Injury, also known as physical trauma, is damage to the body caused by external force. This may be caused by accidents, falls, hits, weapons, and other causes. Major trauma is injury that has the potential to cause prolonged disability or death. In 2013, 4.8 million people world-wide died from injuries, up from 4.3 million in 1990. More than 30% of these deaths were transport-related injuries. In 2013, 367,000 children under the age of five died from injuries, down from 766,000 in 1990. Injuries are the cause of 9% of all deaths, and are the sixth-leading cause of death in the world.
|The knee of a person is examined with the help of radiography after an injury.|
|Specialty||Emergency medicine, traumatology|
The World Health Organization (WHO) developed the International Classification of External Causes of Injury (ICECI). Under this system, injuries are classified by:
- mechanism of injury;
- objects/substances producing injury;
- place of occurrence;
- activity when injured;
- the role of human intent;
The United States Bureau of Labor Statistics developed the Occupational Injury and Illness Classification System (OIICS). Under this system injuries are classified by
- part of body affected,
- source and secondary source, and
- event or exposure.
- Causes for injuries fall under two categories: intentional and accidental. Intentional injuries include acts of violence and war, or be can self-imposed like suicide or self-harm. Accidental injuries can come from falling or motor vehicle accidents. Some cases of accidental injuries are injury by stingray or lightning injuries.
- Strain, repetitive strain, or sprain
- Strain and repetitive strain are injuries to muscles or tendons. Sprain is an injury to a ligament or ligaments.
- Injury from toxin or as adverse effect of a pharmaceutical drug.
- Other external or internal injuries
- Wound, an injury in which skin is torn, cut or punctured (an open wound), or where blunt force trauma causes a contusion (a closed wound). In pathology, it specifically refers to a sharp injury which damages the dermis of the skin.
- Head injury
- Penetrating head injury
- Closed head injury
- Eye injury
- Chemical eye injury
- Eye injuries during general anaesthesia
- Brain injury
- Acquired brain injury
- Coup contrecoup injury
- Diffuse axonal injury
- Frontal lobe injury
- Nerve injury
- Spinal cord injury
- Brachial plexus injury
- Sciatic nerve injury
- Injury of axillary nerve
Soft tissue, musculoskeletal and organs:
- Soft tissue injury
- Tracheobronchial injury
- Acute kidney injury
- Anterior cruciate ligament injury
- Musculoskeletal injury
- Articular cartilage injuries
- Acute lung injury
- Pancreatic injury
- Thoracic aorta injury
- Biliary injury
- Lisfranc injury
- Knee injury
- Medial knee injuries
- Back injury
- Hand injury
- Chest injury
Injury severity score
The injury severity score (ISS) is a medical score to assess trauma severity. It correlates with mortality, morbidity, and hospitalization time after trauma. It is used to define the term major trauma (polytrauma), recognized when the ISS is greater than 15. The AIS Committee of the Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine designed and updates the scale.
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- "The top 10 causes of death". Retrieved 24 May 2015.
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- "International Classification of External Causes of Injury (ICECI)". World Health Organization. Retrieved 2014-03-24.
- Robertson, LS (2015) Injury Epidemiology: Fourth Edition. Free online at www.nanlee.net
- "Occupational Injury and Illness Classification System". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 2014-03-24.
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- "Top 10 Preventable Injuries". Injury Facts. Retrieved 2020-10-18.
- Nancy Garrick, Deputy Director (2017-04-10). "Sprains and Strains". National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases. Retrieved 2020-10-18.
- "Top 10 Most Common Sports Injuries". www.unitypoint.org. Retrieved 2020-10-19.
- Wright, D. M.; Royle, T. J.; Marshall, T. (June 2001). "Indoor rock climbing: who gets injured?". British Journal of Sports Medicine. 35 (3): 181–185. doi:10.1136/bjsm.35.3.181. ISSN 0306-3674. PMC 1724320. PMID 11375878.
- Baker SP, O'Neill B, Haddon W, Long WB (1974). "The Injury Severity Score: a method for describing patients with multiple injuries and evaluating emergency care". The Journal of Trauma. 14 (3): 187–96. doi:10.1097/00005373-197403000-00001. PMID 4814394.
- Copes, W.S.; H.R. Champion; W.J. Sacco; M.M. Lawnick; S.L. Keast; L.W. Bain (1988). "The Injury Severity Score revisited". The Journal of Trauma. 28 (1): 69–77. doi:10.1097/00005373-198801000-00010. PMID 3123707.
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- International Trauma Conferences (registered trauma charity providing trauma education for medical professionals worldwide)
- Trauma.org (trauma resources for medical professionals)
- Emergency Medicine Research and Perspectives (emergency medicine procedure videos)
- American Trauma Society
- Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine