List of countries by GDP (nominal)

Largest economies by nominal GDP in 2021[1]
Countries by nominal GDP in 2019[n 1]
  >$20 trillion
  $10–$20 trillion
  $5–$10 trillion
  $1–$5 trillion
  $750 billion–$1 trillion
  $500–$750 billion
  $250–$500 billion
  $100–$250 billion
  $50–$100 billion
  $25–$50 billion
  $5–$25 billion
  <$5 billion

Gross domestic product (GDP) is the market value of all final goods and services from a nation in a given year.[2] Countries are sorted by nominal GDP estimates from financial and statistical institutions, which are calculated at market or government official exchange rates. Nominal GDP does not take into account differences in the cost of living in different countries, and the results can vary greatly from one year to another based on fluctuations in the exchange rates of the country's currency.[3] Such fluctuations may change a country's ranking from one year to the next, even though they often make little or no difference in the standard of living of its population.[4]

Comparisons of national wealth are also frequently made on the basis of purchasing power parity (PPP), to adjust for differences in the cost of living in different countries. PPP largely removes the exchange rate problem, but has its own drawbacks; it does not reflect the value of economic output in international trade, does not take into account the differences of quality of goods and services among countries, and it also requires more estimation than nominal GDP.[5] On the whole, PPP per capita figures are less spread than nominal GDP per capita figures.[6]

The United States is the world's largest economy with a GDP of approximately $20.513 trillion, notably due to high average incomes, a large population,[7] capital investment, low unemployment,[8] high consumer spending,[9] a relatively young population,[10] and technological innovation.[11] Tuvalu is the world's smallest national economy, with a GDP of about $45 million, because of its very small population, a lack of natural resources, reliance on foreign aid, negligible capital investment, demographic problems (overpopulation and paradoxical "brain drain"),[12] and low average incomes.[13]

Although the rankings of national economies have changed considerably over time, the United States has maintained its top position since the Gilded Age, a time period in which its economy saw rapid expansion, surpassing the British Empire and Qing dynasty in aggregate output.[14][15] Since China's transition to a market-based economy through controlled privatisation and deregulation,[16][17] the country has seen its ranking increase from ninth, in 1978, to second, in 2016. Economic growth accelerated and its share of global nominal GDP surged from 2% in 1980 to 15% in 2016.[15][1] Among others, India has also experienced an economic boom since the implementation of economic liberalisation in the early 1990s.[18]

The first list includes estimates compiled by the International Monetary Fund's World Economic Outlook, the second list shows the World Bank's data, and the third list includes data compiled by the United Nations Statistics Division. The IMF definitive data for the past year and estimates for the current year are published twice a year in April and October. Non-sovereign entities (the world, continents, and some dependent territories) and states with limited international recognition (such as Kosovo, the State of Palestine and Taiwan) are included in the list where they appear in the sources. These are marked in italics.

