International recognition of Kosovo

International recognition of Kosovo, since its declaration of independence from Serbia enacted on 17 February 2008, has been mixed, and the international community is divided on the issue.[1][2]

Map of states that have recognised Kosovo's independence (as of 4 September 2020)
  Kosovo
  States that recognise Kosovo as independent
  States that do not recognise Kosovo as independent
  States that recognised Kosovo and later withdrew that recognition

As of 4 September 2020, 98 out of 193 (51%) United Nations (UN) member states, 22 out of 27 (81%) European Union (EU) member states, 26 out of 30 (87%) NATO member states, and 31 out of 57 (54%) Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) member states have recognised Kosovo. The government of Serbia does not recognise it as a sovereign state.

In 2013, the two sides began to normalise relations in accordance with the Brussels Agreement, but the process stalled in November 2018 after Kosovo imposed a 100 percent tax on importing Serbian goods. On 1 April 2020, Kosovo withdrew the tax.[3] In September 2020, under an agreement brokered by the United States, Serbia and Kosovo agreed to normalise economic relations.[4][5] Serbia agreed to suspend its efforts to encourage other states to either not recognise Kosovo or to revoke recognition for one year. In return, Kosovo agreed to not apply for new membership of international organisations for the same period.[6]

Among members of the G-20 major countries, 11 (being Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, the United Kingdom and the United States) have recognized Kosovo as a state while 9 (Argentina, Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Russia, South Africa and Spain) have not.

Background

A number of states expressed concern over the unilateral character of Kosovo's declaration, or explicitly announced that they would not recognise an independent Kosovo. The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) remains divided on this issue: of its five members with veto power, three (the United States, the United Kingdom, and France) have recognised the declaration of independence, while the People's Republic of China has expressed concern, urging the continuation of the previous negotiation framework. The Russian Federation has rejected the declaration and considers it illegal.[7] In May 2008, Russia, China, and India released a joint statement calling for new negotiations between Belgrade and Pristina.[8]

Although EU member states individually decide whether to recognise Kosovo, by consensus the EU has commissioned the European Union Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo (EULEX) to ensure peace and continued external oversight. Due to the dispute in the United Nations Security Council (UNSC), the reconfiguration of the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) and partial handover to the EULEX mission met with difficulties. In spite of Russian and Serbian protests, the UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon proceeded with the reconfiguration plan. On 15 July 2008, he stated: "In the light of the fact that the Security Council is unable to provide guidance, I have instructed my Special Representative to move forward with the reconfiguration of UNMIK ... in order to adapt UNMIK to a changed reality." According to the Secretary-General, the "United Nations has maintained a position of strict neutrality on the question of Kosovo's status".[9] On 26 November 2008, the UNSC gave the green light to the deployment of the EULEX mission in Kosovo. The EU mission is to assume police, justice, and customs duties from the UN, while operating under the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244 (UNSCR 1244) that first placed Kosovo under UN administration in 1999.[10]

As of late July 2008, UNMIK no longer provides the citizens of Kosovo with travel documents, while their ability to travel using the new Kosovan passport does not coincide with diplomatic recognition: for example Greece, Romania, and Slovakia accept Kosovo-issued documents for identity purposes, despite not officially recognising its independence. The three neighbouring states that recognise Kosovo—Albania, Montenegro, and North Macedonia—all accept the Kosovan passport, which Serbia refuses.[11]

Formal recognition of Kosovo by UN member states over time (total members 193)

A United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) resolution adopted on 8 October 2008 backed the request of Serbia to seek an International Court of Justice advisory opinion on Kosovo's declaration of independence.[12] On 22 July 2010, the ICJ ruled that the declaration of independence of Kosovo "did not violate any applicable rule of international law", because its authors, who were "representatives of the people of Kosovo", were not bound by the Constitutional Framework (promulgated by UNMIK) or by UNSCR 1244 that is addressed only to United Nations Member States and organs of the United Nations.[13]

Within the EU, key supporters of Kosovo's statehood include France[14] and Germany.[15] The strongest opponents to Kosovo's statehood within the EU include Spain[16][17] and Greece.[18] The Spanish non-recognition of Kosovo is linked to the Spanish government's opposition to the Basque and Catalan independence movements,[16] while the Greek non-recognition of Kosovo is linked to the Cyprus dispute and Greece's historic relationship to Serbia.[18]

Serbia's reaction

Due to Serbian claims that Kosovo is part of its sovereign territory, its initial reactions included recalling ambassadors from countries that recognised Kosovo for several months, indicting Kosovar leaders on charges of high treason, and litigating the case at the International Court of Justice (ICJ). Serbia also expelled ambassadors from countries that recognised Kosovo after the UNGA vote adopting Serbia's initiative to seek an ICJ advisory opinion.[19]

In December 2012, as a result of European Union mediated negotiations on Kosovo's status, Serbian Prime Minister Ivica Dačić agreed to appoint a liaison officer to Kosovo.[20] In March 2013, Dačić said that while his government would never recognise Kosovo's independence, "lies were told that Kosovo is ours" and that Serbia needed to define its "real borders".[21]

In April 2013, Kosovo and Serbia reached an agreement to normalise relations, and thereby allow both nations to eventually join the European Union. Under the terms of the agreement, "Belgrade acknowledged that the government in Pristina exercises administrative authority over the territory of Kosovo – and that it is prepared to deal with Pristina as a legitimate governing authority."[22]

On 17 June 2013 Kosovo and Serbia exchanged liaison officers.[23]

Positions taken by sovereign entities

According to a 2020 study, states which have strong ties to the United States are more likely to recognize Kosovo, whereas states with stronger ties to Russia are less likely to recognize Kosovo.[24]

Member states of the United Nations

#Country[25]Date of recognitionReference
1 Costa Rica17 February 2008[26]
2 Afghanistan18 February 2008[27]
3 Albania18 February 2008[28][29]
4 France18 February 2008[30]
5 Senegal18 February 2008[31][32]
6 Turkey18 February 2008[33]
7 United Kingdom18 February 2008[34]
8 United States18 February 2008[35]
9 Australia19 February 2008[36]
10 Latvia20 February 2008[37]
11 Germany20 February 2008[38]
12 Estonia21 February 2008[39]
13 Italy21 February 2008[40]
14 Denmark21 February 2008[41]
15 Luxembourg21 February 2008[42]
16 Peru22 February 2008[43]
17 Belgium24 February 2008[44]
18 Poland26 February 2008[45]
19  Switzerland27 February 2008[46]
20 Austria28 February 2008[47]
21 Ireland29 February 2008[48]
22 Sweden4 March 2008[49]
23 Netherlands4 March 2008[50]
24 Iceland5 March 2008[51]
25 Slovenia5 March 2008[52]
26 Finland7 March 2008[53]
27 Japan18 March 2008[54]
28 Canada18 March 2008[55]
29 Monaco19 March 2008[56]
30 Hungary19 March 2008[57]
31 Croatia19 March 2008[58]
32 Bulgaria20 March 2008[59]
33 Liechtenstein25 March 2008[60]
34 South Korea28 March 2008[61]
35 Norway28 March 2008[62]
36 Marshall Islands17 April 2008[63]
37 Burkina Faso23 April 2008[64][65]
38 Lithuania6 May 2008[66]
39 San Marino12 May 2008[67]
40 Czech Republic21 May 2008[68]
41 Liberia30 May 2008[fn 1][72]
42 Colombia4 August 2008[73]
43 Belize7 August 2008[74]
44 Malta22 August 2008[75]
45 Samoa15 September 2008[76][77]
46 Portugal7 October 2008[78]
47 Montenegro9 October 2008[79]
48 Macedonia9 October 2008[80]
49 United Arab Emirates14 October 2008[81]
50 Malaysia30 October 2008[82][83]
51 Federated States of Micronesia5 December 2008[84][85]
52 Panama16 January 2009[86][87]
53 Maldives19 February 2009[88]
54 Gambia7 April 2009[89]
55 Saudi Arabia20 April 2009[90]
56 Bahrain19 May 2009[91]
57 Jordan7 July 2009[92]
58 Dominican Republic10 July 2009[93][94]
59 New Zealand9 November 2009[95]
60 Malawi14 December 2009[96]
61 Mauritania12 January 2010[97]
62 Swaziland12 April 2010[98][99]
63 Vanuatu28 April 2010[100]
64 Djibouti8 May 2010[101]
65 Somalia19 May 2010[102]
66 Honduras3 September 2010[103]
67 Kiribati21 October 2010[104][105]
68 Tuvalu18 November 2010[106]
69 Qatar7 January 2011[107]
70 Guinea-Bissau10 January 2011[fn 2][113][114]
71 Andorra8 June 2011[115]
72 Guinea12 August 2011[116][117]
73 Niger15 August 2011[116][118]
74 Benin18 August 2011[119]
75 Saint Lucia19 August 2011[120]
76 Gabon15 September 2011[121][122]
77 Ivory Coast16 September 2011[123][124]
78 Kuwait11 October 2011[125]
79 Haiti10 February 2012[126]
80 Brunei25 April 2012[127]
81 Chad1 June 2012[128]
82 Timor-Leste20 September 2012[129][130]
83 Fiji19 November 2012[131][132]
84 Saint Kitts and Nevis28 November 2012[133][134]
85 Pakistan24 December 2012[135][136]
86 Guyana16 March 2013[137][138]
87 Tanzania29 May 2013[139]
88 Yemen11 June 2013[140][141]
89 Egypt26 June 2013[142]
90 El Salvador29 June 2013[143][144][145]
91 Thailand24 September 2013[146][147]
92 Libya25 September 2013[148][149]
93 Tonga15 January 2014[150]
94 Antigua and Barbuda20 May 2015[151]
95 Singapore1 December 2016[152][153]
96 Bangladesh27 February 2017[154][155]
97 Barbados15 February 2018[156][157][158]
98 Israel4 September 2020[159][5][160]
Notes
  1. In June 2018, following a meeting between Liberian Foreign Minister Gbehzohngar Milton Findley and Serbian Foreign Minister Ivica Dacic, a note from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Liberia was published which stated in part that it "annuls its letter of recognition of Kosovo."[69][70] A few days latter, Liberia's MFA posted a notice on its website saying that it wished "to refute reports in some international and social media of its revocation of diplomatic relations with the Republic of Kosovo."[71]
  2. In a letter dated 21 November 2017, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Guinea-Bissau informed Kosovo that it had withdrawn its recognition.[108][109][110] On 2 February 2018, Kosovo's MFA announced that it had received a new note verbale from Guinea-Bissau stating that the previous note revoking recognition had no effect.[111][112]

Other states and entities

State or entityDate of recognitionReference
Taiwan (Republic of China)19 February 2008[161][162]
 Cook Islands18 May 2015[163]
 Niue23 June 2015[164]

Withdrawn recognition

The Serbian Foreign Ministry claimed in March 2020 that there are eighteen nations that have withdrawn their recognition: Burundi, Central African Republic, Comoros, Ghana, Dominica, Guinea-Bissau, Grenada, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Nauru, Palau, Papua New Guinea, São Tomé and Príncipe, Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands, Suriname and Togo.[165][166][167] In many of those cases, Kosovo's foreign ministry has called it "fake news" and "Serbian propaganda".[168][169][170][171] Three of those "withdrawals" are dubious:

  • Guinea-Bissau withdrew recognition in November 2017, but then sent a note verbale to the government of Kosovo stating that the previous note revoking recognition had no effect.[112]
  • Just a few days after revoking its recognition in June 2018, the government of Liberia issued a statement "reaffirming bilateral relations with Kosovo".[172]
  • São Tomé and Príncipe never officially recognised Kosovo, according to its former president Manuel Pinto da Costa (see the table below for more info).

There are conflicting reports on whether Oman has recognised Kosovo, or de-recognised it.[173][174] In February 2011, Kosovo announced that it received a note from Oman which stated that it "will welcome Kosovo's membership to the United Nations, as well as to other international and regional organizations" and that the countries had established diplomatic relations.[173] However, in September 2011 Kosovo's deputy Foreign Minister Petrit Selimi stated that "Oman never recognised us".[175] Later that month, Kosovo's Ministry of Foreign Affairs announced that Oman's Foreign Minister Yusuf bin Alawi bin Abdullah had informed them of his country's recognition of Kosovo.[174] Kosovo's chargé d'affaires in Saudi Arabia was quoted in 2012 as saying that Oman had not recognised Kosovo.[176]

# Country Recognition Withdrawal Reference
1 Suriname8 July 201627 October 2017[177][178][179][180]
2 Burundi16 October 201215 February 2018[181][182][183]
3 Papua New Guinea3 October 20125 July 2018[184]
4 Lesotho11 February 201416 October 2018[185][186][187]
5 Comoros14 May 20091 November 2018[188][189][190][191]
6 Dominica11 December 20122 November 2018[192][193][194][195]
7 Grenada25 September 20134 November 2018[196][197]
8 Solomon Islands13 August 201428 November 2018[198][199]
9 Madagascar24 November 20177 December 2018[200]
10 Palau6 March 200917 January 2019[201][202]
11  Togo 11 July 2014 28 June 2019 [203][204][205]
12  Central African Republic 22 July 2011 24 July 2019 [206][207][208]
13  Ghana 23 January 2012 7 November 2019 [209][210][211][212]
14  Nauru 23 April 2008 13 November 2019 [213][214][215]
15  Sierra Leone 11 June 2008 2 March 2020 [216][217][218][219]

Entities that have not recognised Kosovo as an independent state

Diplomatic recognition is an explicit, official, unilateral act in the foreign policy of states in regards to another party. Not having issued such a statement does not necessarily mean the state has objections to the existence, independence, sovereignty or government of the other party. Some states, by custom or policy, do not extend formal recognitions, on the grounds that a vote for membership in the UN or another organisation whose membership is limited to states is itself an act of recognition.

Member states of the United Nations

A
CountryPosition
 AlgeriaIn March 2008, Mourad Medelci, Algerian Foreign Minister, stated that while Algeria sympathised with all Muslim countries, it believed that international laws had to be adhered to.[220] A year later, Medelci reaffirmed the Algerian position of Kosovo being an integral part of Serbia.[221]

In May 2009, the Ambassador of Algeria to Serbia, Abdelkader Mesdoua stated that Algeria would reconsider the issue of Kosovo if Serbia changed its own position.[222]

 AngolaOn 23 June 2008, Angolan president José Eduardo dos Santos sent a message to his Serbian counterpart, Boris Tadić, regarding Kosovo's declaration of independence. It reiterated the solidarity of dos Santos and Angola to Serbia in regard to the preservation of its sovereignty and integrity.[223]
 ArgentinaIn February 2008, Argentine Foreign Minister, Jorge Taiana said "if we were to recognize Kosovo, which has declared its independence unilaterally, without an agreement with Serbia, we would set a dangerous precedent that would seriously threaten our chances of a political settlement in the case of the Falkland Islands". He said that president Cristina Fernández de Kirchner would not give any official statement on the issue, reiterating that there would be no recognition of Kosovo.[224] Argentina will not recognise also because it "supports the principle of territorial integrity". Additionally, he stressed that the 1999 UNSCR 1244 called for the mutual agreement of all parties to solve the dispute.[225]

In a 2 December 2009 hearing at the ICJ, the Argentine delegation said that Kosovo's declaration of independence "breaches an obligation to respect the territorial integrity of Serbia, the obligation of peaceful settlement of disputes and principle of non-intervention. The resolution has no legal basis in the principle of self-determination," and that it "did not, and could not, abolish Serbia's sovereignty over Kosovo".[226][227]

 ArmeniaOn 12 March 2008, Armenian president Serzh Sargsyan stated that Armenia's possible recognition of Kosovo's independence would not strain Armenia–Russia relations, but also noted that "Kosovo recognition issue needs serious discussion ... Armenia has always been an adherent to the right of nations to self-determination and in this aspect we welcome Kosovo's independence."[228] On 3 September 2008 Sargsyan stated: "Today one is wondering from time to time why Armenia is not recognizing the independence of Abkhazia and South Ossetia. The answer is simple: for the same reason that it did not recognize Kosovo's independence. Having the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict, Armenia can not recognize another entity in the same situation as long as it has not recognized the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic". A nation's right to self-determination "takes times", requiring the understanding of "all interested parties". Accordingly, Armenia is trying to "convince" Azerbaijan to accept the loss of Karabakh, stated the president.[228][229] In November 2008, whilst commenting on Russia's recognition of Georgia's breakaway regions, Sargsyan said "In case with Kosovo the right of nations to self-determination was applied. However, Russia's similar step was given a hostile reception".[230]

At a meeting in May 2009 with Kosovo's Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, the representative of Armenia to the UN, Armen Martirosyan reportedly promised that the request for recognition would be forwarded to his government.[231] On a July 2009 state visit to Armenia, Serbian president Boris Tadić discussed the issues of Kosovo and Nagorno-Karabakh with Sargsyan. The two leaders agreed that regional conflicts must be resolved without the use of force and only by peaceful means in keeping with international law.[232] Tadić also met with Armenian prime minister Tigran Sargsyan where the same issues were discussed. The Kosovo and Nagorno-Karabakh issues can only be solved through negotiations and "any imposed solutions are absolutely unacceptable and we fully agree on that," Tadić said afterwards.[233]

On 4 April 2011 Sargsyan said that Armenia would not recognise the independence of Kosovo against Serbia's interests.[234]

 AzerbaijanIn February 2008, a spokesman of the Foreign Ministry of Azerbaijan, Khazar Ibrahim, said "We view this illegal act as being in contradiction with international law. Proceeding from this, Azerbaijan's position is clear: it does not recognise [Kosovo's] independence".[235] Azerbaijan has also withdrawn peacekeepers from Kosovo. Zahid Oruj, a member of the parliamentary committee on defence and security, explained it by saying "Owing to the change of situation in Kosovo, the Azeri peacekeeping battalion performing its mission within the Turkish contingent will be withdrawn. Azerbaijan acts in compliance with the country's political stance".[236] At the summit of the OIC on 10 March 2008, Azerbaijan opposed adoption of the document, proposed by Turkey, that would lend support to Kosovo's declaration of independence.[237] On 19 June 2008, during the meeting of OIC, Azerbaijan was among countries that opposed the recognition of Kosovo as an independent country.[238]

In a 3 December 2009 hearing at the ICJ, the Azerbaijani delegation said that entities that declare secession while violating the internal laws of the state can not be considered to be states, and that a fait accompli may not be accepted – power is not the right, and the force is not the law.[239]

At a meeting with Serbian president Boris Tadić in Baku in May 2010, President of Azerbaijan Ilham Aliyev said that Serbia and Azerbaijan mutually help each other in the international arena and that his country provides strong support for the territorial integrity of Serbia. He stated that the unilaterally proclaimed independence of Kosovo is an illegal move and called on all UN member states to respect international law.[240]

B
CountryPosition
 BahamasAt a meeting on 18 June 2009 with Kosovo's Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, the representative of the Bahamas to the UN, Paulette Bethel reportedly said that she would forward the request for recognition to her government.[241]

In April 2010, Bahamian Foreign Minister Brent Symonette said, "We have considered and continue to consider the situation on the ground on both sides and maintain a status of awaiting the outcome of negotiations between Kosovo and its neighbouring countries before committing support to either of the two countries".[242]

On 26 September 2012, the Bahamian Foreign Minister, Frederick A. Mitchell, said that his state has sympathy for the independence of Kosovo, and that the Bahamas will support the state of Kosovo.[243]

 BelarusIn February 2008, Belarusian President Alexander Lukashenko wrote in a letter to Serbian President Boris Tadić that "Belarus expresses its solidarity with the Serbians' intention to defend their sovereignty and territorial integrity".[244] The National Assembly of Belarus had issued a statement condemning the declaration of independence and encouraged all nations to call the move "illegal" under international law.[245][246]

The Foreign Ministry of Belarus published a statement saying "that the settlement of the Kosovo and Metochia [sic] status should progress under international law, based on UN Security Council resolution 1244 (of 1999) which is a fundamental document for the Kosovo settlement certifying the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the Republic of Serbia, and based on the key provisions of the UN Charter and Helsinki Final Act, with the essential role of the UN Security Council bearing a predominant responsibility for safeguarding international peace and security".[247]

In a 3 December 2009 hearing at the ICJ, the Belarusian delegation said that secession by international law was allowed only in former colonies, or in cases where the minority population was oppressed for a long period of time and was denied the participation in government, however the situation in Kosovo has not met these criteria traditionally interpreted as the right for "external" self-determination. The internal law of Serbia as well as UNSC resolutions are satisfactory for the "internal" self-determination of the Albanian population.[239]

In May 2012 the Belarusian ambassador to Serbia, Uladzimir Chushaw, said that Belarus will never recognise the independence of Kosovo. He was quoted as saying, "The Kosovo wounds are hurting us very much."[248]

 BhutanAt a meeting on 28 May 2009 with Kosovo's Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, the representative of Bhutan to the UN, Lhatu Wangchuk, reportedly said that he had conveyed Kosovo's request for recognition to his government on 3 February, and he is awaiting the decision of his government.[249]

On 19 September 2012, Wangchuk said that his country is deliberating the issue of Kosovo.[250]

 BoliviaIn February 2008, Bolivian president Evo Morales refused to recognise Kosovo's independence and compared Kosovo separatists to the leaders of four eastern Bolivian states who have demanded greater autonomy from the federal government.[251]

In a 4 December 2009 hearing at the ICJ, the Bolivian delegation said that Kosovo is an integral part of Serbia and that the Republic of Kosovo does not exist. A unilateral declaration of independence cannot change the international regime established by the UNSC resolution, or decide the outcome of negotiations.[252]

 Bosnia and HerzegovinaBosnia and Herzegovina's reaction to Kosovo's independence has been mixed. Bosniak and Croat members of the Presidency want to recognise it, but Serb members refuse.
 BotswanaIn a September 2010 meeting between the Foreign Ministers of Kosovo and Botswana, Skënder Hyseni and Phandu Skelemani, Mr. Skelemani said that the ICJ had given "a clear decision", and said that he would soon formally present a position for recognition to his government.[253] In October 2010, Skelemani said that Botswana has not yet made a decision on recognition of Kosovo pending the ruling of the EU, and that Kosovo had promised support in the establishment of a medical school in return for its recognition.[254]

In March 2011, Skelemani said that Botswana still has to advise itself properly in order to come up with an informed decision on the issue. He said that the matter of Kosovo has been before the ICJ and therefore it requires a close look as it involves law.[255] In September 2013, Botswana Foreign Minister Phandu TC Skelemani, promised the recognition of Kosovo stating that it was now only a matter of procedure before it happens.[256]

In September 2014, Skelemani said that his country values as positive the developments in Kosovo, which pave the way to the possibility for reviewing of recognition by his country.[257]

 BrazilBrazil has not recognised the independence of Kosovo, stating that it believes that agreement should be reached under the auspices of the UN and the legal framework of UNSCR 1244.

In February 2008, the Brazilian government reaffirmed its belief that a peaceful solution for the issue of Kosovo must continue to be sought through dialogue and negotiation, under the auspices of the UN and the legal framework of UNSCR 1244. In his recent declarations, the Foreign Minister, Celso Amorim, defended that Brazil should await a UNSC decision before defining its official position on the matter of Kosovo's independence.[258][259]

In September 2009, Ambassador of Brazil to Serbia Dante Coelho de Lima said that "Our fundamental position is that we respect Serbia's territorial integrity. We supported Security Council resolution 1244, under which Kosovo is a part of Serbia. We also think that the principle of self-determination should not run counter to respect for international law".[260]

In a 4 December 2009 hearing at the ICJ, the Brazilian delegation said that the unilateral declaration of independence ignored not only the authority of the UNSC, but also the principle of protecting the territorial integrity of states. There is no basis to justify the unilateral declaration of independence in the UNSC resolution 1244 because it predicted a solution agreed by both parties. Since such an agreement was not reached, the Kosovo dispute can be decided only by the UNSC.[252]

C
CountryPosition
 CambodiaOn 6 October 2008, the Europe Department Director at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation of Cambodia, Kao Samreth, stressed that Cambodia does not wish to encourage secession in any country and therefore does not support the independence of Kosovo. Kao drew parallels to independence claims for South Ossetia and stated that Cambodia would not encourage tension within a country by supporting independence claims.[261]

In February 2009, Secretary of State at Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation of Cambodia, Ouch Borith, reiterated an earlier Cambodian Ministry of Foreign Affairs statement that Kosovo is a sensitive issue which they are studying carefully. Borith questioned, "if Kosovo is recognized, what about South Ossetia?"[262] On 2 April 2009, the Director of the Department of International Organizations at Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation of Cambodia, Tuy Ri, stated that Cambodia had no plans to file a brief (either supportive of Serbia or Kosovo) in the ICJ case.[263]

 CameroonIn January 2011, the General Secretary of Cameroon's Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ferdinand Ngoh Ngoh, reportedly said that his government cannot deny that Kosovo's independence is irreversible, but that it would have to be careful on how to proceed in order not to create a situation that would damage Cameroon's interests and position in the world.[264]

In November 2011, in a meeting with First Deputy Prime Minister of Kosovo, Behgjet Pacolli, Cameroon's prime minister, Philémon Yang, reportedly said that the recognition of Kosovo was underway.[265]

In a 15 November 2012 meeting with Kosovo's Foreign Minister, Enver Hoxhaj, the Minister Delegate of Cameroon's Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Adoum Gargoum, said that his country has no political or legal reasons not to recognise Kosovo's independence, expressing the sympathy of his people for the people of Kosovo.[266]

 Cape VerdeAt a meeting in May 2009 with Kosovo's Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, the representative of Cape Verde to the UN, Antonio Pedro Monteiro Lima, reportedly said that the decision on recognition of Kosovo is only "a matter of time" and that "Cape Verde knows very well the price of freedom".[231]

In December 2010, Cape Verde's National Director of Political Affairs and Cooperation, José Luis Rocha, said that his country will wait until there is consensus at the UNSC before considering its position.[267]

In February 2013, the Prime Minister of Cape Verde, José Maria Neves promised that his country would soon recognise the state of Kosovo.[268]

 ChileIn a 27 February 2008 press release, the Foreign Ministry of Chile called on the parties concerned to achieve, by peaceable means, through dialogue and adherence to the international law, a solution that respects the principles and purposes of the UN Charter. Chile will continue to analyse the discussions that have taken and are taking place, both in the UNSC, and in the Council of Ministers of the EU.[269]
 ChinaChina is strongly supportive of the principles of state sovereignty and territorial integrity. It supports Serbia's position on Kosovo.
 Democratic Republic of the CongoOn 10 February 2009, the Head of the International Organizations Directorate at the Congolese Foreign Ministry, Alice Kimpembe Bamba, said that her government had no plans to recognise Kosovo at the moment, adding that her government was closely following developments on Kosovo at the UN.[270] In November 2009, it was reported that the President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo Joseph Kabila had said that his country will not recognise the independence of Kosovo for as long as he lives.[271]

On 6 April 2012, the Congolese National Assembly Speaker, Evariste Boshab Mabudj-ma-Bilenge, said that "Serbia's position on Kosovo and Metohija is the Democratic Republic of Congo's position".[272]

In September 2013 the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the DR Congo, Raymond Tshibanda, stated that he would suggest to the Congolese President that they recognise Kosovo.[273]

 Republic of the Congo
 CubaOn 29 February 2008, writing in his personal "Reflections of Fidel" column, which is published in the official newspaper of the Communist Party of Cuba, Granma Internacional (and since translated into English and archived on the Trabajadores website), Fidel Castro, the ex-President and First Secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba, attacked Javier Solana, accusing him of being the ideological father of Kosovo's "independence", and by doing so, putting at risk the ethnic cohesion and the very state integrity of Spain or the UK, both of which experience separatist movements of their own. He referred to Kosovo independence in quotes as "independence".[274]

