Liège Province

Liège (French: [ljɛʒ] (listen); Walloon: Lîdje [liːtʃ]; Dutch: Luik [lœyk] (listen); German: Lüttich [ˈlʏtɪç]) is the easternmost province Belgium. It lies in the country's Wallonia region.

Liège  (French)

Lüttich  (German)
Luik  (Dutch)
Lîdje  (Walloon)
Province of Belgium
Flag
Coat of arms
Coordinates: 50°38′N 05°34′E
Country Belgium
Region Walloon Region
Capital
(and largest city)
Liège
Government
  GovernorHervé Jamar
Area
  Total3,857 km2 (1,489 sq mi)
Population
 (1 January 2019)[2]
  Total1,106,992
  Density290/km2 (740/sq mi)
HDI (2018)0.886[3]
very high · 9th
WebsiteOfficial site

It borders (clockwise from the north) the Dutch province of Limburg, the German states of North Rhine-Westphalia and Rhineland-Palatinate, Diekirch in Luxembourg, the Belgian Walloon (French-speaking) provinces of Luxembourg, Namur and Walloon Brabant and the Belgian Flemish (Dutch-speaking) provinces of Flemish Brabant and Limburg.

Part of the eastern-most area of the province, bordering Germany, is the German-speaking region of Eupen-Malmedy, which became part of Belgium in the aftermath of World War I.

The capital and the largest city of the province is the city of the same name, Liège. The province has an area of 3,857 km2 (1,489 sq mi), and a population of 1,106,992 as of January 2019.[4]

History

The modern borders of the province of Liège date from 1795, which saw the unification of the Principality of the Prince-Bishopric of Liège with the revolutionary French Department of the Ourthe (sometimes spelled Ourte). (Parts of the old Principality of Liège also went into new French départements Meuse-Inférieure, and Sambre-et-Meuse.)

The province of Ourthe, as it was known then, was under French control during the reign of Napoleon Bonaparte. Napoleon visited the city during one of his campaigns and ordered the destruction of its vineyards in order to prevent the Liège wine industry from competing with its French counterpart.

Following Napoleon's fall from power in 1815, Liège became part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, while eastern half of modern Verviers became part of the Kingdom of Prussia. Liège University scholars helped to write the new Dutch constitution after the Napoleonic Wars. Despite these contributions there was a widespread perception among the people of Liège that they were discriminated against by the Dutch government due to religious and language differences.

In September 1830, rumors spread that Walloons in Brussels were expelling the Dutch. Liège intellectuals responded to these events by contacting Walloon scholars living in Paris to discuss Belgian independence. A militia was formed to press these demands led by Charlier "Wooden Leg" leading (eventually) to the formation of an independent Kingdom of Belgium.

In the 19th Century, the province was an early center of the Industrial Revolution. Its rich coal deposits and steel factories helped Belgium to form the basis of the region's increasing economic power.

During the 20th century, due to Liège's borders with Germany, it saw fierce fighting in both World Wars. In World War I, Liège's strong line of reinforced concrete military forts temporarily halted the German advance through Belgium, giving time to construct trenches in Flanders which subsequently saw some of the worst fighting of that war. In world War II, Liège was the site of major fighting during the Battle of the Bulge. There, the Germans orchestrated their final offensive move against the combined Allied armies. Malmedy and Saint-Vith in particular saw intense battles against the Nazis.

Liège's heavy industry thrived in the 1950s and 1960sbut this has been in steady decline since that time. Liège is the last city of Wallonia that still maintains a functioning steel industry.

Liège continues to be the economic and cultural capital of Wallonia, with its university, medieval heritage and heavy industry.

Politics

2006-2012

Parc du Cinquantenaire, Bruxelles.

Party Seats
Parti socialiste 32
Mouvement réformateur 24
Centre démocrate humaniste 13
Ecolo 11
Christlich Soziale Partei 2
National Front 1
Sozialistische Partei 1

2012-2018

Party Seats
Parti socialiste 20
Mouvement réformateur 17
Centre démocrate humaniste 7
Ecolo 8
Parti du travail de Belgique 2
Christlich Soziale Partei 1
Sozialistische Partei 1

2018-2024[5]

Party Seats
PS-SP 17
Mouvement réformateur 15
Ecolo 12
CDH-CSP 6
Parti du travail de Belgique 6

Economy

The Gross domestic product (GDP) of the province was 31.6 billion € in 2018, accounting for 6.9% of Belgiums economic output. GDP per capita adjusted for purchasing power was 25,200 € or 84% of the EU27 average in the same year. GDP per person employed was 108% of the EU27 average.[6]

Subdivisions

The province has an area of 3,857 square kilometres (1,489 sq mi), which is divided into four administrative districts (arrondissements in French) containing a total of 84 municipalities.

