In God We Trust

"In God We Trust" (sometimes rendered "In God we trust") is the official motto of the United States[1][2][3] and of the U.S. state of Florida.[4][5] It was adopted by the U.S. Congress in 1956, replacing E pluribus unum, which had been the de facto motto since the initial 1776 design of the Great Seal of the United States.[6]

Capitalized "IN GOD WE TRUST" on the reverse of a United States twenty-dollar bill

While the earliest mentions of the phrase can be found in mid-XVIII century, the origins of this phrase as a political motto lie in the American Civil War, where Union supporters wanted to emphasize their attachment to God and to boost morale.[7] The capitalized form "IN GOD WE TRUST" first appeared on the two-cent piece in 1864[8] and has appeared on paper currency since 1957 and on post stamps since 1954. A law passed in a Joint Resolution by the 84th Congress (Pub.L. 84–140) and approved by President Dwight Eisenhower on July 30, 1956, requires that "In God We Trust" appear on all American currency. The following year, the phrase was used on paper money for the first time—on the updated one-dollar silver certificate that entered circulation on October 1, 1957.[8] The 84th Congress later passed legislation (Pub.L. 84–851), also signed by President Eisenhower on July 30, 1956, declaring the phrase to be the national motto.[9][10][11] Several states have also mandated or authorised its use in public institutions or schools;[12][13] while Florida, Georgia and Mississippi have incorporated the phrase in some of their state symbols.

Some groups and people have objected to its use, contending that its religious reference violates the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment.[14] These groups believe the phrase should be removed from currency and public property, which has resulted in numerous lawsuits. This argument has not overcome the interpretational doctrine of accommodationism, which allows government to endorse religious establishments as long as they are all treated equally, and that of "ceremonial deism", which states that a repetitious invocation of a religious entity in ceremonial matters strips the phrase of its original religious connotation.[15] The New Hampshire Supreme Court, as well as Second, Fourth, Sixth, Eighth, Ninth and Tenth Circuits have all upheld the constitutionality of the motto in various settings. The Supreme Court has discussed the motto in footnotes but has never directly ruled on its compliance with the Constitution.[16]

The motto remains popular among the American public. According to a 2003 joint poll by USA Today, CNN, and Gallup, 90% of Americans support the inscription "In God We Trust" on U.S. coins[17]; however, a 2019 student poll by College Pulse showed that only 53% of students supported its inclusion in currency.[18]

The motto has also been used in some cases in other countries, most notably on Nicaragua's coins.[19]


Manuscript copy of Key's 1814 poem "Defence of Fort M'Henry" (later known as "The Star Spangled Banner") in which one line of the fourth verse reads, "And this be our motto-"In God is our trust,"" (enclosed section)
Salmon P. Chase, Treasury Secretary, scribes "In God is Our Trust," scratches out "is Our" and overwrites "We" to arrive at "In God We Trust" in a December 9, 1863, letter to James Pollock, Director of the Philadelphia Mint.[20]

The earliest usage recorded in English was in January 1748, when the Pennsylvania Gazette reported on the colours of Associators regiments, namely that of Benjamin Franklin's Pennsylvania militia, one of which which said: "IX. A Coronet and Plume of Feathers. Motto, In God we Trust."[21][22][23] According to Thomas S. Kidd, this appears to be an isolated instance of an official usage, which could be traced to some renderings of Psalm 56:11.[24]

Later, in 1814, Francis Scott Key composed and published a poem entitled "Defence of Fort M'Henry". In the fourth verse, Key's published version of the poem includes the line, "And this be our motto-"In God is our trust!""[25] Key's poem would later be adopted as the national anthem of the United States under the name "The Star-Spangled Banner" and serve as one of the arguments to include the motto on the currency. When 'In God We Trust' was under consideration to be adopted as the national motto of the United States by the US Congress, the words of the fourth verse of Key's poem were brought up in arguments supporting adoption of the motto.[26]

