List of Internet top-level domains

This list of Internet top-level domains (TLD) contains top-level domains, which are those domains in the DNS root zone of the Domain Name System of the Internet. A list of the top-level domains by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) is maintained at the Root Zone Database.[1] IANA also oversees the approval process for new proposed top-level domains for ICANN. As of April 2021, their root domain contains 1502 top-level domains.[2][3] As of March 2021, the IANA root database includes 1589 TLDs. That also includes 68 that are not assigned (revoked), 8 that are retired and 11 test domains.[1] Those are not represented in IANA's listing[2] and are not in root.zone file (root.zone file also includes one root domain).[4]

Types

IANA distinguishes the following groups of top-level domains:[5]

Original top-level domains

Seven generic top-level domains were created early in the development of the Internet, and predate the creation of ICANN in 1998.

  • Name: DNS names
  • Entity: intended use
  • Notes: general remarks
  • IDN: support for internationalized domain names (IDN)
  • DNSSEC: presence of DS records for Domain Name System Security Extensions
Name Entity Administrator[6] Notes IDN DNSSEC SLD IPv6
.comcommercialVerisign This is an open TLD; any person or entity is permitted to register. Though originally intended for use by for-profit business entities, for a number of reasons it became the main TLD for domain names and is currently used by all types of entities including nonprofits, schools, and private individuals. Domain name registrations may be successfully challenged if the holder cannot prove an outside relation justifying reservation of the name, to prevent "squatting". It was originally administered by the United States Department of Defense.YesYesYesYes
.orgorganizationPublic Interest RegistryThis is an open TLD; any person or entity is permitted to register. Originally intended for use by non-profit organizations, and still primarily used by some.YesYesYesYes
.netnetworkVerisign This is an open TLD; any person or entity is permitted to register. Originally intended for use by domains pointing to a distributed network of computers, or "umbrella" sites that act as the portal to a set of smaller websites.YesYesYesYes
.intinternationalInternet Assigned Numbers AuthorityThe .int TLD is strictly limited to organizations, offices, and programs endorsed by a treaty between two or more nations. However, a few grandfathered domains do not meet these criteria.NoYesYesYes
.edueducationEducause (via Verisign)The .edu TLD is limited to specific higher educational institutions such as, but not limited to, trade schools and universities. In the U.S., its use was restricted in 2001 to post-secondary institutions accredited by an agency on the list of nationally recognized accrediting agencies. This domain is therefore almost exclusively used by American colleges and universities. Some institutions, such as the Exploratorium, that do not meet the current registration criteria have grandfathered domain names.NoYesYesYes
.govgovernment (U.S. national and state government agencies)General Services Administration (via Verisign)The .gov TLD is limited to United States governmental entities and agencies as well as qualifying state, county and local municipal government agencies.NoYesYesYes
.milmilitary (U.S. military)United States Department of DefenseThe .mil TLD is limited to divisions, services and agencies of the United States Department of Defense.NoYesYesYes

Infrastructure top-level domain

InfrastructureEntityNotesIDNDNSSEC
.arpa"Address and Routing Parameter Area"Originally assigned to the Advanced Research Projects Agency in the early days on the Internet, .arpa is now exclusively used as an Internet infrastructure TLD.NoYes

Country code top-level domains

As of 20 May 2017, there were 255 country-code top-level domains, purely in the Latin alphabet, using two-character codes. As of June 2020, this number is 316, with the addition of internationalized domains.[1]

Proposed internationalized ccTLDs

Internationalised domain names have been proposed for Japan and Libya.

ICANN-era generic top-level domains

  • Name: DNS name
  • Target market: intended use
  • Restrictions: restrictions, if any, on who can register, and how the domain can be used
  • Operator: entity the registry has been delegated to
  • IDN: support for internationalized domain names (IDN)
  • DNSSEC: presence of DS records for Domain Name System Security Extensions

A

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.academySchools, military academies, online learning websites, PTAs & student portals, any site created to be educational on a particular topicDonuts Inc [donuts 1]YesYes
.accountantCertified Public Accountants, tax advisors, corporate accountants, personal and business accountants, professional CPA organizationsGlobal Registry Services Ltd[7]Un­knownYes
.accountantsaccountants and accounting firmsDonuts Inc[donuts 2]YesYes
.activegeneralThe Active NetworkUn­knownYes
.actorAspiring actors & their agents, theaters & movie studios, entertainment outlets & streaming video sites, movie review sites, celebrity gossip sitesDonuts Inc[n 1]YesYes
.adsadvertisingCharleston Road Registry Inc. (Google)[8]
.adultadult entertainment (pornography)For sites providing sexually explicit content, such as pornography.ICM RegistryYesYes
.aeroair-transport industryMust verify eligibility for registration; only those in various categories of air-travel-related entities may register.SITANoNo
.africaAfrican and pan-African topics, African Union ZA Central RegistryUn­knownYes
.agencyMarketing and advertising agencies, PR or communications agencies, design firms, talent agencies, travel agencies, other related agenciesDonuts Inc[donuts 3]Yes[9]Yes
.airforceMilitary recruiters, flight training schools, supply companies, military aircraft suppliers & repair companies, Air Force members and veteransDonuts Inc[n 1]YesYes
.amazonReserved for AmazonAmazon
.analyticsReserved for SAS InstituteCampus IP LLC[8]
.apartmentsProperty (apartment) managers, condominium/apartment developers, college websites/centers, city guides & community centersDonuts IncYesYes
.appApps[10]Google[n 2]Un­knownYes
.appleApple[11]Reserved for Apple[12]AppleUn­knownYes
.archiarchitects and architect firms[13]Restricted to individuals and organizations that can verify participation in architecture industry.[14]STARTING DOT LIMITEDUn­knownYes
.armyMilitary recruiter, army supply stores, military training schools, army members and veteransDonuts Inc[n 1]YesYes
.artartists, museums, art galleries, dealers, service providers and contractorsUK Creative IdeasYesYes
.associatesAccountants, law firms, consulting firms, real estate agencies, health & medical groupsDonuts Inc[donuts 4]YesYes
.attorneyIndependent attorneys and law firms of any size, legal services entities, elected officials and judges, professional organizations, law studentsDonuts Inc[n 1]YesYes
.auctionAuction houses & online auctions, car and truck auction, B2B commodity auctions, charity auctions for non-profits and schools, buyer and seller communitiesDonuts Inc[n 1]YesYes
.audibleReserved for AudibleAmazon Registry Services, Inc.[8]
.audiostereo/sound systems, musicUniregistryYes[15]Yes
.authorwriters and authorsAmazon Registry Services, Inc.[8]
.autovehiclesCars Registry Limited[8]
.autosvehiclesDERAutosUn­knownYes
.awsReserved for Amazon Web ServicesAmazon Registry Services, Inc.[8]

B

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.babyFor selling baby productsJohnson & Johnson Services, Inc.[8]
.band Music venues, ticket sale/resale sites, music band & musician sites, school band sites, music review sites Donuts Inc[n 1]YesYes
.bankbanksRestricted to banks and savings associationsfTLD Registry Services, LLCUn­knownYes
.barBars and related industryPunto 2012YesYes
.barefootReserved for Gallo Vineyards Inc.Gallo Vineyards, Inc.[8]
.bargainsOnline retailers, large and small, “sale” sections on retail websites, discount & overstock sites, bargain hunters, frugal-living bloggersDonuts Inc[donuts 5]YesYes
.baseballbaseballMLB Advanced Media DH, LLC[8]
.basketballbasketballFédération Internationale de Basketball (FIBA)[8]
.beautybeauty products and servicesL'Oréal[8]
.beerbreweries and beer aficionadosMinds + Machines[n 3]Un­knownYes
.bestBestTLD Pty LtdUn­knownYes
.bestbuyReserved for Best BuyBBY Solutions, Inc.[8]
.betgamblingAfilias plc[8]
.bibleRespect for "the Bible", "God as He is revealed in the Bible", and "orthodox" Christianity[16][17]American Bible Society[8]
.bidauctionsGlobal Registry Services Ltd[7]YesYes
.bikeBicycle & motorcycle enthusiasts, bike retailers & gear shops, bike repair shops, biking event organizers, bike or motorcycle clubsDonuts Inc[donuts 6]Yes[18]Yes
.bingoBingo halls, casinos, online & casual gaming sites, travel agenciesDonuts IncYesYes
.bioOrganic agriculture[19]Open TLD; any person or entity is permitted to register; however, registrants who are "producers, transformers and retailers, or otherwise involved in the field of agriculture, food and farming" must comply with the Principles of Organic Agriculture.[20][21]Afilias[22]Un­knownYes
.bizbusinessOpen TLD; any person or entity is permitted to register; however, registrations may be challenged later if they are not held by commercial entities in accordance with the domain's charter. This TLD was created to provide relief for the .com TLD, where many names have already been taken.NeuStarYes[9]Yes
.blackthose who like the color black[23]AfiliasYesYes
.blackfridayBlack Friday, retailUniregistryYes[15]Yes
.blockbusterReserved for Blockbuster LLCDish DBS Corporation[8]
.blogBlogsAutomattic[24]Un­knownYes
.bluethose who like the color blue[25]AfiliasYesYes
.booGoogle[n 2]Un­knownYes
.bookbooksAmazon Registry Services, Inc.[8]
.bootsReserved for Boots Company LtdTHE BOOTS COMPANY PLC[8]
.bostonwebsites related to the city of Boston, Massachusetts USABoston TLD Management, LLC[8]Un­knownYes
.botRestricted to online "bots" using approved frameworks (Amazon Lex, Dialogflow, Gupshup, Microsoft Bot Framework, and Pandorabots) Amazon allows users to contact them if they have a bot outside of these frameworks.[26] Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[8]
.boutiqueSpecialty online retailers, vintage shops, designers, artists and artisans, craftspeopleDonuts[donuts 7]YesYes
.boxindividuals and businesses, in order to promote personal cloud storageNS1 LimitedYesYes
.broadwayBroadway theatreCelebrate Broadway, Inc.[8]
.brokerDOTBROKER REGISTRY LTD[8]
.buildconstruction industryOpen Top Level Domain—[27]Plan Bee LLCYesYes
.buildersContractors, cubcontractors, commercial/residential architects, interior designersDonuts Inc[donuts 8]YesYes
.businessCreative businesses & agencies, freelancers & independent consultants, any other business looking to differentiate from the competitionDonuts Inc[donuts 9]YesYes
.buysalesAmazon Registry Services, INC[8]
.buzzmarketing and social networkingDOTSTRATEGYYesYes

C

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.cabAirline & travel-related products or services, city guides & tourist attractions, transportation businesses, hotels, hostels, B&Bs, lodging, tourist attractionsDonuts Inc[donuts 10]YesYes
.cafeCafes, restaurants, delis, cafeterias, coffee shops & coffee stands, student lounges, mobile food/beverage vendors, cooking schoolsDonuts IncYesYes
.callAmazon Registry Services, Inc.[8]
.camentertainment[28]Acwebconnecting—[29]YesYes
.cameraProfessional photographers, camera and equipment retailers, photo studios & photography schools, wedding and specialty photographers, anyone who wants to share photos onlineDonuts Inc[donuts 11]YesYes
.campCamping/RV sites, travel writers & bloggers, outdoor adventure companies, summer camps for kids, hotels, hostels, lodges, bed & breakfast lodgingDonuts Inc[donuts 12]YesYes
.cancerresearchOrganizations, research institutes and individuals interested in ending cancer through research[30]Australian Cancer Research FoundationUn­knownYes
.capitalMortgage companies, financial services professionals, investment services, venture capital investorsDonuts Inc[donuts 13]YesYes
.carvehiclesCars Registry Limited[8]
.cardsOccasion shoppers (holiday, birthday, bereavement), occasion-related websites, gift buyers, corporate HR departmentsDonuts Inc[donuts 14]YesYes
.careSurgeons, primary/secondary care physicians, insurance providers, hospitals & clinics, medical, dental, or vision specialists, service based products or servicesDonuts Inc[donuts 15]YesYes
.careerjobs and job-searchingdotCareer LLCYesYes
.careersCareer services (coaching, resume writing), job sites & recruiters, business coaches, staffing firms, HR department of any businessDonuts Inc[donuts 16]YesYes
.carsAutomotiveUniregistryYesYes
.caseReserved for CNH IndustrialCNH Industrial N.V.[8]
.cashPawn shops and consignment shops, currency exchanges, other cash-based businesses, check cashing servicesDonuts Inc[donuts 17]YesYes
.casinoCasino & online gaming sites, travel agencies, local tourist sites, hotel booking sitesDonuts IncYesYes
.cateringCaterers & personal chefs, specialty food vendors, wedding planners & event planners, event spaces, wholesale suppliersDonuts Inc[donuts 18]YesYes
.catholicCatholicismPontificium Consilium de Comunicationibus Socialibus (PCCS) (Pontifical Council for Social Communications)[8]
.centerCommunity centers, business centers, shopping centers, tourist sites/city centers, tutoring & learning centersDonuts Inc[donuts 19]YesYes
.cernCERNCERNUn­knownUn­known
.ceoCEOs[31]CEOTLD Pty LtdUn­knownYes
.cfdcontracts for difference trading Reserved for IG Group Holdings plcDOTCFD REGISTRY LTD[8]
.channelGoogle[n 2]Un­knownYes
.chatOnline chat rooms, dating, political, religious, sports, human interest, & hobbyist forums, companies with live chat help desks, chatbot technology companiesDonuts IncYesYes
.charity Donuts IncYesYes
.cheapOnline retailers, discount sites, overstock sites, businesses who sell bulk products at discounted prices, bargain hunters & frugal-living bloggersDonuts Inc[donuts 20]YesYes
.christmasChristmasUniregistryYes[15]Yes
.churchChurches, youth organizations, spiritual communities, religion-based organizations, anyone who publishes spiritual or religious contentDonuts Inc[donuts 21]YesYes
.circleAmazon Registry Services, Inc.[8]
.cityCity resource sites for locals and travelers, travel writers & bloggers, local reviews websites, tourist attractions, transportation businessesDonuts Inc[donuts 22]YesYes
.claimsInsurance adjusters & claims representatives, insurance claims departments (auto, medical, homeowners), customer service departments of insurance companies, law firmsDonuts Inc[donuts 23]YesYes
.cleaningContractors, commercial/home cleaning services, auto detailing/cleaning servicesDonuts Inc[donuts 24]YesYes
.clickUniregistryYes[15]Yes
.clinicHealthcare clinics, medical or healthcare specialists, sports clinics, urgent care clinicsDonuts Inc[donuts 25]YesYes
.clothingOnline retailers, department stores, designersDonuts Inc[donuts 26]YesYes
.cloudAruba S.p.A.
.clubgroups, organizations, assemblies, communities, general[32].CLUB DOMAINSYes[33]Yes
.coachAthletic organizations, personal trainers & coaches, business, life, & health coaches, school & community club coaches or tutors, affordable travel, airline, train, car, or other transportation companiesDonuts IncYesYes
.codesSoftware and web developers, IT companies, technology R&D companies, coding enthusiasts, coding classes & campsDonuts Inc[donuts 27]YesYes
.coffeeCoffee shops, roasters, wholesalers & suppliers, machine & equipment suppliers and standsDonuts Inc[donuts 28]YesYes
.collegeEducationalXYZ.comYesYes
.communityCity guides & community centers, online communities, neighborhood associations, churches, mosques, temples, and other spiritual communities, local writers & bloggersDonuts Inc[donuts 29]YesYes
.companySmall, medium, or large businesses, business that want to demonstrate authority in their field, makers, artisans, anyone who sells a niche productDonuts Inc[donuts 30]YesYes
.compareReserved for iSelect LtdiSelect Ltd[8]
.computerComputer manufacturers, computer repair services, computer resellers, computer training & education programs, tech companiesDonuts Inc[donuts 31]YesYes
.condosReal estate brokers/agents, property (condominium) managers, mortgage companies, condominium/apartment developers, condominium associationsDonuts Inc[donuts 32]YesYes
.constructionContractors, commercial/residential architects, wholesale and retail construction suppliersDonuts Inc[donuts 33]YesYes
.consultingConsulting firms, independent consultants, specialty services, businesses that offer expert trainingDonuts Inc[n 1]YesYes
.contactTop Level Spectrum, Inc.[8]
.contractorsConstruction-related businesses, contractors, subcontractors, independent contractors with unique skills and expertise, unions or other organizations promoting their people and skillsDonuts Inc[donuts 34]YesYes
.cookingsharing recipesMinds + Machines[n 3]YesYes
.coolFashion magazines & blogs, meme aggregators, trend tracking sites, online merchants, fun publications & sitesDonuts Inc[donuts 35]YesYes
.coopcooperativesThe .coop TLD is limited to cooperatives as defined by the Rochdale Principles.DotCooperationNoYes
.countrygeneralMinds + Machines[n 3]YesYes
.coupondiscounts and rebatesAmazon Registry Services, Inc.[8]
.couponsCoupon pages, coupon sites, discount sites, coupon-themed blogs, bargain huntersDonuts IncYesYes
.courseseducationOpen Universities Australia Pty Ltd[8]
.cpaaccountants and accounting firmsRestricted to licensed CPAs and CPA firmsAmerican Institute of Certified Public AccountantsUn­knownYes
.creditCredit card companies, kenders, credit unions, collection agencies, credit counselors & financial planners\Donuts Inc[donuts 36]YesYes
.creditcardCredit card companies, store/retailer credit card sites, credit counselors & financial planners, credit card processing servicesDonuts Inc[donuts 37]YesYes
.cruiseCruise lines, cruise-related products or services, travel agencies & vacation services, private charter boatsViking River Cruises (Bermuda) Ltd.[8]
.cricketcricketGlobal Registry Services Ltd[7]Un­knownYes
.cruisescruise businesses and travelDonuts Inc[donuts 38]YesYes
.cyou For any individual or business that shares the ethical values of diversity, inclusivity, and independence[34] Beijing Gamease Age Digital Technology Co., Ltd.[35] Yes

