Japanese curry

Japanese curry (カレー, karē) is commonly served in three main forms: curry rice (カレーライス, karē raisu, curry over rice), curry udon (curry over noodles), and curry bread (a curry-filled pastry). It is one of the most popular dishes in Japan.[1] The very common "curry rice" is most often referred to simply as "curry" (カレー, karē).

Japanese curry
A plate of Japanese style curry with rice
TypeCurry
Place of originJapan
Main ingredientsVegetables (onions, carrots, potatoes), meat (beef, pork, chicken)
VariationsKarē raisu, karē udon, karē-pan

Along with the sauce, a wide variety of vegetables and meats are used to make Japanese curry. The basic vegetables are onions, carrots, and potatoes. Beef, pork, and chicken are the most popular meat choices. Katsu-karē is a breaded deep-fried cutlet (tonkatsu; usually pork or chicken) with Japanese curry sauce.[2]

Overview

Curry originates in Indian cuisine and was brought to Japan from India by the British. The Imperial Japanese Navy adopted curry to prevent beriberi, and now the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force's Friday menu is curry.[3] The dish became popular and available for purchase at supermarkets and restaurants in the late 1960s. Since the introduction of curry, it was reinvented to suit Japanese tastes and ingredients.[4] Japanese curry has little resemblance to curried dishes from other regions.[1] It was changed and adapted so much that it stands on its own as uniquely Japanese.[4] It is so widely consumed that it can be called a national dish.[1]

History

Curry was introduced to Japan during the Meiji era (1868–1912).[4] At the time the Indian subcontinent was under British colonial rule.[4] Anglo-Indian officers of the Royal Navy brought the spice mix called curry powder to Japan.[4] It was classified as yōshoku (western food) since it came from the west.[4] The word curry was probably adopted into the Japanese language as karē in the late 1860s, when Japan was forced to abandon its isolation (sakoku) and came into contact with the British Empire.[5] By the 1870s, curry began to be served in Japan, and became a staple within the Japanese diet.[6]

Karē is commonly eaten as a rice dish in Japan, karē raisu (curry rice). The oldest mention of a dish called raisu karē (literally 'rice curry') - but in the misspelling taisu karē - on Japanese soil is in Japanese cookbooks of 1872.[4] It was also described in a 1872 report, according to which foreign experts ate this at the Tokyo branch of the Hokkaidō prefectural government. However, the word was popularized by US - Professor William S. Clark who was employed at the Sapporo Agricultural College (now University of Hokkaido) in 1877.[7][8] For 1873, there was a dish called Kare raisu (curry rice) on the menu of the Imperial Japanese Army Military Academy.[5] Since its introduction it was reinvented with ingredients from Japanese cuisine to make it suitable for Japanese tastes.[4]

It was not until the early twentieth century, when curry was adopted by the Japanese Navy and Army, that the dish began to become popular with the Japanese.[9] After its favorable reception within the Japanese Army and Navy, it later became common in school cafeterias.[10] By 2000, curry was a more frequent meal than sushi or tempura.[10] The fame of the dish in Japan is mainly due to the Imperial Japanese Navy, which was modelled after the Royal Navy, whose sailors ate a meat stew with curry seasoning and bread as a side dish for their voyages, which was also provided by the Japanese Navy. This was called the Kaigun Kare ("Navy curry") of beef or chicken meat, potatoes, onions, carrots, rice and curry roux and a chutney of pickled vegetables (tsukemono) as described in the 1888 Cookbook Kaigun Kappōjitsu (海軍 割烹術, "marine cooking techniques"). The Maritime Self-Defense Force took over this tradition after the war and serves it every Friday with a salad,[11][12] [13] with each ship having its own variant.[14]

In the civil sector, curry was particularly popular at the beginning of the Meiji period (1868–1912), as it first had to be imported, and was still an exclusive dish that could only be eaten in expensive restaurants specializing in Western cuisine. In the Taishō period (1912–1926), the dish became affordable for the general population, especially towards the end, with the introduction of domestically produced curry mixes.[15]