There were several other unrelated recordings of the motto. It can be encountered in some literary works of the early XIX-century.[27] It also appeared in 1845, when D.S. Whitney published an anti-slavery hymn in The Liberator[28][29]. Odd Fellows have also used the phrase as their motto from 1840s and at least into 1870s.[7][29][30]

Motto on U.S. currency

Initial adoption

Rev. Mark R. Watkinson of Ridleyville, Pennsylvania (pastor of the Prospect Hill Baptist Church in present-day Prospect Park, Pennsylvania), in a letter dated November 13, 1861, petitioned the Treasury Department to add a statement recognizing "Almighty God in some form on our coins" in order to "relieve us from the ignominy of heathenism".[31][32][33] At least part of the motivation was to declare that God was on the Union side of the Civil War,[7][34] given that the Confederacy, unlike the Union, has invoked God in their Constitution.[35] This sentiment was shared by other citizens who supported such inclusion in their letters.[36] Indeed, the 125th Pennsylvania Infantry for the Union Army assumed the motto "In God we trust" in early August 1862.[37][38][39][40] In the South, the phrase has also gained some traction, so that in 1864, Harper's Weekly reported that the Union Navy had captured a flag whose motto said: "Our cause is just, our duty we know ; In God we trust, to battle we go."[41]

Abraham Lincoln's Treasury Secretary, Salmon P. Chase, a lifelong evangelical Episcopalian who was known for his public shows of piety,[7][42] acted swiftly on the proposal to include a motto referring to God and directed the then-Philadelphia Director of the Mint and member of the National Reform Association, James Pollock, to begin drawing up possible designs that would include the religious phrase.[33] Chase chose his favorite designs and presented a proposal to Congress for the new designs in late 1863, deciding on the new motto, "In God We Trust," in December 1863.[26] Lincoln's involvement in the process of was unclear, though he was aware of such talks.[43]

"IN GOD WE TRUST" first appeared on the obverse side of the Two-cent piece in 1864[8]

As Chase was preparing his recommendation to Congress, it was found that the Act of Congress dated January 18, 1837, prescribed the mottoes and devices that should be placed upon the coins of the United States. This meant that the mint could make no changes without the enactment of additional legislation by Congress. Such legislation was introduced and passed as the Coinage Act of 1864 on April 22, 1864, allowing the Secretary of the Treasury to authorize the inclusion of the phrase on one-cent and two-cent coins.[34]

An Act of Congress passed on March 3, 1865, allowed the Mint Director, with the Secretary's approval, to place the motto on all gold and silver coins that "shall admit the inscription thereon",[34][44] which Lincoln subsequently signed as the last Act of Congress prior to his assassination.[29] In 1873, Congress passed another Coinage Act, granting that the Secretary of the Treasury "may cause the motto IN GOD WE TRUST to be inscribed on such coins as shall admit of such motto".[45]

$20 interest-bearing note from 1864; "in god is our trust" appears on the bottom-right shield

In God We Trust (or, rarely, its variation, God We Trust) first appeared on coins, which were first minted in 1863 and went into mass circulation the following year.[46] According to Lange, the inclusion of the motto on a coin was a major driver for the popularisation of the slogan.[47] Other coins, that is, nickels, quarter dollars, half dollars, half eagles and eagles, have had In God We Trust engraved from 1866 on. Dollar coins got the motto in 1873 for trade dollars and 1878 for common circulation Morgan dollars. However, there was no obligation for the motto to be caused, so some denominations still didn't have it. Other, such as nickels, have seen the phrase disappear after a redesign, so that by the late 19th century, most of the coins did not bear the motto.[48] Finally, in 1892, an oversight while amending the Coinage Act struck out the language that mandated inclusion of the phrase.[49]

The reverse of the Morgan dollar presented the lower-cased "In God we trust"

Banknotes did not have formal authorisation, or mandate, to have "In God We Trust" engraved until 1955. However, a version of the motto (In God Is Our Trust) first made a brief appearance on the obverse side of the 1864 $20 interest-bearing and compound interest treasury notes, along with the motto "God and our Right".


