Kingdom of Bohemia

The Kingdom of Bohemia, sometimes later in English literature referred to as the Czech Kingdom[6][7] (Czech: České království;[8] German: Königreich Böhmen; Latin: Regnum Bohemiae), was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Central Europe, the predecessor of the modern Czech Republic. It was an Imperial State in the Holy Roman Empire, and the Bohemian king was a prince-elector of the empire. The kings of Bohemia, besides the region of Bohemia proper itself, also ruled other lands belonging to the Bohemian Crown, which at various times included Moravia, Silesia, Lusatia, and parts of Saxony, Brandenburg, and Bavaria.

Kingdom of Bohemia

České království (Czech)
Königreich Böhmen (German)
Regnum Bohemiae (Latin)
1198–1918
Top: Medieval Royal banner
Bottom: Late State Flag & Royal Standard
Provincial arms of Bohemia as a possession of Austria-Hungary (1890)[2]
Anthem: officially none, Hospodine, pomiluj ny, Svatováclavský chorál (de facto)
Medieval, royal shield of the King of Bohemia as imperial Elector and Arch-Cupbearer:[3][4]
The Kingdom of Bohemia and the Lands of the Bohemian Crown within the Holy Roman Empire (1618)
Kingdom of Bohemia within Austria-Hungary (1914)
StatusImperial State of the Holy Roman Empire (1198–1806)
Crown land of the Bohemian Crown
(1348–1918)
Imperial elector (1356–1806)
Crown land of the Habsburg Monarchy (1526–1804), of the Austrian Empire (1804–1867), and of the Cisleithanian part of Austria-Hungary (1867–1918)
CapitalPrague
Common languagesCzech, Latin, German
Religion
Roman Catholic (official)
Hussite, later evolved into Bohemian Reformed (Utraquist, Brethren)
Lutheran
Judaistic
Waldensian
Picard/Neo-Adamite
GovernmentFeudal monarchy
King 
 1198–1230
Ottokar I (first)
 1916–1918
Charles III (last)
History 
 Kingdom established
1198
 Hereditary royal title
   confirmed
26 September 1212
 Inauguration of the
   Luxembourg dynasty
7 April 1348
 Became main part of
   Bohemian Crown lands
5 April 1355
 King confirmed Elector
25 December 1356
16 December 1526
 Dissolution of Austro-
   Hungarian Empire

31 October 1918
Population
 1827
3,698,596
CurrencyDenarius[5]
Bracteate
Kreuzer
Groschen
Thaler
Gulden
Krone
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Duchy of Bohemia
Duchy of Wrocław
Duchy of Jawor
Duchy of Brzeg
Egerland
Czechoslovak Republic
Today part of

The kingdom was established by the Přemyslid dynasty in the 12th century from the Duchy of Bohemia, later ruled by the House of Luxembourg, the Jagiellonian dynasty, and from 1526 the House of Habsburg and its successor, the House of Habsburg-Lorraine. Numerous kings of Bohemia were also elected Holy Roman Emperors, and the capital, Prague, was the imperial seat in the late 14th century, and again at the end of the 16th and the beginning of the 17th centuries.

After the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, the territory became part of the Habsburg Austrian Empire, and subsequently the Austro-Hungarian Empire from 1867. Bohemia retained its name and formal status as a separate Kingdom of Bohemia until 1918, known as a crown land within the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and its capital Prague was one of the empire's leading cities. The Czech language (called the Bohemian language in English usage until the 19th century)[9] was the main language of the Diet and the nobility until 1627 (after the Bohemian Revolt was suppressed). German was then formally made equal with Czech and eventually prevailed as the language of the Diet until the Czech National Revival in the 19th century. German was also widely used as the language of administration in many towns after the Germans immigrated and populated some areas of the country in the 13th century. The royal court used the Czech, Latin, and German languages, depending on the ruler and period.

Following the defeat of the Central Powers in World War I, both the Kingdom and Empire were dissolved. Bohemia became the core part of the newly formed Czechoslovak Republic.

History

13th century (growth)

Although some former rulers of Bohemia had enjoyed a non-hereditary royal title during the 11th and 12th centuries (Vratislaus II, Vladislaus II), the kingdom was formally established in 1198 by Přemysl Ottokar I, who had his status acknowledged by Philip of Swabia, elected King of the Romans, in return for his support against the rival Emperor Otto IV. In 1204 Ottokar's royal status was accepted by Otto IV as well as by Pope Innocent III. It was officially recognized in 1212 by the Golden Bull of Sicily issued by Emperor Frederick II, elevating the Duchy of Bohemia to Kingdom status and proclaiming its independence which was also later bolstered by future king of Bohemia and emperor Charles IV. with his golden bull in 1356.

Under these terms, the Czech king was to be exempt from all future obligations to the Holy Roman Empire except for participation in the imperial councils. The imperial prerogative to ratify each Bohemian ruler and to appoint the bishop of Prague was revoked. The king's successor was his son Wenceslaus I, from his second marriage.

Territories ruled by Ottokar II of Bohemia in 1273
The oldest depiction of coat of arms of Bohemia, castle Gozzoburg in Krems

Wenceslaus I's sister Agnes, later canonized, refused to marry the Holy Roman Emperor and instead devoted her life to spiritual works. Corresponding with the Pope, she established the Knights of the Cross with the Red Star in 1233, the first military order in the Kingdom of Bohemia. Four other military orders were present in Bohemia: the Order of St. John of Jerusalem from c. 1160; the Order of Saint Lazarus from the late 12th century; the Teutonic Order from c. 1200–1421; and the Knights Templar from 1232 to 1312.[10]

Wenceslaus II as depicted in the Codex Manesse

The 13th century was the most dynamic period of the Přemyslid reign over Bohemia. German Emperor Frederick II's preoccupation with Mediterranean affairs and the dynastic struggles known as the Great Interregnum (1254–73) weakened imperial authority in Central Europe, thus providing opportunities for Přemyslid assertiveness. At the same time, the Mongol invasions (1220–42) absorbed the attention of Bohemia's eastern neighbors, Hungary and Poland.