Today, karē is one of the most popular daily dishes among the Japanese. In 2013, production totaled 7,570 t of curry powder and 91,105 t of ready-made sauces, and sales in 2008 amounted to 7 billion yen for curry powder and 86 billion yen for ready-made sauces.[16]

Curry similar to that served in the Indian subcontinent is known as Nakamuraya curry. It was introduced to Japan by Rash Behari Bose (1886-1945) when he began to sell curry at Nakamura Bakery in Tokyo.[17]

Sauce mixes

Curry sauce (カレーソース, karē sōsu) is served on top of cooked rice to make curry rice.[18] Curry sauce is made by frying together curry powder, flour, and oil, along with other ingredients, to make roux; the roux is then added to stewed meat and vegetables, and then simmered until thickened.[19] Pressure cooking can be used as well.[18] Adding potatoes to curry sauce was introduced by William S. Clark of the Sapporo Agricultural College, due to rice shortages at the time.[20]

In Japanese homes, curry sauce is most commonly made from instant curry roux, which is available in block and powder forms, and contains curry powder, flour, oils and various flavorings. Ease of preparation, and the wide variety and availability of instant curry mixes, has made curry rice very popular, as it is very easy to make compared to many other Japanese dishes. Pre-made curry is available in vacuum-sealed bags that can be reheated in boiling water. For those who still make their curry roux from scratch, there are also curry powders specially formulated to create the "Japanese curry" taste.[21]

Instant curry roux was first sold in powder form by House Foods in 1926, and in block form by S&B Foods in 1956. In 2007, Japanese domestic shipments of instant curry roux was 82.7 billion yen.[22] Market share for household use in 2007 was captured almost entirely by House Foods (59.0%), S&B Foods (25.8%) and Ezaki Glico (9.4%).[23][24] Curry is marketed to children utilizing characters from video games and anime.[25]

Vacuum-sealed curry sauce, prepared by heating the retort pouch in hot water or the microwave, is also popular. As of 2007, curry sauce is the largest single category of vacuum-sealed foods in Japan, making up over 30% of sales.[22]

Serving

Japanese curry rice is served in anything from a flat plate to a soup bowl. The curry is poured over rice in any manner and amount. Japanese short-grain rice, which is sticky and round, is preferred, rather than the medium-grain variety used in Indian dishes. It is usually eaten with a spoon, as opposed to chopsticks, because of the liquid nature of the curry. Curry rice is usually served with fukujinzuke or rakkyō on the side.[26]

Other varieties

Karē-pan (curry bread)
Japanese curry rice with shredded beef in Singapore
Katsu karē from Manten (まんてん) in Jinbōchō, Tokyo
Ichibanya
  • katsu karē (カツカレー): Curry rice served with a breaded pork cutlet on top.
  • dorai karē (ドライカレー): Curry-flavored fried rice, or curry rice with a drier, mince meat curry sauce.
  • maze karē (混ぜカレー): Curry rice, served with the sauce and rice already mixed. Popularized by the Jiyūken (自由軒) curry restaurants in Osaka.
  • karē don (カレー丼): Curry sauce, thickened and flavored with mentsuyu or hondashi and served on top of a bowl of rice, to give the curry a Japanese flavor.
  • aigake (合がけ): Rice served with curry sauce and hayashi sauce (fried beef and onion, cooked with red wine and demi-glace).
  • yaki karē (焼きカレー): Curry rice, topped with a raw egg and baked in an oven. Originally from Kitakyushu.
  • ishiyaki karē (石焼きカレー): Curry sauce with rice served in a heated stone bowl, in a similar way to dolsot bibimbap.
  • sūpu karē (スープカレー): Soup curry, a watery, broth-like curry sauce served with chunky ingredients such as a chicken leg and coarsely-cut vegetables. Popular in Hokkaido.