Lists

Per the International Monetary Fund
(2021 estimates)[1]
Per the World Bank (2019)[19] Per the United Nations (2019)[20]
Country/TerritoryGDP
(US$ M)
 World[21]93,889,577
  United States22,675,271
  China[n 2]16,642,318
  Japan5,378,136
  Germany4,319,286
  United Kingdom3,124,650
  India3,049,704
  France2,938,271
  Italy2,106,287
  Canada1,883,487
  South Korea1,806,707
  Russia1,710,734
  Australia1,617,543
  Brazil1,491,772
  Spain1,461,552
  Mexico1,192,480
  Indonesia1,158,783
  Netherlands1,012,598
  Switzerland824,734
  Saudi Arabia804,921
  Turkey794,530
  Taiwan[n 3]759,104
  Iran682,859
  Poland642,121
  Sweden625,948
  Belgium578,996
  Thailand538,735
  Nigeria514,049
  Austria481,796
  Ireland476,663
  Israel446,708
  Norway444,519
  Argentina418,150
  Philippines402,638
  United Arab Emirates401,513
  Egypt394,284
  Denmark392,570
  Malaysia387,093
  Singapore374,394
  Hong Kong[n 4]368,633
  Vietnam354,868
  Bangladesh[22]352,908
  South Africa329,529
  Chile307,938
  Finland300,484
  Pakistan296,000
  Colombia295,610
  Romania289,130
  Czech Republic276,109
  Portugal257,391
  New Zealand243,332
  Peru225,918
  Greece209,857
  Iraq190,733
  Kazakhstan187,836
  Hungary176,543
  Qatar166,031
  Ukraine[n 5]164,593
  Algeria151,459
  Kuwait126,930
  Morocco124,003
  Slovakia117,664
  Kenya106,041
  Puerto Rico100,684
  Ecuador100,595
  Ethiopia93,966
  Sri Lanka84,532
  Luxembourg84,077
  Dominican Republic83,917
  Guatemala81,402
  Bulgaria77,782
  Myanmar76,195
  Ghana74,260
  Oman74,115
  Ivory Coast70,991
  Angola66,493
  Tanzania65,919
  Croatia65,217
  Lithuania62,198
  Uzbekistan61,203
  Costa Rica61,178
  Serbia61,035
  Belarus60,725
  Syria (2010)60,043
  Panama59,377
  Slovenia59,132
  Uruguay55,459
  DR Congo55,088
  Turkmenistan54,218
  Azerbaijan49,914
  Jordan44,979
  Cameroon44,893
  Tunisia44,265
  Bolivia43,110
  Venezuela42,530
  Uganda41,271
  Macau[n 6]39,449
  Paraguay37,836
  Latvia37,720
  Bahrain37,503
  Nepal36,084
  Sudan35,827
  Estonia35,187
  Senegal27,927
  Cambodia27,239
  Cyprus26,479
  El Salvador26,277
  Honduras26,161
  Zimbabwe26,085
  Yemen25,095
  Papua New Guinea24,536
  Libya24,267
  Iceland24,155
  Haiti22,431
  Trinidad and Tobago22,161
  Bosnia and Herzegovina21,953
  Laos20,440
  Afghanistan19,938
  Mali19,912
  Lebanon (2020)19,126
  Zambia18,955
  Burkina Faso18,853
  Botswana18,726
  Gabon18,362
  Benin17,327
  Albania17,138
  Palestine[n 7]16,481
  Malta16,476
  Guinea16,339
  Georgia16,163
  Niger15,899
  Brunei15,278
  Madagascar14,746
  Jamaica14,600
  Mongolia14,233
  Mozambique13,957
  North Macedonia13,821
  Chad12,531
  Nicaragua12,283
  Armenia12,251
  Mauritius12,212
  Congo12,022
  Moldova[n 8]11,998
  Equatorial Guinea11,726
  Bahamas11,706
  Namibia11,381
  Rwanda10,633
  Malawi9,268
  Mauritania9,239
  Kosovo8,810
  Togo8,627
  Tajikistan7,825
  Kyrgyzstan7,470
  Guyana7,255
  Montenegro5,651
  Somalia5,367
  Barbados4,628
  Fiji4,586
  Maldives4,536
  South Sudan4,461
  Sierra Leone4,420
  Eswatini4,226
  Djibouti3,663
  Liberia3,370
  Burundi3,244
  Central African Republic2,718
  Aruba2,582
  Bhutan2,480
  Suriname2,465
  Lesotho2,458
  Eritrea2,250
  Gambia2,078
  Cape Verde2,003
  Saint Lucia1,787
  East Timor1,726
  Belize1,700
  San Marino1,688
  Guinea-Bissau1,647
  Solomon Islands1,644
  Antigua and Barbuda1,376
  Comoros1,309
  Grenada1,041
  Seychelles948
  Vanuatu912
  Saint Kitts and Nevis831
  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines798
  Western Samoa752
  Dominica523
  Tonga508
  São Tomé and Príncipe485
  F.S. Micronesia401
  Marshall Islands234
  Kiribati231
  Palau229
  Nauru133
  Tuvalu57
Country/TerritoryGDP
(US$ M)
 World 87,813,420