Přemysl Ottokar II (1253–78) married a German princess, Margaret of Babenberg, and became duke of Austria. He thereby acquired Upper Austria, Lower Austria, and part of Styria. He conquered the rest of Styria, most of Carinthia, and parts of Carniola. He was called "the king of iron and gold" (iron because of his conquests, gold because of his wealth). He campaigned as far as Prussia, where he defeated the pagan natives and in 1256, founded a city he named Královec in Czech, which later became Königsberg (now Kaliningrad).

In 1260, Ottokar defeated Béla IV, king of Hungary in the Battle of Kressenbrunn near the Morava river, where more than 200,000 men clashed. He ruled an area from Austria to the Adriatic Sea. From 1273, however, Habsburg king Rudolf began to reassert imperial authority, checking Ottokar's power. He also had problems with rebellious nobility in Bohemia. All of Ottokar's German possessions were lost in 1276, and in 1278 he was abandoned by part of the Czech nobility and died in the Battle on the Marchfeld against Rudolf.

Ottokar was succeeded by his son King Wenceslaus II, who was crowned King of Poland in 1300. Wenceslaus II's son Wenceslaus III was crowned King of Hungary a year later. At this time, the Kings of Bohemia ruled from Hungary to the Baltic Sea.

The 13th century was also a period of large-scale German immigration, during the Ostsiedlung, often encouraged by the Přemyslid kings. The Germans populated towns and mining districts on the Bohemian periphery and in some cases formed German colonies in the interior of the Czech lands. Stříbro, Kutná Hora, Německý Brod (present-day Havlíčkův Brod), and Jihlava were important German settlements. The Germans brought their own code of law – the ius teutonicum – which formed the basis of the later commercial law of Bohemia and Moravia. Marriages between Czech nobles and Germans soon became commonplace.

14th century ("Golden Age")

Territory under the control of the Přemyslid dynasty around 1301
Prague groschen issued between 1300 and 1526

The 14th century – particularly the reign of Charles IV (1342–78) – is considered the Golden Age of Czech history. In 1306, the Přemyslid line died out and, after a series of dynastic wars, John, Count of Luxembourg, was elected Bohemian king. He married Elisabeth, the daughter of Wenceslaus II. He was succeeded as king in 1346 by his son, Charles IV, the second king from the House of Luxembourg. Charles was raised at the French court and was cosmopolitan in attitude.

Charles IV strengthened the power and prestige of the Bohemian kingdom. In 1344 he elevated the bishopric of Prague, making it an archbishopric and freeing it from the jurisdiction of Mainz, and the archbishop was given the right to crown Bohemian kings. Charles curbed the Bohemian, Moravian, and Silesian nobility, and rationalized the provincial administration of Bohemia and Moravia. He created the Crown of Bohemia, incorporating Moravia, Silesia and Lusatia.

Prague Castle, the ancient seat of Bohemian dukes and kings, Roman kings and emperors, and after 1918 the office of the Czechoslovak and Czech presidents

In 1355 Charles was crowned Holy Roman Emperor. The next year he issued the Golden Bull of 1356, defining and codifying the process of election to the Imperial throne, with the Bohemian king among the seven electors. Issuance of the Golden Bull together with the ensuing acquisition of the Brandenburg Electorate gave the Luxemburgs two votes in the electoral college. Charles also made Prague into an Imperial capital.

Extensive building projects undertaken by the king included the founding of the New Town southeast of the old city. The royal castle, Hradčany, was rebuilt. Of particular significance was the founding of Charles University in Prague in 1348. Charles intended to make Prague into an international center of learning, and the university was divided into Czech, Polish, Saxon, and Bavarian "nations", each with one controlling vote. Charles University, however, would become the nucleus of intense Czech particularism.

Charles died in 1378, and the Bohemian crown went to his son, Wenceslas IV. He had also been elected King of the Romans in 1376, in the first election since his father's Golden Bull. He was deposed from the Imperial throne in 1400, however, having never been crowned Emperor. His half-brother, Sigismund, was eventually crowned Emperor in Rome in 1433, ruling until 1437, and he was the last male member of the House of Luxemburg.

15th century (Hussite movement)

The Hussite movement (1402–85) was primarily a religious, as well as national, manifestation. As a religious reform movement (the so-called Bohemian Reformation), it represented a challenge to papal authority and an assertion of national autonomy in ecclesiastical affairs. The Hussites defeated four crusades from the Holy Roman Empire, and the movement is viewed by many as a part of the (worldwide) Protestant Reformation. Because many of warriors of the crusades were Germans, although many were also Hungarians and Catholic Czechs, the Hussite movement is seen as a Czech national movement. In modern times it acquired anti-imperial and anti-German associations and has sometimes been identified as a manifestation of a long-term ethnic Czech–German conflict.

Hussitism began during the long reign of Wenceslas IV (1378–1419), a period of papal schism and concomitant anarchy in the Holy Roman Empire. It was precipitated by a controversy at Charles University in Prague. In 1403 Jan Hus became rector of the university. A reformist preacher, Hus espoused the anti-papal and anti-hierarchical teachings of John Wycliffe of England, often referred to as the "Morning Star of the Reformation". Hus' teaching was distinguished by its rejection of what he saw as the wealth, corruption, and hierarchical tendencies of the Roman Catholic Church. He advocated the Wycliffe doctrine of clerical purity and poverty, and insisted on the laity receiving communion under both kinds, bread and wine. (The Roman Catholic Church in practice reserved the cup, or wine, for the clergy.) The more moderate followers of Hus, the Utraquists, took their name from the Latin sub utraque specie, meaning "under each kind". The Taborites, a more radical sect, soon formed, taking their name from the city of Tábor, their stronghold in southern Bohemia. They rejected church doctrine and upheld the Bible as the sole authority in all matters of belief.