In December 2009, Ambassador of Cuba to Serbia, Mercedes Martínez Valdés, said that Cuba supports the territorial integrity and sovereignty of Serbia regarding the issue of Kosovo and advocates for the respect of international law.[275]

In a September 2010 meeting between the Foreign Ministers of Albania and Cuba, Edmond Haxhinasto and Bruno Rodriguez Parrilla, Mr. Rodriguez said that Cuba was reconsidering recognition of Kosovo in light of the decision made by the ICJ.[276] In February 2015, it was reported that Cuba continued to support Serbia over Kosovo.[277]

 CyprusOn 11 February 2008, the Cypriot Foreign Minister Erato Kozakou-Marcoullis, stated that "Cyprus will never recognize a unilateral declaration of independence outside the U.N. framework, and in particular by side-stepping the role of the Security Council".[278] The President of Cyprus Dimitris Christofias, confirmed in March 2008 that Cyprus would not recognise Kosovo as an independent country, out of respect for the territorial integrity and sovereignty of Serbia.[279] Christofias reiterated his opposition to recognition in an interview with a Russian newspaper, saying, "The one thing that Kosovo and Cyprus have in common, as far as the situation in these regions is concerned, is that in both cases, the basic principles of international law and legality, as well as UN decisions, are constantly being violated". The Cypriot president underlined that the territorial integrity, sovereignty and independence of both Serbia and Cyprus were being violated in the most brutal manner.[280]

On 23 February 2009, in a meeting with Serbian president Boris Tadić, Christofias said that "Cyprus has not recognized the unilaterally declared independence of Kosovo and we will not recognize it in the future. We are on your side, not only because your case is similar to ours, but because it is a matter of principles".[281] On 16 June 2009, Minister of Defence of Cyprus Costas Papacostas said that Cyprus will never recognise the independence of Kosovo.[282][283] In October 2009 this stance was reiterated by Christofias who said Cyprus would not recognise Kosovo, even if all other EU members did so.[284]

On 28 June 2012, the Cypriot Foreign Ministry stated that while they have not recognised the independence of Kosovo, they were fully committed to further advancing the European perspective of the region. They pledged that during their EU Council Presidency, Cyprus will exercise its duties in a neutral and credible manner, taking into consideration the positions of all EU member states, but that any actions undertaken during the Presidency should not in any way be interpreted as suggesting any change in their position in relation to non-recognition and to the status of Kosovo under international law.[285]

E
CountryPosition
 EcuadorIn response to a request from the University of Oxford regarding the analysis of developments related to the independence of Kosovo, in August 2008 the Ecuadorian Foreign Ministry stated that there should be "unrestricted compliance with the rules and principles of the United Nations Charter and International Law".[286]

At a meeting in January 2009 with Kosovo's Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, Ecuador's Ambassador to Austria, Maria Elena Moreira, said that the government of her country has carefully followed developments in Kosovo, and taking into account the recognition of Kosovo by European and Latin American countries, Ecuador will seriously consider the request for recognition of Kosovo as an independent and sovereign country.[287] At a meeting on 25 March 2009 with Hyseni, the Ambassador of Ecuador to the UN, Diego Morejón-Pazmino, said that Ecuador has been carefully following developments in Kosovo, and he stressed the importance of building democratic institutions and a society with rights guaranteed to all communities. Mr. Morejón-Pazmino also said that Ecuador would carefully examine developments before making a decision on whether to recognise Kosovo.[288]

 Equatorial GuineaIn a 1 September 2010 press conference, Equatorial Guinea's Permanent Representative to the UN, Anatolio Ndong Mba, said that his country's foreign policy favours Kosovo's independence.[289]

In September 2011, the President of Equatorial Guinea, Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, is reported to have responded positively to a request for recognition by Kosovo.[290] On 21 November 2011, in a meeting with First Deputy Prime Minister of Kosovo, Behgjet Pacolli, President Obiang reportedly promised to immediately begin formalising the recognition of Kosovo.[291]

In January 2012, Pacolli's advisor Jetlir Zyberaj stated that Kosovo had received confirmation of recognition from Equatorial Guinea but was awaiting receipt of the note verbale.[292]

 EritreaOn 4 September 2008, the Director of the Euro-Americas Division at the Eritrean Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Tsehaye Fassil, said that his Government had not decided whether it would recognise Kosovo's independence.[293]

In September 2011, the President of Eritrea, Isaias Afewerki, is reported to have responded positively to a request for recognition of Kosovo.[294]

In April 2014, the Eritrean Foreign Minister, Osman Saleh Mohammed, said Eritrea supports the right to self-determination and that his country would work to improve its relations with Kosovo.[295]

 EthiopiaAt a meeting in January 2009 with Kosovo's Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, Ethiopia's Ambassador to Austria, Kongit Sinegiorgis, stated that the Ethiopian Government remains committed to considering Kosovo and its recognition, and will bring a decision at the right time.[296]

According to Serbia, Hyseni and other members of his delegation were denied entry into Ethiopia in January 2010. They allegedly wanted to attend an African Union summit in order to lobby African nations to recognise Kosovo. Their visas were denied after pressure by the Serbian government, the Serbian Foreign Minister, Vuk Jeremić, said. Jeremić, who attended the summit, thanked his Ethiopian counterpart for denying the visas and supporting Serbia's cause. However, Kosovo's Foreign Ministry denies that they submitted any requests for visas.[297]

On 5 August 2012 it was reported that the Ethiopian government had formally recognised Kosovo, with Kosovo's Foreign Ministry awaiting the arrival of the note verbale.[298] In December 2014, amid a diplomatic dispute with Serbia, Ethiopia threatened to recognise Kosovo.[299]

G
CountryPosition
 GeorgiaThe Foreign Minister of Georgia, David Bakradze, said on 18 February 2008 that Tbilisi would not recognise Kosovo's independence, adding: "I think everyone in Georgia, regardless of political orientation, is unanimous on this".[300][301][302] On 29 March 2008 the prime minister, Lado Gurgenidze, gave a recorded interview in Estonia, in which he clearly said in English that as Georgia's friends have recognised Kosovo, it is only natural that eventually Georgia will do likewise. The printed publication of the interview elicited demands by the opposition to impeach him, and the government spokesman stated that the prime minister was misinterpreted, after which the Estonian paper Postimees, which conducted and printed the interview, released the audio to the world.[303] On 9 May 2008 President of Georgia, Mikheil Saakashvili, said "We are saying loud and clear that we have never planned to recognize Kosovo. Nor do we plan to do so in the future. The way out of the situation that has been chosen is not the best one. The Serbs should have been given more time for negotiations. The solution for Kosovo was a hasty one".[304]
 GreeceGreece does not recognise the independence of Kosovo, but has supported its membership in several international organisations.
 GuatemalaIn March 2008, the Guatemalan Foreign Minister, Haroldo Rodas, had said that he had objected to the recognition of Kosovo in deference to Russian concerns. However, the government was still considering recognising Kosovo.[305]

At a meeting on 26 March 2009 with Kosovo's Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, the Ambassador of Guatemala to the UN, Gert Rosenthal, said that his country's government is carefully studying the developments in Kosovo, and the ongoing preparations to present a case to the ICJ. He also said that Guatemala is working with others in Latin America to reach a decision.[306]

In April 2014, Guatemalan President Otto Pérez Molina said that his country would consider recognising Kosovo.[307]

I
CountryPosition
 India India has consistently refused to recognise the independence of Kosovo.
 IndonesiaIndonesia's reaction to Kosovo's independence has been mixed.
 IranOn 13 March 2008, Iranian president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad said that Iran, after considering the region's issues and conditions, had not recognized the independence of Kosovo.[308] In early March 2008, Gholamreza Ansari, Ambassador of Iran to Russia, said that "this question has very important aspects. Frankly speaking, the United Nations divided one of its members into two parts, though Article 1244 confirms the territorial integrity of Serbia. This is a very strange event. We think that some countries try to weaken international organizations. Presently, Iran is studying the question of Kosovo's future. Iran ... expresses its concern over the weakening of international organizations".[309]

In April 2012 during a visit in Belgrade Iranian Deputy Foreign Minister Ramin Mehmanparast said that Iran will adhere to its decision not to recognise the independence of Kosovo. Tehran on this issue is very clear and Iran is thereby giving its support to stability and safety in the region, Mehmanparast said. Mehmanparast added that Iran supported the Belgrade-Pristina dialogue as it believes that international law can channel the burning issues in the best manner possible.[310] In a 5 August 2012 interview, the Ambassador of Iran to Albania, Ali Amouei, said that he believes the sustainable way out of the Kosovo issue is talks with Serbia, and that Iran will not hesitate to officially recognise Kosovo once it has concluded that it would serve to establish peace and stability in the Balkans and the realization of the legitimate rights of Muslims in Kosovo.[311]

In February 2013, Amouei said that if the OIC concludes unanimously that recognising Kosovo helps peace and stability in the region, Iran will not avoid the recognition. He said that Iran's good relations with Serbia and Russia do not affect their position on Kosovo.[312]

 IraqAt a meeting on 28 May 2009 with Kosovo's Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, the representative of Iraq to the UN, Hamid Al Bayati, reportedly said that Kosovo deserves to be recognised by other states and that Iraq's decision to recognise will come at a suitable time.[313] At a meeting in September 2009 with Hyseni, Iraqi Foreign Minister, Hoshyar Zebari, said that Kosovo's request for recognition was being studied closely. He said that he would forward the request to his Government, and that "we understand the right of peoples to self-determination".[314]

On 18 February 2010, following a meeting with Iraqi prime minister Nouri al-Maliki, Serbian Foreign Minister Vuk Jeremić said that Serbia strongly supports Iraq's territorial integrity just as Iraq supports Serbia.[315] In May 2010, Ali al-Baldawi, a representative of the Islamic Supreme Council of Iraq, reportedly said that relations would be established with Kosovo once his party, which won the latest elections, forms a new government.[316] On 6 August 2010, following a meeting with prime minister al-Maliki, the Serbian Defence Minister Dragan Šutanovac said that Iraq did not recognise the independence of Kosovo and added that Iraq had supported the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Serbia.[317]

In March 2011, Kosovo's prime minister Hashim Thaçi met with the Iraqi vice-president Tariq al-Hashimi, who promised that Iraq would consider the recognition of Kosovo in the immediate future to open the way for the promotion of good relations between the two countries.[318] In October 2011 Iraq's ambassador to Belgrade, Falah Abdulsada, said that Iraq supports international law and international mechanisms, and has not changed its position of non-recognition of Kosovo.[319]

In September 2012, Iraqi president, Jalal Talabani, said that he appreciated the interest of the Republic of Kosovo in creating friendship with his country, and he invited Kosovo's deputy prime minister, Behgjet Pacolli, to make an official visit to Iraq in order to discuss in more depth further steps to create inter-state relations.[320] In November 2012, Zebari expressed his country's support for an independent Kosovo, and appreciated the progress achieved in Kosovo after the declaration of independence. He also said that Iraqi authorities follow the developments in Kosovo with great care.[321]

J
CountryPosition
 JamaicaThe Jamaican Government in 2009 refused a request from the United States to recognise Kosovo. On 23 July 2009 the Under Secretary for Multilateral Affairs at the Jamaican Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Foreign Trade, Ambassador Vilma McNish, indicated that she expected no change in the Government of Jamaica's decision not to extend formal diplomatic recognition to Kosovo.[322][323]

Following April 2010 meetings with Jamaican officials, Serbian Foreign Minister Vuk Jeremić stated that Serbia can count on Jamaica's continued support in the preservation of its sovereignty and territorial integrity.[324]

On 20 February 2020, the president of Kosovo Hashim Thaçi issued a statement on Twitter thanking Jamaica for recognizing Kosovo as a sovereign and independent country. This was, however, denied by Jamaica's Minister of Foreign Affairs and Foreign Trade Kamina Johnson-Smith the same day.[325][326][327]

K
CountryPosition
 KazakhstanIn February 2008, a Kazakh foreign ministry spokesperson said that Kazakhstan opposes Kosovo's unilateral proclamation of independence. Kazakhstan insists the Kosovo issue should be solved peacefully in accordance with UN principles on national sovereignty and territorial integrity, the spokesperson said.[328] In October 2008, Kazakh Foreign Minister Marat Tazhin said that "the principle of territorial integrity is key in international law" and that for this reason Kazakhstan did not recognise Kosovo or Abkhazia and South Ossetia.[329] In December 2008, Kazakh prime minister Karim Masimov stated that "We have an official position. Kazakhstan did not recognise Kosovo and does not recognise Abkhazia and South Ossetia. We consider that borders are defined and Kazakhstan will not recognise any new states".[330]
 KenyaAt a meeting on 30 July 2008 between Kenyan and Serbian Foreign Ministers, Moses Wetangula and Vuk Jeremić, Wetangula spoke of Kenya's principled position regarding Kosovo and the territorial integrity of Serbia.[331]

At a meeting on 27 May 2009 with Kosovo's Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, the representative of Kenya to the UN, Zachary Muburi-Muita, said that "Kosovo deserves a place in the family of nations" and that he will pass the request for recognition to his government. He also said that a right for self-determination is an undeniable right.[332]

Following a September 2010 meeting with Kenyan politicians, Albanian prime minister Sali Berisha said that Kenya had promised to decide positively regarding recognition of Kosovo.[333]

In October 2012, Prime Minister of Kenya, Raila Odinga, stated that Kenya was seriously considering recognising Kosovo, and that a decision would be announced shortly.[334]