Local curries

In the late 1990s, a number of regional specialty curries emerged, popularised as vacuum-sealed curry sauces. These include:

  • Hokkaido sika deer curry (えぞ鹿カレー, ezoshika karē) from Hokkaido.
  • Scallop curry (ほたてカレー, hotate karē) from Aomori Prefecture.
  • Mackerel curry (サバカレー, saba karē) from Chiba Prefecture.
  • Apple curry (リンゴカレー, ringo karē) from Nagano Prefecture and Aomori Prefecture.
  • Nattō curry (納豆カレー, nattō karē) from Mito, Ibaraki.
  • Nagoya Kōchin chicken curry (名古屋コーチンチキンカレー, Nagoya kōchin chikin karē) from Aichi Prefecture.
  • Matsusaka beef curry (松阪牛カレー, Matsusaka gyū karē) from Mie Prefecture.
  • Whale curry (クジラカレー, kujira karē) from Wakayama Prefecture.
  • Oyster curry (牡蠣カレー, kaki karē) from Hiroshima Prefecture.
  • Nashi pear curry (梨カレー, nashi karē) from Shimane Prefecture.
  • Black pork curry (黒豚カレー, kurobuta karē) from Kagoshima Prefecture.
  • Bitter melon curry (ゴーヤーカレー, gōyā karē) from Okinawa.

Local curries are also marketed to help boost tourism. Some varieties of this include Yokosuka navy curry (よこすか海軍カレー, Yokosuka kaigun karē), sold in Yokosuka to promote its heritage as a naval base,[27] and Zeppelin Curry (ツェッペリンカレー, Tsepperin Karē) in Tsuchiura to promote the Zeppelin landing in 1929.[28]

Outside Japan

South Korea

Curry was introduced to South Korea during the period of Japanese rule, and is popular there. It is often found at bunsik restaurants (diner-style establishments), donkkaseu-oriented restaurants, and at the majority of Japanese restaurants. Premade curry and powdered mixes are also readily available at supermarkets.

North Korea

Japanese-style curry was introduced to North Korea by Koreans and Japanese who were abducted from Japan to North Korea during the 1960s-1970s repatriation project.[29] Along with other Japanese cuisine, it was traded by new arrivals for local products and used to bribe Worker's Party cadres.[29]

Elsewhere

Mixes can be found outside Japan and Korea in supermarkets that have a Japanese section or in Japanese or Asian food stores. Mixes are also available from retailers online.[30]

The largest Japanese curry company in Japan is House Foods Corporation. The company operated more than 10 Curry House Restaurants in the USA, until mid-2019 when it sold off its interest to a US company CH Acquisitions LLC, which abruptly closed the restaurants in February 2020.[31] House Foods associated company CoCo Ichibanya (Ichibanya Co., Ltd.) or Kokoichi has more than 1,200 restaurants in Japan. CoCo Ichibanya has branches in China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Korea, Singapore, Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand, United Kingdom, Hawaii and California.[32]