The initial reactions of the general populace was far from unanimous approval. On the one hand, Christian newspapers were generally happy with the phrase being included in coins, though some advocated for more religiously connotated mottos, such: "In God alone is our trust" or "God our Christ".[29] On the other, non-religious press has been less impressed by the developments. The New York Times editorial board has asked to "let us try to carry our religion—such as it is—in our hearts, and not in our pockets" and has criticized the Mint for including the motto only on golden and larger silver coins.[50] New York Illustrated News has riduculed the new coins for marking "the first time that God has ever been recognized on any of our counters of Mammon,"[29] with a similar comparison made by the Detroit Free Press.[7] The different opinions on its inclusion eventually grew into a dispute between secularists and faith congregations.[7] Others still have started to make jokes of "In God We Trust". The American Journal of Numismatics, for example, has suggested that people would misread the motto as "In Gold we Trust", which they said was "much nearer the fact"[51]. Newspapers also started reporting on jokes made of the slogan. Already in 1860s, newspapers reported on people hanging signs "In God we Trust — terms cash," "In God we trust. All others are expected to pay cash" and the like.[22][52]

The phrase, however, gradually became a symbol of national pride. Just 6 years after it first appeared on coins, the San Francisco Chronicle called it "our nation's motto"; similarly, groups as diverse as prohibitionists and suffragists, pacifists and nativists, Democrats and Republicans, Christians and Jews have all adopted the motto or endorsed its usage by the end of the XIX century.[7] The motto stayed popular even as fewer denominations had "In God We Trust" embossed on coins.[29]

Saint-Gaudens double eagle, subject of public outcry in 1907. This version is the "high relief" one.

1907 Saint-Gaudens coins controversy

In 1904, President Theodore Roosevelt sought to beautify American coinage and decided to give the task to his friend, Augustus Saint-Gaudens,[12] who, after several delays and technical issues with his design, has produced a new design for eagles and double eagles. Roosevelt has specifically instructed Saint-Gaudens not to include "In God We Trust" on the coins, as the President feared that these coins would be used to further ungodly activities, such as gambling, and facilitate crime.[12][53] Saint-Gaudens did not oppose the order, as he thought that the phrase would distract from the coin's design features.[53]

The coin, whose ultra-high relief version now considered one of the most beautiful coins ever struck in the US,[53][54] was indeed appreciated for its esthetics by art critics.[55] However, a scandal immediately erupted over the lack of "In God We Trust" on the coins.[56][57] Theodore Roosevelt insisted that while he was in favor of placing the motto on public buildings and monuments, doing so for money (or postage stamps and advertisements) would be "dangerously close to sacrilege"[26]:

My own feeling in the matter is due to my very firm conviction that to put such a motto on coins, or to use it in any kindred manner, not only does no good, but does positive harm, and is in effect irreverence, which comes dangerously close to sacrilege. ...  Any use which tends to cheapen it, and, above all, any use which tends to secure its being treated in a spirit of levity, is from every standpoint profoundly to be regretted. ... it seems to me eminently unwise to cheapen such a motto by use on coins ...  In all my life I have never heard any human being speak reverently of this motto on the coins or show any signs of its having appealed to any high emotion in him, but I have literally, hundreds of times, heard it used as an occasion of and incitement to ... sneering ...  Every one must remember the innumerable cartoons and articles based on phrases like 'In God we trust for the 8 cents,' ...  Surely, I am well within bounds when I say that a use of the phrase which invites constant levity of this type is most undesirable.