  United States21,433,226
  China[n 9]14,342,903
  Japan5,081,770
  Germany3,861,124
  India2,868,929
  United Kingdom2,829,108
  France2,715,518
  Italy2,003,576
  Brazil1,839,758
  Canada1,736,426
  Russia1,699,877
  South Korea1,646,739
  Australia1,396,567
  Spain1,393,491
  Mexico1,268,871
  Indonesia1,119,191
  Netherlands907,051
  Saudi Arabia792,967
  Turkey761,425
  Switzerland703,082
  Poland595,858
  Taiwan (2017)574,905
  Thailand543,549
  Belgium533,097
  Sweden530,884
  Nigeria448,120
  Argentina445,445
  Austria445,075
  Iran (2017)445,345
  United Arab Emirates421,142
  Norway403,336
  Israel394,652
  Ireland388,699
  Philippines376,796
  Singapore372,063
  Hong Kong (PRC)365,712
  Malaysia364,681
  South Africa351,432
  Denmark350,104
  Colombia323,616
  Bangladesh317,465
  Egypt303,092
  Pakistan296,000
  Chile282,318
  Finland269,296
  Vietnam261,921
  Czech Republic250,681
  Romania250,077
  Portugal238,785
  Iraq234,094
  Peru226,848
  Greece209,853
  New Zealand206,929
  Kazakhstan181,666
  Qatar175,838
  Algeria171,091
  Hungary163,469
  Ukraine [n 5]153,781
  Kuwait134,629
  Morocco[n 10]119,700
  Ecuador107,436
  Slovakia105,080
  Cuba (2018)100,023
  Ethiopia95,913
  Kenya95,503
  Dominican Republic88,941
  Angola88,816
  Sri Lanka84,009
  Guatemala76,710
  Oman76,332
  Myanmar76,086
  Luxembourg71,105
  Bulgaria68,559
  Ghana66,984
  Panama66,801
  Tanzania[n 11]63,177
  Belarus63,080
  Costa Rica61,801
  Croatia60,753
  Ivory Coast58,539
  Uzbekistan57,921
  Uruguay56,046
  Lithuania54,627
  Slovenia54,174
  Macau (PRC)53,859
  Libya52,091
  Lebanon51,992
  Serbia51,475
  DR Congo50,401
  Azerbaijan48,048
  Jordan44,503
  Bolivia40,895
  Turkmenistan (2018)40,761
  Cameroon39,007
  Tunisia38,797
  Bahrain38,574
  Paraguay38,145
  Uganda35,165
  Latvia34,103
  Estonia31,471
  Nepal30,641
  Sudan30,513
  Cambodia27,089
  El Salvador27,023
  Honduras25,095
  Cyprus[n 12]24,949
  Papua New Guinea24,829
  Trinidad and Tobago24,270
  Iceland24,188
  Senegal23,578
  Zambia23,310
  Zimbabwe21,441
  Bosnia and Herzegovina20,164
  Afghanistan19,291
  Botswana18,340
  Laos18,174
  Georgia[n 13]17,477
  Mali17,280
  Gabon16,874
  Jamaica16,458
  Burkina Faso15,991
  Mozambique15,291
  Albania15,279
  Malta14,989
  Palestine (2018)[n 7]14,616
  Benin14,391
  Haiti14,332
  Madagascar14,115
  Mauritius14,048
  Mongolia13,997
  Armenia13,673
  Bahamas13,579
  Brunei13,469
  Niger12,912
  North Macedonia12,547
  Nicaragua12,521
  Namibia12,367
  Guinea12,297
  Congo12,267
  Moldova[n 8]11,969
  Chad11,315
  Equatorial Guinea11,027
  Rwanda10,354
  Kyrgyzstan8,455
  Tajikistan8,117
  Kosovo7,926
  Malawi7,667
  Mauritania7,601
  Maldives5,642
  Montenegro5,543
  Fiji5,496
  Togo5,490
  Barbados5,209
  Guyana5,174
  Eswatini4,472
  Sierra Leone4,122
  Suriname3,697
  Djibouti3,325
  Andorra3,154
  Liberia3,071
  Burundi3,012
  Bhutan2,531
  Lesotho2,376
  Central African Republic2,220
  Saint Lucia2,122
  East Timor2,018
  Cape Verde1,982
  Belize1,880
  Gambia1,826
  Seychelles1,703
  Antigua and Barbuda1,662
  San Marino (2018)1,638
  Solomon Islands1,590
  Guinea-Bissau1,339
  Grenada1,211
  Comoros1,166
  Saint Kitts and Nevis1,053
  Vanuatu934
  Samoa852
  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines825
  Dominica582
  Tonga512
  São Tomé and Príncipe419
  F.S. Micronesia (2018)402
  Palau268
  Marshall Islands (2018)221
  Kiribati195
  Nauru118
  Tuvalu47
Country/TerritoryGDP
(US$ M)
 World[23]87,461,674
  United States21,433,226
  China[n 9]14,342,933
  Japan5,082,465
  Germany3,861,123
  India2,891,582
  United Kingdom2,826,441
  France2,715,518
  Italy2,003,576
  Brazil1,847,795
  Canada1,741,496
  Russia1,692,930
