the coins for Thomas Jefferson, Andrew Jackson, Martin Van Buren, and James Buchanan's first ladies, but not the coin for Chester A. Arthur's first lady, which instead depicts suffragette Alice Paul.[12]

Current living first ladies

Living first ladies as of August 1, 2021 (from oldest to youngest):

List

This list includes all persons who served as first ladies, regardless of whether they were married to the incumbent president or not, as well as persons who are considered first ladies by the official White House website and the White House Historical Association.

POTUS
No.

Portrait Name Tenure Age at tenure start President
(Husband, unless noted)
1 Martha Washington
June 13, 1731 – May 22, 1802
(aged 70)

[14][15]
April 30, 1789

March 4, 1797
57 years, 321 days George Washington
m. January 6, 1759
2 Abigail Adams
November 22, 1744 – October 28, 1818
(aged 73)

[16][17]
March 4, 1797

March 4, 1801
52 years, 102 days John Adams
m. October 25, 1764
3 Martha Jefferson
September 27, 1772 – October 10, 1836
(aged 64)

[3][4]
March 4, 1801

March 4, 1809
28 years, 158 days Thomas Jefferson
Father
[upper-alpha 1]
4 Dolly Madison
May 20, 1768 – July 12, 1849
(aged 81)

[18][19]
March 4, 1809

March 4, 1817
40 years, 288 days James Madison
m. September 14, 1794
5 Elizabeth Monroe
June 30, 1768 – September 23, 1830
(aged 62)

[20][21]
March 4, 1817

March 4, 1825
48 years, 247 days James Monroe
m. February 16, 1786
6 Louisa Adams
Birth country:  Great Britain
(present day  United Kingdom)
February 12, 1775 – May 15, 1852
(aged 77)

[22][23]
March 4, 1825

March 4, 1829
50 years, 20 days John Quincy Adams
m. July 26, 1797
7 Emily Donelson

June 1, 1807 – December 19, 1836
(aged 29)

[24]

March 4, 1829

November 26, 1834
21 years, 276 days Andrew Jackson
Uncle
Sarah Jackson

July 16, 1803 – August 23, 1887
(aged 84)

[25]

November 26, 1834

March 4, 1837
31 years, 133 days Andrew Jackson
Father-in-law
8 Vacant March 4, 1837

November 27, 1838
Vacant Martin Van Buren
Widower
Sarah Van Buren
February 13, 1818 – December 29, 1877
(aged 59)

[7][8]
November 27, 1838

March 4, 1841
20 years, 287 days Martin Van Buren
Father-in-law
9 Anna Harrison
July 25, 1775 – February 25, 1864
(aged 88)

[26][27]
March 4, 1841

April 4, 1841
65 years, 222 days William Henry Harrison
m. November 22, 1795
Jane Harrison
July 23, 1804 – May 11, 1846
(aged 41)

[27]
March 4, 1841

April 4, 1841
36 years, 224 days William Henry Harrison
Father-in-law
10 Letitia Tyler
November 12, 1790 – September 10, 1842
(aged 51)

[28][29]
April 4, 1841

September 10, 1842
50 years, 143 days John Tyler
m. (1813-03-29)March 29, 1813
Elizabeth Priscilla Tyler
June 14, 1816 – December 29, 1889
(aged 73)

[30]
September 10, 1842

June 26, 1844
26 years, 88 days John Tyler
Father-in-law
Julia Tyler
July 29, 1820 – July 10, 1889
(aged 68)

[31][32]
June 26, 1844

March 4, 1845
24 years, 53 days John Tyler
m. June 26, 1844
Married while President
11 Sarah Polk
September 4, 1803 – August 14, 1891
(aged 87)

[33][34]
March 4, 1845

March 4, 1849
41 years, 181 days James K. Polk
m. January 1, 1824
12 Margaret "Peggy" Taylor
September 21, 1788 – August 14, 1852
(aged 63)

[35][36]
March 4, 1849

July 9, 1850
60 years, 164 days Zachary Taylor
m. June 21, 1810
13 Abigail Fillmore
March 13, 1798 – March 30, 1853
(aged 55)

[37][38]
July 9, 1850

March 4, 1853
52 years, 118 days Millard Fillmore
m. February 5, 1826
14 Jane Pierce
March 12, 1806 – December 2, 1863
(aged 57)

[39][40]
March 4, 1853

March 4, 1857
46 years, 357 days Franklin Pierce
m. November 19, 1834
15 Harriet Lane
May 9, 1830 – July 3, 1903
(aged 73)