D

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.dadfamiliesGoogle[n 2]Un­knownYes
.danceDance studios & instructors, nightclubs & music venues, dance teams & troupes, dance shoe, clothing & equipment manufacturers, fans of dance & live performancesDonuts Inc[n 1]YesYes
.dataDish DBS Corporation[8]
.dateonline datingGlobal Registry Services Ltd[7]Un­knownYes
.datingDating & matchmaker sites, travel sites & city guides, singles meetup groups, traditional “classified” sites, event businessesDonuts Inc[donuts 39]YesYes
.daygeneralGoogle[n 2]Un­knownYes
.dealsalesAmazon Registry Services, Inc.[8]
.dealsDiscount sites, bargain hunters, coupon sites, coupon pages. coupon-themed guides, directories and blogsDonuts Inc[donuts 40]YesYes
.degreeBrick-and-mortar schools & universities, online universities, other learning courses, other educational resourcesDonuts Inc[n 1]YesYes
.deliveryConsumer delivery services, commercial shipping services, transportation services, messenger services, any business that ships their productsDonuts Inc[donuts 41]YesYes
.democratPolitical candidates, lobbyists, political parties, fundraising organizationsDonuts Inc[n 1]YesYes
.dentalDentists, endodontists, orthodontists, retailers selling oral health supplies, wholesale suppliers for dental careDonuts Inc[donuts 42]YesYes
.dentistDentists, endodontists, orthodontists, retailers selling oral health supplies, wholesale suppliers for dental careDonuts Inc[n 1]YesYes
.designgraphic art and fashionTop Level DesignYesYes
.devdevelopmentGoogleUn­knownYes
.diamondsJewelers, diamond wholesalers and retailers, jewelry appraisers and buyers, pawn shopsDonuts Inc[donuts 43]YesYes
.dietdieting and dietary UniregistryYes[15]Yes
.digitalAdvertising/Marketing/PR/Design agencies, media buying/production companies (digital & traditional), online event, meetup & gaming sites, technology companies, e-commerce sitesDonuts Inc[donuts 44]YesYes
.directDirect-to-consumer stores, bargain hunters, transportation services, messenger services, delivery & shipping servicesDonuts Inc[donuts 45]YesYes
.directoryListings organizations, name, phone & address directories, online business directories, clubs, groups, & other organizations directoriesDonuts Inc[donuts 46]YesYes
.discountDiscount sites, bargain hunters, coupon sites, coupon pages, coupon-themed blogsDonuts Inc[donuts 47]YesYes
.diydo-it-yourselfLifestyle Domain Holdings, Inc.[8]
.docsCharleston Road Registry Inc. (Google)[8]
.doctorDoctors, any business with “doctor” in the name, other health care providers, PhD experts in any fieldDonuts IncYesYes
.dogDog breeders, dog walking, grooming & sitting businesses, veterinarians, animal shelters & adoption centers, pet stores & suppliersDonuts IncYesYes
.domainsAny web-based service, network consultants, domain brokers, resellers and registrars, home-related products and servicesDonuts Inc[donuts 48]YesYes
.dotDish DBS Corporation[8]
.downloadtechnologyGlobal Registry Services Ltd[7]Un­knownYes
.drivevehiclesCharleston Road Registry Inc. (Google)[8]
.duckReserved for Duck®Johnson Shareholdings, Inc.[8]

E

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.earthInterlink Co., Ltd.[8]
.eatrestaurants and foodiesGoogle[n 2]Un­knownYes
.ecoSustainability minded companies, non-profits and professionals.[36]Open to anyone pledging a commitment to sustainability action.[37]Big Room Inc.[38]NoYes
.educationColleges & universities, public schools, PTAs & other school groups, education research organizations, any organization focused on educating its audienceDonuts Inc[donuts 49]YesYes
.emailAdvertising/Marketing/PR/Design agencies, email marketing experts, CRM and marketing technology specialists, anyone who wants a memorable email addressDonuts Inc[donuts 50]YesYes
.energyElectrical, mechanical, chemical, nuclear & thermal energy producers, solar, wind, hydro, bio & other sustainable alternative energy producers, battery manufacturers & oil industry R&D, energy conservation organizations, energy food & drink manufacturersDonuts Inc[donuts 51]YesYes
.engineerComputer and software engineering companies, civil, electrical, mechanical, and architectural engineering companies, environmental, chemical, geotechnical, and bio engineering companies, engineer training or educational institutions, railroad engineersDonuts Inc[n 1]YesYes
.engineeringComputer and software engineering companies, civil, electrical, mechanical, and architectural engineering companies, environmental, chemical, geotechnical, and bio engineering companies, engineer training or educational institutions, railroad engineersDonuts Inc[donuts 52]YesYes
.edekaedeka firmsEDEKA Verband kaufmännischer Genossenschaften e.V.YesYes
.entertainment Ticket outlets, travel sites & local tourist sites, performance halls, theaters, & music venues, anyone in the entertainment industry, celebrity news sites Donuts IncYesYes
.enterprisesEntrepreneurs, startups, parent & holding companies, enterprise SaaS solutions & tech servicesDonuts Inc[donuts 53]YesYes
.equipmentHome improvement stores, construction equipment rentals, construction equipment sales, sporting goods storesDonuts Inc[donuts 54]YesYes
.esqlawyers, law firms, legal professionalsTo be restricted to verified lawyers and attorneys[39]Google[n 2]Un­knownYes
.estateEstate sale management & appraisal services, estate planners & lawyers, real estate agents & brokersDonuts Inc[donuts 55]YesYes
.eventsEvent planners, sports & gaming agencies/sites, ticket sale/resale sites, city guides & community centers, performance halls, music clubs/barsDonuts Inc[donuts 56]YesYes
.exchangeForeign currency exchanges, stock brokers, investment fund traders, ETF distributors, brokers, & dealersDonuts Inc[donuts 57]YesYes
.expertHome services providers, online review sites, skilled worker databases, freelanceers, consultants, & subject matter expertsDonuts Inc[donuts 58]YesYes
.exposedTabloid sites, celebrity romance blog, TV spoiler sites, sites that host leaked documents, investigative journalism sitesDonuts Inc[donuts 59]YesYes
.expressTransportation services, messenger services, delivery & shipping services, direct-to-consumer storesDonuts IncYesYes

F

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.failOnline meme aggregators, humor websites, video sites Donuts Inc[donuts 60]YesYes
.faithreligion and churchesGlobal Registry Services Ltd[7]Un­knownYes
.familyFamily-focused travel sites, blogs about family-friendly activities & games, family history sites, photo sites, obstetricians & family practice doctorsDonuts IncYesYes
.fanFan sites, current events & gossip sites, sport blogs and forums, personal & business sites about niche topicsDonuts IncYesYes
.fansgeneralUn­knownYes
.farmReal estate brokers/agents, farming services & equipment dealers, farmers & ranchers, property managers, health food distributors, crypto farmersDonuts Inc[donuts 61]YesYes
.fashionclothing industryMinds + Machines[n 3]YesYes
.fastAmazon Registry Services, Inc.[8]
.feedbackfeedback and reviewsTop Level SpectrumUn­knownYes
.fiat Only FIAT S.P.A. and its Affiliates (and qualifying Trademark Licensees as defined in, and in accordance with Specification 13 of the Registry Agreement (“Specification 13”) where applicable) are eligible to register a Domain Name under the .FIAT TLD.[40] Fiat Chrysler Automobiles N.V.[41]Un­knownYes
.filmfilmsMotion Picture Domain Registry Pty Ltd[8]
.finalfinal versions of anythingNúcleo de Informação e Coordenação do Ponto BR - NIC.br[8]
.financeInvestment services, banks & financial institutes, credit counselors & financial planners, accounting firms, lendersDonuts Inc[donuts 62]YesYes
.financialInvestment services, banks & financial institutions, credit counselors & financial planners, accounting firms, lendersDonuts Inc[donuts 63]YesYes
.fireReserved for Amazon (promotion of Fire devices)Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[8]
.fishSeafood markets, restaurants & suppliers, sport fishing & fly fishing enthusiasts, fishing gear, tackle, & product manufacturers, travel outfitters & fishing guide companies, aquariums, pet & fish supply stores, marine biology programs & conservation organizationsDonuts Inc[donuts 64]YesYes
.fishingfishing businesses, sports, and interestsMinds + Machines[n 3]YesYes
.fitFitness and exerciseMinds + Machines[n 3]Un­knownYes
.fitnessGyms, athletic clubs & family health organizations, personal trainers, weight loss, health & wellness clinics, health & exercise blogs, fitness competition & events companiesDonuts Inc[donuts 65]YesYes
.flightsAirline-related products or services, helicopter rides, skydiving, & hang gliding, travel agencies & travel services, private pilots, airport transportationDonuts Inc[donuts 66]YesYes
.floristFlorists, flower delivery services, floral designers, flower seed suppliersDonuts Inc[donuts 67]YesYes
.flowersflorists and gardensUniregistryYesYes
.flytravelTo be restricted to verified airlines, travel agencies and travel resellers[42]Google[n 2]Un­knownYes
.fooweb development[43]Google[n 2]Un­knownYes
.foodLifestyle Domain Holdings, Inc.[8]
.foodnetworkReserved for Food NetworkLifestyle Domain Holdings, Inc.[8]
.footballProfessional & amateur football & soccer teams, football clothing, gear & fan merchandise, football equipment manufacturers, football coaches & playersDonuts IncYesYes
.forsaleIndividual real estate brokers and brokerages, wholesalers and retailers across many product categories, discount, flash sale and deal websites, auction sites and individuals selling items they no longer needDonuts Group[n 1]YesYes
.forumforumsFegistry, LLC[8]
.foundationCharitable organizations, public school foundations, other philanthropic organizations & foundationsDonuts Inc[donuts 68]YesYes
.freesalesAmazon Registry Services, Inc.[8]
.frontdoorLifestyle Domain Holdings, Inc.[8]
.funRadix RegistryUn­knownUn­known
.fundInvestment services, banks & financial institutions, credit counselors & financial planners, lendersDonuts Inc[donuts 69]YesYes
.furnitureHome décor and furnishing stores, department stores, home designers, vintage stores, antique dealersDonuts Inc[donuts 70]YesYes
.fyi"for your information"Donuts IncYesYes

G

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.galleryGalleries, professional photographers, camera and equipment retailers, photo studios & photography schools, wedding and specialty photographers, anyone who wants to share photos onlineDonuts Inc[donuts 71]YesYes
.gamegamingUniregistry, Corp.[8]
.gamesGaming sites, forums & reviews, online or brick & mortar game stores/clubs, sports events, clubs—professional & recreational, casinosDonuts IncYesYes
.gardengardeningMinds + Machines[n 3]YesYes
.gaygay individuals or supportive organisationsTop Level Design [n 4]YesYes

[44]