  South Korea1,646,539
  Spain1,393,490
  Australia1,380,207
  Mexico1,256,440
  Indonesia1,119,190
  Netherlands907,050
  Saudi Arabia792,966
  Turkey761,425
  Switzerland731,425
  Iran603,779
  Poland595,862
  Thailand542,016
  Belgium533,097
  Sweden530,883
  Nigeria474,516
  Argentina449,663
  Austria445,075
  United Arab Emirates421,142
  Norway403,336
  Ireland398,590
  Israel395,098
  Singapore372,073
  Hong Kong (PRC)365,710
  Malaysia364,684
  Philippines359,354
  South Africa351,430
  Denmark350,104
  Colombia323,802
  Bangladesh317,465
  Egypt317,359
  Pakistan296,000
  Chile282,318
  Finland269,296
  Vietnam261,921
  Czech Republic250,680
  Romania250,075
  Portugal238,785
  Peru226,850
  Iraq225,232
  New Zealand206,936
  Greece205,326
  Qatar183,466
  Kazakhstan181,667
  Algeria171,157
  Hungary163,469
  Ukraine[n 5]153,781
  Venezuela134,960
  Kuwait134,623
  Morocco119,700
  Ecuador107,435
  Cuba105,354
  Slovakia105,079
  Puerto Rico (United States)104,988
  Kenya95,501
  Ethiopia92,750
  Dominican Republic88,941
  Angola85,000
  Sri Lanka84,008
  Myanmar76,784
  Guatemala76,710
  Oman76,331
  Luxembourg71,104
  Bulgaria67,925
  Ghana66,999
  Panama66,787
  Belarus63,080
  Costa Rica61,773
  Tanzania61,136
  Croatia60,415
  Ivory Coast58,539
  Lebanon56,409
  Uruguay56,045
  Uzbekistan57,921
  Lithuania54,627
  Slovenia54,174
  Macau (PRC)53,859
  Serbia51,475
  Turkmenistan48,276
  Azerbaijan48,047
  DR Congo47,319
  Jordan44,502
  Bolivia40,895
  Cameroon38,861
  Tunisia38,797
  Bahrain38,574
  Paraguay38,086
  Sudan34,895
  Latvia34,102
  Uganda32,609
  Libya32,600
  Estonia31,471
  Nepal30,714
  Cambodia27,097
  El Salvador27,022
  Honduras25,095
  Papua New Guinea24,969
  Yemen24,935
  Cyprus24,565
  Iceland24,188
  Senegal23,664
  Trinidad and Tobago23,208
  Zambia23,085
  Zimbabwe21,440
  Syria20,379
  Bosnia and Herzegovina20,164
  Laos18,822
  Botswana18,340
  Afghanistan17,876
  Georgia17,742
  Mali17,432
  Palestine17,058
  Gabon16,887
  North Korea16,331
  Burkina Faso15,990
  Jamaica15,830
  Mozambique15,296
  Albania15,278
  Malta14,863
  Benin14,403
  Mauritius14,180
  Madagascar14,104
  Mongolia13,852
  Armenia13,672
  Bahamas13,578
  Brunei13,469
  Niger12,927
  North Macedonia12,694
  Nicaragua12,520
  Congo12,397
  Namibia12,366
  Guinea12,354
  Moldova11,955
  Chad11,271
  Equatorial Guinea11,024
  Rwanda10,355
  New Caledonia (France)9,879
  Kyrgyzstan8,454
  Tajikistan8,333
  Malawi8,099
  Haiti8,051
  Kosovo7,952
  Mauritania7,593
  Monaco7,423
  Bermuda (UK)7,361
  Togo7,270
  Liechtenstein6,797
  French Polynesia (France)6,023
  Cayman Islands (UK)6,020
  Maldives5,642
  Montenegro5,542
  Fiji5,504
  Barbados5,209
  Guyana5,173
  South Sudan4,959
  Eswatini4,594
  Sierra Leone4,121
  Suriname3,697
  Aruba (Netherlands)3,293
  Djibouti3,166
  Andorra3,154
  Curaçao (Netherlands)3,101
  Greenland (Denmark)3,023
  Burundi3,002
  Liberia2,582
  Bhutan2,564
  Lesotho2,460
  Central African Republic2,220
  Saint Lucia2,122
  East Timor2,017
  Eritrea1,981
  Cape Verde1,981
  Belize1,906
  Gambia1,822
  Zanzibar (Tanzania)1,805
  Seychelles1,698
  Antigua and Barbuda1,661
  Somalia1,626
  San Marino1,602
  Guinea-Bissau1,322
  Solomon Islands1,302
  British Virgin Islands (UK)1,296
  Grenada1,211
  Turks and Caicos Islands (UK)1,197
  Comoros1,165
  Saint Kitts and Nevis1,050
  Sint Maarten (Netherlands)1,009
  Vanuatu906
  Samoa844
  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines825
  Dominica582
  Tonga508
  São Tomé and Príncipe421
  F.S. Micronesia414
  Cook Islands (New Zealand)379
  Anguilla (UK)379
  Palau280
  Marshall Islands237
  Kiribati194
  Nauru132
  Montserrat (UK)67
  Tuvalu47