Kutná Hora, a medieval silver-mining centre, was once the second most important town of the kingdom.

Soon after Hus assumed office, German professors of theology demanded the condemnation of Wycliffe's writings. Hus protested, receiving the support of the Czech element at the university. Having only one vote in policy decisions against three for the Germans, the Czechs were outvoted, and the orthodox position was maintained. In subsequent years, the Czechs demanded a revision of the university charter, granting more adequate representation to the native Czech faculty. The university controversy was intensified by the vacillating position of the Bohemian king Wenceslas. His favoring of Germans in appointments to councillor and other administrative positions had aroused the nationalist sentiments of the Czech nobility and rallied them to Hus' defense. The German faculties had the support of Zbyněk Zajíc, Archbishop of Prague, and the German clergy. For political reasons, Wenceslas switched his support from the Germans to Hus and allied with the reformers. On 18 January 1409, Wenceslas issued the Decree of Kutná Hora: (as was the case at other major universities in Europe) the Czechs would have three votes; the others, a single vote. In consequence, German faculty and students left Charles University en masse in the thousands, and many ended up founding the University of Leipzig.

Hus' victory was short lived. He preached against the sale of indulgences, which lost him the support of the king, who had received a percentage of such sales. In 1412 Hus and his followers were suspended from the university and expelled from Prague. For two years the reformers served as itinerant preachers throughout Bohemia. In 1414 Hus was summoned to the Council of Constance to defend his views. Imprisoned when he arrived, he was never given a chance to defend his ideas. The council condemned him as a heretic and burned him at the stake in 1415.

Jan Žižka, the leader of the Hussites

Hus's death sparked the Hussite Wars, decades of religious warfare. Sigismund, the pro-papal king of Hungary and successor to the Bohemian throne after the death of Wenceslas in 1419, failed repeatedly to gain control of the kingdom despite aid by Hungarian and German armies. Riots broke out in Prague. Led by a Czech yeoman, Jan Žižka, the Taborites streamed into the capital. Religious strife pervaded the entire kingdom and was particularly intense in the German-dominated towns. Hussite Czechs and Catholic Germans turned on each other; many were massacred, and many German survivors fled or were exiled to the rest of the Holy Roman Empire. Emperor Sigismund led or instigated various crusades against Bohemia with the support of Hungarians and Bohemian Catholics.

The Hussite Wars followed a pattern. When a crusade was launched against Bohemia, moderate and radical Hussites would unite and defeat it. Once the threat was over, the Hussite armies would focus on raiding the land of Catholic sympathizers. Many historians have painted the Hussites as religious fanatics; they fought in part for a nationalist purpose: to protect their land from a King and a Pope who did not recognize the right of the Hussites to exist. Zizka led armies to storm castles, monasteries, churches, and villages, expelling the Catholic clergy, expropriating ecclesiastical lands, or accepting conversions.

During the struggle against Sigismund, Taborite armies penetrated into areas of modern-day Slovakia as well. Czech refugees from the religious wars in Bohemia settled there, and from 1438 to 1453 a Czech noble, John Jiskra of Brandýs, controlled most of southern Slovakia from the centers of Zólyom (today Zvolen) and Kassa (today Košice). Thus Hussite doctrines and the Czech Bible were disseminated among the Slovaks, providing the basis for a future link between the Czechs and their Slovak neighbors.

The Hussite wagon fort

When Sigismund died in 1437, the Bohemian estates elected Albert of Austria as his successor. Albert died and his son, Ladislaus the Posthumous – so called because he was born after his father's death – was acknowledged as king. During Ladislaus' minority, Bohemia was ruled by a regency composed of moderate reform nobles who were Utraquists. Internal dissension among the Czechs provided the primary challenge to the regency. A part of the Czech nobility remained Catholic and loyal to the pope. A Utraquist delegation to the Council of Basel in 1433 had negotiated a seeming reconciliation with the Catholic Church. The Compacts of Basel accepted the basic tenets of Hussitism expressed in the Four Articles of Prague: communion under both kinds; free preaching of the Gospels; expropriation of church land; and exposure and punishment of public sinners. The pope, however, rejected the compact, thus preventing the reconciliation of Czech Catholics with the Utraquists.

George of Poděbrady, later to become the "national" king of Bohemia, emerged as leader of the Utraquist regency. George installed another Utraquist, John of Rokycan, as archbishop of Prague and succeeded in uniting the more radical Taborites with the Czech Reformed Church. The Catholic party was driven out of Prague. After Ladislaus died of leukemia in 1457, the following year the Bohemian estates elected George of Poděbrady as king. Although George was noble-born, he was not a successor of royal dynasty; his election to the monarchy was not recognised by the Pope, or any other European monarchs.

George sought to establish a "Charter of a Universal Peace Union." He believed that all monarchs should work for a sustainable peace on the principle of national sovereignty of states, principles of non-interference, and solving problems and disputes before an International Tribunal. Also, Europe should unite to fight the Turks. States would have one vote each, with a leading role for France. George did not see a specific role for Papal authority.

Czech Catholic nobles joined in the League of Zelena Hora in 1465, challenging the authority of George of Poděbrady; the next year, Pope Paul II excommunicated George. The Bohemian War (1468-1478) pitted Bohemia against Matthias Corvinus and Frederick III of Habsburg, and the Hungarian forces occupied most of Moravia. George of Poděbrady died in 1471.