 North KoreaIn March 2017, North Korean Ambassador Ri Pyong Du visited Belgrade and affirmed North Korean support for Serbia's territorial integrity.[335]
 KyrgyzstanIn February 2008, a statement issued by Kyrgyz Foreign Ministry states that Kyrgyzstan will not recognise Kosovo's independence and considers it a dangerous precedent for separatist organisations in the world.[336][337]
L
CountryPosition
 LaosOn 27 February 2008, the Lao Foreign Ministry issued a statement saying that "The Lao PDR urged all sides to respect the resolution of the UN Security Council No 1244, dated 10 June 1999, recognizing Kosovo as a Serbian province".[338]
 LebanonAt a meeting on 28 May 2009 with Kosovo's Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, the representative of Lebanon to the UN, Nawaf Salam, reportedly said that Lebanon will continue to support Kosovo and that the government of Lebanon is seeking the moment for recognition.[339] In a November 2009 meeting between an Albanian delegation led by Deputy Foreign Minister, Edith Harxhi, and Lebanese officials including prime minister Saad Hariri, the Lebanese side reportedly said that Lebanon would soon recognise Kosovo.[340] However, the Lebanese ambassador in Belgrade, Cehad Mualem, was later reported as saying that there was no possibility of Lebanon recognising Kosovo in the near future. He said that Lebanon would wait for the decision of the ICJ.[341]

In a February 2012 meeting with the speaker of Albanian Parliament, Jozefina Topalli, the Lebanese prime minister, Najib Mikati, said that the issue of Kosovo's recognition is being considered very seriously.[342]

In December 2013, Lebanese Foreign Minister Adnan Mansour promised to consider Kosovo's request for recognition.[343]

On 29 November 2018, Lebanese Foreign Minister Gebran Bassil visited Belgrade and reaffirmed in a joint press conference with his Serbian counterpart, Ivica Dačić, that Lebanon supports the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Serbia. Bassil also added "Lebanon and Serbia share common sovereign tendencies, as well as their rejection of division and isolation."[344] [345]

M
CountryPosition
 MaliMali's president Amadou Toumani Touré was reported in the press in March 2008 as having expressed the Malian stance on Kosovo as follows: "International norms must be respected, because their abuse and the violation of territorial integrity could threaten a series of countries with a similar problem".[346]

In a 21 May 2010 meeting with Serbian prime minister, Mirko Cvetković, Mali's Foreign Minister, Moctar Ouane, said that Serbia can count on Mali's support in its efforts to preserve its sovereignty and territorial integrity.[347]

In August 2011 meeting with Kosovo's First deputy prime minister Behgjet Pacolli, Touré is reported to have said that recognition of Kosovo will be seriously considered by Mali.[348]

Following the August 2012 publication of a note verbale recognising Kosovo's independence, purportedly signed by acting President of Mali, Dioncounda Traoré,[349] state run media in Mali issued a statement in which the Presidency of Mali denied recognising Kosovo and claimed that the document was a fabrication.[350] Pacolli claimed that the Malian Army, who had recently seized control of the state in a coup d'état due to dissatisfaction over the governments handling of their own separatist uprising in Azawad, had intervened to reverse the recognition granted by the civilian president.[351] On Pacolli's return to Mali to seek clarification on the issue, state leaders promised to reconfirm their recognition.[352]

 MauritiusOn 8 May 2008, Mauritian Secretary General for Foreign Affairs, Anand Neewoor, stated that the Government of Mauritius would not recognise Kosovo any time soon because of their concerns that it would have implications for their "fight to regain the Chagos Islands". Neewoor said of a few African countries that had recognised Kosovo, that they were "only countries without concerns of split away regions".[353] On 28 August 2008, Patrice Cure, head of the Multilateral Division at the Mauritian Foreign Ministry, indicated no willingness by his government to reconsider its stance on Kosovo, continuing to hold the line connecting Kosovo to Chagos issues.[354]

In June 2009, the Mauritian prime minister, Navin Ramgoolam, had called the US Embassy in Port Louis to say that he had decided that Mauritius would recognise Kosovo, despite opposition from his foreign ministry.[355]

 MexicoOn 19 February 2008, the Mexican Secretariat of Foreign Affairs issued a statement saying that Mexico is closely paying attention to the situation as it develops in order to adopt, at an opportune moment, a position on the declaration of independence. The same statement called on all parties to agree peacefully, through dialogue, on the final status of Kosovo and to reach an agreement on the rights of minorities and the maintenance of peace and security in the Balkans.[356] Mexican government officials have since then repeatedly underlined that Mexico does not intend to recognise Kosovo.[357]
 MoldovaKosovo's declaration creates "deep concerns in the Republic of Moldova," the Moldovan government said in a February 2008 statement. Moldova will not recognise Kosovo's independence.[358] In December 2013, Moldovan Defence Minister Vitalie Marinuta stated on a visit to Serbia that Moldova will not recognise Kosovo.[359]
 MongoliaOn 8 May 2009, Kosovo's president Fatmir Sejdiu met Nyamaa Enkhbold, the Mongolian Deputy Parliament Speaker, to request recognition of Kosovo by Mongolia. Mr. Enkhbold reportedly promised to deal with the request once he had returned home.[360]

In a 17 July 2012 meeting with Kosovo's deputy prime minister, Edita Tahiri, both the Mongolian president and the Minister of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj and Gombojav Zandanshatar, said that Mongolia would consider recognising the independence of Kosovo. Elbegdorj promised that Mongolia would seriously consider recognising the independence of Kosovo in the very near future, and has a very high appreciation for the movement of the people of Kosovo for freedom and independence. Zandanshatar promised that his country would deliberate the issue of recognising Kosovo's independence.[361]

 MoroccoAt a meeting in January 2009 with Kosovo's Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, Morocco's Ambassador to Austria, Omar Zniber, said that Morocco is carefully watching developments in Kosovo. He said, "People and institutions of my country understand and support the will of Kosovo people. We have been and remain close to Kosovo; I can tell you that my country is having wide consult[ation]s with other countries on the issue of Kosovo recognition. We will make a decision for Kosovo at [the] right time".[362] During a September 2009 visit to Rabat, Serbian Foreign Minister Vuk Jeremić said that Moroccan leaders had confirmed that Rabat had consolidated its position on not recognising Kosovo. Morocco's Foreign Minister Taieb Fassi Fihri stated that entities could not become states by unilateral declarations of independence, but only through UN processes or mutual consent.[363]

In June 2011, Moroccan government representatives explained that they had difficulty in recognising Kosovo due to the political context of Western Sahara.[364]

On 6 July 2012, Morocco's Foreign Minister, Saad-Eddine El Othmani pledged that the highest state institutions would review a request for recognition by Kosovo, and a decision on recognition would be made within an appropriate period.[365] In an 8 October 2012 meeting between the Prime Ministers of Albania and Morocco, Sali Berisha and Abdelilah Benkirane, Mr. Benkirane promised to consider a request from the Albanian authorities to recognise Kosovo as it is a very important subject for the region.[366]

 MozambiqueIn February 2008, Mozambican Deputy Foreign Minister Henrique Banze said in reference to Kosovo's declaration of independence, "We shall wait for the appropriate moment. It's a very sensitive matter and like all matters of this kind, it demands a lot of thought. Our government will work so that it may make the most appropriate decision in this case".[367] In November 2008 Mozambique's ambassador to the UN, Filipe Chidumo, stated that his government is monitoring developments, and that it "understands Kosovo's people's will for freedom and independence".[368]

At a meeting on 18 June 2009 with Kosovo's Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, Ambassador Chidumo reportedly said that the issue of Kosovo continues to remain on Mozambique's agenda and that he would resubmit the request for recognition to his government.[241]

In September 2012, Mozambique's Minister for Foreign Affairs and Co-Operation, Oldemiro Julio Marques Baloi, said that his government would reconsider recognising Kosovo.[369]

 MyanmarIn January 2014, it was reported that Myanmar's Ministry of Foreign Affairs had sent a note to officials in Kosovo informing them of that they had recognised Kosovo's independence. However, Pacolli and Hoxhaj quickly denied that they had received any such note.[370]
N
CountryPosition
 NamibiaIn September 2010, following talks with Namibian officials, Serbian Foreign Minister Vuk Jeremić stated that Namibia has no intentions of recognising Kosovo. The Foreign Minister of Namibia Utoni Nujoma said that the most important thing is to continue to search for a peaceful solution to the problem of Kosovo and that the opportunities should be sought for reconciliation between nations in the Balkans.[371]
   NepalA leaked 2009 cable from the US Embassy in Kathmandu states that during a meeting with US Assistant Secretary Richard Boucher, the Foreign Secretary of Nepal, Gyan Chandra Acharya, said that the Government of Nepal had yet to decide if it would recognise the independence of Kosovo. Acharya acknowledged that Nepal understood the US interest in Kosovo's recognition but could not make a decision at the time because of regional sensitivities.[372]
 NicaraguaIn February 2008, the Chancellor of Nicaragua, Samuel Santos, said that the government of his country maintains a position of "observation" to the unilateral declaration of independence of Kosovo. "Nicaragua is watching the issue of Kosovo's independence, we have friends who are in agreement with this independence and other friends who disagree, there are some who are saying that [independence] is a threat to peace in that tender area. We just look at [this case and] we have no opinion on this issue."[373]
 NigeriaIn July 2009, Umaru Yar'Adua, President of Nigeria, said that Nigeria will not recognise Kosovo as an independent nation. He said the decision not to recognise Kosovo was informed by Nigeria's historical experience of the civil war of 1967 to 1970, fought to maintain its territorial integrity and sovereignty saying that "Since the end of the civil war, Nigeria has continued to embark on nation-building policies and strategies to forge a heterogeneous, yet inclusive nation".[374]

In November 2009, Ojo Maduekwe, Foreign Minister of Nigeria (and former advocate of Biafran independence), emphasised that Nigeria will never recognise the independence of Kosovo.[375]

In August 2011, Kosovo's First Deputy Prime Minister Behgjet Pacolli said that he had received from senior Nigerian state leaders support and guarantee that Kosovo recognition would be seriously dealt with in a short period of time.[376]

Reports of Nigeria recognising Kosovo appeared in 2011.[25][377] In a 22 September 2011 statement, a spokesman for the Nigerian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Damian Agwu, said that the Nigerian Federal Government had decided to "open a trade office in Pristina".[378] However, the following day the Ministry reversed course and said no trade office would be opened.[379]

It was reported in September 2012 that Olugbenga Ashiru, Nigerian Foreign Minister, had denied that the recognition took place.[380] Behgjet Pacolli, the First Deputy Prime Minister of Kosovo, reiterated that the recognition occurred and claimed that Ashiru never spoke with the Gazeta Express.[381]

In January 2013, former Foreign Minister of Kosovo Skënder Hyseni said that the recognitions by Nigeria and Uganda were "contested, not only by the respective states, but also by the US State Department". Current Foreign Minister, Enver Hoxhaj, stated that he is certain that the number of recognitions is valid.[382] The lack of recognition was confirmed by the Nigerian Foreign Minister in March 2014.[383]

P
CountryPosition
 ParaguayIn February 2008, the Ministry of Foreign Relations of Paraguay published a statement saying that Paraguay took note of the independence declaration and was analysing the situation.[384]

In April 2010, it was reported that the Paraguayan president had told Kosovan pilot James Berisha, who was on an awareness-raising journey around Central and South America, that Paraguay had already recognised Kosovo's independence but had not made this known so as not to jeopardise their relationship with Russia.[385]

 PhilippinesIn February 2008, Foreign Affairs Secretary Alberto Romulo said in a statement: "Considering the existing sensibilities in the region, continued dialogue should be encouraged among all the parties concerned to ensure regional stability". He also said the Philippines is not willing to recognise Kosovo as an independent nation.[386] On 19 February 2008, Romulo stated that recognition could complicate peace talks with Muslim separatists in Mindanao. He said that "while the Philippines does not oppose the idea of independence for Kosovo, it would prefer a settlement ... taking into account the internationally accepted principles of sovereignty and territorial integrity".[387]

In a November 2012 meeting with Kosovo's Foreign Minister, Enver Hoxhaj, Foreign Affairs Undersecretary, Rafael E. Seguis, pledged support for Kosovo, saying that his country has full understanding for the independence of Kosovo and that he would consider the request for recognition.[388]

R
CountryPosition
 Romania On 18 February 2008, a joint session of the Parliament of Romania voted not to recognise Kosovo's independence by 357 to 27, with support from all parties except the UDMR. Furthermore, the President and the Prime Minister opposed recognition.[389][390] However, years later, in May 2015, Prime Minister Victor Ponta stated that "in 2008, Romania decided not to recognize Kosovo. However, things have changed since then. Governments have changed and some new decision on the recognition of Kosovo could be made... because many things have changed in Kosovo since 2008".[391]
 RussiaOriginally, Russia strongly opposed Kosovo's independence. But in 2014, when it recognised the Declaration of Independence of the Republic of Crimea, Russia's Ministry of Foreign Affairs cited Kosovo's declaration and the ICJ decision as evidence that unilateral declarations of independence are not inconsistent with international law[392] (the Kosovo independence precedent).
 RwandaOn 11 February 2009, the Director of International Organisations at Rwanda's Foreign Ministry, Ben Rutsinga, said that the African Union had no unified position on Kosovo independence and that Rwanda would not reach an "individual determination" in advance of such a unified position.[393] On 18 September 2009, the Rwandan Foreign Minister, Rosemary Museminali, said that some countries would be likely to criticise a Rwandan recognition of Kosovo, accusing Rwanda of taking that stance in order to lay the basis for a similar breakaway by parts of eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. She added that the Government of Kosovo had requested a meeting with her but she had not responded.[394]
S
CountryPosition
 Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesIn February 2008, when asked about Kosovo, the Prime Minister of St. Vincent & the Grenadines, Ralph Gonsalves, said that "if the people of a country want independence, then I think they should have it".[395]

At a meeting in August 2011 with U.S. Representative, Eliot Engel, both St. Vincent & the Grenadines' Prime Minister and Foreign Minister, Ralph Gonsalves and Louis Straker, took on board the case for recognition of Kosovo and promised to review the issue.[396]

