List of World Heritage Sites in Poland

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Heritage Sites are places of importance to cultural or natural heritage as described in the UNESCO World Heritage Convention, established in 1972.[1] Poland accepted the convention on 29 June 1976, making its historical sites eligible for inclusion on the list.[2]

Wieliczka
Bochnia
Warsaw
Zamość
Malbork
Kalwaria Zebrzydowska
Toruń
Park Mużakowski
Centennial Hall
Silver Mine
Krzemionki
Location of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Poland. Blue dots indicate the sites of Wooden Churches of Southern Lesser Poland, green dots the Wooden Tserkvas of Carpathian Region in Poland and Ukraine, and the two grey dots the Churches of Peace.

As of 2020, there are 16 World Heritages Sites in Poland,[3] 15 of which are cultural, and one, the Białowieża Forest, is a natural site. The first two sites inscribed on the World Heritage List were Wieliczka Salt Mine and Historic Centre of Kraków, in 1978. The most recent addition to the list is the Krzemionki Prehistoric Striped Flint Mining Region, listed in 2019. Three of the sites are transnational. The Białowieża Forest is shared with Belarus, the Wooden Tserkvas of Carpathian Region with Ukraine, and the Muskauer Park / Park Mużakowski with Germany. In addition, there are six sites on the tentative list.[2]

World Heritage Sites

UNESCO lists sites under ten criteria; each entry must meet at least one of the criteria. Criteria i through vi are cultural, whereas vii through x are natural.[4]

  * Transnational site
World Heritage Sites
Site Image Location (voivodeship) Year listed UNESCO data Description
Historic Centre of Kraków Lesser Poland 1978 29bis; iv (cultural) The city of Kraków, chartered in 1257, is the old capital of Poland. The historic centre encompasses three urban ensembles, the medieval City of Kraków, the Wawel Hill complex (the royal residence together with the Wawel Cathedral where several kings of Poland are buried), and the town of Kazimierz, including the suburb of Stradom, which was shaped by Catholic and Jewish residents. Kraków was a city of arts and crafts, a meeting place of East and West. The city retains a high level of integrity and includes buildings and features in styles from the early Romanesque to the Modernist periods. A minor boundary modification of the site took place in 2010.[5]
Wieliczka and Bochnia Royal Salt Mines Lesser Poland 1978 32ter; iv (cultural) The areas around Wieliczka and Bochnia contain deposits of rock salt, which has been mined since the 13th century. Hundreds of kilometres of tunnels in both mines also contain works of art, such as sculptures carved in salt and underground chapels. The mines illustrate the development of mining technologies in Europe. Wieliczka was first listed individually in 1978. Eleven years later, it was added to the list of World Heritage in Danger due to the threats posed to the sculptures by the humidity. Following a conservation program that saw the installation of efficient dehumidifying equipment in the mine, it was removed from the endangered list in 1998. A minor boundary modification took place in 2008. The Bochnia Mine was added in 2013.[6][7]
Auschwitz Birkenau, German Nazi Concentration and Extermination Camp (19401945) Lesser Poland 1979 31; vi (cultural) Auschwitz was a network of Nazi concentration and extermination camps built and operated by the Third Reich in Polish areas annexed by Nazi Germany during World War II. It was the largest of the German concentration camps. The World Heritage Site covers Auschwitz I (the base camp), Auschwitz II–Birkenau (the extermination camp), and a mass grave of inmates.[8]

The site was originally listed as "Auschwitz Concentration Camp", but upon Poland's request renamed as "Auschwitz Birkenau" with the subtitle of "German Nazi Concentration and Extermination Camp (19401945)"[9]