After 1471: Jagiellonian and Habsburg rule

The Bohemian Diet in 1564
Coat of arms of the Austrian province of Bohemia by Hugo Gerard Ströhl

Upon the death of the Hussite king, the Bohemian estates elected a Polish prince Ladislaus Jagiellon as king, who negotiated the Peace of Olomouc in 1479. In 1490 he also became king of Hungary, and the Polish Jagellonian line ruled both Bohemia and Hungary. The Jagellonians governed Bohemia as absentee monarchs; their influence in the kingdom was minimal, and effective government fell to the regional nobility. Czech Catholics accepted the Compact of Basel in 1485 and were reconciled with the Utraquists. The Bohemian estrangement from the Empire continued after Vladislav had succeeded Matthias Corvinus of Hungary in 1490 and both the Bohemian and the Hungarian kingdom were held in personal union. Not considered an Imperial State, the Lands of the Bohemian Crown were not part of the Imperial Circles established by the 1500 Imperial Reform.

In 1526 Vladislav's son, King Louis, was decisively defeated by the Ottoman Turks at the Battle of Mohács and subsequently died. As a result, the Turks conquered part of the Kingdom of Hungary, and the rest (mainly present-day Slovakia territory) came under Habsburg rule under the terms of King Louis' marriage contract. The Bohemian estates elected Austrian Archduke Ferdinand, younger brother of Emperor Charles V, to succeed Louis as king of Bohemia. Thus began almost four centuries of Habsburg rule for both Bohemia and Hungary.

The incorporation of Bohemia into the Habsburg Monarchy against the resistance of the local Protestant nobility sparked the 1618 Defenestration of Prague and the Thirty Years' War. Their defeat at the Battle of White Mountain in 1620 put an end to the Bohemian autonomy movement.

Defeat and dissolution

Ströhl's unofficial artwork of the Coat of arms of the kingdom (with the Crown of Saint Wenceslas, Bohemian Crown Jewels part)

In 1740 the Prussian Army conquered Bohemian Silesia in the Silesian Wars and forced Maria Theresa in 1742 to cede the majority of Silesia, except the southernmost area with the duchies of Cieszyn, Krnov and Opava, to Prussia. In 1756 Prussian King Frederick II faced an enemy coalition led by Austria, when Maria Theresa was preparing for war with Prussia to reclaim Silesia. The Prussian army conquered Saxony and in 1757 invaded Bohemia. In the Battle of Prague (1757) they defeated the Habsburgs and subsequently occupied Prague. More than one quarter of Prague was destroyed and the St. Vitus Cathedral suffered heavy damage. In the Battle of Kolín, however, Frederick lost and had to vacate Prague and retreat from Bohemia.

With the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, the Bohemian kingdom was incorporated into the now two years old Austrian Empire and the royal title retained alongside the title of Austrian Emperor. In the course of the 1867 Austro-Hungarian Compromise the provinces of Bohemia, Moravia and Austrian Silesia became k. k. crown lands of Cisleithania. The Bohemian Kingdom officially ceased to exist in 1918 by transformation into the Czechoslovak Republic.

The current Czech Republic consisting of Bohemia, Moravia and Czech Silesia still uses most of the symbols of the Kingdom of Bohemia: a two-tailed lion in its coat-of-arms, red-white stripes in the state flag and the royal castle as the president's office.

Economy

Railway network of Bohemia in 1883

Bohemia was among the first countries in Europe to become industrialized. Mining of tin and silver began in Ore mountains in early 12th century.

Lands of the Bohemian Crown

Lands of the Bohemian Crown in 1618

Bohemia proper (Čechy) with the County of Kladsko (Hrabství kladské) was the main area of the Kingdom of Bohemia. The Egerland (Chebsko) was ultimately obtained by King Wenceslaus II between 1291 and 1305; given in pawn to Bohemia by King Louis IV of Germany in 1322 and subsequently joined in personal union with Bohemia proper. In 1348 Charles IV created the Crown of Bohemia (Koruna česká), together with the incorporated provinces:

  • the Margraviate of Moravia (Markrabství moravské), acquired by Přemyslid and Slavník Bohemian rulers after the 955 Battle of Lechfeld, lost in 999 to Poland and reconquered by Duke Bretislaus I in 1019/1029 (uncertain dating);
  • Upper Lusatia (Horní Lužice), incorporated by Charles' father King John of Bohemia in 1319 (Bautzen Land) and 1329 (Görlitz), and Lower Lusatia (Dolní Lužice, former March of Lusatia), acquired by Charles IV from the Wittelsbach duke Otto V of Bavaria in 1367. The Habsburg emperor Ferdinand II ceded the Lusatias to the Electorate of Saxony by the 1635 Peace of Prague;
  • the Duchies of Silesia (Slezsko), acquired by the 1335 Treaty of Trentschin between King John of Bohemia and King Casimir III of Poland. Queen Maria Theresa lost Silesia in 1742 to the Prussian king Frederick the Great by the Treaty of Breslau, with the exception of Austrian Silesia.
  • the northern part of the Upper Palatinate ("Bohemian Palatinate") at Sulzbach, incorporated into the Bohemian crown by Charles IV in 1355. Charles exchanged parts of this territory for Brandenburg in 1373, while his son Wenceslaus lost the rest in 1400 to the Electorate of the Palatinate under King Rupert of Germany;
  • the Brandenburg Electorate, acquired in 1373 by Charles IV from the Wittelsbach duke Otto V of Bavaria. Charles' son Emperor Sigismund granted Brandenburg to Frederick I of Hohenzollern in 1415.[11]

at times were incorporated into the Kingdom of Bohemia these provinces:

  • the Duchy of Austria in 1251, the Duchy of Styria in 1261, the Egerland in 1266, the Duchy of Carinthia with the March of Carniola and the Windic March in 1269, and the March of Friuli in 1272, all acquired by the Přemyslid king Ottokar II of Bohemia but lost to Rudolph of Habsburg in the 1278 Battle on the Marchfeld;

The modern Czech Republic is the legal successor of the Crown of Bohemia, as stated in the preamble to its Constitution.