President Theodore Roosevelt, 13 November 1907[58]

Press's response was largely negative. Most news outlets affiliated with Christian organisations, as well The Wall Street Journal, The Philadelphia Press and other newspapers were critical of the decision, with accusations amounting to the President being guilty of premeditated assault on religion and disregard for Americans' religious sentiments.[55] Atlanta Constitution wrote that people were to choose between "God and Roosevelt", while The New York Sun has published a poem mocking Roosevelt's attitude.[26] In contrast, The New York Times, Chicago Tribune, as well as some religious newspapers, such as The Churchman, sided with the President,[7][55] who was both stunned and irritated by people's opposition to include the motto. This prompted debate in Congress, which quickly decided to reinstate the motto on the coins in an act adopted in 1908. As a result of controversy, relevant design changes were subsequently introduced by the Mint Chief Engraver, Charles E. Barber.[49]

The motto has been in continuous use on the one-cent coin since 1909, and on the ten-cent coin since 1916. It also has appeared on all gold coins and silver dollar coins, half-dollar coins, and quarter-dollar coins struck since July 1, 1908.[34] Since 1938, all US coins have borne the "In God We Trust" inscription on them.[8]

A quarter dollar with the United States' official motto "IN GOD WE TRUST" on the obverse side

Road to the universal mandate

8¢ postage stamp from 1954, with the motto inscribed around the Statue of Liberty's head. At the time, eight cents was the standard rate for international postage. A 3¢ (domestic mail rate) stamp with similar design was also issued.

During the Cold War era, the government of the United States sought to distinguish itself from the Soviet Union, which promoted state atheism and thus implemented antireligious legislation,[59] therefore, a debate for further usage of religious motto has been started in Congress. However, Kevin M. Kruse argues in his book[60] that opposition of conservatives against New Deal, and their subsequent successful campaigns to expand the influence of religion, were the main factors that contributed to further adoption of "In God We Trust".

The Eisenhower administration has struck a deeply religious tone, which proved a fertile ground for lobbying for inclusion of the motto in furtther usages.[61] After intense public pressure for inclusion of the national motto, it appeared for the first time on some postage stamps of the 1954 Liberty Issue,[62][63][64] though lobbying for universal inclusion by Michigan Sen. Charles E. Potter and Rep. Louis C. Rabaut failed.[61]

The following year, Democrat Rep. Charles Edward Bennett of Florida cited the Cold War when he introduced H. R. 619, which obliged "In God we trust" to be printed on all banknotes and struck on all coins, in the House, arguing that "[in] these days when imperialistic and materialistic communism seeks to attack and destroy freedom, we should continually look for ways to strengthen the foundations of our freedom".[65][66] The American Numismatic Association and the American Legion have concurred and made resolutions urging to promote further usage of "In God We Trust".[67][68]

On July 11, 1955, the bill, having passed with bypartisan support of both chambers of Congress, was signed into law by President Eisenhower.[69][70] Since all coins already complied with the law, the only changes were made to the paper currency. The motto first appeared on the $1 silver certificate in 1957, followed by other certificates. Federal Reserve Notes and United States Notes[71] were circulated with the motto starting from 1964 to 1966, depending on the denomination.[34][72][73]

Adoption and display by government institutions in USA

Federal government

On July 30, 1956, the 84th Congress passed a joint resolution "declaring IN GOD WE TRUST the national motto of the United States."[74] The resolution passed both the House and the Senate unanimously and without debate.[75][76][77] It replaced E pluribus unum, which had existed before as a de facto official motto.[6] The United States Code at 36 U.S.C. § 302, now states: "'In God we trust' is the national motto." The resolution was reaffirmed in 2006, on the 50th anniversary of its adoption, by the Senate,[78] and in 2011 by the House of Representatives by 396 to 9 vote.[79][80] In 2000, the House additionally encouraged to publicly display the motto.[81][82]

The House of Representatives features the motto above the rostrum of the Speaker, which was carved in the wall in December 1962.[83]

Adoption of the national motto in state symbols

Three states have adopted In God We Trust as part of official symbolics of the state.

In Florida, the House Bill no. 1145 provided for adoption of 'In God We Trust' as the official state motto, instead of fairly similar 'In God Is Our Trust', effective July 1, 2006.[4][5][84] The motto has also appeared on the Seal of Florida[85] and on the Flag of Florida, as the Seal is one of its elements, since 1868.[86]

Georgia's flag features the motto since 2001, which was retained after a redesign two years later.[87]

In Mississippi, the Mississippi Senate voted to add the words, "In God We Trust" to the state seal, justifying it as an effort to protect religious freedom. The change was made effective on July 1, 2014.[88][89] Six years later, Mississippi Governor Tate Reeves signed into law a bill requiring that the state's flag, which had contained the Confederate battle emblem, be replaced with a new one containing the phrase "In God We Trust."[90] A new flag containing the motto was approved by voters in a referendum, and it became the official state flag in January 2021.[91]

Mandating display

  • Arkansas: In March 2017, Act 911, sponsored by State Rep. Jim Dotson, made it a requirement of Arkansas state law for public schools to display posters with the national motto, if these were donated.[92][93] In 2019, the law was later amended to require public display of the national motto in public schools, higher education institutions and state government buildings, if funds are available for that purpose.[13]
  • Florida: In early 2018, Kimberly Daniels, a Democrat who served as a representative for the Florida House of Representatives, introduced HB 839, a bill that requires public schools to display the motto "In God We Trust" in a conspicuous place. On February 21, 2018, the bill passed 97 to 10 in the House.[94][95] Gov. Rick Scott then signed the mandate into law.[96][97]
  • Idaho: House Concurrent Resolution 32, adopted in March 2020, mandates that the national motto be placed over the chairs of presiding officers of both chambers of Idaho Legislature.[98]
  • Kentucky: In 2014, a law was passed that obliged display of the national motto in legislative buildings and in committees[99]. In June 2019, a bill sponsored by Rep. Brandon Reed of Hodgenville was passed that required Kentucky public schools to display the motto "in a prominent location", beginning from the 2019-20 school year.[100][101] To protest the requirement, Fayette County Public Schools, a school district which serves Lexington, complied by posting framed one-dollar bills, which bear the slogan,[101][102] while in LaRue County, of which Hodgenville is seat, schools were using oversized images of pennies.[101]
  • Louisiana: A bill requiring public display of the motto in public schools was introduced by Sen. Regina Ashford Barrow in March 2018. It was passed unanimously both in the Senate (33 to 0) and in the House (93 to 0).[103] It was signed into law by Gov. John Bel Edwards in May that year.[104][105] The bill also mandated school instruction about "In God We Trust" as part of social studies curriculum.[103][106]
  • Mississippi: In March 2001, Governor of Mississippi Ronnie Musgrove signed legislation requiring the motto "In God We Trust" to be displayed in every public school classroom, as well as the school auditoriums and cafeterias, throughout the state.[107]
  • Ohio: Ohio requires public schools to hang a "In God We Trust" motto material if school districts receives it as donation, or if money is donated with the stated purpose of buying such materials.[13][108]
  • South Dakota: In March 2019, South Dakota required public schools to prominently display "In God We Trust" motto on their walls, starting from 2019-20 school year.[109][110][111]
  • Tennessee: In March 2018, a bill requiring Tennessee schools to prominently display the national motto ("In God We Trust") sponsored by Rep. Susan Lynn passed the state House with 81 of the 99 members voting in favor of it.[112] After being approved unanimously in the Senate, it was signed by Gov. Bill Haslam into law the following month.[113]
  • Virginia: A regulation that obliges all Virginia schools to publicly display the motto was signed into law in May 2002.[114][115]
  • Utah: Utah's law to oblige schools to publicly display "In God We Trust" was signed into law in March 2002 by Gov. Mike Leavitt.[116] The law also mandates school instruction about the motto[117].