[41][42]
March 4, 1857

March 4, 1861
26 years, 299 days James Buchanan
Uncle
16 Mary Lincoln
December 13, 1818 – July 16, 1882
(aged 63)

[43][44]
March 4, 1861

April 15, 1865
42 years, 81 days Abraham Lincoln
m. November 4, 1842
17 Eliza Johnson
October 4, 1810 – January 15, 1876
(aged 65)

[45][46]
April 15, 1865

March 4, 1869
54 years, 193 days Andrew Johnson
m. May 17, 1827
18 Julia Grant
January 26, 1826 – December 14, 1902
(aged 76)

[47][48]
March 4, 1869

March 4, 1877
43 years, 37 days Ulysses S. Grant
m. August 22, 1848
19 Lucy Hayes
August 28, 1831 – June 25, 1889
(aged 57)

[49][50]
March 4, 1877

March 4, 1881
45 years, 188 days Rutherford B. Hayes
m. December 30, 1852
20 Lucretia Garfield
April 19, 1832 – March 14, 1918
(aged 85)

[51][52]
March 4, 1881

September 19, 1881
48 years, 319 days James A. Garfield
m. November 11, 1858
21 Mary McElroy
July 5, 1841 – January 8, 1917
(aged 75)

[53]
September 19, 1881

March 4, 1885
40 years, 76 days Chester A. Arthur
Brother
22 Rose Cleveland
June 13, 1846 – November 22, 1918
(aged 72)

[54]
March 4, 1885

June 2, 1886
38 years, 264 days Grover Cleveland
Brother
Frances Cleveland
July 21, 1864 – October 29, 1947
(aged 83)

[55][56]
June 2, 1886

March 4, 1889
21 years, 316 days Grover Cleveland
m. June 2, 1886
Married while President
23 Caroline Harrison
October 1, 1832 – October 25, 1892
(aged 60)

[57][58]
March 4, 1889

October 25, 1892
56 years, 154 days Benjamin Harrison
m. October 20, 1853
Mary Harrison McKee
April 3, 1858 – October 28, 1930
(aged 72)

[58]
October 25, 1892

March 4, 1893
34 years, 205 days Benjamin Harrison
Father
24 Frances Cleveland
July 21, 1864 – October 29, 1947
(aged 83)

[55][56]
March 4, 1893

March 4, 1897
28 years, 226 days Grover Cleveland
m. June 2, 1886
Remarried 1913
25 Ida McKinley
June 8, 1847 – May 26, 1907
(aged 59)

[59][60]
March 4, 1897

September 14, 1901
49 years, 269 days William McKinley
m. January 25, 1871
26 Edith Roosevelt
August 6, 1861 – September 30, 1948
(aged 87)

[61][62]
September 14, 1901

March 4, 1909
40 years, 39 days Theodore Roosevelt
m. December 2, 1886
27 Helen "Nellie" Taft
June 2, 1861 – May 22, 1943
(aged 81)

[63][64]
March 4, 1909

March 4, 1913
47 years, 275 days William H. Taft
m. June 19, 1886
28 Ellen Wilson
May 15, 1860 – August 6, 1914
(aged 54)

[65][66]
March 4, 1913

August 6, 1914
52 years, 293 days Woodrow Wilson
m. June 24, 1885
Margaret Wilson
April 16, 1886 – February 12, 1944
(aged 57)

[66][67]
August 6, 1914

December 18, 1915
28 years, 112 days Woodrow Wilson
Father
Edith Wilson
October 15, 1872 – December 28, 1961
(aged 89)

[68][69]
December 18, 1915

March 4, 1921
43 years, 64 days Woodrow Wilson
m. December 18, 1915
Married while President
29 Florence Harding
August 15, 1860 – November 21, 1924
(aged 64)

[70][71]
March 4, 1921

August 2, 1923
60 years, 201 days Warren G. Harding
m. July 8, 1891
30 Grace Coolidge
January 3, 1879 – July 8, 1957
(aged 78)

[72][73]
August 2, 1923

March 4, 1929
44 years, 211 days Calvin Coolidge
m. October 4, 1905
31 Lou Hoover
March 29, 1874 – January 7, 1944
(aged 69)

[74][75]
March 4, 1929

March 4, 1933
54 years, 340 days Herbert Hoover
m. February 10, 1899
32 Anna Eleanor Roosevelt
October 11, 1884 – November 7, 1962
(aged 78)

[76][77]
March 4, 1933

April 12, 1945
48 years, 144 days Franklin D. Roosevelt
m. March 17, 1905
33 Elizabeth "Bess" Truman
February 13, 1885 – October 18, 1982
(aged 97)