.gdngeneralGDN RegistryUn­knownUn­known
.giftgift-givingUniregistryYes[15]Yes
.giftsGift buyers, discount sites, corporate HR departments, bargain huntersDonuts Inc[donuts 72]YesYes
.givesPhilanthropic organizations and foundations, charities, nonprofits, corporate giving initiatives, volunteer organizationsDonuts Inc[n 1]YesYes
.glassGlass & glass repair shops, glass departments within home supply stores, contractors, windshield repair & auto glass businesses, DIYers/artistsDonuts Inc[donuts 73]YesYes
.gleGoogle abbreviationsIn use for some URL abbreviations related to Google such as forms.gle and goo.gle.Charleston Road Registry Inc. (a Google subsidiary)[45]Un­knownYes
.globalgeneralDot GLOBALYesYes
.goldJewelers, gold traders and dealers, coin sellers and traders, trophy and awards shopsDonuts IncYesYes
.golfProfessional & amateur golf organizations, golf courses, equipment suppliers & manufacturers, golf travel & event companies, golf players, enthusiasts & spectators, sports networksDonuts IncYesYes
.googleGoogleIn use for some websites related to Google such as blog.google.Alphabet Inc.Un­knownYes
.gopRepublican Party politicsRepublican State Leadership CommitteeSpanish[46]Yes
.graphicsWeb design firms, freelance designers, graphic artistsDonuts Inc[donuts 74]YesYes
.greenthe environmentally-focused"As a Registrant you may not ... use a .green name or its content in a way that negatively affects the mission, purpose of the .green TLD, or its brand."[47]AfiliasUn­knownYes
.gripeOnline complaint sites, online forums, customer service providers, feedback sites, blogs about scamsDonuts Inc[donuts 75]YesYes
.grocerygrocery storesWal-Mart Stores, Inc.[8]
.groupGroups based on hobbies or interests (running, crafts, gaming), group-based businesses (medical practices, law firms, financial advisors), professional associations, support groupsDonuts IncYesYes
.guideCity resource sites for locals and travelers, travel writers & bloggers, local reviews websites, tourist attractions & guides, outdoor adventure companiesDonuts Inc[donuts 76]YesYes
.guitarsGuitarsUniregistryYes[15]Yes
.guruMindfulness & yoga practices, spiritual leadership sites, any training program, work-for-hire sites, freelancers, consultants, & subject matter expertsDonuts Inc[donuts 77]Yes[48]Yes

H

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.hairhaircare products and servicesL'Oreal[8]
.hangoutReserved for Google HangoutsCharleston Road Registry Inc. (Google)[8]
.healthhealth and related topics DotHealth, LLC[8]
.healthcarePrimary/secondary care physicians, hospitals & clinics, healthcare insurance providers & brokers, company HR/benefits departmentsDonuts Inc[donuts 78]YesYes
.helphelp sitesUniregistryYes[15]Yes
.heregeneric geographicGoogle[n 2]Un­knownYes
.hiphopHip hop cultureUniregistryYes[15]Yes
.hivAIDS and HIVdotHIVUn­knownYes
.hockeySports media, sporting goods stores & hockey equipment suppliers, professional, minor league & amateur hockey teams, hockey fans, fantasy leagues, sponsors, coaches & refereesDonuts IncYesYes
.holdingsHolding companies, private equity firms, real estate developersDonuts Inc[donuts 79]YesYes
.holidayAirline-related products or services, travel agencies, resources & services, travel writers & bloggers, city guides & resource sites, hotels, hostels, B&Bs, lodgingDonuts Inc[donuts 80]YesYes
.homegoodsReserved for HomeGoodsThe TJX Companies, Inc.[8]
.homesreal estate professionalsDominion EnterprisesUn­knownYes
.homesenseReserved for HomeSenseThe TJX Companies, Inc.[8]
.horsehorse-related businesses and interestMinds + Machines[n 3]YesYes
.hospitalHospitals & clinics, healthcare providers, medical, dental, or vision specialists, insurance providersDonuts IncYesYes
.hostnetwork companiesRadix RegistryUn­knownYes
.hostingUniregistryYes[15]Yes
.hotAmazon Registry Services, Inc.[8]
.hotelshotels and hospitality servicesBooking.com B.V.[8]
.houseReal estate brokers/agents, mortgage companies, home builders, construction/home improvement suppliers, home improvement sites & blogsDonuts Inc[donuts 81]YesYes
.howhow-to guidesGoogle[n 2]Un­knownYes

I

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.iceReserved for Intercontinental ExchangeIntercontinentalExchange, Inc.[8]
.icu entrepreneurs and business owners ShortDot SA
.industriesMachine or equipment manufacturers, manufacturers, tech or biotech companies, professional associations, businesses with “industries” in their namesDonuts Inc[donuts 82]YesYes
.infoinformationAfiliasGerman[9]Yes
.ingVerbal suffix: e.g., "jump.ing".Google[n 2]Un­knownYes
.inkcreative printing or tattooing[49]Top Level DesignYesYes
.institute[50]Educational institutions, training programs, foundations, research organizations, military schoolsDonuts Inc[donuts 83]YesYes
.insuranceinsurance companiesfTLD Registry Services LLC[8]
.insureInsurance companies (life, auto, homeowners, renters), insurance divisions of larger companies (car rentals, warranties), insurance brokers & advisorsDonuts Inc[donuts 84]YesYes
.internationalAny organization with an international presence, international consultants, import/export businesses, international travel organizationsDonuts Inc[donuts 85]YesYes
.investmentsInvestment services (institutional, private), wealth management services, financial planners, brokerage firmsDonuts Inc[donuts 86]YesYes
.irish Airline-related products or services, domestic/International travel agencies, resources & services, travel writers & bloggers, Ireland travel guides & resource sites, seasonal opportunities (St. Patrick's Day) Donuts IncYesYes

J

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.jewelryJewelers, jewelry buyers, online retailers, department storesDonuts IncYesYes
.jobsEmploymentFor websites with job opportunities and job listings.[51]Employ MediaNoYes
.joyAmazon Registry Services, Inc.[8]

K

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.kimKim (Korean surname)AfiliasUn­knownYes
.kitchenRestaurants, cafes, & delis, food stands & mobile vendors, meal services & personal chefs, kitchen supply stores, food blogs & recipe sitesDonuts Inc[donuts 87]YesYes

L

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.landReal estate brokers and agents, residential/commercial land developers, home builders, mortgage companies, traditional “classified” sitesDonuts Inc[donuts 88]YesYes
.latfor Latin American communities and users wherever they may resideECOM-LAC[8]
.lawpractitioners and educators in lawRestricted to qualified lawyers, courts of law, law schools, and legal regulators.[52]Minds + Machines Group Limited[8]
.lawyerIndependent attorneys and law firms of any size, legal services entities, elected officials and judges, professional organizations, law studentsDonuts Inc[n 1]YesYes
.leaseReal estate brokers/agents, property managers, condo/apartment developers, real estate law firmsDonuts Inc[donuts 89]YesYes
.legalAttorneys, lawyers & law firms, corporate legal teams, paralegals, legal advocates, committees, associations and interest groups associated with the lawDonuts IncYesYes
.lgbtthe lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community"Registrants are prohibited from using the .LGBT domain in a manner that is harmful, threatening, abusive, harassing, defamatory, or hateful with respect to the LGBT community."[53]AfiliasUn­knownYes
.lifeWellness and health experts, charities, coaches & personal development enthusiasts, lifestyle bloggers, anyone who wants to share personal storiesDonuts Inc[donuts 90]YesYes
.lifeinsurancelife insuranceAmerican Council of Life Insurers[8]
.lightingLighting & lighting repair shops, lighting departments within home supply stores, contractors, commercial/residential architects, DIYersDonuts Inc[donuts 91]YesYes
.likeAmazon Registry Services, Inc.[8]
.limitedPrivate companies, limited by shares, limited companies, businesses with “limited” or “LTD” in their names, specialty products and services, businesses that sell limited-quantity productsDonuts Inc[donuts 92]YesYes
.limoAirline & travel-related products or services, city guides & tourist attractions, transportation businesses, hotels, lodging, weddings, party and occasion-related servicesDonuts Inc[donuts 93]YesYes
.linkconnecting to information[54]UniregistryYes[15]Yes
.liveLive streaming sites, entertainment/music venues, news sites/blogs, ticket sale/resale sites, video production companiesDonuts IncYesYes
.livingLifestyle Domain Holdings, Inc.[8]
.loanbanks and lendersGlobal Registry Services Ltd[7]Un­knownYes
.loansMortgage companies, personal loan agencies, auto loan agencies & car dealerships, credit consolidation servicesDonuts Inc[donuts 94]YesYes
.lockerReserved for DISH DBS CorporationDish DBS Corporation[8]
.lolLOL: laughing out loudUniregistry[55]Un­knownYes
.lottolotteryAfiliasUn­knownYes
.lovedating sitesUn­knownYes
.ltdKeep what is in this field but add the following:

Private companies, limited by shares, limited companies, businesses with “limited” or “LTD” in their names, specialty products and services, businesses that sell limited-quantity products

Donuts IncYesYes
.luxurybusinesses catering to the wealthyLuxury PartnersYesYes

M

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.makeupcosmetics products and retailers L'Oréal[8]
.managementProperty managers, wealth management firms, money management, systems & network managers, leadership teamsDonuts Inc[donuts 95]YesYes
.mapmaps and navigationCharleston Road Registry Inc. (Google)[8]No
.marketOnline retailers, independent or chain grocery stores, buyer and seller communities, discount sites & coupon sitesDonuts Inc[n 1]YesYes
.marketingAdvertising/Marketing/PR/Design agencies, media buying/production companies (digital & traditional), staffing agencies, marketing consultantsDonuts Inc[donuts 96]YesYes
.marketsfinancial and stock marketsIG GroupUn­knownYes
.mbaColleges, universities, & graduate programs, online educational sites, job search sites, MBA candidatesDonuts IncYesYes
.medmedicine and related topicsMedistry LLC[8]
.mediaAdvertising/Marketing/PR/Design agencies, media buying/production companies (digital & traditional), news outlets, media bloggers, celebrity publications, digital publishers & graphic designersDonuts Inc[donuts 97]YesYes
.meetsocial gatherings, meeting new peopleAfiliasUn­knownYes
.memeInternet memesGoogle[n 2]Un­knownYes
.memorialNews site obituaries, personal tribute sites, floral & funeral arrangement companiesDonuts IncYesYes
.menmenGlobal Registry Services Ltd[7]Un­knownYes
.menurestaurantsWedding TLD2YesYes
.mintReserved for Intuit MintIntuit Administrative Services, Inc.[8]
.mobimobile devicesMust be used for mobile-compatible sites in accordance with standards.AfiliasYesYes
.mobileDish DBS Corporation[8]
.mobilyReserved for MobilyGreenTech Consultancy Company W.L.L.[8]
.moeJapanese otaku culture; see moe (slang)InterlinkYesYes
.momUniregistry, Corp.[8]
.moneyLenders, financial services businesses, money blogs & news sites, investment bankers & brokers, financial planners & expertsDonuts IncYesYes
.monsterorganizationsxyz.comYesYes
.mortgageMortgage brokers, real estate brokers/agents, home buyers, traditional “classified” sitesDonuts Inc[n 1]YesYes
.motorcyclesmotorcyclesDERMotorcyclesUn­knownYes
.movdigital videoGoogle[n 2]Un­knownYes
.movieStreaming movie services, movie studios & distributors, movie theaters & entertainment outlets, ticket sale/resale sites, movie review sitesDonuts IncYesYes
.museummuseumsMust be verified as a legitimate museum.Museum Domain Management AssociationLatin script[9]Yes
.music Music dissemination and appreciation Under contention

N

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.nameindividuals, by nameOpen TLD; any person or entity is permitted to register; however, registrations may be challenged later if they are not by individuals (or the owners of fictional characters) in accordance with the domain's charter.VerisignYes[9]Yes
.navyNaval training schools, navy supply stores, military recruiters, credit unions, navy members and veteransDonuts Inc[n 1]YesYes
.networkIT professionals, tech consultants, career sites, industry-specific professional groups, social networksDonuts Inc[donuts 98]YesYes
.newwebsites where people can create somethingThe second-level domain name must be the thing to be created immediately when a user visits the .new website. Most likely, the .new will redirect to a company's main website.Google[n 2]Un­knownYes
.newsNews organizations, educational publications, trade publications, neighborhood news blogsUn­knownYes
.ngoNon-governmental organizations.
Sold packaged with .ong.
Restricted to validated NGOs, as determined by PIR. See the eligibility requirements.Public Interest RegistryUn­knownYes
.ninjaSites promoting specialized skills, repair services (auto, appliance, etc.), gaming sites, martial arts organizations Donuts Inc[n 1]YesYes
.nowAmazon Registry Services, Inc.[8]
.nttbusinesses Restricted to use by NTT Japan. Refer to the .ntt Registration Policies page for more information. Nippon Telegraph And Telephone Corporation.[8]Un­known

O

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.observerReserved for The ObserverTop Level Spectrum, Inc.
.offReserved for Off!Johnson Shareholdings, Inc.[8]
.orggeneralPublic Interest Registry
.onegeneral.one (top-level domain)Un­knownYes
.ongNon-governmental organizations.
Sold packaged with .ngo.
Restricted to validated NGOs, as determined by PIR. See the eligibility requirements.Public Interest RegistryUn­knownYes
.onlshort for "online"I-REGISTRYUn­knownYes
.onlinegenericRadix RegistryUn­knownYes
.ooogeneralInfibeamNoYes
.openprivate to the "Registry Operator and its qualified Affiliates and Trademark Licensees"[56]American Express Travel Related Services Company, Inc.[8]
.organicorganic gardeners, farmers, foods, etc.Registrants must be verified as a member of the organic community.[57]AfiliasUn­knownYes
.originsReserved for OriginsThe Estée Lauder Companies Inc.[8]