Białowieza Forest* Podlaskie 1979 33; vii (natural) Białowieża Forest is a large forest complex, including extensive old-growth forests, on the border between Poland and Belarus. It is an example of the Central European mixed forests terrestrial ecoregion, and a range of associated non-forest habitats, including wet meadows, river valleys, and other wetlands. The area is home to the largest free-roaming population of European bison, as well as wolf, lynx, and otter. The Polish part of the site was first added to the list in 1979. The part in Belarus, Belovezhskaya Pushcha, was added in 1992, while the year 2014 saw a large extension of the protected area.[10]
Historic Centre of Warsaw Masovia 1980 30; ii, vi (cultural) Warsaw, the capital of Poland, was deliberately demolished by Nazi troops following the Warsaw Uprising in 1944. More than 85% of the historic centre was destroyed. After the war, a five-year restoration campaign took place, and it resulted in a meticulous restoration of the Old Town. The reconstruction process continued in the 1960s and concluded with the opening of the Royal Castle to visitors in 1984.[11]
Old City of Zamość Lublin 1992 564; iv (cultural) Zamość was founded in the 16th century by Jan Zamoyski. Designed by the architect Bernardo Morando of Padua, it is a perfect example of a late-Renaissance town. The original town layout has been preserved, as well as the fortifications and several buildings that blend the architectural influences from Italy with those from Central Europe.[12]
Castle of the Teutonic Order in Malbork Pomerania 1997 847; ii, iii, iv (cultural) Malbork Castle was built by the Teutonic Knights, a German Roman Catholic religious order of crusaders, after the seat of the Grand Master was moved to Malbork from Venice in 1309. The castle is a classic example of a medieval castle in Brick Gothic style. It was damaged during World War II but later carefully restored.[13]
Medieval Town of Toruń Kuyavia-Pomerania 1997 835; ii, iv (cultural) Toruń was founded by the Teutonic Knights who built a castle there in the mid-13th century, as a base for evangelisation of Prussia. It was later a member of the Hanseatic League and an important trading post between the Baltic area and Eastern Europe. The medieval town has been well preserved, including several important houses in Brick Gothic style, such as the home of the mathematician and astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus.[14]
Kalwaria Zebrzydowska: the Mannerist Architectural and Park Landscape Complex and Pilgrimage Park Lesser Poland 1999 905; ii, iv (cultural) The religious complex (a calvary) was founded by the voivode of Kraków Mikołaj Zebrzydowski in the early 1600s. It consists of a monastery and a number of churches, chapels and shrines that were built in the Mannerist style. It is an outstanding example of calvary shrines in the Counter-Reformation period. Virtually unchanged since the construction, it remains an active pilgrimage site in the 21st century.[15]
Churches of Peace in Jawor and Swidnica Lower Silesia 2001 1054; ii, iv, vi (cultural) The Churches of Peace in Jawor and Świdnica in Silesia were named after the Peace of Westphalia of 1648 which permitted the Lutherans in the Roman Catholic parts of Silesia to build three Evangelical churches from wood and clay outside the city walls. The conditions were also that the churches should not feature a tower and that their construction was to be completed within one year. The third church was built in Głogów in 1652, but burned down a century later.[16]
Wooden Churches of Southern Lesser Poland Lesser Poland 2003 1053; iii, iv (cultural) The six churches (Church of the Archangel Michael (Binarowa), Church of All Saints (Blizne), Church of the Archangel Michael (Dębno), Church of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary and the Archangel Michael (Haczów), Church of St Leonard (Lipnica Murowana), Church of St Philip and St James the Apostles (Sękowa)) represent the best preserved and the oldest wooden churches in the region. They were built in the Gothic style, but are different from the contemporary stone or brick buildings in the cities. These churches were sponsored by noble families and are richly decorated.[17]
Muskauer Park / Park Mużakowski* Lubusz 2004 1127; i, iv (cultural) The park is set along the banks of the Neisse River and is shared by Poland and Germany. It was created by Prince Hermann von Puckler-Muskau from 1815 to 1844, using local plants and natural settings. The park design influenced the development of the landscape architecture profession. Sustaining severe damage during World War II, it has been since restored in both countries.[18]
Centennial Hall Lower Silesia 2006 1165; i, ii, iv (cultural) The Centennial Hall is an early Modernist building made of reinforced concrete. It was designed by Max Berg as a multifunctional venue to serve as an exhibition ground or an assembly hall and to host sport events, concerts, and theatre performances. Built in 1911–1913, it had the largest reinforced concrete dome in the world at the time of its construction. It served as a reference point for later buildings constructed of this material.[19]
Wooden Tserkvas of the Carpathian Region in Poland and Ukraine* Lesser Poland, Subcarpathia 2013 1424; iii, iv (cultural) This property comprises 16 wooden churches (tserkvas) in the Carpathians, half of which are in Poland and the rest in Ukraine. The churches were built between the 16th and 19th centuries by the communities of Eastern Orthodox and Greek Catholic faiths. The designs are based on the Orthodox ecclesiastical traditions with local influences. They feature wooden bell towers, iconostasis screens, and interior polychrome decorations, as well as churchyards, gatehouses, and graveyards. The St. Michael Archangel's Church in Smolnik is pictured.[20]
Tarnowskie Góry Lead-Silver-Zinc Mine and its Underground Water Management System Silesia 2017 1539; i, ii, iv (cultural) This historic lead, silver, and zinc mine is located in the Tarnowskie Góry. Due to its location on a plateau, it had substantial problems with water drainage as opposed to mines that are located in mountainous terrains. In over 300 years of the mine's operation, different techniques have been employed to remove the water from the tunnels, including steam-powered pumps in the 19th century.[21]
Krzemionki Prehistoric Striped Flint Mining Region Lesser Poland 2019 1599; iii, iv (cultural) Krzemionki is an ensemble of four striped flint mines from the Neolithic and early Bronze Age periods (about 3900 to 1600 BCE). Flint was mostly used to make axes. Over 4000 shafts and pits, as well as flint workshops have been found in one of the most comprehensive prehistoric underground flint extraction and processing systems identified to date.[22]