See also

  • List of countries by GDP (PPP)
  • List of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita
  • List of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita
  • List of countries by past and projected GDP (nominal)
  • List of countries by past and projected GDP (PPP)

Notes

  1. Based on IMF data. If no data is available for a country from the IMF, then data from the United Nations is used.
  2. Figures exclude Taiwan, and special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.
  3. The name used in IMF's report is "Taiwan Province of China".
  4. The name used in IMF's report is "Hong Kong SAR".
  5. Figures exclude Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol.
  6. The name used in IMF's report is "Macao SAR".
  7. The name used in IMF's an the World Bank's report is "West Bank and Gaza".
  8. Excludes data for Transnistria.
  9. Figures exclude special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.
  10. Includes Western Sahara.
  11. Covers mainland Tanzania only.
  12. Data are for the area controlled by the Government of the Republic of Cyprus.
  13. Excludes Abkhazia and South Ossetia.

References

  1. "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2021". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. April 2021. Retrieved 8 May 2021.
  2. "What is GDP and why is it so important?". Investopedia. IAC/InterActiveCorp. 26 February 2009. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
  3. Moffatt, Mike. "A Beginner's Guide to Purchasing Power Parity Theory". About.com. IAC/InterActiveCorp. Retrieved 31 May 2014.
  4. Ito, Takatoshi; Isard, Peter; Symansky, Steven (January 1999). "Economic Growth and Real Exchange Rate: An Overview of the Balassa-Samuelson Hypothesis in Asia" (PDF). Changes in Exchange Rates in Rapidly Development Countries: Theory, Practice, and Policy Issues. National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
  5. Callen, Tim (28 March 2012). "Purchasing Power Parity: Weights Matter". Finance & Development. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 30 May 2014.
  6. Callen, Tim (28 March 2012). "Gross Domestic Product: An Economy's All". Finance & Development. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 31 May 2014.
  7. Vo, Lam Thuy (30 May 2012). "The World's Richest Countries and Biggest Economies, In 2 Graphics". Planet Money. National Public Radio. Retrieved 4 June 2014.
  8. Burgen, Emily; et al. (5 April 2012). "An Elusive Relation Between Unemployment and GDP Growth: Okun's Law". Economic Trends. Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland. Retrieved 3 June 2016.
  9. Vitez, Osmond. "The Importance of Consumer Spending". Houston Chronicle. Hearst Corporation. Retrieved 4 June 2014.
  10. Koesterich, Russ (16 May 2014). "America The Youthful? Yes, On a Relative Basis". BlackRock. Retrieved 4 June 2014.
  11. Landefeld, J. Steven (11 February 2008). "The Multi-Factor Productivity Residual" (PDF). Measuring Innovation’s Role in GDP & Productivity Growth. Bureau of Economic Analysis. Retrieved 4 June 2014.
  12. https://www.sprep.org/att/IRC/eCOPIES/Countries/Tuvalu/22.pdf
  13. "Tuvalu". Europa. European Commission. 17 February 2012. Retrieved 2 June 2020.
  14. Matthews, Chris (5 October 2014). "5 Most Powerful Economic Empires of All Time". Fortune. Time, Inc. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
  15. Kroeber, Arthur R. (2016). China's Economy: What Everyone Needs to Know. New York, United States: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780190239053.
  16. Kau, Michael Ying-mao (30 September 1993). China in the Era of Deng Xiaoping: A Decade of Reform. Studies on Contemporary China. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9781563242786. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
  17. Hu, Zuliu; Khan, Mohsin S. (April 1997). "Why Is China Growing So Fast?" (PDF). Economic Issues. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 26 May 2016.
  18. Rodrik, Dani; et al. (March 2004). "From "Hindu Growth" to Productivity Surge: The Mystery of the Indian Growth Transition" (PDF). National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved 23 March 2016.
  19. "GDP (current US$)". World Development Indicators. World Bank. Retrieved 2 March 2021.
  20. "United Nations Statistics Division - National Accounts". unstats.un.org.
  21. "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2021". World Economic Outlook. International Monetary Fund. April 2021. Retrieved 6 April 2021.
  22. "All countries and regions/subregions (totals) for all years - sorted by region/subregion". United Nations. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
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