Allowing display

  • Alabama: A 2018 law allows display of the motto in schools, libraries, government buildings, and on law enforcement vehicles.[13][118]
  • Arizona: Arizona allows public display of the motto in public schools.[13]
  • Georgia: Georgia allows for usage of the national motto in schools and government buildings, provided they have funds for pay for its display.[13]
  • Indiana: Indiana allows display of the national motto since 2005 in public schools.[13]
  • Michigan: Michigan allows and encourages the display of the motto in and on public schools as well as state and local government buildings.[13][119]
  • North Dakota: North Dakota statute allows display of the national motto in public schools.[13]
  • Oklahoma: A bill was passed in 2004 that allowed public schools to display "In God We Trust" and "E Pluribus Unum" in classrooms, auditoriums and cafeterias;[120] a 2018 Senate bill to mandate such display died in the House.[121]
  • South Carolina: South Carolina allows political subdivisions and schools to post a display detailing the foundations of the American law and government, of which the national motto is one of thirteen documents, while providing context to these documents in terms detailed by the state statute.[122]
  • Texas: Texas allows display of the motto in public schools and higher education institutions since 2003.[12][123]

Legislation pending

  • Illinois: A 2021 proposal by Rep. Adam Niemerg to permit display of In God We Trust in public schools has passed the Illinois House of Representatives in April 2021,[124] and is being deliberated upon by the state Senate as of June 2021.
  • New Hampshire: House Bill 69, introduced in April 2021, initially proposed to require schools to display the national and state mottos, and passed the House 204-169. It was amended in the Senate to allow publication of the mottos and approved on May 13, 2021. The bill is waiting for House approval as of June 2021.[125]
  • Oklahoma: In 2020, the Oklahoma House of Representatives voted to oblige state buildings to display the motto,[126] however, the bill died in the Senate due to the disruption caused by COVID-19.[127] The following year, the House reintroduced and passed the same bill in March 2021,[127] while the Senate approved a version that would allow but not require the display of the motto[128]. Both bills are being proceeded as of June 2021.
  • Texas: A 2021 Senate bill to mandate donated copies of the motto to be hung in a "conspicuous place" has passed the Texas House of Representatives on 25 May 2021, and is now awaiting signature of the Governor, who is predicted to sign it to law.[129][130]

In addition to that, several local governments have introduced the display of the motto in government buildings and municipal cars.[131][132][133][134] School boards have also seen voluntary introduction of the motto, particularly after the September 11 attacks, when the American Family Association supplied several 11-by-14-inch posters to school systems and vowed to defend any legal challenges to their display.[135]

Society and culture

Multiple scholars have noted that "In God We Trust" motto is one of the main elements of civil religion in the United States.[29][136][137][138][139][140]


In Judaism and Christianity, the official motto "In God We Trust" is not found verbatim in any verses from the Bible, but very closely in the Old Testament in Psalm 91:2, "I will say of the LORD, He is my refuge and my fortress: my God; in him will I trust" and in the New Testament in 2 Corinthians 1:10, "Who delivered us from so great a death, and doth deliver: in whom we trust that he will yet deliver us." The concept is paraphrased in Psalm 118:8, Psalm 40:3, Psalm 73:28, and Proverbs 29:25.[141] According to Philip Jenkins, some Bible translations rendered Psalm 56:11 as "In God I trust; I will not fear",[142] which could lead to substitution of the first "I" for "we".[24]

In Islam the word for the concept of reliance on God is called Tawakkul; the phrase "In God We Trust" is literally found in two places of the Quran, in Surah 10 Yunus, as well as Surah Al-A'raf (7:89), and several other verses reinforce this concept.[143] Melkote Ramaswamy, a Hindu American scholar, writes that the presence of the phrase "In God We Trust" on American currency is a reminder that "there is God everywhere, whether we are conscious or not."[144]

A 2007 e-mail conspiracy theory said that "In God We Trust" was deliberately omitted from new U.S. dollar coins.[145] The first coins produced under the Presidential $1 Coin Program did lack the "In God We Trust" inscription along their edges (along with the "E Pluribus Unum" inscription, the year of production, and the mint mark; these coins, unlike normal dollar coins, had completely blank edges), but these coins, known as "godless dollars", were the result of a minting error, not a deliberate omission.[146][147]