Tentative list

In addition to sites inscribed on the World Heritage List, member states can maintain a list of tentative sites that they may consider for nomination. Nominations for the World Heritage List are only accepted if the site was previously listed on the tentative list.[23] As of 2020, Poland lists six properties on its tentative list.[2]

Tentative sites
Site Image Location (voivodeship) Year listed UNESCO criteria Description
GdanskTown of Memory and Freedom
Pomerania 2005 ii, iv, vi (cultural) The city of Gdańsk has witnessed some of the key events in European history, including the first battle of World War II at Westerplatte and the beginning of the Solidarity movement in the Gdańsk Shipyard. Furthermore, the historic Main Town features a number of buildings in Gothic and Rennaisance styles.[24]
Augustow Canal*
Podlaskie 2006 (cultural) The Augustow Canal was built in 1823–1839, to provide a direct link between the two major rivers, Vistula River through the Biebrza River – a tributary of the Narew River, and the Neman River through its tributary – the Czarna Hańcza River, and it provided a link with the Black Sea to the south through the Oginski Canal, Daugava River, Berezina Canal and Dnieper River. It allowed the trade routes to bypass the territory of East Prussia, which had earlier introduced high customs duties for transit of Polish and Lithuanian goods through its territory. Technical heritage of the canal includes locks, weirs, towpaths, as well as roads and bridges. The canal is now located in the territories of Belarus and Poland, thus making the nomination transnational.[25][26]
The Dunajec River Gorge in the Pieniny Mountains
Lesser Poland 2006 (natural) The Dunajec River Gorge in the Pieniny National Park is rich in flora and fauna. As the Pieniny Mountains were not glaciated, the site can be used to study the evolution of vegetation since the Last Glacial Maximum.[27]
Ancient and Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and Other Regions of Europe*
Subcarpathia 2019 ix (natural) This site (together with the sites in nine other countries) is a proposed extension of the site already listed in twelve European countries. They demonstrate the postglacial expansion process of European beech forests and exhibit the most complete and comprehensive ecological patterns and processes of pure and mixed stands of European beech across a variety of environmental conditions. In Poland, the Bieszczady National Park is on the tentative list.[28]
Modernist Centre of Gdynia — the example of building an integrated community
Pomerania 2019 ii, iv, v (cultural) After World War I, the city of Gdańsk received the status of a Free City, thus the Polish state could not use it as a port. The nearby village of Gdynia was conceived as the new primary economy hub and a modernist city centre was built as its core in the 1920s and 1930s. In that time, the population grew from 1200 to 120,000 and the city became a symbol of modernisation and the maritime ambitions of the young state.[29]
Paper Mill in Duszniki-Zdrój
Lower Silesia 2019 iii, iv (cultural) The Paper Mill in Duszniki-Zdrój is one of the oldest preserved paper mills in Europe. It was built in the 16th century and brought wealth and prosperity to the owners in the 17th century. In 1968, it became a museum. At the time of nomination, the mill still maintained the production of traditional hand-made paper.[30]