[78][79]
April 12, 1945

January 20, 1953
60 years, 58 days Harry S. Truman
m. June 28, 1919
34 Mamie Eisenhower
November 14, 1896 – November 1, 1979
(aged 82)

[80][81]
January 20, 1953

January 20, 1961
56 years, 67 days Dwight D. Eisenhower
m. July 1, 1916
35 Jacqueline "Jackie" Kennedy
July 28, 1929 – May 19, 1994
(aged 64)

[82][83]
January 20, 1961

November 22, 1963
31 years, 176 days John F. Kennedy
m. September 12, 1953
Remarried 1968
36 Claudia "Lady Bird" Johnson
December 22, 1912 – July 11, 2007
(aged 94)

[84][85]
November 22, 1963

January 20, 1969
50 years, 335 days Lyndon B. Johnson
m. November 17, 1934
37 Thelma "Pat" Nixon
March 16, 1912 – June 22, 1993
(aged 81)

[86][87]
January 20, 1969

August 9, 1974
56 years, 310 days Richard Nixon
m. June 21, 1940
38 Elizabeth "Betty" Ford
April 8, 1918 – July 8, 2011
(aged 93)

[88][89]
August 9, 1974

January 20, 1977
56 years, 123 days Gerald Ford
m. October 15, 1948
39 Eleanor Rosalynn Carter
Born (1927-08-18) August 18, 1927
[90][91]
January 20, 1977

January 20, 1981
49 years, 155 days Jimmy Carter
m. July 7, 1946
40 Nancy Reagan
July 6, 1921 – March 6, 2016
(aged 94)

[92][93]
January 20, 1981

January 20, 1989
59 years, 203 days Ronald Reagan
m. March 4, 1952
41 Barbara Bush
June 8, 1925 – April 17, 2018
(aged 92)

[94][95]
January 20, 1989

January 20, 1993
63 years, 226 days George H. W. Bush
m. January 6, 1945
42 Hillary Clinton
Born (1947-10-26) October 26, 1947
[96][97]
January 20, 1993

January 20, 2001
45 years, 86 days Bill Clinton
m. October 11, 1975
43 Laura Bush
Born (1946-11-04) November 4, 1946
[98][99]
January 20, 2001

January 20, 2009
54 years, 77 days George W. Bush
m. November 5, 1977
44 Michelle Obama
Born (1964-01-17) January 17, 1964
[100][101]
January 20, 2009

January 20, 2017
45 years, 3 days Barack Obama
m. October 3, 1992
45 Melania Trump
Birth country:  Yugoslavia
(present day  Slovenia)
Born (1970-04-26) April 26, 1970

[102][103]
January 20, 2017

January 20, 2021
46 years, 269 days Donald Trump
m. January 22, 2005
46 Jill Biden
Born (1951-06-03) June 3, 1951
[104]
January 20, 2021

present
69 years, 231 days Joe Biden
m. June 17, 1977

Other spouses of presidents of the United States

Certain spouses of presidents of the United States are not considered first ladies of the United States.

Four presidents were widowed prior to their presidencies:

  • Thomas Jefferson was married to Martha Wayles from 1772 until her death in 1782.
  • Andrew Jackson was married to Rachel Donelson from 1794 until her death in 1828.
  • Martin Van Buren was married to Hannah Hoes from 1807 until her death in 1819.
  • Chester A. Arthur was married to Ellen Lewis Herndon from 1859 until her death in 1880.

Two presidents were widowed and remarried prior to their presidencies:

  • Theodore Roosevelt was married to Alice Hathaway Lee from 1880 until her death in 1884. He was subsequently married to Edith Carow from 1886 to his death in 1919.
  • Joe Biden was married to Neilia Hunter from 1966 until her death in 1972. He has subsequently been married to Jill Jacobs since 1977.

Two presidents were divorced prior to their presidencies:

Two presidents remarried after their presidencies:

  • Millard Fillmore was married to Caroline Carmichael McIntosh from 1858 until his death in 1874.
  • Benjamin Harrison was married to Mary Scott Lord Dimmick from 1896 until his death in 1901.

See also

  • Bibliography of United States presidential spouses and first ladies
  • Second Ladies and Gentlemen of the United States
  • First family of the United States
  • List of children of the presidents of the United States
  • List of current United States first spouses
  • List of memoirs by first ladies of the United States
  • List of presidents of the United States
  • List of United States First Lady firsts
  • Spouse of the prime minister of Canada
  • First Lady of Mexico

Notes

  1. Jefferson's spouse, Martha Jefferson, died before he became president. Their daughter, Martha, is considered first lady by the White House Historical Association.

References

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