P

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.pageReserved for Google and related content Charleston Road Registry Inc. (Google)[8]
.partnersLaw firms, real estate agencies, investment firms, accounting firms, nonprofit organizationsDonuts Inc[donuts 99]YesYes
.partsAppliance wholesalers & service, tool rentals & service businesses, auto/boat/heavy equipment businessesDonuts Inc[donuts 100]YesYes
.partynightclubs and social gatheringsGlobal Registry Services Ltd[7]Un­knownYes
.payelectronic paymentsAmazon Registry Services, Inc.[8]
.petanimals and petsAfilias plc[8]
.pharmacypharmacies"All registrants within the .pharmacy gTLD are vetted prior to registration to confirm that they meet all applicable regulatory standards, including pharmacy licensure and valid prescription requirements, in the jurisdictions where they are based and where they serve patients."[58]National Association of Boards of PharmacyUn­knownYes
.phoneDish DBS Corporation[8]
.photophotography and photo-sharingUniregistryYes[15]Yes
.photographyProfessional photographers, camera and equipment retailers, photo studios & photography schools, wedding and specialty photographers, anyone who wants to share photos onlineDonuts Inc[donuts 101]YesYes
.photosProfessional photographers, camera and equipment retailers, photo studios & photography schools, wedding and specialty photographers, anyone who wants to share photos onlineDonuts Inc[donuts 102]YesYes
.physiophysical therapistsMust be eligible for membership within an association that is a member of the World Confederation for Physical Therapy, have proper training as a physical therapist outside WCPT's reach, or otherwise supports physical therapy.[59][60]PhysBizUn­knownYes
.picsphotography and photo-sharingUniregistryYes[15]Yes
.picturesProfessional photographers, camera and equipment retailers, photo studios & photography schools, wedding and specialty photographers, anyone who wants to share photos onlineDonuts Inc[donuts 103]YesYes
.pidTop Level SpectrumUn­knownYes
.pinAmazon Registry Services, Inc.[8]
.pinkthose who like the color pinkAfiliasYesYes
.pizzaPizzerias, take & bake pizza shops, Italian or Greek restaurants, pizza brands found in grocery storesDonuts Inc[donuts 104]YesYes
.placeAirline-related products or services, travel agencies, resources & services, travel writers & bloggers, tourist attractions, hotels, hostels, B&Bs, lodgingDonuts Inc[donuts 105]YesYes
.plumbingPlumbers & plumbing repair businesses, plumbing departments within home supply stores, contractors/subcontractors, DIYersDonuts Inc[donuts 106]YesYes
.plusConsumer commodity stores & sites, clothing (plus, big & tall), service-based businesses, any entity wanting to show their competitive advantageDonuts IncYesYes
.pokerPoker players and sitesAfilias[n 5]Un­knownYes
.pornadult entertainment (pornography)For sites providing sexually explicit content, such as pornography.AfiliasYesYes
.postpostal servicesThe .post TLD is restricted to Postal Administrations as defined in the Universal Postal Union constitution, and their large customers who wish to provide "Trusted Postal Services".[61]Universal Postal UnionNo[62]Yes
.presspublishing and journalismRadix RegistryUn­knownYes
.primeReserved for Amazon PrimeAmazon Registry Services, Inc.[8]
.proprofessions/professionalsRegistry Services CorporationNoYes
.productionsAdvertising/Marketing/PR/Design agencies, media buying/production companies (digital & traditional), video production services, anyone in the film industryDonuts Inc[donuts 107]YesYes
.profProfessors, teachers and learningGoogle[n 2]Un­knownYes
.promoadvertisingAfilias plc[8]
.propertiesReal estate brokers/agents, residential/Commercial land developers, property (condo/apartment) managers, home builders, mortgage companiesDonuts Inc[donuts 108]YesYes
.propertyreal estateUniregistryYes[15]Yes
.protectionsecurity XYZ.COM LLC[8]
.pubPubs, bars & nightclubs, burger joints, breweries & taphouses, beer distributors, restaurant & bar suppliers

publications

Donuts Inc[n 1]YesYes

Q

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.qponcouponsdotCOOLUn­knownYes

R

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.racingracingGlobal Registry Services Ltd[7]Un­knownYes
.radioradio stations European Broadcasting Union (EBU)[8]
.readebook websites Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[8]
.realestatereal estate dotRealEstate LLC[8]
.realtorrealtorsTo be restricted to members of the National Association of Realtors and the Canadian Real Estate Association, and related associations.[63]Real Estate DomainsUn­knownYes
.realtyrealty and housingFegistry, LLC[8]
.recipesRecipe sites, food & beverage grocery brands, health & fitness organizations, cooking enthusiasts, personal/professional chefsDonuts[donuts 109]YesYes
.redthose who like the color red[64]
Also Spanish variant of .net
Also likely to be attractive for domain hacks for words that end with '-red'.
AfiliasYesYes
.rehabPhysical and occupational therapists and professionals, drug, alcohol and gambling addiction counselors, rehabilitation facilities and recovery centers, online health directories, physical or emotional health associationsDonuts Inc[n 1]YesYes
.reitreal estate investment trustsRestricted to REITs, as determined by national law.[65]National Association of Real Estate Investment TrustsUn­knownYes
.rentReal estate professionals and small businessesxyz.xyzUn­knownYes
.rentalsReal estate brokers/agents, city guides, college housing centers, & community centers, vehicle, equipment, or entertainment/event rentals, property managers, condo/apartment developersDonuts Inc[donuts 110]YesYes
.repairGeneral or specialty repair shops, construction contractors/subcontractors, DIYers, appliance wholesalers & service, auto/boat businessesDonuts Inc[donuts 111]YesYes
.reportNews & current events sites, financial reporting sites, financial or business analysts, consumer product reviews, police, school, or other community report listingsDonuts Inc[donuts 112]YesYes
.republicanPolitical candidates, lobbyists, political parties, fundraising organizationsDonuts Inc[n 1]YesYes
.restRestaurants and related industryPunto 2012Yes[66]Yes
.restaurantCasual eateries, gourmet restaurants, suppliers, chains, review sites, reservation sites & servicesDonuts Inc[donuts 113]YesYes
.reviewpublic reviewsGlobal Registry Services Ltd[7]Un­knownYes
.reviewsNews media, food publications, travel publications, literary publications, any product & service with online reviewsDonuts Inc[n 1]YesYes
.richbusinesses catering to the wealthyI-REGISTRYUn­knownYes
.ripLoved ones seeking to memorialize the deceased, funeral homes and cemeteries, businesses that support the funeral industry, obituary websites[67]Donuts Inc[n 1]YesYes
.rocksPop culture sites, niche and fan sites, musicians, gemstone & jewelry companiesDonuts Inc[n 1]YesYes
.rodeoRodeo interestMinds + Machines[n 3]YesYes
.roomAmazon Registry Services, Inc.[8]
.rugbyrugbyWorld Rugby Strategic Developments Limited[8]
.runRunners, running shoe retailers, specialty running gear shops, running event organizersDonuts IncYesYes

S

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.safeAmazon Registry Services, Inc.[8]
.saleOnline and brick-and-mortar retailers and wholesalers, automotive and motorcycle dealers, discount, flash sale, and deal websites, auction sites and individuals selling items they no longer needDonuts IncYesYes
.salon Hair salons, nail salons, beauty product companies, beauty schools Donuts IncYesYes
.saveAmazon Registry Services, Inc.[8]
.sbiState Bank of India
.scholarshipsscholarship relatedScholarships.com[68][69]Un­knownUn­known
.schoolPublic schools, private & charter schools, specialty and trade schools, online learning sites, resource sites for teachersDonuts Inc[donuts 114]YesYes
.sciencescience-related sitesGlobal Registry Services Ltd[7]Un­knownYes
.searchsearch enginesCharleston Road Registry Inc. (Google)[8]
.secureAmazon Registry Services, Inc.[8]
.securityXYZ.COM LLC[8]
.selectiSelect Ltd[8]
.servicesService division of any company, home services (cleaning, landscaping, plumbing, pet care), business services (tech support, interior design, translation services), community service organizationsDonuts Inc[donuts 115]YesYes
.sexadult entertainment (pornography)For sites providing sexually explicit content, such as pornography.ICM RegistryYesYes
.sexyadult entertainmentUniregistryYes[15]Yes
.shoesShoe stores, department stores, online retailers, athletic shoe retailers, discount shoe storesDonuts[donuts 116]YesYes
.shopGMO Registry, Inc.[8]
.shoppingOnline retailers, shopping centers, personal shoppers, discount sites & coupon sites, shopping blogs & product reviewsDonuts IncYesYes
.showTicket sale/resale sites, performance halls, music clubs/bars, streaming video services, movie review sites, travel sites & city guidesDonuts IncYesYes
.showtimeCBS Domains Inc.[8]
.silkReserved for Amazon SilkAmazon Registry Services, Inc.[8]
.singles(Tickets) Ticket sale/resale sites, gaming agencies, movie review sites, city guides, sports sites

(Dating) Dating & matchmaker sites, singles meetup groups, traditional “classified” sites, travel sites & city guides

Donuts Inc[donuts 117]YesYes
.sitegeneralUn­knownYes
.skiSTARTING DOT LIMITED[8]
.skinskincare products and servicesL'Oréal[8]
.skySky International AG[8]
.slingReserved for Sling MediaHughes Satellite Systems Corporation[8]
.smileReserved for AmazonAmazon Registry Services, Inc.[8]
.sncf Reserved to the SNCF company. SNCF
.soccerProfessional & amateur soccer clubs, soccer equipment suppliers & manufacturers, soccer & sports media networks, soccer players, enthusiasts, & spectators, soccer camps, coaches, & training organizationsDonuts IncYesYes
.socialAdvertising/Marketing/PR/Design agencies, media buying/production companies (digital & traditional), blogs & forums, event & meetup groups, any person or organization driving awareness of their social presenceDonuts Inc[n 1]YesYes
.softwareSoftware testing, support, & consulting companies, software product developers & manufacturers, software training & educational institutions, software resellersDonuts Inc[n 1]YesYes
.solarRenewable & sustainable energy producers, solar panel, roof tile, & storage producers, solar cell battery, chargers, lights, speakers, & generator manufacturers, sunglass, shades, UV clothing, sunblock & other solar protection productsDonuts Inc[donuts 118]YesYes
.solutionsSaaS providers, people who offer do-it-yourself tips and tutorials, consultants, any business focused on providing the right solutions to their customers’ problems.Donuts Inc[donuts 119]YesYes
.songAmazon Registry Services, Inc.[8]
.spaceas a creative spaceRadix RegistryUn­knownYes
.spreadbettingDOTSPREADBETTING REGISTRY LTD[8]
.spotAmazon Registry Services, Inc.[8]
.sport sport institutions Global Association of International Sports Federations (GAISF)
.storageSelf Storage Company LLC[8]
.storestoresRadix RegistryYesYes
.streamstreaming mediaGlobal Registry Services Ltd[7]
.studioAdvertising/Marketing/PR/Design agencies, creative freelancers, other creative agencies (i.e., animation, production), dance, yoga, or fitness studiosDonuts Inc[n 1]YesYes
.studyeducationOPEN UNIVERSITIES AUSTRALIA PTY LTD[8]
.styleFashion bloggers, department stores, designers, online retailersDonuts IncYesYes
.sucksgripe sitesVox PopuliUn­knownYes
.suppliesContractors, distribution companies, appliance wholesalers & service, auto/boat/heavy equipment businesses, home services retailersDonuts Inc[donuts 120]YesYes
.supplyContractors, distribution companies, appliance wholesalers & service, auto/boat/heavy equipment businessesDonuts Inc[donuts 121]YesYes
.supportIT/Tech support services, social services, customer service & support departments, independent consultants & consulting firms, staffing servicesDonuts Inc[donuts 122]Yes[70]Yes
.surfsurfingMinds + Machines[n 3]Un­knownYes
.surgerySurgeons, primary/secondary care physicians, hospitals & clinics, healthcare providers, insurance providersDonuts Inc[donuts 123]YesYes
.systemsIT businesses, other tech-focused businesses, businesses that sell electronics or home security systems, organizational consultantsDonuts Inc[donuts 124]YesYes

T

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.talkAmazon Registry Services, Inc.[8]
.tattootattoo aficionadosUniregistryYes[15]Yes
.taxAccounting & bookkeeping firms, tax advisors, auditors, financial experts & advisorsDonuts IncYesYes
.taxiAirline & travel-related products or services, city guides & tourist attractions, transportation businesses, hotels, hostels, B&Bs, lodging, tourist attractionsDonuts IncYesYes
.teamProfessional & amateur sports teams, sports equipment suppliers & manufacturers, sports media, athletes & fans, clubs, online communities & business organizationsDonuts IncYesYes
.techtechnologyRadix RegistryYesYes
.technologyTech-focused businesses & tech startups, businesses that sell to tech companies, developers, coders, programmers, computer retailers, technology blogs, news sites, & review sites, hardware & software companies, R&D companies, tech product manufacturersDonuts IncYesYes
.telInternet communication servicesA contact directory housing all types of contact information directly in the Domain Name System.Yes[71]Yes
.tennisTennis courts, clubs & other venues, tennis equipment suppliers and retailers, professional & amateur tennis players, sports mediaDonuts IncYesYes
.theaterEntertainment & movie theater outlets, live performance theaters, professional performer associations, movie review sites, travel sites & city guidesDonuts IncYesYes
.theatretheatreXYZ.COM LLC[8]
.ticketsticket resaleAccent Media Limited[8]
.tipsTravel, hotel & hospitality companies, cooking & recipe publications, parenting & and relationship publications, manufacturers of any product with assembly instructions, publications that provide advice on gratuity practices around the worldDonuts IncYesYes
.tiresTire wholesalers, tire retailers, auto repair shopsDonuts IncYesYes
.todayNews & current event sites, websites that publish daily content, daily inspiration sites, sites with daily rotating deals or offers, anyone who wants to spur immediate actionDonuts IncYesYes
.toolsTool shops, tool departments within home supply stores, contractors, subcontractors, construction-related businessesDonuts IncYesYes
.topgeneralJiangsu BangningUn­knownYes
.toursAirline-related products or services, travel agencies, resources & services, tourist attractions, outdoor adventure companies, private plane/helicopter tours & servicesDonuts IncYesYes
.townTravel agencies, resources & services, local business associations, city guides & resource sites, transportation businesses, hotels, hostels, B&Bs, lodgingDonuts IncYesYes
.toysToy stores, online retailers, department stores, game companies, sporting goods companiesDonuts IncYesYes
.tradebusinessesGlobal Registry Services Ltd[7]YesYes
.tradingDOTTRADING REGISTRY LTD[8]
.trainingPersonal trainers & nutrition coaches, gyms and fitness centers, sports medicine practitioners, business that sell sports gear or apparel, or fan merchandise, animal trainers, career or vocational training centersDonuts IncYesYes
.travelAirline-related products or services, travel agencies, resources, bloggers & services, city guides & tourist attractions, transportation businesses, destination resorts, hotels, hostels, B&Bs, lodging, any other travel or transportation businessMust be verified as a legitimate travel-related entity.NoYes
.travelersinsuranceReserved for Travelers InsuranceTravelers TLD, LLC[8]
.trustArtemis Internet Inc[8]
.tubeLatin American Telecom LLC[8]
.tunesReserved for Amazon MusicAmazon Registry Services, Inc.[8]