See also

  • List of Historic Monuments in Poland
  • Seven Wonders of Poland
  • Tourism in Poland

References

  1. "The World Heritage Convention". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 27 August 2016. Retrieved 21 September 2010.
  2. "Poland". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 2 October 2020. Retrieved 18 September 2020.
  3. "Poland and UNESCO Heritage List". visitpoland.com. Retrieved 29 October 2020.
  4. "UNESCO World Heritage Centre – The Criteria for Selection". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 12 June 2016. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
  5. "Historic Centre of Kraków". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 6 November 2020. Retrieved 29 October 2020.
  6. "Wieliczka and Bochnia Royal Salt Mines". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 12 November 2005. Retrieved 29 October 2020.
  7. "World Heritage Committee Removes Old City of Dubrovnik and Wieliczka Salt Mine from its List of Endangered Sites". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. 1 December 1998. Archived from the original on 27 October 2020. Retrieved 29 October 2020.
  8. "Auschwitz Birkenau, German Nazi Concentration and Extermination Camp (19401945)". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 22 November 2019. Retrieved 29 October 2020.
  9. "World Heritage Committee approves Auschwitz name change". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. 28 June 2007. Archived from the original on 31 October 2020. Retrieved 29 October 2020.
  10. "Białowieża Forest". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 1 September 2020. Retrieved 30 August 2020.
  11. "Historic Centre of Warsaw". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 15 March 2017. Retrieved 29 October 2020.
  12. "Old City of Zamość". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 24 September 2020. Retrieved 29 October 2020.
  13. "Castle of the Teutonic Order in Malbork". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 1 November 2020. Retrieved 29 October 2020.
  14. "Medieval Town of Toruń". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 28 October 2020. Retrieved 29 October 2020.
  15. "Kalwaria Zebrzydowska: the Mannerist Architectural and Park Landscape Complex and Pilgrimage Park". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 17 October 2020. Retrieved 29 October 2020.
  16. "Churches of Peace in Jawor and Swidnica". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 17 October 2020. Retrieved 29 October 2020.
  17. "Wooden Churches of Southern Lesser Poland". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 30 October 2020. Retrieved 29 October 2020.
  18. "Muskauer Park / Park Mużakowski". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 30 June 2020. Retrieved 29 October 2020.
  19. "Centennial Hall". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 13 February 2007. Retrieved 29 October 2020.
  20. "Wooden Tserkvas of Carpathian Region in Poland and Ukraine". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 27 October 2020. Retrieved 29 October 2020.
  21. "Tarnowskie Góry Lead-Silver-Zinc Mine and its Underground Water Management System". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 16 October 2020. Retrieved 29 October 2020.
  22. "Krzemionki Prehistoric Striped Flint Mining Region". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 8 October 2020. Retrieved 29 October 2020.
  23. "Tentative Lists". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 1 April 2016. Retrieved 7 October 2010.
  24. "GdanskTown of Memory and Freedom". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 31 October 2020. Retrieved 29 October 2020.
  25. "Augustow Canal". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 23 June 2020. Retrieved 29 October 2020.
  26. "The Augustów Canal (Kanal Augustowski)". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 23 June 2020. Retrieved 29 October 2020.
  27. "The Dunajec River Gorge in the Pieniny Mountains". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 29 October 2020. Retrieved 29 October 2020.
  28. "Ancient and Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and Other Regions of Europe (Poland)". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 23 April 2020. Retrieved 29 October 2020.
  29. "Modernist Centre of Gdynia — the example of building an integrated community". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 4 November 2020. Retrieved 29 October 2020.
  30. "Paper Mill in Duszniki-Zdrój". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 4 November 2020. Retrieved 29 October 2020.

This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.