"In God We Trust" optional license plate of South Carolina, designed in 2002

In January 2006, Laurence Llewelyn-Bowen and his wife Jackie were offered a place on the Valentine's Day celebrity couples edition of Who Wants to Be a Millionaire? They appeared on the show managing to reach the £1 million question, before answering it incorrectly and dropping from £500,000 down to just £32,000 (a loss of £468,000). Celador allowed Llewelyn-Bowen and his wife to retry the show after the company claimed that the last question "didn't meet their standards". The allegedly misleading question was "Translated from the Latin, what is the motto of the United States?" The answer given by Llewelyn-Bowen was "In God We Trust" which is originally English and has been the motto of the United States since 1956. The intended answer had been "One Out of Many" which is a translation of the Latin phrase E pluribus unum, which has never been an official United States motto.[148]

The motto has also appeared in Jean Shepherd's book In God We Trust: All Others Pay Cash, and in albums made by Stryper, Brand Nubian and Mermen.

License plates

Mississippi current standard plate design, "IN GOD WE TRUST" can be seen at the bottom of the seal

As of May 25, 2021 the following U.S. states currently offer an "In God We Trust" license plate (vanity and standard issues): Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, North Carolina, Ohio,[149] Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia, West Virginia, and Wisconsin.[150][151]

Mississippi's current standard plate features the motto as displayed on its state seal,[151][152] while Utah offers a standard option license plate.[153] Florida, which also offers a specialty plate, has an option to place "In God We Trust" instead of the official nickname or county name;[154] Georgia also provides for such an option,[155] while North Carolina offers an option with North Carolina's state motto and "In God We Trust" instead of "First in Flight" or "First in Freedom".[156]

Opinion polls

According to a 2003 joint poll by USA Today, CNN, and Gallup, 90% of Americans support the inscription "In God We Trust" on U.S. coins,[17] however, a more recent student poll in 2019 by College Pulse made for The College Fix showed that just over a half of students supports inclusion of the national motto in currency, with two-thirds of those who recognised themselves as Democrats opposing and 94% of Republicans in favor of the measure.[18]


"In God We Trust" has long been a controversial as an official motto due what opponents perceive as being a religious statement, and as such, violating the separation of church and state. Secular and atheist organisations, such as Americans United for Separation of Church and State,[157][158] Freedom From Religion Foundation,[159][160] as well as the Satanic Temple[90] members, have all opposed inclusion of such motto. On the other hand, Project Blitz as well as conservative organisations and lawmakers have lobbied for its further adoption.[161][162]

Proponents have extensively lobbied for inclusion of the national motto, grounding it in the traditional invocations of God that they say have now become an element of a civil religion and should express the will of the founders, who believed in God.[7][82][163][164] Opponents, on the other hand, argue that not only does the motto violate the secular character of the United States, but it also predefines the type and number of gods (if any) to be trusted,[127][158][165] with some taking their arguments to the courts.


The constitutionality of the phrase "In God We Trust" has been repeatedly upheld according to the judicial interpretation of accommodationism, whose adherents state that this entrenched practice has not historically presented any constitutional difficulty, is not coercive, and does not prefer one religious denomination over another.[166] In Zorach v. Clauson (1952), the Supreme Court also wrote that the nation's "institutions presuppose a Supreme Being" and that government recognition of God does not constitute the establishment of a state church as the Constitution's authors intended to prohibit.[167] The courts also rely on the notion of "ceremonial deism" (as defined in Brennan's dissent in Lynch v. Donnelly)[168], i.e. that there exist religious references that, through their repetitious and customary usage, have become secular and are thus constitutional.[169] While opponents of such rulings argue that Jefferson's notion of "wall of separation between church and state" prohibits any aid, direct or indirect, to any religious institution, and therefore any ruling to the contrary goes counter to Founders' intent, this separationist view has not gained significant ground in judicial settings.[166][170]