Administrative division

Kraje/Kreise of Bohemia (pre-1833)
Administrative divisions of Bohemia in 1712

Prior to 1833, Bohemia was divided into seven to sixteen district units. These included the following in different time periods:

  • Bechyně (German: Beching)
  • Boleslav (German: Jung-Bunzlau)
  • Čáslav (German: Tschaslau)
  • Chrudim
  • Hradec Králové (German: Königgrätz)
  • Kladsko (German: Glatz); lost to Prussia following the First Silesian War (1740–42)
  • Kouřim at Prague (German: Prag)
  • Litoměřice (German: Leitmeritz)
  • Loket (German: Elbogen)
  • Vltava (German: Moldau)
  • Plzeň (German: Pilsen)
  • Podbrdsko at Beroun (German: Beraun)
  • Prácheňsko at Písek (German: Prachens)
  • Rakovník (German: Rakonitz)
  • Slaný (German: Schlan)
  • Žatec (German: Saaz)
Kraje/Kreise 1833–1849
Administrative divisions of Bohemia in 1847

According to Johann Gottfried Sommer Bohemia was divided into 16 district units between 1833 and 1849:

  • Beroun (German: Berauner Kreis)
  • Nový Bydžov (German: Bidschower Kreis)
  • České Budějovice (German: Budweiser Kreis)
  • Mladá Boleslav (German: Bunzlauer Kreis)
  • Čáslav (German: Caslaver Kreis)
  • Chrudim (German: Chrudimer Kreis)
  • Loket (German: Elbogener Kreis)
  • Kouřim (German: Kaurimer Kreis)
  • Klatovy (German: Klattauer Kreis)
  • Hradec Králové (German: Königgrätzer Kreis)
  • Litoměřice (German: Leitmeritzer Kreis)
  • Plzeň (German: Pilsener Kreis)
  • Prácheň (German: Prachiner Kreis); capital Písek; named after Prácheň castle
  • Rakovník, Slaný (German: Rakonitzer Kreis)
  • Žatec (German: Saazer Kreis)
  • Tábor (German: Taborer Kreis)
Okres/Bezirke 1850–1918
Administrative divisions of Bohemia in 1893

After 1850, Bohemia's district units were sub-divided into 104 districts (German: Bezirk, pl. Bezirke; Czech: Okres).

  • Asch (Czech: )
  • Aussig (Czech: Ústí nad Labem)
  • Beneschau (Czech: Benešov)
  • Bischofteinitz (Czech: Horušův Týn)
  • Blatna (Czech: Blatná)
  • Böhmisch Brod (Czech: Český Brod)
  • Böhmisch Leipa (Czech: Česká Lípa)
  • Brandeis an der Elbe (after 1908; Czech: Brandýs nad Labem)
  • Braunau (Czech: Broumov)
  • Brüx (Czech: Most)
  • Budweis (Czech: Budějovice)
  • Časlau (Czech: Čáslav)
  • Chotěboř
  • Chrudim
  • Dauba (Czech: Dubá)
  • Deutsch Gabel (Czech: Německé Jablonné)
  • Deutschbrod (Czech: Německý Brod)
  • Dux (after 1896; Czech: Duchcov)
  • Eger (Czech: Cheb)
  • Elbogen (from 1913; Czech: Loket)
  • Falkenau (Czech: Falknov)
  • Friedland (Czech: Frýdlant)
  • Gablonz an der Neiße (Czech: Jablonec nad Nisou)
  • Graslitz (Czech: Kraslice)
  • Hohenelbe (Czech: Vrchlabí)
  • Hohenmauth (Czech: Vysoké Mýto)
  • Hořowitz (Czech: Hořovice)
  • Humpoletz (from 1910; Czech: Humpolec)
  • Jičin (Czech: Jičín)
  • Jungbunzlau (Czech: Mláda Boleslav)
  • Kaaden (Czech: Kadaň)
  • Kamenitz an der Linde (from 1905; Czech: Kamenice nad Lipou)
  • Kaplitz (Czech: Kaplice)
  • Karlsbad (Czech: Karlovy Vary)
  • Karolinenthal (Czech: Karlín)
  • Kladno (from 1893)
  • Klattau (Czech: Klatovy)
  • Kolin (Czech: Kolín)
  • Komotau (Czech: Chomutov)
  • Königgrätz (Czech: Hradec Králové)
  • Königinhof an der Elbe (Czech: Dvůr Králové nad Labem)
  • Königliche Weinberge (from 1884; Czech: Královské Vinohrady)
  • Kralowitz (Czech: Kralovice)
  • Kralup an der Moldau (Czech: Kralupy nad Vltavou)
  • Krumau (Czech: Krumlov)
  • Kuttenberg (Czech: Kutná Hora)
  • Landskron (Czech: Lanškroun)
  • Laun (Czech: Louny)
  • Ledeč
  • Leitmeritz (Czech: Litoměřice)
  • Leitomischl (Czech: Litomyšl)
  • Luditz (Czech: Žlutice)
  • Marienbad (from 1902; Czech: Mariánské Lázně)
  • Melnik (Czech: Mělník)
  • Mies (Czech: Stříbro)
  • Moldauthein (Czech: Týn nad Vltavou)
  • Mühlhausen (Czech: Milevsko)
  • Münchengrätz (Czech: Mnichovo Hradiště)
  • Nachod (before 1899 part of the Neustadt an der Mettau district; Czech: Náchod)
  • Neubydžow (Czech: Nový Bydžov)
  • Neudek (from 1910; Czech: Neydek)
  • Neuhaus (Czech: Jindřichův Hradec)
  • Neupaka (from 1903; Czech: Nová Paka)
  • Neustadt an der Mettau (Czech: Nové Město nad Metují)
  • Pardubitz (Czech: Pardubice)
  • Pilgram (Czech: Pelhřimov)
  • Pilsen (Czech: Plzeň)
  • Pisek (Czech: Písek)
  • Plan (Czech: Planá)
  • Poděbrad (Czech: Poděbrady)
  • Podersam (Czech: Podbořany)
  • Polička
  • Polna (dissolved in 1884; Czech: Polná)
  • Prachatitz (Czech: Prachatice)
  • Prague (statutory city; German: Prag; Czech: Praha)
  • Preßnitz (from 1902; Czech: Přísečnice)
  • Přestitz (Czech: Přeštice)
  • Příbram (Czech: Příbram)
  • Rakonitz (Czech: Rakovník)
  • Raudnitz (Czech: Roudnice nad Labem)
  • Reichenau an der Kněžna (Czech: Rychnov nad Kněžnou)
  • Reichenberg (statutory city and seat of the Bezirkshauptmannschaft ; Czech: Liberec)
  • Rokitzan (from 1896; Czech: Rokycany)
  • Rumburg (Czech: Rumburk)
  • Saaz (Czech: Žatec)
  • Joachimsthal (Czech: Jáchymov)
  • Schlan (Czech: Slaný)
  • Schluckenau (Czech: Šluknov)
  • Schüttenhofen (Czech: Sušice)
  • Selčan (Czech: Sedlčany)
  • Semil (Czech: Semily)
  • Senftenberg (Czech: Žamberk)
  • Smichow (Czech: Smíchov; district seat: Prague)
  • Starkenbach (Czech: Jilemnice)
  • Strakonitz (Czech: Strakonice)
  • Tabor (Czech: Tábor)
  • Tachau (Czech: Tachov)
  • Taus (Czech: Domažlice)
  • Tepl (Czech: Teplá)
  • Teplitz-Schönau (Czech: Teplice-Šanov)
  • Tetschen (Czech: Děčín)
  • Trautenau (Czech: Trutnov)
  • Turnau (Czech: Turnov)
  • Warnsdorf (from 1908; Czech: Varnsdorf)
  • Wittingau (Czech: Třeboň)
  • Žižkov (from 1898)