Arrondissements

The Province of Liège is divided into four administrative arrondissements:

Municipalities

Map of the municipalities in Liège
The Coo Waterfalls (municipality of Stavelot)

Municipalities that have city status have a (city) behind their name.

  1. Amay
  2. Amel
  3. Ans
  4. Anthisnes
  5. Aubel
  6. Awans
  7. Aywaille
  8. Baelen
  9. Bassenge
  10. Berloz
  11. Beyne-Heusay
  12. Blegny
  13. Braives
  14. Büllingen
  15. Burdinne
  16. Burg-Reuland
  17. Bütgenbach
  18. Chaudfontaine
  19. Clavier
  20. Comblain-au-Pont
  21. Crisnée
  22. Dalhem
  23. Dison
  24. Donceel
  25. Engis
  26. Esneux
  27. Eupen (city)
  28. Faimes
  29. Ferrières
  30. Fexhe-le-Haut-Clocher
  31. Flémalle
  32. Fléron
  33. Geer
  34. Grâce-Hollogne
  35. Hamoir
  36. Hannut (city)
  37. Héron
  38. Herstal
  39. Herve (city)
  40. Huy (city)
  41. Jalhay
  42. Juprelle
  43. Kelmis
  44. Liège (city)
  45. Lierneux
  46. Limbourg (city)
  47. Lincent
  48. Lontzen
  49. Malmedy (city)
  50. Marchin
  51. Modave
  52. Nandrin
  53. Neupré
  54. Olne
  55. Oreye
  56. Ouffet
  57. Oupeye
  58. Pepinster
  59. Plombières
  60. Raeren
  61. Remicourt
  62. Saint-Georges-sur-Meuse
  63. Saint-Nicolas
  64. Sankt Vith (city)
  65. Seraing (city)
  66. Soumagne
  67. Spa (city)
  68. Sprimont
  69. Stavelot (city)
  70. Stoumont
  71. Theux
  72. Thimister-Clermont
  73. Tinlot
  74. Trois-Ponts
  75. Trooz
  76. Verlaine
  77. Verviers (city)
  78. Villers-le-Bouillet
  79. Visé (city)
  80. Waimes
  81. Wanze
  82. Waremme (city)
  83. Wasseiges
  84. Welkenraedt

Nine municipalities of Liège form the German-speaking Community of Belgium. From north to south they are: Kelmis (43), Lontzen (48), Raeren (60), Eupen (27), Bütgenbach (17), Büllingen (14), Amel (2), Sankt Vith (64), and Burg-Reuland (16) municipalities. Malmedy (49) and Waimes (80) are municipalities with language facilities for German speakers. The other municipalities of Liège are part of the French Community of Belgium.

List of governors

  • 1830–1831: Etienne de Sauvage (Liberal)
  • 1831–1832: Jean-François Tielemans (Liberal)
  • 1832–1844: Charles van den Steen de Jehay
  • 1844–1846: Henri de Brouckère (Liberal)
  • 1846–1847: Edmond de la Coste (Liberal)
  • 1847–1863: Ferdinand de Macar (Liberal)
  • 1863–1882: Charles de Luesemans (Liberal)
  • 1882–1908: Léon Pety de Thozée
  • 1908–1919: Henry Delvaux de Fenffe (Catholic Party)
  • 1919–1927: Gaston Gregoire (Liberal)
  • 1927–1937: Henri Pirard
  • 1937–1943: Jules Mathieu
  • 1944–1953: Joseph Leclercq (PSB)
  • 1953–1971: Pierre Clerdent (PRL)
  • 1972–1990: Gilbert Mottard (PS)
  • 1990–2004: Paul Bolland
  • 2004–2015: Michel Foret (MR)
  • 2015–present Hervé Jamar (MR)

References

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