See also

  • Rice and curry

References

  1. 『カレーライス』に関するアンケート (in Japanese). ネットリサーチ ディムスドライブ. Retrieved 1 February 2016.
  2. "Chicken katsu curry". Food recipes. BBC. 2016. Retrieved 20 January 2016.
  3. Curry Recipe Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (in Japanese)
  4. Itoh, Makiko (26 August 2011). "Curry — it's more 'Japanese' than you think". The Japan Times. Archived from the original on January 8, 2018. Retrieved 31 March 2018.
  5. ""Ricecurry and Curryrice"" ライスカレーとカレーライス (in Japanese). House Foods. Retrieved 2015-02-14.
  6. Bell, Markus (8 April 2016). "From India To North Korea, Via Japan: Curry's Global Journey". The Salt. National Public Radio. Retrieved 15 November 2018.
  7. "FAQ" よくある質問と回答 (in Japanese). Universität Hokkaidō. Retrieved 2015-02-14.
  8. "Sapporo Hitsujigaoka Observation Hill". さっぽろ羊ヶ丘展望台オフィシャルサイト (in Japanese). Archived from the original on February 14, 2015. Retrieved February 14, 2015.
  9. Tadashi Ono; Harris Salat (2013). Japanese Soul Cooking: Ramen, Tonkatsu, Tempura, and More from the Streets and Kitchens of Tokyo and Beyond. Ten Speed Press. p. 44. ISBN 978-1-60774-352-1.
  10. Makalintal, Bettina (2 November 2018). "A Brief History of How Curry Ended Up in Japan". Munchies. Vice. Retrieved 15 November 2018.
  11. "Akebonos‚ Yokosuka Marine-Trockencurry' (tiefgefroren)")" あけぼの「よこすか海軍ドライカレー」(冷凍食品) (in Japanese). Maruha Ichiro. Archived from the original on 2015-02-14. Retrieved 2015-02-14.
  12. "Die wenig bekannte Geschichte der Geburt von Curryreis" カレーライス誕生秘話 (in Japanese). Stadt Yokosuka. 2012-12-21. Archived from the original on 2014-02-21. Retrieved 2014-02-14.
  13. "Curry-Rezepte der Marineselbstverteidigungsstreitkräfte" ★海上自衛隊のカレーレシピ★ (in Japanese). Ministry of Defense. Retrieved 2015-02-14.
  14. "Curry-Rezepte der Marineselbstverteidigungsstreitkräfte" ★海上自衛隊のカレーレシピ★ (in Japanese). Ministry of Defense. Retrieved 2015-02-14.
  15. "Wann hat sich Curry in japanischen Haushalten richtig durchgesetzt?" 日本人の家庭にカレーが本格的に広まったのはいつごろでしょうか? (in Japanese). S&B Foods. Archived from the original on 2015-02-14. Retrieved 2015-02-14.
  16. 生産量 (in Japanese). All Japan Curry Manufacturers Association. 2013. Retrieved 2015-02-14.
  17. Karmakar, Kaylan (25 September 2018). "Japanese Curry Is Nothing Like Indian Curry. Think Twice When in Japan". New Delhi: NDTV. Retrieved 17 November 2018.
  18. "Easy Instant Pot Japanese Bone-in Chicken Curry". Asian Cooking Mom. 25 April 2020. Retrieved 26 April 2020.
  19. Nancy Singleton Hachisu (4 September 2012). Japanese Farm Food. Andrews McMeel Publishing. pp. 289–290. ISBN 978-1-4494-1830-4.
  20. Colburn Goto, Gina (21 November 2014). "Curry is king". Japan Today. Tokyo. Retrieved 13 February 2019.
  21. Itoh, Makiko (26 August 2011). "Curry — it's more 'Japanese' than you think". The Japan Times. Tokyo. Retrieved 13 February 2019.
  22. 生産量の推移 [Transition of Production] (in Japanese). All Japan Curry Manufacturers Association. Retrieved 7 March 2011.
  23. ハウス食品 [Hause Foods] (PDF) (in Japanese). Keio University Marketing Research Study Group. Retrieved 7 March 2011.
  24. コンサルティングレポート 江崎グリコ株式会社 [Proposal for Ezaki Glico] (PDF) (in Japanese). Kutsuna Seminar at Faculty of Business Administration in Kobe University. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 7 March 2011.
  25. Chris Kohler (10 October 2016). Power-Up: How Japanese Video Games Gave the World an Extra Life. Courier Dover Publications. p. 188. ISBN 978-0-486-81642-5.
  26. Jan Davison (15 May 2018). Pickles: A Global History. Reaktion Books. p. 33. ISBN 978-1-78023-959-0.
  27. Trautlein, Steve, "The chow-down tour of Kanto's local dishes", The Japan Times, 24 August 2012, p. 15
  28. Hongo, Jun (14 November 2013). "Tsuchiura city curries favor with visitors at its annual gourmet festival". Japan Times. Retrieved 30 November 2018.
  29. Bell, Markus (8 April 2016). "From India To North Korea, Via Japan: Curry's Global Journey". The Salt. NPR. Retrieved 12 May 2016.
  30. "S&B Golden Curry Sauce Mix Medium Hot, 3.5 OZ". Walmart. Retrieved 26 April 2020.
  31. "Curry House Trends After All Japanese Curry and Spaghetti Restaurants Mysteriously Close". 2 October 2020. Archived from the original on 2020-10-02.
  32. "Japanese-style Curry Specialty Shop". ichibanya.co.jp.

Further reading

This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.