Demographics

1910 census

Population by religion
Religion Number %
Roman Catholics 6,475,835 95.66
Lutherans 98,379 1.45
Jewish 85,826 1.26
Calvinists 78,562 1.16
Old Catholics 14,631 0.21
Greek Catholics 1,691 0.02
Moravian Church 891 0.01
Greek orthodox 824 0.01
Anglicans 173 0.00
Unitarians 20 0.00
Muslims 14 0.00
Armenian Catholics 10 0.00
Lipovans 9 0.00
Armenian Orthodox 8 0.00
Mennonites 4 0.00
Others 1,467 0.02
Nonbelievers 11,204 0.16
Total 6,769,548 100.00
Population by language
Language Number %
Czech (together with Slovak) 4,241,918 62.66
German 2,467,724 36.45
Polish 1,541 0.02
Ruthenian 1,062 0.01
Slovenian 292 0.00
Croatian (together with Serbian) 190 0.00
Italian (together with Ladin) 136 0.00
Hungarian 48 0.00
Romanian 33 0.00
Others (mostly Romani) 56,604 0.83
Total 6,769,548 100.00

Language distribution by district (1910)

District (Bezirk) Czech name Area (km²) Population German % Czech % Other %
Asch 141.83 44,896 41,265 91.9% 5 0.0% 3,626 8.1%
Aussig Ústí nad Labem 355.78 117,834 108,512 92.1% 6,392 5.4% 2,930 2.5%
Beneschau Benešov 883.60 68,657 127 0.2% 68,394 99.6% 136 0.2%
Bischofteinitz Horušův Týn 628.96 49,342 38,024 77.1% 11,154 22.6% 164 0.3%
Blatna Blatná 680.72 47,563 12 0.0% 47,523 99.9% 28 0.1%
Böhmisch Brod Český Brod 470.87 48,038 59 0.1% 47,915 99.7% 64 0.1%
Böhmisch Leipa Česká Lípa 640.60 73,493 70,507 95.9% 2,180 3.0% 806 1.1%
Brandeis an der Elbe (since 1908) Brandýs nad Labem 303.67 41,928 409 1.0% 41,385 98.7% 13 0.0%
Braunau Broumov 407.78 56,642 42,224 74.5% 13,583 24.0% 835 1.5%
Brüx Most 336.60 101,759 75,342 74.0% 25,056 24.6% 1,361 1.3%
Karlsbad Karlovy Vary 242.12 78,762 77,107 97.9% 210 0.3% 1,445 1.8%
Časlau Čáslav 603.26 64,224 237 0.4% 63,876 99.5% 111 0.2%
Budweis Budějovice 1,015.27 120,659 24,929 20.7% 95,317 79.0% 413 0.3%
Chotěboř Chotěboř 539.07 46,790 284 0.6% 46,427 99.2% 79 0.2%
Chrudim Chrudim 398.94 41,660 30 0.1% 41,580 99.8% 50 0.1%
Dauba Dubá 430.43 25,392 24,379 96.0% 931 3.7% 82 0.3%
Deutschbrod Německý Brod 589.83 50,395 11,506 22.8% 38,809 77.0% 80 0.2%
Dux (since 1896) Duchcov 369.85 84,388 61,572 73.0% 21,420 25.4% 1,396 1.7%
Eger Cheb 455.34 69,062 64,030 92.7% 161 0.2% 4,871 7.1%
Elbogen (since 1913) Loket 207.62 41,758 40,385 96.7% 457 1.1% 916 2.2%
Falkenau Falknov 291.59 54,237 52,626 97.0% 904 1.7% 707 1.3%
Friedland Frýdlant 401.06 50,680 48,665 96.0% 335 0.7% 1,680 3.3%
Gablonz an der Neisse Jablonec nad Nisou 210.11 98,991 90,939 91.9% 6,568 6.6% 1,484 1.5%
Deutsch Gabel Německé Jablonné 261.07 31,503 30,927 98.2% 322 1.0% 254 0.8%
Graslitz Kraslice 171.66 39,216 38,649 98.6% 1 0.0% 566 1.4%
Hohenelbe Vrchlabí 359.65 45,550 43,275 95.0% 1,555 3.4% 720 1.6%
Hohenmauth Vysoké Mýto 553.25 68,241 705 1.0% 67,407 98.8% 129 0.2%
Hořowitz Hořovice 581.83 74,915 1,041 1.4% 73,690 98.4% 184 0.2%
Humpoletz (since 1910) Humpolec 312.24 27,607 16 0.1% 27,564 99.8% 27 0.1%
Jičin Jičín 620.96 69,166 545 0.8% 68,476 99.0% 145 0.2%
Joachimsthal Jáchymov 202.09 18,662 18,408 98.6% 9 0.0% 245 1.3%
Jungbunzlau Mláda Boleslav 568.34 76,989 1,258 1.6% 75,372 97.9% 359 0.5%
Kaaden Kadaň 466.50 42,598 42,100 98.8% 264 0.6% 234 0.5%
Kamenitz an der Linde (since 1905) Kamenice nad Lipou 453.20 36,171 8 0.0% 36,113 99.8% 50 0.1%
Kaplitz Kaplice 905.77 53,796 50,840 94.5% 2,848 5.3% 108 0.2%
Karolinenthal Karlín 207.64 69,184 3,538 5.1% 65,169 94.2% 477 0.7%
Kladno (since 1893) Kladno 286.34 80,785 1,412 1.7% 79,172 98.0% 201 0.2%
Klattau Klatovy 871.74 78,383 17,211 22.0% 60,923 77.7% 249 0.3%
Kolin Kolín 489.25 73,311 45 0.1% 73,119 99.7% 147 0.2%
Komotau Chomutov 504.00 74,774 71,537 95.7% 2,058 2.8% 1,179 1.6%
Königgrätz Hradec Králové 459.53 74,125 721 1.0% 73,131 98.7% 273 0.4%
Königinhof an der Elbe Dvůr Králové nad Labem 375.86 69,791 18,017 25.8% 51,260 73.4% 514 0.7%
Königliche Weinberge (since 1884) Královské Vinohrady 344.93 182,381 8,565 4.7% 172,305 94.5% 1,511 0.8%
Kralowitz Kralovice 657.84 35,242 6,178 17.5% 29,015 82.3% 49 0.1%
Kralup an der Moldau Kralupy nad Vltavou 216.86 32,217 24 0.1% 32,070 99.5% 123 0.4%