 São Tomé and PríncipeIn March 2012, São Tomé and Príncipe's Council of Ministers under then Prime Minister Patrice Trovoada adopted a resolution recognising Kosovo's independence.[397] In January 2013, President Manuel Pinto da Costa issued a communication stating that the recognition was invalid as he had not been consulted on the decision, as required by the country's Constitution.[398][399][400][401] New Prime Minister Gabriel Costa said that the process of recognition was an anomalous situation.[402] Kosovo Foreign Minister, Enver Hoxhaj, insisted that the recognition remains valid.[382] First Deputy Prime Minister of Kosovo Behgjet Pacolli said that he received a note verbale recognising Kosovo from Trovoada and that it was a closed issue.[403]
 SerbiaSee above
 SeychellesIn September 2012, the Seychelles' Foreign Minister, Jean-Paul Adam, said that his country is not against Kosovo's independence, and that formal recognition will occur very soon.[404][405]

In September 2014, Adam said that Seychelles will consider the recognition of Kosovo with utmost seriousness.[406]

 SlovakiaSlovakia has not recognised Kosovo, but has given indications that its stance could change in the future, especially if independence will be agreed with Serbia.
 South Africa South Africa's reaction to the independence of Kosovo has been mixed.
 South SudanIn July 2011, Kosovo's First deputy prime minister, Behgjet Pacolli, was invited to attend South Sudan's independence ceremony.[407]

In September 2012, South Sudan's vice-president, Riek Machar Teny, invited Kosovo's prime minister, Hashim Thaçi, to South Sudan to discuss building bilateral relations between the two countries.[408] During an October 2012 meeting with Pacolli, South Sudan's president Salva Kiir Mayardit stated his country's desire to maintain friendly relations with Kosovo. He reiterated the position that South Sudan supports the right of the citizens of Kosovo to build and consolidate their state.[409] In September 2013 the Foreign Minister of South Sudan, Barnaba Marial Benjamin, confirmed that the recognition of Kosovo is a matter of time.[256]

In April 2014, Benjamin said that positive news in regards to improving relations with Kosovo should be expected.[295] In September 2014, Benjamin said that South Sudan is considering with seriousness the recognition of the independence and will follow all the procedures in order to do so.[410]

 Spain Spain is the only major country in Western Europe that has not recognised Kosovo, originally because of objections to the legality of its unilateral declaration of independence under international law, and also due to concerns about possible implications regarding its own issues with domestic independence movements.[17] Although it has given indications that its stance may change, increasing political tensions make it unlikely that Spain will soften its current position.
 Sri LankaIn February 2008, the Foreign Ministry of Sri Lanka called Kosovo's declaration of independence a violation of the UN Charter and emphasised its concern that the act "could set an unmanageable precedent in the conduct of international relations, the established global order of sovereign States and could thus pose a grave threat to international peace and security".[411]

In a June 2009 meeting with Serbian president Boris Tadić, Sri Lankan president Mahinda Rajapaksa re-affirmed his country's solidarity with Serbia and stated that Sri Lanka remained firmly opposed to Kosovo's independence as it threatened the international order. Rajapaksa said that there could be no right for countries to be formed by secession, which was in violation of the UN Charter and the principles of national sovereignty.[412]

In a September 2011 meeting with Kosovo's First deputy prime minister Behgjet Pacolli, Rajapaksa promised that Sri Lanka will continue to cooperate and expressed his willingness to continue contacts which would lead to the construction of interstate relations in the future.[413] In February 2013, the Prime Minister of Sri Lanka, D. M. Jayaratne, stated that the recognition of Kosovo by Sri Lanka will be reviewed.[414]

 SudanAt the summit of the OIC on 10 March 2008, Sudan opposed adoption of the document, proposed by Turkey, that would lend support to Kosovo's declaration of independence.[237] On 28 August 2008, Sudan's envoy to the UN Abdelmahmood Abdelhaleem stated that his government remains opposed to the independence of Kosovo and that they will support Serbia's request that the UNGA ask for an advisory opinion from the ICJ.[415]

In a September 2010 meeting between the Foreign Ministers of Kosovo and Sudan, Skënder Hyseni and Ali Karti, Mr. Karti said that Sudan has closely followed the decision of the ICJ, and will, sooner or later, support Kosovo.[416]

 SyriaOn 13 May 2009, Syria's ambassador to Serbia, Majed Shadoud, reported that Syrian president Bashar al-Assad told Serbian Foreign Minister Vuk Jeremić that his country continues to oppose the recognition of the independence of Kosovo. Shadoud quoted al-Assad as saying "Syria urges a political solution for the situation in the Balkans and the Middle East and is opposed to any kind of divisions in both regions, regardless of whether religious, ethnic or nationalist reasons are in question".[417]

In April 2012 a Syrian opposition delegation (Syrian National Council) led by Ammar Abdulhamid visited Pristina and promised to recognise Kosovo immediately if they triumph in Syria.[418]

T
CountryPosition
 TajikistanIn February 2008, the Chairman of the International Affairs Committee of the Tajik Assembly of Representatives, Asomudin Saidov, stated that Tajikistan will not recognise Kosovo's independence as it considers it to be the violation of legal norms and a danger for Europe.[419] According to leaked US cables, Tajikistan does not want to take a position on Kosovo due to concerns with the precedent for Abkhazia and South Ossetia.[420]
 Trinidad and TobagoOn 20 February 2008, Trinidad and Tobago's Foreign Minister Paula Gopee-Scoon took a positive stance and promised the US Ambassador that she would pursue the matter of Kosovo's recognition.[421]

At a meeting on 25 March 2009 with Kosovo's Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, the Ambassador of Trinidad and Tobago to the UN, Maria Annette Valere, said that her country knows how important the process of international recognition is for Kosovo, and that the government of Trinidad and Tobago would address the request for recognition in the near future.[422]

 TunisiaAt a meeting on 28 May 2009 with Kosovo's Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, the representative of Tunisia to the UN, Jalel Snoussi, reportedly said that he would inform the Tunisian authorities of Kosovo's request for recognition.[423] In November 2009, the Ambassador of Tunisia to Serbia, Houria Ferchichi, said that Tunisia supports Serbia's commitment to a peaceful and compromised solution of the Kosovo issue through the UN, and the efforts of Serbian diplomacy in that direction.[424]

In a September 2010 meeting between the Foreign Ministers of Kosovo and Tunisia, Skënder Hyseni and Kamel Morjane, Mr. Morjane said that Tunisia will take the opinion of the ICJ very seriously, and will review Kosovo's request for recognition in government.[416]

In an August 2011 meeting with Kosovo's First deputy prime minister, Behgjet Pacolli, the leader of the Ennahda Movement, Rashid al-Ghannushi, "guaranteed Tunisia would recognize Kosovo if his party won the elections".[425][426] On 29 October 2011, following a meeting with representatives of Ennahda Movement, Pacolli reported that Tunisia was expected to recognise Kosovo following the forthcoming elections.[427]

At a meeting in October 2012 with Albanian Foreign Minister and Chairman of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe, Edmond Panariti, the Tunisian Foreign Minister, Rafik Abdessalem, said that his government is seriously considering the issue of the recognition of Kosovo.[428]

In January 2013, Abdessalem stressed that the decision to recognise Kosovo was in the final stages and that it was only a matter of time before this occurs,[429] while prime minister Hamadi Jebali stated that there were no obstacles to recognition.[430] However, in late February the Tunisian ambassador to Serbia, Majid Hamlaoui, said that Tunisia would not recognise Kosovo, despite outside pressure for recognition.[431]

 TurkmenistanIn a September 2010 meeting with Albanian prime minister Sali Berisha, Turkmen president Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow said that his country would consider the recognition of Kosovo at the right time.[432]
U
CountryPosition
 UgandaIn February 2008, a senior Ugandan official said that the Ugandan government is carefully studying Kosovo's declaration of independence before it makes a decision to recognise it as a state or not.[328] At a meeting on 26 March 2009 between the Kosovan Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, and Ruhakana Rugunda, the Ambassador of Uganda to the UN, Mr. Rugunda expressed the need for intensification of contacts between the two countries for the purposes of information and co-operation. He also said that Uganda would in time take the optimal decision for Kosovo.[433]

In August 2011, Ugandan Foreign Minister Sam Kutesa wrote to Kosovo's Deputy Prime Minister Behgjet Pacolli promising to review the request for recognition in line with the ICJ decision.[434] In February 2012 Kosovo's MFA announced that Uganda had recognised their independence, citing a note verbale dated 5 December 2011 from Uganda's President Yoweri Museveni which expressed congratulations "on the advancement towards your country's independence" and that "we are behind other nations that have recognized the Republic of Kosovo".[435][436] Serbian Foreign Minister Vuk Jeremić responded that Ugandan State Foreign Minister Henry Oryem Okello had informed him that the recognition never took place.[437] In January 2013, former Foreign Minister of Kosovo Skënder Hyseni said that the recognitions by Nigeria and Uganda were "contested, not only by the respective states, but also by the US State Department". Current Foreign Minister, Enver Hoxhaj, stated that he is certain that the number of recognitions is valid.[382]

In an article posted in June 2014, Kosovo's MFA listed Uganda as a state that had not recognised Kosovo.[438]

 UkraineUkraine refuses to recognise the independence of Kosovo and supports the territorial integrity of Serbia.
 UruguayAccording to Ultimas Noticias, in March 2008 "Uruguay has not recognised Kosovo's declaration of independence, because doing so would not be in accordance with its required three pillars of recognition: the principle of territorial integrity of states, achieving a solution through dialogue and consensus, and recognition by international organisations."[439]

On 27 September 2010, Uruguayan Deputy Foreign Minister Roberto Conde, stated that Uruguay would never recognise the independence of Kosovo.[440]

 UzbekistanIn February 2008, the Uzbek government believes that questions of independence should be decided in the UN assembly. As for Kosovo, Uzbekistan has yet to come up with a final position.[441]
V
CountryPosition
 VenezuelaIn February 2008, Venezuelan president Hugo Chávez announced that Venezuela does not recognise Kosovo's independence on the grounds that it has been achieved through U.S. pressure and criticised a recent political movement calling out for a more autonomous Zulia State.[251][442] On 24 March 2008, Chavez accused Washington of trying to "weaken Russia" by supporting independence for Kosovo. He called Kosovo's prime minister Hashim Thaçi, a "terrorist" put in power by the U.S. and noted that the former rebel leader's nom de guerre was "The Snake".[443]
 VietnamIn February 2008, the Vietnamese UN Ambassador Le Luong Minh "reaffirmed Vietnam policy that the fact that Kosovo's unilateral declaration of independence is not a correct implementation of the U.N. Security Council Resolution 1244 and that will only complicate the situation in Kosovo and the Balkan region".[444]

In a 23 February 2011 meeting with Serbian Foreign Minister Vuk Jeremić, Vietnamese deputy prime minister, Pham Gia Khiem, reaffirmed Vietnam's position of supporting "Kosovo-related issues under the United Nations Security Council's decree to gain comprehensive measures in terms of respecting national sovereignty and territorial integrity, and assuring the benefits of involved nations".[445] In a 24 November 2011 meeting with Albanian deputy prime minister and Foreign Minister, Edmond Haxhinasto, Vietnam's Foreign Minister, Pham Binh Minh, said that Vietnam is following the developments in Kosovo, and that Serbia and Kosovo should continue the dialogue to find common ground that will be acceptable to both parties.[446]

Z
CountryPosition
 ZambiaIn March 2008, Zambian Foreign Minister, Kabinga Pande, said that Zambia has not decided its position on the declaration of Kosovo's independence. Pande said the government needs more time to analyse the matter.[447] According to leaked US cables, Zambia does not want to take a position on Kosovo due to concerns with the precedent for the Lozi tribe, an ethnic group primarily inhabiting western Zambia, which has an active separatist movement for independence from Zambia.[448]

In a September 2010 meeting with Kosovo's Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, Mr. Pande said that Zambia is carefully studying the opinion of the ICJ and that the request for recognition will be processed soon.[449] In a subsequent meeting with the Albanian Foreign Minister, Edmond Haxhinasto, Mr. Pande said that Kosovo's independence is an irreversible reality and that the decision of the ICJ's opinion eased the decision on recognition of Kosovo for many African countries.[450]

On 27 February 2011, regarding a request to recognise Kosovo, Pande stated that "We will evaluate that request. It will have to undergo scrutiny like we always do".[451]

In September 2012, Zambian Foreign Minister, Given Lubinda, said that his country has no reason not to recognise Kosovo.[452]

Zambia's Minister of Home Affairs, Edgar Lungu, stated in December 2013 that his government will thoroughly discuss and clear all the grey areas before any decision can be made over Kosovo,[453] and that recognition of Kosovo was Zambia's priority.[454]

 ZimbabweIn April 2011, Claudius Nhema, Deputy Director of Protocol in the Foreign Ministry of Zimbabwe, reportedly told Kosovan pilot James Berisha that Zimbabwe would be considering Kosovo's recognition, but that they should wait for a recommendation from the Zimbabwean UN representative who should bring it to the Foreign Ministry after which it would be taken to Parliament for ratification.[455]

In February 2013, the then Prime Minister of Zimbabwe, Morgan Tsvangirai, said that he would consider recognising Kosovo.[456]