U

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.uconnectNot assigned[8][72]
.universityOnline universities, brick-and-mortar universities, university-related clubs & organizationsDonuts IncYesYes
.uno

V

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.vacationsAirline-related products or services, travel agencies, resources, bloggers & services, city guides & tourist attractions, transportation businesses, destination resorts, hotels, hostels, B&Bs, lodgingDonuts IncYesYes
.venturesVenture capital investment firms, business financial services, business consultants, programs & services for entrepreneursDonuts IncYesYes
.vetVeterinarians, veterinary clinics and hospitals, wholesale suppliers for veterinary suppliesDonuts IncYesYes
.videoVideo production & media companies, videographers, video editors, script writers, & producers, streaming video sites services, creative agenciesDonuts IncYesYes
.villasInternational real estate brokers/agents, international travel agencies, resources & services, travel writers & bloggers, traditional “classified” sitesDonuts IncYesYes
.vin Wineries, wine shops & wine bars, wine distributors, wine clubs & online retailers, wine review sites and apps Donuts IncYesYes
.vipMinds + Machines Group Limited[8]
.visionOpticians & optometry clinics, healthcare providers, insurance provider, glasses retailers, online and brick & mortarDonuts IncYesYes
.vodkavodka-related businesses and interestYesYes
.volvocar manufacturerOnly Volvo Holding Sverige Aktiebolag and its Affiliates are eligible to register a Domain Name under the .volvo Domain [73]AB VolvoUn­knownYes
.votedemocratic elections and campaign websitesMust use the domain in connection with a "clearly identified political/democratic process."[74]AfiliasUn­knownYes
.votingpolling sitesLatin and Cyrillic scripts[9]Yes
.voyageAirline-related products or services, travel agencies, resources, bloggers & services, city guides & tourist attractions, transportation businesses, hotels, hostels, B&Bs, lodgingDonuts IncYesYes

W

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.wanggeneral
Wǎng is a Chinese Mandarin pinyin rendering of 网 (traditional 網) meaning "web" or "portal".[75]
Wang is also a common surname in mainland China.
Zodiac RegistryYes[76]Yes
.watchWatchmakers, jewelry stores, watch repair shops, neighborhood watch groupsDonuts IncYesYes
.watcheswatchesRichemont DNS Inc.[8]
.weatherweather and meteorologyReserved for The Weather ChannelInternational Business Machines Corporation[8]
.webcamweb cam shows and video sharingGlobal Registry Services Ltd[7]YesYes
.websitegeneralRadix RegistryUn­knownYes
.wedengaged couples and wedding-oriented businessesThis TLD is intended primarily for engaged couples on a short-term basis (two years with large third-year renewal fees for second-level domains).[77]
And although the registry is advertising for multiple world languages, all domains appear to need to be in Latin script.[78]
NoYes
.weddingwedding-oriented businessesMinds + Machines[n 3]YesYes
.whoswhogeneralAn open TLD, any person or entity is permitted to register. Conceived for those cited in one of the Who's Who reference titles published around the world, the registry was opened for use by private individuals, and for-profit and nonprofit entities, including those with social media aspirations. Registry policies allow for rapid takedown of non-compliant domains, for violations including imposturous registration of another's names, and proscribed uses, including pornography or adult services/applications.Who's Who RegistryYesYes
.wikiwikis"An open TLD for anyone interested in community resource creation"Top Level DesignYesYes
.wingames, Microsoft WindowsGlobal Registry Services Ltd[7]Un­knownYes
.wineWineries, wine bars, wine shops, wine distributors, wine clubs & online retailers, wine review sitesDonuts IncYesYes
.winnersReserved for TJX CompaniesThe TJX Companies, Inc.[8]
.workgeneralMinds + Machines[n 3]YesYes
.worksContractors, distribution companies, appliance wholesalers & service, auto/boat/heavy equipment businesses, companies with solution based products or servicesDonuts IncYesYes
.worldBrands with an international presence, nonprofits and charities, travel agencies & adventure companies, world travelers & global communities, any business with “world” in its nameDonuts IncYesYes
.wowAmazon Registry Services, Inc.[8]
.wtfBargain websites, photo & video aggregators, meme sites, news of the weirdDonutsYesYes

X

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.xxxadult entertainment (pornography)For sites providing sexually explicit content, such as pornography.UniregistryYesYes
.xyzgeneralXYZ.comYes[79]Yes

Y

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.yachtsyachtsDERYachts, LLC[8]
.yogayogaMinds + Machines[n 3]YesYes
.youAmazon Registry Services, Inc.[8]
.youtubeGoogle, LLC

Z

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.zeroAmazon Registry Services, Inc.[8]
.zoneSports fans, technology groups & followers, entertainment, fairs, destinations with a “zone”, city planners & zoning regulators, any topic with a followingDonuts IncYesYes

Chinese

Name Chinese term Translation Restrictions Operator IDN DNSSEC
.renrén"people/person" in Mandarin pinyinRestricted TLD[80](Cancelled)[81]Un­knownYes
.shouji手机 shŏujīmobile phoneQIHOO 360 TECHNOLOGY CO. LTD.
.tushu图书 túshūbooksAmazon Registry Services, Inc.
.wanggou网购 wǎnggòuonline shoppingAmazon Registry Services, Inc.
.weibo微博 wēibómicrobloggingSina Corporation
.xihuan喜欢 xǐhuānlikeQIHOO 360 TECHNOLOGY CO. LTD.
.xinxìncredit; honestAlibaba Group

French

Name Translation Restrictions Operator IDN DNSSEC
.arteAssociation Relative à la Télévision Européenne G.E.I.E.[8]
.clinique"hospital" The Estée Lauder Companies Inc.[8]
.luxe"luxury" Minds + Machines[n 3]Un­knownYes
.maison"house"Donuts Inc[donuts 125]YesYes
.moi"me" Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[8]
.rsvpInvitations and repliesGoogle[n 2]Un­knownYes
.sarlSociété à responsabilité limitée, Francophone Limited liability companyDonuts Inc[donuts 126]YesYes

German

Name Translation Restrictions Operator IDN DNSSEC
.eposte-mailDeutsche Post AG
.gmbhGmbHUpon request, you will be required to demonstrate current or pending designation as a GmbH company whose existence can be validated with the respective public authorities in Austria, Germany, Liechtenstein or Switzerland. Donuts IncYesYes
.haus"house"Donuts Inc[n 1]YesYes
.immobilien"real estate"Donuts Inc[n 1]Yes[9]Yes
.jetzt"now"Donuts IncYesYes
.kaufen"buy"Donuts Inc[n 1]Yes[9]Yes
.kinder"children"restricted .brand TLDFerrero Trading Lux S.A.
.reise"travel"Must be an eligible member of the travel business community; also, domain must be used for travel-related purposes.[82]Donuts IncYes[9]Yes
.reisen"traveling"Donuts Inc[donuts 127]Yes[9]Yes
.schule"school"Donuts Inc[donuts 128]YesYes
.versicherung"insurance"Latin script[9]Yes

Hindi

Name Translation Restrictions Operator IDN DNSSEC
.desiदेसी, Hindi for the peoples and cultures of South Asia
See also Desi
Desi NetworksUn­knownYes
.shikshaशिक्षा, Marathi and Hindi for "education".AfiliasUn­knownYes

Italian

Name Translation Restrictions Operator IDN DNSSEC
.casa"house"Minds + Machines[n 3]YesYes
.immoFrench, German,[83] and Italian abbreviation for "real estate"Donuts Inc[donuts 129]YesYes
.moda"fashion"Donuts Inc[n 1]Yes[9]Yes
.voto"vote", for election and campaign websitesMust use the domain in connection with a "clearly identified political/democratic process."[84] Initially only available to registrations in the United States.[85]AfiliasUn­knownYes

Portuguese

Name Translation Restrictions Operator IDN DNSSEC
.bomgoodNúcleo de Informação e Coordenação do Ponto BR - NIC.br
.passagensticketTravel Reservations SRL

Spanish

Name Translation Restrictions Operator IDN DNSSEC
.abogado"lawyer"To be restricted to licensed lawyers or law firms.[86]Minds + Machines[n 3]Un­knownYes
.futbol"Football" (soccer)Donuts Group[n 1]YesYes
.gratis"free"Donuts[donuts 130]YesYes
.hoteles"hotels"Travel Reservations SRL
.juegos"games"UniregistryYes[15]Yes
.ltdacompanies in South AmericaDomains are limited to registered LTDAs (like LLCs) in Brazil, Colombia, Chile, and Ecuador.[87]InterNetXUn­knownYes
.soy"I am"
Also refers to the soybean and its food derivatives
Google[n 2]Latin script, Japanese[88]Yes
.tienda"shop", "store"Donuts IncYesYes
.uno"one", for websites targeting Spanish speaking consumersSpanishYes
.viajes"travel" or "trips"Donuts IncSpanishYes
.vuelos"flights"Travel Reservations SRLYesYes

Internationalized generic top-level domains

All of these TLDs are internationalized domain names (IDN) and support second-level IDNs.

  • Notes: general remarks and intended use
  • DNSSEC: presence of DS records for Domain Name System Security Extensions

Arabic script

DNS Name IDN Language Script Transliteration English Translation Notes DNSSEC
xn--4gbrim[89].موقعArabicArabicmawqiʿ "site" or "location"Open TLDYes
xn--fhbei[89].كومArabickwmcomOwned by: VeriSign Sarl[8]
xn--mgbb9fbpob[89].موبايليArabicmūbāylīMy mobile (phone)Owned by: GreenTech Consultancy Company W.L.L.[8]
xn--mgbi4ecexp[89].كاثوليكArabickāthūlīkCatholicOwned by: Pontificium Consilium de Comunicationibus Socialibus (PCCS) (Pontifical Council for Social Communication)[8]
xn--ngbc5azd[89].شبكةArabicArabicshabaka"network"Open TLDYes
xn--ngbe9e0a[89].بيتكArabicbaytak your homeOwned by: Kuwait Finance House[8]
xn--mgbab2bd[89].بازارPersianArabicbâzâr"market", "bazaar"Open TLDYes

Chinese characters

DNS Name IDN Language Script Transliteration English Translation Notes DNSSEC
xn--3ds443g[89].在线ChineseChinese (Simplified)zàixiàn"online"Open TLD.
The Chinese Government quickly bought 20,000 internationalized subdomains for localities.[90]
Yes
xn--fiq228c5hs[89].中文网ChineseChinese (Simplified)Zhōngwén wǎng"(written) Chinese (language) network"Open TLD.
The Chinese Government quickly bought 20,000 IDN for localities.[90]
Yes
xn--ses554g[89].网址ChineseChinese (Simplified)wǎngzhǐ"network address" or "website"Open TLDYes
xn--5tzm5g[89].网站ChineseChinese (Simplified)wǎngzhàn"website"Open TLDYes
xn--io0a7i[89].网络ChineseChinese (Simplified)wǎngluò"network"Open TLDYes
xn--55qx5d[89].公司ChineseChinese (Simplified and Traditional)gōngsī"business organization" or "company"Open TLDYes
xn--czru2d[89].商城ChineseChinese (Simplified and Traditional)shāngchéng"mall"Open TLDYes
xn--nqv7f[89].机构ChineseChinese (Simplified)jīgòu"agency"Open TLDYes
xn--6qq986b3xl[89].我爱你ChineseChinese (Simplified)wǒ ài nǐ"I love you"Open TLDYes
xn--czr694b[89].商标ChineseChinese (Simplified)shāngbiāo"trademark"Open TLDYes
xn--rhqv96g[89].世界ChineseChinese (Simplified and Traditional)shìjiè"world"Open TLDYes
xn--3bst00m[89].集团ChineseChinese (Simplified)jítuán"conglomerate"Open TLDYes
xn--30rr7y[89].慈善ChineseChinese (Simplified)Císhàn"philanthropy"Open TLDYes
xn--45q11c[89].八卦ChineseChinese (Simplified)Bāguà"gossip"Open TLDYes
xn--55qw42g[89].公益ChineseChinese (Simplified)Gōngyì"philanthropy"Open TLDYes

Cyrillic script

DNS Name IDN Language Script Transliteration English Translation Notes DNSSEC
xn--d1acj3b[89].детиRussianCyrillic (Russian)dyeti"kids" or "children"Open TLDYes
xn--80aqecdr1a[89].католикCyrillicKatolikCatholicOwned by: Pontificium Consilium de Comunicationibus Socialibus (Pontifical Council for Social Communications)[8]
xn--j1aef[89].комRussianCyrillic (Russian)komcom
xn--80asehdb[89].онлайнRussianCyrillic (Russian)onlain"online"Open TLDYes
xn--c1avg[89].оргRussianCyrillic (Russian)org"org" or "organization"Open TLDYes
xn--80aswg[89].сайтRussianCyrillic (Russian)sait"site"Open TLDYes

Japanese characters

DNS Name IDN Language Script Transliteration English Translation Notes DNSSEC
xn--q9jyb4c[89].みんなJapaneseHiraganaminnaeveryoneOpen TLD[91]Yes
xn--1ck2e1b[89].セールJapaneseKatakanasērusaleOwned by: Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[8]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c[89].ファッションJapaneseKatakanafasshonfashion
xn--cck2b3b[89].ストアJapaneseKatakanasutoastore
xn--eckvdtc9d[89].ポイントJapaneseKatakanapointopoint
xn--gckr3f0f[89].クラウドJapaneseKatakanakuraudocloud
xn--tckwe[89].コムJapaneseKatakanakomucomOwned by: VeriSign Sarl[8]

Other script

DNS Name IDN Language Script Transliteration English Translation Notes DNSSEC
xn--i1b6b1a6a2e[89].संगठनMarathi, HindiDevanagarisaṅgaṭhana"organization"Open TLDYes
xn--11b4c3d[89].कॉमMarathi, HindiDevanagarikomcom
xn--c2br7g[89].नेटMarathi, HindiDevanagarinetnet
xn--mk1bu44c[89].닷컴KoreanHanguldatkeom / tatk'ŏmdotcom
xn--t60b56a[89].닷넷KoreanHanguldatnet / tatnetdotnet
xn--9dbq2a[89].קוםHebrewHebrewqwm"com"Open TLDYes
xn--42c2d9a[89].คอมThaiThaikhomcom