Krumau Krumlov 759.24 61,068 45,161 74.0% 15,729 25.8% 178 0.3%
Kuttenberg Kutna Hora 550.84 64,037 205 0.3% 63,709 99.5% 123 0.2%
Landskron Lanškroun 472.22 68,709 26,830 39.0% 41,721 60.7% 158 0.2%
Laun Louny 358.08 44,699 311 0.7% 44,304 99.1% 84 0.2%
Ledeč Ledeč 651.72 49,839 16 0.0% 49,790 99.9% 33 0.1%
Leitmeritz Litoměřice 628.10 90,740 71,439 78.7% 18,397 20.3% 904 1.0%
Leitomischl Litomyšl 491.86 50,775 14,699 28.9% 36,014 70.9% 62 0.1%
Luditz Žlutice 498.24 28,906 28,232 97.7% 562 1.9% 112 0.4%
Marienbad (since 1902) Marianske Lazne 322.25 31,993 31,656 98.9% 14 0.0% 323 1.0%
Melnik Melnik 413.39 43,137 72 0.2% 42,892 99.4% 173 0.4%
Mies Stříbro 877.91 73,109 59,864 81.9% 12,938 17.7% 307 0.4%
Moldauthein Týn nad Vltavou 254.65 17,008 6 0.0% 16,990 99.9% 12 0.1%
Mühlhausen Milevsko 608.86 37,694 52 0.1% 37,627 99.8% 15 0.0%
Münchengrätz Mnichovo Hradiště 438.86 39,021 2,620 6.7% 36,250 92.9% 151 0.4%
Nachod (since 1899) Náchod 233.32 59,330 320 0.5% 58,685 98.9% 325 0.5%
Neubydžow Nový Bydžov 491.16 57,905 103 0.2% 57,733 99.7% 69 0.1%
Neudek (since 1910) Neydek 242.34 36,314 35,898 98.9% 5 0.0% 411 1.1%
Neuhaus Jindřichův Hradec 711.23 52,409 22,293 42.5% 30,017 57.3% 99 0.2%
Neupaka (since 1903) Nová Paka 221.64 64,628 2,661 4.1% 61,860 95.7% 107 0.2%
Neustadt an der Mettau Nové Město nad Metují 445.13 49,634 5,644 11.4% 43,747 88.1% 243 0.5%
Pardubitz Pardubice 785.86 102,055 751 0.7% 100,996 99.0% 308 0.3%
Pilgram Pelhřimov 729.50 52,347 32 0.1% 52,253 99.8% 62 0.1%
Pilsen Plzeň 659.71 156,069 11,763 7.5% 143,591 92.0% 715 0.5%
Pisek Písek 973.62 79,096 289 0.4% 78,644 99.4% 163 0.2%
Plan Planá 561.25 34,285 34,092 99.4% 73 0.2% 120 0.4%
Poděbrad Poděbrady 693.79 82,610 167 0.2% 82,299 99.6% 144 0.2%
Podersam Podbořany 579.17 43,787 42,280 96.6% 1,350 3.1% 157 0.4%
Politcka Polička 320.42 34,727 9,904 28.5% 24,788 71.4% 35 0.1%
Prachatitz Prachatice 1,094.39 74,058 36,127 48.8% 37,740 51.0% 191 0.3%
Prag Praha 105.10 223,741 18,853 8.4% 202,067 90.3% 2,921 1.3%
Preßnitz (since 1902) Přísečnice 56.51 17,501 16,878 96.4% 45 0.3% 578 3.3%
Přestitz Přeštice 517.65 45,298 134 0.3% 45,101 99.6% 63 0.1%
Příbram Příbram 707.63 67,392 114 0.2% 67,193 99.7% 85 0.1%
Rakonitz Rakovník 646.44 51,551 845 1.6% 50,642 98.2% 64 0.1%
Raudnitz Roudnice nad Labem 459.29 53,629 165 0.3% 53,311 99.4% 153 0.3%
Reichenau an der Kněžna Rychnov nad Kněžnou 412.89 53,056 138 0.3% 52,802 99.5% 116 0.2%
Reichenberg Liberec 320.24 130,012 118,232 90.9% 8,485 6.5% 3,295 2.5%
Rokitzan (since 1896) Rokycany 711.00 59,659 347 0.6% 59,106 99.1% 206 0.3%
Rumburg Rumburk 84.81 29,817 29,220 98.0% 71 0.2% 526 1.8%
Saaz Žatec 403.25 49,452 46,089 93.2% 2,953 6.0% 410 0.8%
Schlan Slaný 549.41 86,720 148 0.2% 86,407 99.6% 165 0.2%
Schluckenau Šluknov 190.84 57,590 55,656 96.6% 92 0.2% 1,842 3.2%
Schüttenhofen Sušice 817.05 53,295 21,379 40.1% 31,760 59.6% 156 0.3%
Selčan Sedlčany 744.93 54,051 34 0.1% 53,963 99.8% 54 0.1%
Semil Semily 313.61 63,046 677 1.1% 62,259 98.8% 110 0.2%
Senftenberg Žamberk 600.04 58,710 27,726 47.2% 30,581 52.1% 403 0.7%
Smichow Smíchov 489.22 167,830 5,310 3.2% 161,403 96.2% 1,117 0.7%
Starkenbach Jilemnice 338.14 49,204 10,848 22.0% 38,243 77.7% 113 0.2%
Strakonitz Strakonice 863.29 73,903 69 0.1% 73,737 99.8% 97 0.1%
Tabor Tábor 978.55 79,540 36 0.0% 79,405 99.8% 99 0.1%
Tachau Tachov 621.80 43,441 43,152 99.3% 26 0.1% 263 0.6%
Taus Domažlice 492.16 48,680 8,515 17.5% 39,946 82.1% 219 0.4%
Tepl Teplá 388.51 26,559 26,478 99.7% 9 0.0% 72 0.3%
Teplitz-Schönau Teplice-Šanov 197.30 102,888 86,679 84.2% 12,851 12.5% 3,358 3.3%
Tetschen Děčín 602.83 120,400 115,413 95.9% 1,490 1.2% 3,497 2.9%
Trautenau Trutnov 516.23 85,514 65,694 76.8% 18,968 22.2% 852 1.0%
Turnau Turnov 330.73 48,186 2,571 5.3% 45,479 94.4% 136 0.3%
Warnsdorf (since 1908) Varnsdorf 79.38 39,339 37,619 95.6% 599 1.5% 1,121 2.8%
Wittingau Třeboň 800.78 48,825 1,375 2.8% 47,383 97.0% 67 0.1%
Žižkov (since 1898) Žižkov 237.99 102,514 1,633 1.6% 100,333 97.9% 548 0.5%