Other states and entities

CountryPosition
 AbkhaziaIn February 2008 Abkhazian de facto president Sergei Bagapsh, regarded "the promotion of Kosovo by the U.S.A. and some European states towards the declaration of independence as a visible demonstration of the policy of double standards". "Why does not the world community put any attention to the violent actions against ethnic minorities living in Kosovo..., the lack of interethnic reconciliation...", Sergey Bagapsh noted. "We are solidly convinced of the fact that [now] we have got an even wider moral base for the recognition of our independence."[457] On 5 September 2008, the Abkhazian Foreign Minister Sergei Shamba said he was ready to recognise Kosovo's independence, "if Kosovo agrees to recognize our own (Abkhazia) independence, we will certainly recognize them as well".[458][459]
 ArtsakhIn February 2008, Georgiy Petrosyan, Foreign Minister of the Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh, said that he does not regard the conflict between his motherland and Azerbaijan, and the conflict between Kosovo and Serbia as completely similar. He noted that "approaches and solutions, which have recommended themselves while regulating one problem, can be used when looking for a solution to another one". Petrosyan stated that "the recognition of independent Kosovo will become an additional factor strengthening the status of [the] Stepanakert government" that he represents.[460] On 12 March 2008 following Kosovo's declaration of independence, the National Assembly of Nagorno-Karabakh adopted a statement calling on the world's parliaments to be consistent in their recognition of states established on the basis of the right for self-determination and not to use double standards. The statement commended the stance of the international community respecting the human and civil rights of the majority of Kosovo's population.[461]
In December 2011, it was reported that Vasily Atajanyan, the acting foreign minister of Nagorno-Karabakh, had said that Nagorno-Karabakh would recognise Kosovo if recognition were reciprocated. In response, Enver Hoxhaj, Foreign Minister of Kosovo, said that Kosovo can only have formal relations with members of the UN.[462]
  Holy See The reaction of the Holy See has been unclear. Since Kosovo's declaration there has been information suggesting de facto recognition, and information suggesting that this was not the case.
 Northern CyprusIn February 2008, the President of Northern Cyprus Mehmet Ali Talat welcomed Kosovo's independence, but a presidential spokesman said that the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus was not planning to recognise Kosovo.[463][464][465]
 PalestineIn February 2008, two senior Palestinian officials representing the Mahmoud Abbas West Bank-controlling government, who also are part of the team negotiating with Israel, disagreed on what the Kosovo events implied for Palestine. Yasser Abed Rabbo said, "If things are not going in the direction of continuous and serious negotiations, then we should take the step and announce our independence unilaterally. Kosovo is not better than us. We deserve independence even before Kosovo, and we ask for the backing of the United States and the European Union for our independence". Saeb Erekat responded that the Palestine Liberation Organization had already declared independence in 1988. "Now we need real independence, not a declaration," said Erekat, "We need real independence by ending the occupation. We are not Kosovo. We are under Israeli occupation and for independence we need to acquire independence".[466]
During a July 2009 state visit to Serbia, President of the Palestinian National Authority, Mahmoud Abbas, when discussing both the situations in the Middle East and Kosovo said, "We are looking for a way to resolve these problems in a peaceful way, by upholding international law. We cannot impose solutions nor can we accept imposed solutions. That is why we must negotiate".[467][468]
In June 2011, Ibrahim Khraishi, Palestine's representative to the UN in Geneva, stated that Palestine supports Kosovo's integration into the European and international communities, and supports its independence.[469] In September 2011, during the meeting of Foreign Ministers of the Non-Aligned Movement summit in Belgrade, the Palestinian Ambassador to the UN Riyad Mansour said that Palestine was a "typical foreign occupation which cannot be compared to the issue of Kosovo" as confirmed by international law and the UN.[470][471]
 Sahrawi Arab Democratic RepublicThe Polisario Front, which governs the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, has stated that the speedy recognition of Kosovo's independence by many countries shows the double standards of the international community, considering that the Western Sahara issue remains unsolved after three decades.[472]
 SomalilandIn 2010, the President of Somaliland, Ahmed Mahamoud Silanyo, said, "We are heartened by Kosovo and what's happened to Southern Sudan that means it opens the door for us. The principle that countries should remain as they were at the time of independence has changed so why should it not work for us as well".[473]
 South OssetiaIn February 2008, the South Ossetian de facto president, Eduard Kokoity, stated that it is not fair to compare this breakaway region with Kosovo because South Ossetians have far more right to a state of their own than Kosovo Albanians. He said that "Kosovo Albanians got independence after NATO's aggression on Serbia. Americans and NATO member countries took away Serbia's province. I feel sincerely for the Serb people," and that "Serbs had a well-organized state that provided for a normal life for Albanians. For this reason, what Americans have done to the Serbs is injustice".[474]
TransnistriaTransnistria has no policy towards Kosovo, but the Transnistrian Foreign Ministry has said that "The declaration and recognition of Kosovo are of fundamental importance, since thereby a new conflict settlement model has been established, based on the priority of people's right to self-determination. Pridnestrovie [Transnistria] holds that this model should be applicable to all conflicts which have similar political, legal, and economic bases".[475]

Positions taken by intergovernmental organisations

Intergovernmental organisations do not themselves diplomatically recognise any state; their member states do so individually. However, depending on the intergovernmental organisation's rules of internal governance and the positions of their member states, they may express positive or negative opinions as to declarations of independence, or choose to offer or withhold membership to a partially recognised state.

International organisationPosition
 Arab LeagueIn May 2009, the Secretary General of the Arab League, Amr Moussa, welcomed a request by Kosovo's Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, to establish regular communications.[476] At a meeting on 18 June 2009 with Hyseni, the representative of the Arab League to the UN, Yahya A. Mahmassani, said that the Kosovo issue is being discussed at the Arab League, and that there would be gradual movement towards recognition as most Arab states are supportive of Kosovo.[241]
Member states (12 / 22)

Algeria • Bahrain  • Comoros • Djibouti  • Egypt  • Iraq • Jordan  • Kuwait  • Lebanon • Libya  • Mauritania  • Morocco • Oman • Palestine • Qatar  • Saudi Arabia  • Somalia  • Sudan • Syria • Tunisia • United Arab Emirates  • Yemen 

  – Have recognised Kosovo.
 Caribbean Community (CARICOM)In August 2010, Albanian Parliament Speaker Jozefina Topalli received a letter from the chairman of the Grenadian Parliament, George J. McGuire, stating that CARICOM members would soon make a joint decision on the recognition of Kosovo.[477]
On 19 August 2011, it was reported that the CARICOM members had made a joint decision to recognise Kosovo, but that each state would announce official recognition separately.[478]
Member states (8 / 15)

Antigua and Barbuda  • Bahamas • Barbados  • Belize  • Dominica • Grenada • Guyana  • Haiti  • Jamaica • Montserrat  • Saint Kitts and Nevis  • Saint Lucia  • Saint Vincent and the Grenadines • Suriname • Trinidad and Tobago

  – Have recognised Kosovo.
  – British Overseas Territory; the UK (which recognises Kosovo) represents its foreign affairs.
Council of Europe (CoE)Kosovo plans to apply for membership in the CoE since it considers that it fulfills the statutory requirements to do so. If Kosovo receives positive votes from 2/3 of the member countries, it will be admitted to the CoE. Kosovo has already been recognised by 2/3 of the CoE members, thus it should be able to join the organisation.[479][480][481]
In May 2012, the Chairman of the Committee of Ministers of the CoE, Edmond Haxhinasto, pledged to work for a stronger role for Kosovo during the Albanian chairmanship of the Council.[482] Haxhinasto added that Kosovo would in the near future be a part of the family of states of the Council of Europe.[483] However, the Secretary-General of the CoE, Thorbjørn Jagland, commented that membership of Kosovo depends on the willingness of members.[484]
The Council of Europe Development Bank's board of directors voted in favour of Kosovo's membership on 14 June 2013 during their meeting in Malta.[485]
In June 2014, Kosovo became a member state of the Venice Commission, an advisory body of the Council of Europe.[486]
Member states (34 / 47)

Albania  • Andorra  • Armenia • Austria  • Azerbaijan • Belgium  • Bosnia and Herzegovina • Bulgaria  • Croatia  • Cyprus • Czech Republic  • Denmark  • Estonia  • Finland  • France  • Georgia • Germany  • Greece • Hungary  • Iceland  • Ireland  • Italy  • Latvia  • Liechtenstein  • Lithuania  • Luxembourg  • Malta  • Moldova • Monaco  • Montenegro  • Netherlands  • North Macedonia  • Norway  • Poland  • Portugal  • Romania • Russia • San Marino  • Serbia • Slovakia • Slovenia  • Spain • Sweden  • Switzerland  • Turkey  • Ukraine • United Kingdom 

  – Have recognised Kosovo.
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD)A resolution, agreeing to the membership of Kosovo in the EBRD, was approved by its Board of Governors on 16 November 2012, providing that, by 17 December 2012, it has completed the necessary internal procedures.[487][488] On 8 February 2013, Kosovo's Foreign Minister, Enver Hoxhaj, and the President of EBRD, Suma Chakrabarti, signed an agreement on economic cooperation and activities.[489]
 European Union (EU)The EU, like other IGOs, does not possess the legal capacity to diplomatically recognise any state; member states do so individually. The majority of member states have recognised Kosovo. To articulate a common EU policy of either support or opposition to Kosovo's independence would require unanimity on the subject from all 27 member states, which does not presently exist. On 18 February 2008, the EU officially stated that it would "take note" of the resolution of the Kosovo assembly.[490] The EU is sending a EULEX mission to Kosovo, which includes a special representative and 2,000 police and judicial personnel.[491][492]
Although the European Parliament is not formally vested with the authority to shape the EU's foreign policy, it was seen to be expressing its acceptance of Kosovan independence when it hosted the Kosovan Assembly in an interparliamentary meeting on 30 May 2008. This was also the first time Kosovo's flag was officially hoisted at an EU institution.[493][494] On 5 February 2009, the European Parliament adopted a resolution that encouraged all EU member states to recognise Kosovo. The resolution also welcomed the successful deployment of EULEX across Kosovo, and rejected the possibility of Kosovo's partition. It was passed with 424 voted in favour, and 133 against. Some Romanian and Communist representatives called for a new international conference on Kosovo's status or to allow the northern part of the country to join Serbia.[495][496]
On 8 July 2010, the European Parliament adopted a resolution welcoming "the recognition by all Member States of the independence of Kosovo", and stating that EU member states should "step up their common approach towards Kosovo". The resolution rejected the possibility of a partition of Kosovo.[497]
On 29 March 2012, the European Parliament adopted a resolution that urged the five EU member states that had not recognised Kosovo's independence to do so.[498]
Member states (22 / 27) Candidates (4 / 5)

Austria  • Belgium  • Bulgaria  • Cyprus • Croatia  • Czech Republic  • Denmark  • Estonia  • Finland  • France  • Germany  • Greece • Hungary  • Ireland  • Italy  • Latvia  • Lithuania  • Luxembourg  • Malta  • Netherlands  • Poland  • Portugal  • Romania • Slovakia • Slovenia  • Spain • Sweden 
Candidates: Albania  • Montenegro  • North Macedonia  • Serbia • Turkey 

 Bold – Presiding the Council of the European Union at time of declaration
  – Have recognised Kosovo.
International Monetary Fund (IMF)On 15 July 2008, the IMF issued a statement saying "It has been determined that Kosovo has seceded from Serbia as a new independent state and that Serbia is the continuing state," thus acknowledging the separation of Kosovo from Serbia.[499] After their membership was approved in a secret ballot by 108 states,[500] Kosovo signed the IMF's Articles of Agreement on 29 June 2009 to become a full member of the fund.[501][502]
InterpolAt a meeting on 19 February 2017 with Kosovo's President, Hashim Thaçi, Secretary General of Interpol, Jürgen Stock, said that Interpol is open for Kosovo membership.[503]
International Organization for Migration (IOM)At a meeting on 30 March 2012 with Kosovo's Deputy Foreign Minister, Petrit Selimi, Deputy Director of the IOM, Laura Thomson, expressed readiness to continue advanced discussions with the representatives of Kosovo to further advance the prospects for membership.[504]
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)NATO maintains that its ongoing Kosovo Force mission and mandate remain unchanged and that "NATO reaffirms that KFOR shall remain in Kosovo on the basis of UNSCR 1244, as agreed by Foreign Ministers in December 2007, unless the UN Security Council decides otherwise".[505]
Member states (26 / 30) Candidates (0 / 1)

Albania  • Belgium  • Bulgaria  • Canada  • Croatia  • Czech Republic  • Denmark  • Estonia  • France  • Germany  • Greece • Hungary  • Iceland  • Italy  • Latvia  • Lithuania  • Luxembourg  • Montenegro  • Netherlands  • North Macedonia  • Norway  • Poland  • Portugal  • Romania • Slovakia • Slovenia  • Spain • Turkey  • United Kingdom  • United States 
Candidate: Bosnia and Herzegovina

  – Have recognised Kosovo.
 Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC)In February 2008, Secretary General of the OIC Ekmeleddin İhsanoğlu said "Kosovo has finally declared its independence after a long and determined struggle by its people. As we rejoice this happy result, we declare our solidarity with and support to our brothers and sisters there. The Islamic Umma wishes them success in their new battle awaiting them which is the building of a strong and prosperous a state capable of satisfying of its people".[506] The OIC did not call on its individual member states to extend recognition, as some member states, including Azerbaijan, Egypt, Indonesia and Sudan, were firmly against any issuance of such a statement.[507]
On 25 May 2009, at the OIC's 36th session of the Council of Foreign Ministers in Damascus, the 57 member states adopted a resolution that noted Kosovo's declaration of independence, upheld the role of the UN in Kosovo, reaffirmed the strong interest of the OIC regarding Muslims in the Balkans, welcomed the co-operation of Kosovo with the OIC Economic and Financial institutions, and called on the international community to continue contributing to the fostering of Kosovo's economy.[508] It has been reported that an earlier draft of the resolution (tabled by Saudi Arabia) had called for recognition of Kosovo by Islamic countries, but this was rejected by some member states, including Syria, Egypt and Azerbaijan.[509] The OIC mechanism is similar to the one adopted by the EU which leaves it up to member states to decide.[510]
In June 2011, the OIC adopted a resolution calling on member states to consider recognising Kosovo but once again it left the recognition issue to individual member states.[511]
In November 2012, the OIC adopted a resolution calling on member states to consider recognising Kosovo based on their free and sovereign rights as well as on their national practice.[512] İhsanoğlu expressed support for strengthening the international subjectivity of the Republic of Kosovo.[513]
In February 2013, the OIC renewed the previous resolution and urged all of its member states to recognise Kosovo.[514]
Member states (31 / 57)