Geographic top-level domains

  • Name: DNS name
  • Entity: Target geographic area
  • Notes: general remarks
  • IDN: support for internationalized domain names (IDN)
  • DNSSEC: presence of DS records for Domain Name System Security Extensions

Africa

Name Entity Notes IDN DNSSEC
.africaAfrica[8][92]Yes
.capetownCape Town, South Africa[93]Un­knownYes
.durbanDurban, South Africa[94]Un­knownYes
.joburgJohannesburg, South Africa[95]Un­knownYes

Asia

Name Entity Notes IDN DNSSEC
.abudhabiAbu Dhabi[8]
.arabLeague of Arab States[8]
.asiaAsia-Pacific regionThis is a TLD for companies, organizations, and individuals based in the region of Asia, Australia, and the Pacific.Chinese, Japanese, Korean[9]Yes
.dohaDoha[8]
.dubaiDubai[8]
.krd KurdistanThis is a TLD for companies, organizations, and individuals based in the region of Kurdistan[96][97]KurdishYes
.kyotoKyoto, Japan[98]
.nagoyaNagoya, Japan[99]Japanese[9]Yes
.okinawaOkinawa, JapanJapaneseYes
.osakaOsaka, Japan[8]
.ryukyuRyukyu Islands, Japan[100]Un­knownYes
.taipeiTaipei, TaiwanIntroduced in September 2014[101]Un­knownYes
.tatarTatar peoples and placesTatarstan is a region in Russia, though this TLD is meant for the global Tatar community.[102]Un­knownYes
.tokyoTokyo, Japan[103]YesYes
.yokohamaYokohama, Japan[104]JapaneseYes

Europe

Geographic TLDs in the United Kingdom
Name Entity Notes IDN DNSSEC
.cymru Wales[105]Welsh[9]Yes
.wales [105]Welsh[9]Yes
.london London [106]YesYes
.scot  Scotland [107]Un­knownYes
Geographic TLDs in France
Name Entity Notes IDN DNSSEC
.alsace Alsace[108]Un­knownYes
.bzh  Brittany; Breton language and culture Breizh in Breton.[109] This is a TLD for Web sites in the Breton language or related to Breton cultureFrench[9]Yes
.corsica  Corsica TLD Related to Corsican CultureUn­knownYes
.eus Basque, Spain and France Euskal Herria in Basque. Web sites must be in the Basque language and are checked periodically.[110]Un­knownYes
.paris Paris [111]French[9]Yes
Geographic TLDs in Spain
Name Entity Notes IDN DNSSEC
.bcnBarcelona[8]
.barcelonaUn­knownYes
.cat  Catalonia; Catalan language and culture This is a TLD for Web sites in the Catalan language or related to Catalan culture.[112]Catalan[9]Yes
.eus Basque, Spain and France Euskal Herria in Basque. Web sites must be in the Basque language and are checked periodically.[110]Un­knownYes
.gal  Galicia This is a TLD for Web sites in the Galician language or related to Galician culture.[113]Un­knownYes
.madrid Madrid [114]Un­knownYes
Geographic TLDs in Germany
Name Entity Notes IDN DNSSEC
.bayern Bavaria[115]YesYes
.berlin BerlinMust have a connection to Berlin, Germany for example a company based in Berlin or a person from Berlin etc.[116]Latin and Cyrillic scripts[9]Yes
.cologne Cologne [117]YesYes
.koeln [118]YesYes
.hamburg Hamburg Latin script[9]Yes
.nrw North Rhine-Westphalia [119]YesYes
.ruhr Ruhr [120]German[9]Yes
.saarland  Saarland [121]Un­knownYes
Geographic TLDs in Belgium
Name Entity Notes IDN DNSSEC
.brusselsBrussels, Belgium[122]Latin script[9]Yes
.gent Ghent, Belgium [123]Un­knownYes
.vlaanderen  Flanders, Belgium [124]Latin script[9]Yes
Other European Geographic TLDs
Name Entity Notes IDN DNSSEC
.amsterdamAmsterdam, Netherlands[125]Un­knownYes
.bar Bar, Montenegro[8] Mostly used for bars and other alcohol facilities worldwide
.budapestBudapest, Hungary[126]Un­knownYes
.frl Friesland, NetherlandsFryslân in (West) Frisian, one of the twelve provinces in the Netherlands.[127]Un­knownYes
.helsinkiHelsinki, Finland
.irish Ireland; global Irish communityUn­knownYes
.istİstanbul, TurkeyUn­knownUn­known
.istanbulUn­knownUn­known
.moscowMoscow, Russia[128]YesYes
.stockholmStockholm, Sweden[8]
.swiss  Switzerland[8]Yes[129]Yes
.tirol Tyrol, Austria[130]Yes[9]Yes
.wien Vienna, Austria[131]Latin script[9]Yes
.zuerichZurich, Switzerland[132]Un­knownYes

North America

Name Entity Notes IDN DNSSEC Alternatives
.bostonBoston, Massachusetts[8].boston.ma.us
.miamiMiami, Florida[133]Un­knownYes
.nycNew York City, New York[134]Spanish[9]Yes.new-york.ny.us
.quebecQuébec, Canada[135]Un­knownYes.qc.ca
.vegasLas Vegas, Nevada[136]YesYes.las-vegas.nv.us

Oceania

Name Entity Notes IDN DNSSEC
.kiwiNew Zealanders[137]Latin script[9]Yes
.melbourneMelbourne, Australia[138]Un­knownYes
.sydneySydney, Australia[139]Un­knownYes

South America

Name Entity Notes IDN DNSSEC
.latLatin America[140]Spanish[141]Yes
.rioRio de Janeiro, Brazil[142]Un­knownYes

Internationalized geographic top-level domains

DNS name Display name Entity Language Script Transliteration Notes Other TLD IDN DNSSEC
xn--1qqw23a[89].佛山Foshan, ChinaChineseChinese (Simplified)fat6 saan1[143]YesYes
xn--xhq521b[89].广东Guangdong, ChinaChineseChinese (Simplified)gwong2 dung1[8]
xn--80adxhks[89].москваMoscow, RussiaRussianCyrillic (Russian)moskva[144].moscowRussian[9]Yes
xn--p1acf[89].русRussiaRussianCyrillic (Russian)rus[8].ru / .рф
xn--mgbca7dzdo[89].ابوظبيAbu DhabiArabicArabicAbū Ẓabī[8].abudhabi
xn--ngbrx[89].عربArabArabicArabic‘Arab[8]