See also

  • List of Bohemian monarchs
  • Crown of Saint Wenceslas
  • History of the Czech lands
  • Kingdom Come: Deliverance

Notes

  1. From the Roll of Arms of Austria-Hungary in Ströhl's Wappenrolle Österreich-Ungarns (1890), Tafel III. Ungarn, Böhmen, Dalmatien, Kroatien.
    Hugo Gerhard Ströhl: Wappenrolle Österreich-Ungarns. Erste Auflage, Wien 1890, S. VIII.
  2. From the Roll of Arms of Austria-Hungary in Ströhl's Wappenrolle Österreich-Ungarns (1890), Tafel III. Ungarn, Böhmen, Dalmatien, Kroatien.
    Hugo Gerhard Ströhl: Wappenrolle Österreich-Ungarns. Erste Auflage, Wien 1890, S. VIII.
  3. Page from an armorial showing the arms of Emperor Frederick III, ca 1415-1493.
  4. Page from an armorial showing arms of Kaiser Maximilian I ca 1508-1519
  5. Czech denarius. National Library of the Czech Republic.
  6. Bradshaw, George (1867). Bradshaw's illustrated hand-book to Germany. London. p. 223. Retrieved 12 July 2014.
  7. Chotěbor, Petr (2005). Prague Castle : Detailed Guide (2nd complemente ed.). Prague: Prague Castle Administration. pp. 19, 27. ISBN 80-86161-61-7.
  8. In the Czech language "Bohemian" and "Czech" have the same meaning (České).
  9. Šitler, Jiří (12 July 2016). "From Bohemia to Czechia". Radio Prague. Retrieved 27 June 2019.
  10. Rytířské řády a Čechy
  11. Agnew, Hugh (2004). The Czechs and the lands of the Bohemian crown. Hoover Institution Press. p. 33. ISBN 0817944931.

References

  • Pánek, Jaroslav; Tůma Oldřich; et al. (2009). A History of the Czech lands. Prague: Karolinum Press. ISBN 978-80-246-1645-2.
  • Bobková, Lenka (2006). 7. 4. 1348 – Ustavení Koruny království českého: český stát Karla IV [Founding of the Crown of Bohemian Kingdom: Czech State of Charles IV] (in Czech). Praha: Havran. ISBN 80-86515-61-3.
  • Agnew, Hugh LeCaine (2004). The Czechs and the Lands of the Bohemian Crown. Stanford: Hoover Institution Press. ISBN 0-8179-4492-3.

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