Afghanistan  • Albania  • Algeria • Azerbaijan • Bahrain  • Bangladesh  • Benin  • Burkina Faso  • Brunei  • Cameroon • Chad  • Comoros • Côte d'Ivoire  • Djibouti  • Egypt  • Gabon  • Gambia  • Guinea  • Guinea-Bissau  • Guyana  • Indonesia • Iran • Iraq • Jordan  • Kuwait  • Kazakhstan • Kyrgyzstan • Lebanon • Libya  • Maldives  • Malaysia  • Mali • Mauritania  • Morocco • Mozambique • Niger  • Nigeria • Oman • Pakistan Palestine • Qatar  • Saudi Arabia  • Senegal  • Sierra Leone • Somalia  • Sudan • Suriname • Syria • Tajikistan • Togo • Tunisia • Turkey  • Turkmenistan • Uganda • United Arab Emirates  • Uzbekistan • Yemen 

  – Have recognised Kosovo.
Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE)On 19 February 2008, Chairman Ilkka Kanerva and OSCE Minorities Commissioner Knut Vollebæk called for Kosovo's government to vigorously implement agreed-upon frameworks regarding minorities.[515] Serbia has vowed to oppose OSCE membership for Kosovo and is calling for the organisation to condemn the declaration of independence.[516]
Member states (36 / 56)

Albania  • Andorra  • Armenia • Austria  • Azerbaijan • Belarus • Belgium  • Bosnia and Herzegovina • Bulgaria  • Canada  • Croatia  • Cyprus • Czech Republic  • Denmark  • Estonia  • Finland  • France  • Georgia • Germany  • Greece • Hungary  • Iceland  • Ireland  • Italy  • Kazakhstan • Kyrgyzstan • Latvia  • Liechtenstein  • Lithuania  • Luxembourg  • Malta  • Moldova • Monaco  • Montenegro  • Netherlands  • North Macedonia  • Norway  • Poland  • Portugal  • Romania • Russia • San Marino  • Serbia • Slovakia • Slovenia  • Spain • Sweden  • Switzerland  • Tajikistan • Turkey  • Turkmenistan • Ukraine • United Kingdom  • United States  • Uzbekistan • Vatican City

  – Have recognised Kosovo.
 United Nations (UN)Russia called an emergency session of the United Nations Security Council on 17 February 2008, but the council members, given differences in stated position between permanent members, failed to reach a consensus. Russia requested another meeting on 18 February. In March 2008 the UNMIK mission in Kosovo told the Serbian government to cease its interference in North Kosovo after local Serbs burned down a customs office set up by the Republic of Kosovo.[517] In order for Kosovo to attain a UN seat, it would require the agreement of the five permanent members of the Security Council, of which only three currently recognise Kosovo: UK, France, and the US.
On 17 January 2012, the President of Kosovo, Atifete Jahjaga, had a meeting with the President of the United Nations General Assembly, Nassir Abdulaziz Al-Nasser, who stated that he will continue to support Kosovo in all initiatives and processes through which it is running.[518] On 11 July 2012, the elected President of the United Nations General Assembly, Serb Vuk Jeremić, said that Kosovo's move to join the UN during his upcoming presidency of the UN General Assembly would be "an act of pointless provocation". "As long as Serbia presides over the UN, and that's for the next year, this could only happen over my dead body," Jeremić said.[519] However, Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon said that Jeremić should have stated this as an official of Serbia, not as the President of the UN General Assembly.[520]
Member states (98 / 193)
Permanent members of Security Council (3 / 5)

China • France  • Russia • United Kingdom  • United States 

  – Have recognised Kosovo.
World BankOn 29 June 2009, the Republic of Kosovo became a full member of the World Bank.[521]
World Customs OrganizationOn 3 March 2017, the Republic of Kosovo became a full member of the World Customs Organization.[522]

Positions taken by other actors

Autonomous regions and secessionist movements

EntityPosition
BalochistanIn August 2010, former Baloch separatist leader Jumma Khan Marri welcomed the independence of Kosovo and the ruling by the ICJ that the declaration of independence by Kosovo was not in violation of international law.[523] However, Jumma Khan Marri has since distanced himself from the movement and now advocates against secession.[524] In October 2010, former Minister of Fisheries and opposition member of the Balochistan Assembly Kachkol Ali hailed the decision of the International Court of Justice on Kosovo's declaration of Independence as "a glorious judgment for the national liberation movements". He said that it was a beacon of hope for enslaved nations.[525]
Basque GovernmentThe regional Basque government, unlike the central Spanish government in Madrid, responded very positively to Kosovo's declaration of independence. A regional government spokeswoman said that "It's a lesson to be followed when it comes to peaceful and democratic solutions of the identity and allegiance problems ... It shows that respect of the citizens' will is the key to solving difficult political problems".[526]
CataloniaIn July 2010, following the ICJ decision, the Catalan nationalist parties expressed that there are clear parallels between their case and Kosovo's. Joan Puigcercós, the President of the Republican Left of Catalonia, stated that the ICJ decision shows that Catalonia's independence could be legal and recognised at an international level. The Democratic Convergence of Catalonia party asked the Spanish Government to recognise Kosovo's independence and the right of self-determination of the people.[527] On 23 July 2010, José Montilla, President of the Generalitat of Catalonia, said that Catalonia and Kosovo have little in common.[528]
In March 2012 during a fierce debate with Spanish prime minister Mariano Rajoy, Convergence and Union general secretary Josep Antoni Duran i Lleida asked for the immediate recognition of Kosovo by Spain, and stated that the reasons for non-recognition "are not international but internal".[529]
Central Tibetan Administration (government in exile)In June 2008, an article was published on the website of the Central Tibetan Administration saying that if Kosovo has a right to independence then Tibet has every right to become an independent nation and Tibetans are fully entitled to the right of self-determination.[530]
In April 2010, the 14th Dalai Lama, then joint executive authority within the government in exile, sent a telegram of congratulations to Kosovo's prime minister, Hashim Thaçi, saying that he is satisfied with the independence of Kosovo and that he prays that Kosovo's democratic state will be a model for others to follow.[531]
Chechen Republic of Ichkeria (government in exile) Usman Ferzauli, the Foreign Minister of the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, said that his country "welcome the declaration of state independence by Kosovo and do not question the right of the people of Kosovo to distance themselves from the state that terrorized it".[532]
The Prime Minister of the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, Akhmed Zakayev, stated in an April 2010 interview that to him and his nation, Kosovo represented a hope, and also made reference to a letter he had apparently sent to Kosovo's prime minister Hashim Thaçi congratulating the latter.[533]
East Turkestan (government in exile)On 18 February 2008, Ansar Yusuf Turani, the representative of the government-in-exile, released a press statement saying "On behalf of the people of East Turkistan, the East Turkistan Government in Exile hereby recognizes Kosovo as an independent and sovereign state and wishes peace and prosperity for the people of Kosovo".[534]
Jammu Kashmir Liberation FrontOn 11 March 2008, the Jammu Kashmir Liberation Front staged a demonstration in Brussels in front of the European Commission building. It was headed by one of its leaders, Barrister Abdul Majeed Tramboo, and its agenda cited Kosovo's independence, demanding equal treatment and commensurate application of the same solution by the EU in the Kashmir dispute involving India, Pakistan and China. Protesters included EU Parliament members, students and various NGO constituents and representatives.[535]
Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar People (Crimea)Mustafa Cemilev, the Chairman of the Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar People declared that he supported the right of self-determination for every nation, including Kosovo.[536] He also added that the Crimean Tatars will not start a secession process from Ukraine if their rights are respected. Cemilev stated that he believes the motive for the Kosovars to declare independence was the anti-Albanian situation in Kosovo.[537]

International non-governmental organisations

International organisationPosition
European Broadcasting Union (EBU)Radio Television of Kosovo (RTK) is not an active member of the EBU and therefore they cannot participate in the Eurovision Song Contest and sister projects. However, there is a cooperation agreement between RTK and the EBU[538] and they were allowed to participate in the Eurovision Young Dancers 2011 competition.
On 30 March 2012 during a meeting in Geneva with Kosovo's Deputy Foreign Minister Petrit Selimi, Ingrid Delterne, Executive Director of the EBU expressed readiness for Kosovo's membership in the ITU.[504]
 International Olympic Committee (IOC)The Olympic Committee of Kosovo became a full member of the International Olympic Committee on 9 December 2014.[539] The Olympic Committee of Kosovo has been in existence since 1992.[540] Kosovo was a provisional member of the IOC from 22 October 2014 through 9 December 2014.[541]
Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA)Kosovo played their first official match against Haiti in 2014. In April 2016, Kosovo were voted into UEFA, and on 13 May 2016, at the 66th FIFA congress in Mexico City, Kosovo (along with Gibraltar) were voted into the organisation. Only 23 associations voted against Kosovo's membership. They took part in their first World Cup qualifier in their 1–1 draw with Finland.
Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization (UNPO)UNPO issued a statement on 18 February 2008: "for regions in similar conditions, Kosova's independence represents new hope for the future of their own potential statehood".[542]
In the days that followed, several African UNPO members expressed their own individual secession-minded reactions to Kosovo's independence.[543]
Norwegian Nobel Committee After former President of Finland Martti Ahtisaari received the 2008 Nobel Peace Prize "for his important efforts ... to resolve international conflicts",[544] including his work in Kosovo as a UN special envoy, the Norwegian Nobel Committee Secretary, who is also the Director of the Norwegian Nobel Institute, Geir Lundestad, said that the committee believed "there is no alternative to an independent Kosovo".[545]
International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Kosovo is not a member of the governing structures for the ISO.
Independently of its ISO membership status, ISO will also potentially issue a standardised country code for Kosovo. According to rules of procedure followed by the ISO 3166 Maintenance Agency based in Geneva, a new ISO 3166-1 code for Kosovo will only be issued once it appears in the UN Terminology Bulletin Country Names or in the UN Statistics Division's list of Country and Region Codes for Statistical Use.[546] To appear in the terminology bulletin, it must either (a) be admitted into the UN, (b) join a UN Specialised Agency or (c) become a state party to the Statute of the International Court of Justice.[547] Criterion (b) was met when Kosovo joined the International Monetary Fund and World Bank; a terminology bulletin has yet to be circulated.
Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) ICANN, through its Country Code Names Supporting Organization, is responsible for adding new country code top-level domains (ccTLDs) for use in Internet addressing. Rules of procedure dictate Kosovo must first receive an ISO 3166-1 code (discussed above) before the ccTLD can be introduced; speculation has centred on ".ks" as the likeliest candidate.[548][549]
International Road and Transport Union (IRU)Kosovo officially became the 181st member of the IRU in May 2009.[550]
International Bar Association (IBA)Kosovo officially became a member of the IBA on 28 May 2009.[551][552]

See also

  • Foreign relations of Kosovo
  • List of diplomatic missions in Kosovo
  • List of diplomatic missions of Kosovo
  • Membership of Kosovo in international organizations
  • Membership of Kosovo in international sports federations
  • International Court of Justice advisory opinion on Kosovo's declaration of independence
  • Reactions to the International Court of Justice advisory opinion on Kosovo's declaration of independence
  • Kosovo–Serbia relations
  • Belgrade–Pristina negotiations
  • List of states with limited recognition