Brand top-level domains

  • Name: DNS name
  • Entity: company and/or brand
  • Notes: general remarks
  • IDN: support for internationalized domain names (IDN)
  • DNSSEC: presence of DS records for Domain Name System Security Extensions
Name Entity Notes IDN DNSSEC
.aaa American Automobile Association[8]
.aarp AARP[8]
.abarthFiat Chrysler Automobiles (Abarth)[8]
.abbABB[8]
.abbottAbbott Laboratories[8]
.abbvieAbbVie[8]
.abcAmerican Broadcasting Company[145][8]
.accentureAccenture[8]
.acoACO Severin Ahlmann GmbH & Co. KG[8]
.aegAktiebolaget Electrolux[8]
.aetnaAetna[8]
.aflAustralian Football League[8]
.agakhanAga Khan Foundation[8]
.aigAmerican International Group[8]
.aigoAigo[8]
.airbusAirbus[8]
.airtelBharti Airtel[8]
.akdnAga Khan Foundation[8]
.alfaromeoFiat Chrysler Automobiles (Alfa Romeo)[8]
.alibabaAlibaba Group[8]
.alipayAlibaba Group[8]
.allfinanzAllfinanz Deutsche Vermögensberatung Aktiengesellschaft[146]Un­knownYes
.allstateAllstate[8]
.allyAlly Financial[8]
.alstomAlstom[8]
.amazon Amazon
.americanexpressAmerican Express[8]
.amexAmerican Express[8]
.amicaAmica Mutual Insurance[8]
.androidGoogle (Android)[147]Un­knownYes
.anzAustralia and New Zealand Banking Group[8]
.aolAOL[8]
.appleApple[8]
.aquarelleAquarelle.com Group[148]Un­knownYes
.aramcoAramco[8]
.audiAudi[8]
.auspostAustralia Post[8]
.axaAxa[149]Yes[9]Yes
.azureMicrosoft[8]
.baiduBaidu[8]
.bananarepublicGap[8]
.barclaycardBarclays[150]Un­knownYes
.barclaysBarclays[150]Un­knownYes
.basketballFIBA[151]
.bauhausWerkhaus GmbH[8]
.bbcBBC[8]
.bbtBB&T[8]
.bbvaBanco Bilbao Vizcaya Argentaria[8]
.bcgBoston Consulting Group[8]
.bentleyBentley[8]
.bhartiBharti Enterprises[8]
.bingMicrosoft[8]
.blancoBLANCO GmbH + Co KG[8]
.bloombergBloomberg[152]Un­knownYes
.bmsBristol-Myers Squibb[8]
.bmwBMW[153]NoYes
.bnlBanca Nazionale del Lavoro[154]Un­knownYes
.bnpparibasBNP Paribas[155]Un­knownYes
.boehringerBoehringer Ingelheim[8]
.bondBond University[8]
.bookingBooking.com[8]
.boschRobert Bosch GmbH[8]
.bostikBostik[8]
.bradescoBradesco[156]Un­knownYes
.bridgestoneBridgestone[8]
.brotherBrother Industries[8]
.bugattiBugatti[8]
.calGoogle (Google Calendar)[157]Un­knownYes
.calvinkleinPVH[8]
.canonCanon[8]
.capitaloneCapital One[8]
.caravanCaravan International[158]Un­knownYes
.cartierRichemont DNS[8]
.cbaCommonwealth Bank[8]
.cbnChristian Broadcasting Network[8]
.cbreCBRE Group[8]
.cbsCBS[8]
.cernCERN[159]Un­knownYes
.cfaCFA Institute[8]
.chanelChanel[8]
.chaseChase Bank[8]
.chintaiChintai Corporation[8]
.chromeGoogle (Google Chrome)[160]Un­knownYes
.chryslerChrysler[8]
.ciprianiHotel Cipriani Srl[8]
.ciscoCisco Systems[8]
.citadelCitadel Domain[8]
.citiCitigroup[8]
.citicCITIC Group[161]NoYes
.clubmedClub Med[8]
.comcastComcast[8]
.commbankCommonwealth Bank[8]
.creditunionCUNA Performance Resources[8]
.crownCrown Equipment Corporation[8]
.crsFederated Co-operatives
(Co-Operative Retailing System)
[162]Un­knownYes
.csc DXC Technology
.cuisinellaSociété Alsacienne de Meubles (Cuisinella)[163]Un­knownYes
.daburDabur[8]
.datsunNissan[8]
.dealerDealer Dot Com[8]
.dellDell[8]
.deloitteDeloitte[8]
.deltaDelta Air Lines[8]
.dhlDeutsche Post[8]
.discoverDiscover Financial Services[8]
.dishDish Network[8]
.dnpDai Nippon Printing[164]Un­knownYes
.dodgeChrysler (Dodge)[8]
.dunlopGoodyear Tire and Rubber Company[8]
.dupontDuPont[8]
.dvagDeutsche Vermögensberatung[165]Un­knownYes
.edekaEdeka[166]Un­knownYes
.emerckMerck Group[167]Un­knownYes
.epsonSeiko Epson[8]
.ericssonEricsson[8]
.erniERNI Group Holding AG[8]
.esuranceEsurance[8]
.etisalatEtisalat[8]
.eurovisionEuropean Broadcasting Union (Eurovision)[8]
.everbankEverBank[168]Un­knownYes
.extraspaceExtra Space Storage[8]
.fageFage[8]
.fairwindsFairWinds Partners[8]
.farmersFarmers Insurance Exchange[8]
.fedexFedEx[8]
.ferrariFiat Chrysler Automobiles (Ferrari)[8]
.ferreroFerrero[8]
.fiatFiat Chrysler Automobiles[8]
.fidelityFidelity Investments[8]
.firestoneBridgestone[8]
.firmdaleFirmdale Holdings[169]Un­knownYes
.flickrYahoo! (Flickr)[8]
.flirFLIR Systems[8]
.flsmidthFLSmidth[170]Un­knownYes
.fordFord Motor Company[8]
.foxFox Broadcasting Company[8]
.freseniusFresenius Immobilien-Verwaltungs-GmbH[8]
.forexDotforex Registry Ltd[8]
.frogansOP3FTSolely for use by the Frogans technology[171]Yes[9]Yes
.frontierFrontier Communications[8]
.fujitsuFujitsu[8]
.fujixeroxFuji Xerox[8]
.galloE & J Gallo Winery[8]
.gallupGallup[8]
.gapGap[8]
.gbizGoogle[172]Un­knownYes
.geaGEA Group[8]
.gentingGenting Group[8]
.givingGiving Limited[8]
.gleGoogle[173]Un­knownYes
.globoGrupo Globo[174]NoYes
.gmailGoogle (Gmail)[175]Un­knownYes
.gmoGMO Internet[176]Un­knownYes
.gmx1&1 Mail & Media (Global Message Exchange)[177]Un­knownYes
.godaddyGo Daddy[8]
.goldpointYodobashi Camera[8]
.goodyearGoodyear Tire and Rubber Company[8]
.googGoogle[178]Un­knownYes
.googleGoogle[179]Un­knownYes
.graingerGrainger Registry Services, LLC[8]
.guardianGuardian Life Insurance Company of America[8]
.gucciGucci[8]
.hboHBO[8]
.hdfcHousing Development Finance Corporation[8]
.hdfcbankHDFC Bank[8]
.hermesHermès[8]
.hisamitsuHisamitsu Pharmaceutical[8]
.hitachiHitachi[8]
.hktHong Kong Telecom[8]
.hondaHonda Motor Company[8]
.honeywellHoneywell[8]
.hotmailMicrosoft[8]
.hsbcHSBC[180]Un­knownYes
.hughesHughes Network Systems[8]
.hyattHyatt[8]
.hyundaiHyundai Motor Company[8]
.ibmIBM[181]Un­knownYes
.ieeeInstitute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers[8]
.ifmifm electronic gmbh[8]
.ikanoIkano[8]
.imdbAmazon[8]
.infinitiNissan (Infiniti)[8]
.intelIntel[8]
.intuitIntuit[8]
.ipirangaIpiranga[8]
.iselectiSelect[8]
.itauItaú Unibanco[8]
.itvITV[8]
.ivecoCNH Industrial[8]
.jaguarJaguar Land Rover[8]
.javaOracle Corporation (Java)[8]
.jcbJCB[8]
.jcpJCP Media[8]
.jeepChrysler (Jeep)[8]
.jpmorganJPMorgan Chase[8]
.juniperJuniper Networks[8]
.kddiKDDI[8]
.kerryhotelsKerry Trading Co. Limited[8]
.kerrylogisticsKerry Trading Co. Limited[8]
.kerrypropertiesKerry Trading Co. Limited[8]
.kfhKuwait Finance House[8]
.kiaKia Motors Corporation[8]
.kinderFerrero[8]
.kindleAmazon (Amazon Kindle)[8]
.komatsuKomatsu[8]
.kpmgKPMG[8]
.kredKredTLD[182]Un­knownYes
.kuokgroupKerry Trading Co. Limited[8]
.lacaixaCaixa d’Estalvis i Pensions de Barcelona[183]Un­knownYes
.ladbrokesLadbrokes[8]
.lamborghiniLamborghini[8]
.lancasterLancaster[8]
.lanciaFiat Chrysler Automobiles (Lancia)[8]
.lancomeL'Oréal[8]
.landroverJaguar Land Rover[8]
.lanxessLanxess[8]
.lasalleJLL[8]
.latrobeLa Trobe University[184]Un­knownYes
.ldsThe Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church)[185][186]Un­knownYes
.leclerc E.Leclerc [187]
.legoLego Group[8]
.liaisonLiaison Technologies[8]
.lexusToyota (Lexus)[8]
.lidlLidl[8]
.lifestyleLifestyle Domain Holdings, Inc.[8]
.lillyEli Lilly & Company[8]
.lincolnFord (Lincoln)[8]
.lindeLinde[8]
.lipsyLipsy Ltd[8]
.lixilLixil Group[8]
.locusLocus Analytics[8]
.lotteLotte Holdings[8]
.lplLPL Financial[8]
.lplfinancialLPL Financial[8]
.lundbeckLundbeck[8]
.lupinLupin Limited[8]
.macysMacy's[8]
.maifMutuelle Assurance Instituteur France (MAIF)[8]
.manMAN[8]
.mangoMango[188]Latin script[9]Yes
.marriottMarriott International[8]
.maseratiFiat Chrysler Automobiles (Maserati)[8]
.mattelMattel[8]
.mckinseyMcKinsey & Company[8]
.metlifeMetLife[8]
.microsoftMicrosoft[8]
.miniBMW (Mini)[189]NoYes
.mitMassachusetts Institute of Technology[8]
.mitsubishiMitsubishi Corporation[8]
.mlbMLB Advanced Media[8]
.mmaMMA IARD[8]
.monashMonash University[190][191]NoYes
.mormonThe Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church)[185][192]Un­knownYes
.motoMotorola[8]
.movistarTelefónica[8]
.msdMSD Registry Holdings, Inc.[8]
.mtnMTN[8]
.mtrMTR Corporation[8]
.mutualNorthwestern Mutual[8]
.nadexNadex[8]
.nationwideNationwide Mutual Insurance Company[8]
.naturaNatura & Co[8]
.nbaNational Basketball Association[8]
.necNEC[8]
.netflixNetflix[8]
.neustarNeustar[193]NoYes
.newhollandCNH Industrial[8]
.nexusGoogle (Google Nexus)[194]Un­knownYes
.nflNational Football League[8]
.nhkNHK[195]Un­knownYes
.nicoDwango (Niconico)[196]Un­knownYes
.nikeNike[8]
.nikonNikon[8]
.nissanNissan[8]
.nissayNippon Life[8]
.nokiaNokia[8]
.northwesternmutualNorthwestern Mutual[8]
.nortonNortonLifeLock[8]
.nraNational Rifle Association[197]Un­knownYes
.nttNippon Telegraph & Telephone[8]
.obiOBI Group Holding SE & Co. KGaA[8]
.officeMicrosoft[8]
.omegaSwatch Group (Omega)[8]
.oracleOracle Corporation[8]
.orangeOrange[8]
.otsukaOtsuka Pharmaceutical[198]Un­knownYes
.ovhOVH[199]French[9]Yes
.panasonicPanasonic[8]
.pccwPCCW[8]
.pfizerPfizer[8]
.philipsPhilips[8]
.piagetPiaget[200]Un­knownYes
.pictetPictet[8]
.pingPing[8]
.pioneerPioneer Corporation[8]
.playGoogle[8]
.playstationSony[8]
.pohlDeutsche Vermögensberatung
(founder Reinfried Pohl)
[201]Un­knownYes
.politiePolitie Nederland[8]
.praxiPraxi[202]Un­knownYes
.prodGoogle (products)[203]Un­knownYes
.progressiveProgressive Corporation[8]
.pruPrudential Financial[8]
.prudentialPrudential Financial[8]
.pwcPwC[204]Un­knownYes
.questQuest Software[8]
.qvcQVC[8]
.redstoneRedstone Haute Couture Co[8]
.relianceReliance Industries[8]
.rexrothRobert Bosch GmbH[8]
.ricohRicoh[8]
.rmitRoyal Melbourne Institute of Technology[8]
.rocherFerrero[8]
.rogersRogers Communications[8]
.rweRWE[8]
.safetySafety Registry Services, LLC.[8]
.sakuraSAKURA Internet Inc.[8]
.samsungSamsung SDS[8]
.sandvikSandvik[8]
.sandvikcoromantSandvik Coromant[205]Un­knownUn­known
.sanofiSanofi[8]
.sapSAP[206]
.saxoSaxo Bank[8]
.sbiState Bank of India[8]
.sbsSpecial Broadcasting Service[8]
.scaSvenska Cellulosa[207]Un­knownYes
.scbSiam Commercial BankThai[9]Yes
.schaefflerSchaeffler Technologies[8]
.schmidtSociété Alsacienne de Meubles (Cuisines Schmidt)[208]Un­knownYes
.schwarzSchwarz Supply Source[8]
.scjohnsonSC Johnson & Son[8]
.scorSCOR[8]
.seatSEAT[8]
.senerSener Ingeniería y Sistemas, S.A.[8]
.sesSES[8]
.sewSEW Eurodrive[8]
.sevenSeven West Media[8]
.sfrSFR[8]
.seekSeek[209]NoUn­known
.shangrilaShangri-La Hotels & Resorts[8]
.sharpSharp Corporation[8]
.shawShaw Cablesystems G.P.[8]
.shellShell[8]
.shriramShriram Capital[8]
.sinaSina Corp[8]
.skySky Group[8]
.skypeMicrosoft[8]
.smartSmart Communications[8]
.sncfSNCF[8]
.softbankSoftBank[8]
.sohuSohu[210]Un­knownYes
.sonySony[8]
.spiegelDer Spiegel[211]Un­knownYes
.stadaStada Arzneimittel[8]
.staplesStaples[8]
.starStar India[8]
.starhubStarHub[8]
.statebankState Bank of India[8]
.statefarmState Farm[8]
.statoilStatoil[8]
.stcSaudi Telecom Company[8]
.stcgroupSaudi Telecom Company[8]
.suzukiSuzuki[212]Un­knownYes
.swatchSwatch Group[8]
.swiftcoverSwiftcover[8]
.symantecNortonLifeLock[8]
.taobaoAlibaba Group[8]
.targetTarget[8]
.tatamotorsTata Motors[8]
.tdkTDK[8]
.telecityTelecityGroup[8]
.telefonicaTelefónica[8]
.temasekTemasek Holdings[8]
.tevaTeva Pharmaceuticals[8]
.tiffanyTiffany & Co[8]
.tjxTJX Companies[8]
.torayToray Industries[8]
.toshibaToshiba[8]
.totalTotal[8]
.toyotaToyota[8]
.travelchannelLifestyle Domain Holdings, Inc.[8]
.travelersTravelers TLD, LLC[8]
.tuiTUI[213]Un­knownYes
.tvsT V Sundram Iyengar & Sons Private Limited[8]
.ubsUBS[8]
.unicomChina Unicom[8]
.uolUniverso OnlineDelegated to UOL subsidiary UBN Internet.[214]Un­knownYes
.upsUnited Parcel Service[8]
.vanguardVanguard Group[8]
.verisignVeriSign[8]
.vigVienna Insurance Group[8]
.vikingViking River Cruises[8]
.virginVirgin Group[8]
.visaVisa[8]
.vistaVistaprint[8]
.vistaprintVistaprint[8]
.vivoTelefónica Brasil[8]
.volkswagenVolkswagen Group of America[8]
.volvoVolvo[8]
.walmartWalmart[8]
.walterSandvik[8]
.weatherchannelIBM (The Weather Company)[8]
.weberSaint-Gobain[8]
.weirWeir Group[8]
.williamhillWilliam Hill[215]Un­knownYes
.windowsMicrosoft[8]
.wmeEndeavor[216]Un­knownYes
.wolterskluwerWolters Kluwer[8]
.woodsideWoodside Petroleum[8]
.wtcWorld Trade Centers Association[217]Un­knownYes
.xboxMicrosoft[8]
.xeroxFuji Xerox[8]
.xfinityComcast[8]
.yahooYahoo![8]
.yamaxunAmazon[8]
.yandexYandex[218]Un­knownYes
.yodobashiYodobashi Camera[8]
.youtubeGoogle (YouTube)[219]Un­knownYes
.zapposAmazon[8]
.zaraInditex[8]
.zipGoogle[8]
.zippoZippo[8]

Internationalized brand top-level domains

DNS nameIDN TLDEntityScriptTransliterationCommentsDNSSEC
xn--mgba3a3ejt.ارامكوAramco Services CompanyArabic[8]
xn--mgbaakc7dvf.اتصالاتEmirates Telecommunications Corporation (trading as Etisalat)Arabic[8]
xn--8y0a063a.联通China United Network Communications Corporation LimitedChinese (Simplified)Liántōng[8]
xn--6frz82g.移动China Mobile Communications CorporationChinese (Simplified)Yídòng
xn--fiq64b.中信CITIC GroupChinesezhōngxìn[220]Yes
xn--5su34j936bgsg.香格里拉Shangri‐La International Hotel Management LimitedChineseXiānggélǐlā[8]
xn--b4w605ferd.淡马锡Temasek Holdings (Private) LimitedChinese (Simplified)Dànmǎxī[8]
xn--3oq18vl8pn36a.大众汽车Volkswagen (China) Investment Co., Ltd.Chinese (Simplified)Dàzhòngqìchē[8]
xn--vermgensberater-ctb.vermögensberaterDeutsche Vermögensberatung AktiengesellschaftLatin[221]Yes
xn--vermgensberatung-pwb.vermögensberatungDeutsche Vermögensberatung AktiengesellschaftLatin[222]Yes
xn--qcka1pmc.グーグルGoogleKatakanagūguru[223]Yes
xn--flw351e.谷歌GoogleChinesegǔgē[224]Yes
xn--estv75g.工行Industrial and Commercial Bank of China LimitedChineseGōngháng[8]
xn--w4rs40l.嘉里Kerry Trading Co. LimitedChineseJiālǐ[8]
xn--w4r85el8fhu5dnra.嘉里大酒店Kerry Trading Co. LimitedChineseJiālǐdàjiǔdiàn[8]
xn--kcrx77d1x4a.飞利浦Koninklijke Philips N.V.Chinese (Simplified)Fēilìpǔ[8]
xn--jlq61u9w7b.诺基亚Nokia CorporationChinese (Simplified)Nuòjīyà[8]
xn--fzys8d69uvgm.電訊盈科PCCW Enterprises LimitedChinese (Traditional)din6 soen3 jing4 fo1[8]
xn--cg4bki.삼성SamsungHangulsamseong[225]Yes

Special-Use Domains

ICANN/IANA has created some Special-Use domain names which are meant for special technical purposes. ICANN/IANA owns all of the Special-Use domain names.[226]

Name Entity Notes IDN DNSSEC
.exampleNot installed as a domain name, but usable in text as an example.
example.com, example.net and example.org are also reserved for this purpose but are active sites.
Un­known
.invalidNot installed as a domain name, but usable in testing as a domain which wouldn't work.Un­known
.localLocal networkUn­known
.localhostPoints back to own computerUn­known
.onionConnection to the Tor networkUn­known
.testMeant for testing DNS softwareUn­known

Non IANA domains

Besides the TLDs managed (or at least tracked) by IANA there are also a bunch of other commonly used TLDs. These TLDs can have limited reachability as they are not necessarily reachable through normal DNS resolution or require passing through a transparent proxy or gateway.

Blockchain Registered

These kind of domain are registered and traded using a public blockchain like Ethereum. They are used to reference blockchain tracked resources as well as within smart contracts and DApps. There capabilities can vastly differ.

Name Blockchain Homepage
.ethEthereumhttps://ens.domains/
.zilZilliqa [227]https://unstoppabledomains.com/
.cryptoEthereum [227]https://unstoppabledomains.com/
.bitNamecoinNamecoin client

See also

  • Country code top-level domain
  • Generic top-level domain
  • IDN Test TLDs
  • ISO 3166-1 alpha-2, the standard for two-letter country codes, which most ccTLDs are based on
  • Proposed top-level domain
  • Second-level domain, information about .co.jp, .co.uk, .co.kr, .co.nf, etc.
  • Public Suffix List

Notes

  1. Domain registry is operated by United TLD Holdco Ltd. t/a Rightside Registry, a subsidiary of the Rightside Group.
  2. Operated by Charleston Road Registry, Inc., a subsidiary of Google. See .
  3. A subsidiary of Minds + Machines Group (formerly Top Level Domain Holdings.)
  4. Operating as Top Level Design
  5. Operating as Afilias Domains No. 5 Limited.
  1. Operating as Half Oaks, LLC
  2. Operating as Knob Town, LLC
  3. Operating as Steel Falls, LLC
  4. Operating as Baxter Hill, LLC
  5. Operating as Half Hallow, LLC
  6. Operating as Grand Hollow, LLC
  7. Operating as Over Galley, LLC
  8. Operating as Atomic Madison, LLC
  9. Operating as Spring Cross, LLC
  10. Operating as Half Sunset, LLC
  11. Operating as Atomic Maple, LLC
  12. Operating as Delta Dynamite, LLC
  13. Operating as Delta Mill, LLC
  14. Operating as Foggy Hollow, LLC
  15. Operating as Goose Cross, LLC
  16. Operating as Wild Corner, LLC
  17. Operating as Delta Lake, LLC
  18. Operating as New Falls, LLC
  19. Operating as Tin Mill, LLC
  20. Operating as Sand Cover, LLC
  21. Operating as Holly Fields, LLC
  22. Operating as Snow Sky, LLC
  23. Operating as Black Corner, LLC
  24. Operating as Fox Shadow, LLC
  25. Operating as Goose Park, LLC
  26. Operating as Steel Lake, LLC
  27. Operating as Puff Willow, LLC
  28. Operating as Trixy Cover, LLC
  29. Operating as Fox Orchard, LLC
  30. Operating as Silver Avenue, LLC
  31. Operating as Pine Mill, LLC
  32. Operating as Pine House, LLC
  33. Operating as Fox Dynamite, LLC
  34. Operating as Magic Woods, LLC
  35. Operating as Koko Lake, LLC
  36. Operating as Snow Shadow, LLC
  37. Operating as Binky Frostbite, LLC
  38. Operating as Spring Way, LLC
  39. Operating as Pine Fest, LLC
  40. Operating as Sand Sunset, LLC
  41. Operating as Steel Station, LLC
  42. Operating as Tin Birch, LLC
  43. Operating as John Edge, LLC
  44. Operating as Dash Park, LLC
  45. Operating as Half Trail, LLC
  46. Operating as Extra Madison, LLC
  47. Operating as Holly Hill, LLC
  48. Operating as Sugar Cross, LLC
  49. Operating as Brice Way, LLC
  50. Operating as Spring Madison, LLC
  51. Operating as Binky Birch, LLC
  52. Operating as Romeo Canyon.
  53. Operating as Snow Oaks, LLC
  54. Operating as Corn Station, LLC
  55. Operating as Trixy Park, LLC
  56. Operating as Pioneer Maple, LLC
  57. Operating as Spring Falls, LLC
  58. Operating as Magic Pass, LLC
  59. Operating as Victor Beach, LLC
  60. Operating as Atomic Pipe, LLC
  61. Operating as Just Maple, LLC
  62. Operating as Cotton Cypress, LLC
  63. Operating as Just Cover, LLC
  64. Operating as Fox Woods, LLC
  65. Operating as Brice Orchard, LLC
  66. Operating as Fox Station, LLC
  67. Operating as Half Cypress, LLC
  68. Operating as John Dale, LLC
  69. Operating as John Castle, LLC
  70. Operating as Lone Fields, LLC
  71. Operating as Sugar House, LLC
  72. Operating as Goose Sky, LLC
  73. Operating as Black Cover, LLC
  74. Operating as Over Madison, LLC
  75. Operating as Corn Sunset, LLC
  76. Operating as Snow Moon, LLC
  77. Operating as Pioneer Cypress, LLC
  78. Operating as Silver Glen, LLC
  79. Operating as John Madison, LLC
  80. Operating as Goose Woods, LLC
  81. Operating as Sugar Park, LLC
  82. Operating as Outer House, LLC
  83. Operating as Outer Maple, LLC
  84. Operating as Pioneer Willow, LLC
  85. Operating as Wild Way, LLC
  86. Operating as Holly Glen, LLC
  87. Operating as Just Goodbye, LLC
  88. Operating as Pine Moon, LLC
  89. Operating as Victor Trail, LLC
  90. Operating as Trixy Oaks, LLC
  91. Operating as John McCook, LLC
  92. Operating as Big Fest, LLC
  93. Operating as Hidden Frostbite, LLC
  94. Operating as June Woods, LLC
  95. Operating as John Goodbye, LLC
  96. Operating as Fern Pass, LLC
  97. Operating as Grand Glen, LLC
  98. Operating as Trixy Manor, LLC
  99. Operating as Magic Glen, LLC
  100. Operating as Sea Goodbye, LLC
  101. Operating as Sugar Glen, LLC
  102. Operating as Sea Corner, LLC
  103. Operating as Foggy Sky, LLC
  104. Operating as Foggy Moon, LLC
  105. Operating as Snow Galley, LLC
  106. Operating as Spring Tigers, LLC
  107. Operating as Magic Birch, LLC
  108. Operating as Big Pass, LLC
  109. Operating as Grand Island, LLC
  110. Operating as Big Hollow, LLC
  111. Operating as Lone Sunset, LLC
  112. Operating as Binky Glen, LLC
  113. Operating as Snow Avenue, LLC
  114. Operating as Little Galley, LLC
  115. Operating as Fox Castle, LLC
  116. Operating as Binky Galley, LLC
  117. Operating as Fern Madison, LLC
  118. Operating as Ruby Town, LLC
  119. Operating as Silver Cover, LLC
  120. Operating as Atomic Fields, LLC
  121. Operating as Half Falls, LLC
  122. Operating as Grand Orchard, LLC
  123. Operating as Tin Avenue, LLC
  124. Operating as Dash Cypress, LLC
  125. Operating as Victor Frostbite, LLC
  126. Operating as Delta Orchard, LLC
  127. Operating as New Cypress, LLC
  128. Operating as Outer Moon, LLC
  129. Operating as Auburn Bloom, LLC
  130. Operating as Pioneer Tigers, LLC

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  105. "The New London Code". Nic.london. Archived from the original on 18 December 2014. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  106. "Register .scot domains - Calico .scot domains - dotscot is the new Scottish top level domain". Calico.scot. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  107. IANA — .alsace Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 19 November 2014.
  108. ".BZH - L'extension internet de la Bretagne". .BZH - L'extension internet de la Bretagne.
  109. ".eus Domeinua - .eus - Euskara eta Euskal Kultura Interneten". Nic.eus. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  110. ".PARIS, La nouvelle adresse web de Paris". Archived from the original on 16 March 2015. Retrieved 13 March 2015.
  111. (in Catalan) Fundació punt CAT | A Internet, el català és .cat. Registra ara un domini i identifica’t amb el teu .cat. Fundacio.cat. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
  112. "Dominio .gal". Dominio.gal. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  113. IANA - .madrid Domain Delegation Data, IANA. Accessed on line 24 November 2014.
  114. "Startseite - .bayern - Das Web wird weiß-blau". nic.bayern.
  115. (in German) berlin Top-Level-Domain Archived 18 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Nic.berlin. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
  116. "The New TLDS .koeln & .cologne". Dot.cologne. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 September 2014. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  117. "The New TLDS .koeln & .cologne". Dot.koeln. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 October 2014. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  118. IANA - .nrw Domain Delegation Data, IANA. Accessed on line 26 November 2014.
  119. ".ruhr". Dot.ruhr. 5 September 2014. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  120. "dotSaarland GmbH". Retrieved 28 October 2014.
  121. ".brussels is now in the root! - DNS Belgium". Nic.brussels. Archived from the original on 18 December 2014. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  122. "Official website of .GENT". Retrieved 4 November 2014.
  123. ".vlaanderen is now in the root! - DNS Belgium". Nic.vlaanderen. Archived from the original on 21 October 2014. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  124. amsterdam Top-Level-Domain.
  125. IANA — .budapest Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 20 November 2014.
  126. (in Dutch) frl Top-Level-Domain. Nic.frl. Retrieved 5 September 2014.
  127. "About TLDs .MOSCOW and .МОСКВА - dotMoscow: .MOSCOW and .МОСКВА TLDs for Russian Capital". Nic.moscow. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  128. "Zuteilung und Verwaltung der Domain-Namen der zweiten Ebene, die der Internet-Domain ".swiss" untergeordnet sind" (in German). BAKOM. Retrieved 6 March 2019.
  129. "Tirol Domain" (in German). Retrieved 25 November 2014.
  130. ".wien: punktwien". Nic.wien. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  131. ".zuerich Registry Operator Website". Retrieved 17 June 2015.
  132. IANA - .miami Domain Delegation Data, IANA. Accessed on line 25 November 2014.
  133. ".NYC Domain Name Extension - Official Website". .NYC - The Official Website for the Ultimate New York City Address. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  134. ".QUEBEC". Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  135. "Dot Vegas, Inc". Archived from the original on 3 September 2014. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  136. "About". Hello.kiwi. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  137. Twenty4. "nic.melbourne - Home page". nic.melbourne. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  138. IANA - .sydney Domain Delegation Data, IANA. Accessed on line 2 December 2014.
  139. ".LAT Domain - About us". Archived from the original on 3 September 2015. Retrieved 13 August 2015.
  140. ".LAT Domain - FAQs". Archived from the original on 3 September 2015. Retrieved 13 August 2015.
  141. "IANA - .rio Domain Delegation Data". Archived from the original on 9 December 2014. Retrieved 1 December 2014.
  142. IANA - .佛山 Domain Delegation Data, IANA. Accessed on line 2 December 2014.
  143. "О фонде | Foundation for Assistance for Internet Technologies and Infrastructure Development" Check |url= value (help).
  144. ".abc Domain Registration - .abc Domains - American Broadcasting Companies, Inc. Domain Name .abc - Register American Broadcasting Companies, Inc. Domain Name .abc". 101domain.com. Retrieved 22 July 2018.
  145. IANA — .allfinanz Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 19 November 2014.
  146. IANA — .android Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 19 November 2014.
  147. IANA — .aquarelle Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 2 December 2014.
  148. "dotAXA: AXA Group New Online Space" (PDF). Domains.axa. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  149. "Barclays begins using .Barclays and .Barclaycard top level domains". Retrieved 8 August 2015.
  150. "FIBA launches .basketball as new digital identity of the global basketball community" (Press release). FIBA. 15 June 2017. Archived from the original on 2 July 2018. Retrieved 2 July 2018.
  151. IANA — .bloomberg Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 19 November 2014.
  152. "Home dotBMW registry operator". nic.bmw. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  153. IANA — .bnl Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 26 June 2015.
  154. "nic.bnpparibas". Retrieved 4 November 2014.
  155. "IANA — .bradesco Domain Delegation Data". iana.org. Retrieved 3 November 2016.
  156. IANA — .cal Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 19 November 2014.
  157. IANA — .caravan Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 19 November 2014.
  158. IANA — .cern Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 20 November 2014.
  159. IANA — .chrome Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 20 November 2014.
  160. "中国中信集团有限公司". Nic.citic. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  161. IANA — .crs Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 20 November 2014.
  162. IANA — .cuisinella Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 20 November 2014.
  163. IANA — .dnp Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 20 November 2014.
  164. IANA — .dvag Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 20 November 2014.
  165. IANA — .edka Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 10 October 2016.
  166. IANA — .emerck Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 20 November 2014.
  167. IANA — .everbank Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 2 December 2014.
  168. IANA — .firmdale Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 24 November 2014.
  169. IANA — .flsmidth Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 21 November 2014.
  170. "Using the .frogans gTLD". Nic.frogans. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  171. IANA — .gbiz Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 21 November 2014.
  172. IANA — .gle Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 21 November 2014.
  173. ".globo". Nic.globo. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  174. IANA — .gmail Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 21 November 2014.
  175. IANA — .gmo Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 21 November 2014.
  176. IANA — .gmx Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 21 November 2014.
  177. IANA — Delegation Record for .GOOG. Accessed on line 3 October 2018.
  178. IANA — .google Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 21 November 2014.
  179. ".hsbc". Retrieved 15 August 2015.
  180. IANA — .ibm Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 24 November 2014.
  181. IANA — .kred Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 24 November 2014.
  182. IANA — .lacaixa Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 25 November 2014.
  183. IANA — .latrobe Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 2 December 2014.
  184. This domain has been delegated to IRI Domain Management, LLC, a subsidiary of Intellectual Reserve, Inc., which is owned and operated by the LDS Church.
  185. IANA — .lds Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 21 November 2014.
  186. "IANA — .leclerc Domain Delegation Data". iana.org. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
  187. "MANGO". Nic.mango. Archived from the original on 14 February 2015. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  188. "Home dotMINI registry operator". Nic.mini. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  189. ".monash - Network Information Centre". Nic.monash. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  190. "New gTLD Program : InitialEvaluation Report : Report Date: 10 May 2013" (PDF). Newgtlds.icann.org. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  191. IANA — .mormon Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 21 November 2014.
  192. "Neustar Launches New TLD .Neustar". Nic.neustar. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  193. IANA — .nexus Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 26 November 2014.
  194. IANA — .nhk Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 26 November 2014.
  195. ".nico - The Brand TLD for Dwango Co., Ltd". Dwango Co., Ltd. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
  196. IANA — .nra Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 26 November 2014.
  197. IANA — .otsuka Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 26 November 2014.
  198. "The New OVH Code" (PDF). Nic.ovh. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  199. "NIC PIAGET". Archived from the original on 18 January 2018. Retrieved 17 March 2015.
  200. IANA — .pohl Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 1 December 2014.
  201. IANA — .praxi Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 1 December 2014.
  202. IANA — .prod Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 1 December 2014.
  203. NIC PwC. Accessed on line 1 December 2014.
  204. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 29 October 2018. Retrieved 26 January 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  205. ".sap - ICANNWiki". icannwiki.org. Retrieved 23 May 2017.
  206. ".sca". Retrieved 4 November 2014.
  207. IANA — .schmidt Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 2 December 2014.
  208. IANA — .seek Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 20 July 2016.
  209. IANA — .sohu Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 2 December 2014.
  210. IANA — .spiegel Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 2 December 2014.
  211. IANA — .suzuki Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 2 December 2014.
  212. IANA — .tui Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 19 November 2014.
  213. IANA — .uol Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 2 December 2014.
  214. IANA — .williamhill Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 2 December 2014.
  215. IANA — .wme Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 2 December 2014.
  216. IANA — .wtc Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 2 December 2014.
  217. "This is .yandex". Nic.yandex. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 July 2014. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  218. IANA — .youtube Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 2 December 2014.
  219. "Nic.中信". nic.中信. Archived from the original on 6 March 2015. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  220. IANA — .vermögensberater Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 1 December 2014.
  221. IANA — .vermögensberatung Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 1 December 2014.
  222. IANA — .グーグル Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 24 November 2014.
  223. IANA — .谷歌 Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 24 November 2014.
  224. "WHOIS 서비스란?". Whois.nic. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  225. "Special-Use Domain Names". Iana.org. Retrieved 8 January 2018.
  226. "What is the difference between .crypto and .zil?". Unstoppable Domains. 20 December 2019.
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