References

  1. "Kosovo MPs proclaim independence". BBC News. 17 February 2008.
  2. "The world's newest state". The Economist. 21 February 2008.
  3. "Kosovo lifts all tariffs on Serbian, Bosnian goods". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 13 May 2020.
  4. Riechmann, Deb (4 September 2020). "Serbia, Kosovo normalize economic ties, gesture to Israel". Associated Press.
  5. Serbia to move embassy to Jerusalem; mostly Muslim Kosovo to recognize Israel, The Times of Israel, 9 April 2020
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  59. Sergei Stanishev: Bulgarian Government's decision to recognize the independence of Kosovo is fully complied with the country's national interests and our commitment to the future of the region, Council of Ministers of the Republic of Bulgaria, 20 March 2008
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  244. Belarus supports Serbians' pursuit of territorial integrity, National Center of Legal Information of the Republic of Belarus, 28 February 2008 Archived 20 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine
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  249. The Government of Bhutan is expected to take a decision on recognition, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kosovo, 28 May 2009
  250. Zëvendëskryeministri Behgjet Pacolli ka takuar në Nju Jork, përfaqësuesin e përhershëm të mbretërisë së Bhutanit në OKB, z.Lhatu Wangchuk Archived 3 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine, First Deputy Prime Minister of the Republic of Kosovo, 19 September 2012
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  253. Minister Hyseni meets the Foreign Ministers of Botswana and the United Arab Emirates, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kosovo, 22 September 2010
  254. Botswana Unhappy With Czech Visa Requirements, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation of Botswana, 7 October 2012
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  296. Ethiopia to come up with a decision for Kosovo at right time, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kosovo, 28 January 2009
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  324. Jamaica endorses Serbia's sovereignty, territorial integrity, Serbian Government, 13 April 2010
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  430. Minister Hoxhaj meets Prime Minister of Tunisia, Hamadi Jebali, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kosovo, 17 January 2013
  431. "Tunisia won't recognize Kosovo despite pressure". B92. 28 February 2013. Archived from the original on 3 March 2013. Retrieved 28 February 2013.
  432. Premier Berisha meets presidents of Tajikistan and Turkmenistan and PM of Mauritania Archived 13 March 2013 at the Wayback Machine, Republic of Albania Council of Ministers, 21 September 2010
  433. Uganda në kohë optimale do të marrë vendimin e për Kosovën, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kosovo, 26 March 2009 (in Albanian)
  434. Uganda, gati ta njoh Kosovën Archived 19 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Gazeta Express, 22 August 2011 (In Albanian)
  435. The Republic of Uganda recognizes the independence of Kosovo, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kosovo, 17 February 2012
  436. Verbal Note Archived 6 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kosovo 12 May 2011
  437. "Jeremic says Uganda did not recognize Kosovo". Archived from the original on 13 March 2013.
  438. Hoxhaj u bënë thirrje vendeve anëtare të OBI-t ta njohin Kosovën, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kosovo, 19 June 2014
  439. Situación de Kosovo a estudio, Ultimas Noticias, 4 March 2008 (in Spanish) Archived 1 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  440. Uruquay will never recognize Kosovo's independence Archived 2 October 2010 at the Wayback Machine, emg.rs, 29 September 2010
  441. 19 февраля с.г. в г.Вене состоялось ... Archived 26 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine, Uzbekistan Foreign Ministry, 20 February 2008 (in Russian)
  442. Chavez: Venezuela no reconoce "independencia" de Kosovo on YouTube, 23 February 2008
  443. Chavez: U.S. encouraging Tibet violence, USA Today, 24 March 2008
  444. Vietnam says against unilateral Kosovo independence, Reuters, 18 February 2008
  445. Government in Brief 24/2, VietNamNet, 24 February 2011
  446. Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mr. Edmond Haxhinasto meet with the Vietnamese Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mr. Pham Binh Minh, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Albania, 24 November 2011
  447. Zambia to decide on Kosovo Archived 26 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine, ZNBC, 3 March 2008
  448. Zambia on Kosovo recognition, WikiLeaks, 18 February 2009.
  449. Minister Hyseni meets Foreign Minister of Zambia and other senior representatives, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kosovo, 26 September 2009
  450. Ministri i Punëve të Jashtme të Shqipërisë z. Edmond Haxhinasto u takua me Ministrin e Punëve të Jashtme të Zambias z. Kabinga J. Pande, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Albania, 28 September 2010 (in Albanian)
  451. Zambia studying Kosovo 'friendship', Zambia Daily Mail, 27 February 2011
  452. Deputy Prime Minister Pacolli meets the minister of foreign affairs of Zambia Archived 3 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine, First Deputy Prime Minister of the Republic of Kosovo, 30 September 2012
  453. Edgar Lungu holds talks with Kosovo counterpart Archived 14 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine, Zambia Daily Mail, 8 December 2013
  454. Zambia promises to recognise Kosovo's independence Archived 13 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine, Kosova Press, 6 December 2013
  455. Kosovo pilot lands in Zim Archived 26 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine, The Financial Gazette, 1 April 2011
  456. Thaçi kërkoi njohjen nga Zimbabve Archived 25 February 2013 at the Wayback Machine, Telegrafi.com, 23 February 2013 (in Albanian)
  457. Vypusk №50–51...: Prezident Sergey Bagapsh..., Apsnypress, 18 February 2008 (in Russian) Archived 17 July 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  458. Abkhazia: We could recognize Kosovo, Macedonian International News Agency, 5 September 2008
  459. Abkhazia, Kosovo to recognize each other? Archived 7 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine, B92, 5 September 2008
  460. Георгий Петросян: "Признание Косово станет еще одним фактором, усиливающим позиции Степанакерта", Nagorno-Karabakh Republic Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 18 February 2008 (in Russian)
  461. Parliament of Karabakh called for consistency in recognition of states, KarbakhOpen, 13 March 2008 Archived copy at WebCite (24 January 2006).
  462. Nagorno-Karabakh and Kosovo – States of independence, The Economist, 28 December 2011
  463. President Talat's Message on Kosovo's Declaration of Independence, Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus Presidency, 18 February 2008 Archived 6 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  464. "Talat welcomes Kosovos independence, 2008-02-18". Retrieved 5 October 2014.
  465. "Ercakica on the recognition of Kosovos independence, 2008-02-20". Retrieved 5 October 2014.
  466. Palestinians 'may declare state', BBC, 20 February 2008
  467. Tadić, Abbas discuss Kosovo, Middle East Archived 9 July 2009 at the Wayback Machine, B92, 7 July 2009
  468. PM meets with Palestinian leader Archived 8 September 2009 at the Wayback Machine, B92, 8 July 2009
  469. Ambasadori palestinez në OKB: Palestina përkrah pavarësinë e Kosovës, Presheva Jonë, 10 June 2011 (in Albanian)
  470. Non-Aligned Summit in Belgrade, Historic Moment for Creation of Independent Palestinian State? Archived 17 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine, All Voices, 6 September 2011
  471. Palestinians expect support from ex-Yugoslav countries Archived 5 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine, B92, 6 September 2011
  472. Process of independence: POLISARIO Front denounces the policy of "two weights two measures" Archived 26 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine, Sahara Press Service, 20 February 2008
  473. Somaliland Pushes for International Recognition Archived 7 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Idhanka, 28 November 2010
  474. "S. Ossetia won't recognize Kosovo" Archived 7 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine, B92, 2 September 2008
  475. PMR Foreign Ministry: "Kosovo sets new model for conflict solving", Tiraspol Times, 22 February 2008 Archived 5 July 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  476. Minister Hyseni meets with the General Secretary of the Arab League, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kosovo, 29 May 2009
  477. The Speaker of the Parliament of Grenada, a letter to the Albanian Speaker: "Soon an immediate increase of the countries that will recognize the independence of Kosovo" Archived 3 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine, Parliament of Albania, 31 August 2010
  478. K. Albanians announce Caribbean recognitions Archived 5 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine, B92, 19 August 2011
  479. Kosovo to apply for Council of Europe membership, The Kosovo Times, 5 June 2009 Archived 7 June 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  480. Kosovo to join Council of Europe Archived 7 June 2009 at the Wayback Machine, New Kosova Report, 5 June 2009
  481. Council of Europe membership is years away for Kosovo, Southeast European Times, 19 March 2012
  482. Greater involvement of Kosovo sought under Albanian chairmanship, Council of Europe, 23 May 2012
  483. Shqipëria merr presidencën e Komitetit të Ministrave të Këshillit të Evropës, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Albania, 29 May 2012 (in Albanian)
  484. Jagland- Haxhinasto: Agjenda e presidencës shqiptare të Komitetit të Ministrave të KiE-së, ambicioze, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Albania, 29 May 2012 (in Albanian)
  485. The Republic of Kosovo is accepted as newest member of Council of Europe Development Bank, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Kosovo, 14 June 2013
  486. Kosovo becomes 60th member of Venice Commission of Council of Europe, Voice of Russia, 13 June 2014
  487. Kosovo to become member of the EBRD Archived 6 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, 16 November 2012
  488. EBRD votes to give Kosovo membership, Reuters, 16 November 2012
  489. Kryeministri Thaçi: Strategjia e BERZH-it për Kosovën do të rezultojë me rritje dhe zhvillim ekonomik, Prime Minister of Kosovo, 8 February 2013 (in Albanian)
  490. EU fudges Kosovo independence recognition, EUobserver, 18 February 2008
  491. Serbia, Russia fury as Kosovo independence draws near Archived 9 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine, EurActiv, 15 February 2008
  492. EU Kosovo mission to start Saturday morning, EUobserver, 14 February 2008
  493. Kacin: We have recognized independence, Blic, 30 May 2008
  494. Kosovo Delegation Appears In European Parliament With "Independent Kosovo" Flag Archived 1 June 2008 at the Wayback Machine, e Yugoslavia, 28 May 2008
  495. EP adopts Kosovo resolution Archived 6 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine, B92, 5 February 2009
  496. The European Parliament urges recognition of Kosovo by all EU members Archived 9 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine, New Kosova Report, 5 February 2009
  497. EU membership prospects of Albania and Kosovo, European Parliament, 8 July 2010
  498. MEPs welcome progress of Serbia, Kosovo and Montenegro towards joining the EU, European Parliament, 29 March 2012
  499. IMF recognizes Kosovo, begins to weigh membership, Reuters, 15 July 2008
  500. Kudos and Action Request: Voting for Kosovo's World Bank Membership, US Secretary of State (released by Wikileaks), 08-05-09
  501. Kosovo Joins IMF, World Bank, NASDAQ, 29 June 2009 Archived 11 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  502. Kosovo Becomes the International Monetary Fund's 186th Member, International Monetary Fund, 29 June 2009
  503. President Thaçi requires membership into INTERPOL and the cancellation of arrest warrants of Serbia, President of Kosovo, 19 February 2017
  504. Deputy Minister Selimi meets leaders of international organizations in Geneva, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kosovo, 30 March 2012
  505. Statement by the North Atlantic Council after Kosovo's declaration of independence, NATO, 18 February 2008
  506. Secretary General of the OIC declares support to the Kosovo Independence Archived 5 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Organisation of the Islamic Conference, 18 February 2008
  507. Turkey lobbying for stronger Muslim support for Kosovo Archived 7 December 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Today's Zaman, 11 March 2008
  508. Resolution no. 14/36-POL on the Situation in Kosovo, Resolutions on Political Affairs adopted by the 36th session of the Council of Foreign Ministers Archived 23 November 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Organisation of the Islamic Conference, 25 May 2009
  509. Saudi Kosovo proposal fails at OIC Archived 4 September 2009 at the Wayback Machine, B92, 24 May 2009
  510. OIC approves pro-Kosovo resolution Archived 28 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine, New Kosova Report, 25 May 2009
  511. Resolutions on Political Affairs Adopted by the Thirty-Eighth Session of the Council of Foreign Ministers, (Session of Peace, Cooperation and Development) Archived 25 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine, OIC, 30 June 2011
  512. Resolutions on Political Affairs Adopted by the Thirty-Ninth Session of the Council of Foreign Ministers, (Session of Solidarity for Sustainable Development), OIC, 17 November 2012.
  513. Hoxhaj merr përkrahjen e OBI-t për rritjen e numrit të njohjeve për Kosovën, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kosovo, 16 November 2012 (in Albanian)
  514. Cairo Final Communiqué of the twelfth session of the Islamic Summit Conference "The Muslim World: New Challenges & Expanding Opportunities" Cairo – Arab Republic of Egypt Archived 1 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine, OIC, 7 February 2013
  515. OSCE Chairman, Minorities Commissioner: Kosovo must remain multi-ethnic, OSCE, 19 February 2008
  516. Daily Survey 19 February 2008, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Republic of Serbia, 19 February 2008
  517. UN tells Serbia to quit interfering in Kosovo, Reuters via Ottawacitizen, 12 March 2008
  518. President Aifetet Jahjaga met with the chairmen of the UN General Assambly, Nassir Abdulaziz Al Nasser, President of Kosovo, 17 January 2012
  519. Jeremić: Kosovo will join UN over my dead body Archived 4 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine, B92, 11 July 2012
  520. Ban Ki-moon: Jeremic duhet të ketë folur si zyrtar serb Archived 19 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Telegrafi.com, 17 July 2012 (in Albanian)
  521. Kosovo Joins the IMF and World Bank, US Department of State, 29 June 2009
  522. Kosova anëtarësohet në Organizatën Botërore të Doganave, Prime Minister of the Republic of Kosovo, 4 March 2017 (in Albanian)
  523. If Yes to Kosovo Why not Balochistan?, The Baluch, 3 August 2010
  524. Baloch leader distances himself from separatist movement, Dawn News, 20 February 2018
  525. Liberation of Balochistan is protected under International Law. By Ahmar Mustikhan, Pakistan Christian Post, 7 October 2010
  526. Basque gov't: Kosovo example to follow Archived 4 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine, B92, 18 February 2008
  527. Catalan nationalist parties react to the international recognition of Kosovo?s independence, Catalan News Agency, 23 July 2010
  528. Montilla: "Cataluña y Kosovo tienen pocas cosas en común", El País, 23 July 2010 (in Spanish)
  529. Rajoy se opone a reconocer Kosovo porque "es lo que conviene al interés general de los españoles", La Vanguardia, 14 March 2012 (in Spanish)
  530. Tibet's Legal Right to Autonomy, Central Tibetan Administration, 4 June 2008
  531. His Holiness the Dalai Lama congratulates Prime Minister Thaçi, Prime Minister of the Republic of Kosovo, 11 April 2010
  532. Russia's Chechen rebels hail Kosovo independence, Reuters, 17 February 2008
  533. Zakayev: Russia does not recognize; it annexes Archived 21 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Chechencenter, 12 April 2010
  534. Press Releases, Prime Minister Turani, East Turkistan Government-in-Exile
  535. JKLF to protest outside EU's Brussels office, Etala'at News Service, 10 March 2008
  536. Джемілєв: Косово не визнали ті країни, у яких є внутрішні проблеми Archived 26 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine, NEWSru.ua, 22 February 2008 (in Ukrainian)
  537. Главред — Крымские татары не последуют примеру Косово – Джемилев Archived 26 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine, Glavred.info, 22 February 2008 (in Russian)
  538. European Broadcasting Union renews agreement with Radio Television of Kosovo, EBU press release, 4 May 2011
  539. 127th IOC Session comes to close in Monaco, International Olympic Committee, 2014–12
  540. "IOC grants provisional recognition to Kosovo Olympic Committee". International Olympic Committee. 22 October 2014. Retrieved 9 December 2014.
  541. "IOC gives provisional recognition to Kosovo".
  542. Kosova's Independence Sets Precedent, UNPO, 18 February 2008
  543. Africa: Kosovo Revives Hopes for Secession, allAfrica.com, 26 February 2008
  544. The Nobel Peace Prize 2008, Nobel Foundation
  545. Global troubleshooter Ahtisaari wins Nobel Peace Prize, Agence France Press, 10 October 2008
  546. General Questions, ISO – Maintenance Agency for ISO 3166 country codes
  547. ISO 3166-1 and country coded Top-Level Domains (ccTLDs), ISO – Maintenance Agency for ISO 3166 country codes
  548. Kosovo, Transnistria, Abkhazia Top Level Domains Archived 10 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine, DNXpert, 4 September 2008
  549. Of Kosovo and .ks, Global by Design, 9 July 2007
  550. Kosovo becomes member of International Road Transport Union Archived 18 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine, New Kosova Report, 4 May 2009
  551. Republic of Kosovo becomes member of IBA Archived 18 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine, New Kosova Report, 29 May 2009
  552. Organizations that have admitted Kosovo Archived 23 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Kosovo Thanks You

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