Even though not directly related to the motto, Engel v. Vitale elicited much speculation on the future of "In God We Trust" in public settings. In the ruling, the US Supreme Court has struck down a New York law that encouraged public schools to recite a prayer as written in state law on First Amendment grounds. The ruling sparked widespread outrage and was extremely unpopular at the time, even as the judges' decision was near-unanimous.[171] Almost 4/5 of Americans disapproved of the ruling, according to a Gallup poll.[172] Congressmen were afraid that "In God We Trust" would have to disappear from coins and banknotes,[173] the feeling shared by the then president of the American Bar Association, John C. Salterfield,[7] while a senator was wondering if God was declared unconstitutional.[174] Congressmen tried to direct federal funds to buy Bibles for the Supreme Court justices and to propose a constitutional amendment allowing school prayer (both measures failed).[171] A similar ruling the following year in Abington Township v. Schempp prompted senators to attempt to force the Supreme Court to hang the national motto in the courtroom, which also did not succeed.[7]

Even though the Supreme Court has never ruled directly on the constitutionality of "In God We Trust",[16] several appelate federal courts and some state courts have.

Aronow v. United States was the first case to challenge the inclusion of "In God We Trust" on U.S. currency.[175] The passage of the statute that the lawsuit challenged ("31 U.S.C. § 324a "the inscription 'In God we Trust'...shall appear on all United States currency and coins")[175] stood, and the Ninth Circuit stated that: "its [motto's] use is of patriotic or ceremonial character and bears no true resemblance to a governmental sponsorship of a religious exercise". In O'Hair v. Blumenthal (1978), the US District Court for the Western District of Texas also upheld the law. A similar decision was reached on appeal to the Fifth Circuit in 1979, which affirmed that the "primary purpose of the slogan was secular".[176] The decision was reaffirmed by a ruling in the Tenth Circuit in Gaylor v. United States.[177]

A series of lawsuits attempting to outlaw "In God We Trust" was filed, with support of the Freedom From Religion Foundation, by Michael Newdow, who was known for his previous case Elk Grove Unified School District v. Newdow, where the Ninth Circuit issued a ruling removing "under God" from the Pledge of Allegiance (the ruling was overturned by the US Supreme Court). A federal judge in California rejected his reasoning in a June 2006 ruling, and the same conclusion was reached by the Ninth Circuit. Because the Supreme Court denied certiorari, the appelate court's decision, which said that "the national motto is of a "patriotic or ceremonial character," has no "theological or ritualistic impact," and does not constitute "governmental sponsorship of a religious exercise,"" remained unchanged and in force.[178] A lawsuit filed by Newdow and Freedom from Religion Foundation in 2013 in New York also failed, both on trial[179] and on appeal to the Second Circuit;[180] yet another one, filed in Ohio in 2016, was dismissed by the US District Court for the Northern District of Ohio and the Sixth Circuit.[181] The same happened with the lawsuit in the Eighth Circuit, which was unrelated to Newdow's efforts.[182][183]

In 2015, New Jersey state judge David F. Bauman dismissed a case against the Matawan-Aberdeen Regional School District brought by a student of the district and the American Humanist Association that argued that the phrase "under God" in the Pledge of Allegiance created a climate of discrimination because it promoted religion, making non-believers "second-class citizens".[184][185] He noted that "as a matter of historical tradition, the words 'under God' can no more be expunged from the national consciousness than the words 'In God We Trust' from every coin in the land, than the words 'so help me God' from every presidential oath since 1789, or than the prayer that has opened every congressional session of legislative business since 1787."[186]

Additionally, several courts have agreed that "In God We Trust" on public buildings does not violate the Establishment Clause: the New Hampshire Supreme Court[187] and the Fourth Circuit[188] did so for public schools, with the same appelate federal court arguing the same for a county government office.[189][190]

While efforts to remove "In God We Trust" were largely fruitless, in Wooley v. Maynard, the Supreme Court struck down a New Hampshire law mandating that every person carry the state motto on their license plates, noting that the State can't "use their private property as a 'mobile billboard' for the State's ideological message". In obiter dicta, the majority agreed that "In God We Trust" should not be construed to be a challenge for inclusion of the motto on US currency, which they argued was not something that was either associated directly with the owner or made to display.[191]

Usage in other countries

The Spanish equivalent of "In God We Trust", En Dios Confiamos, is an unofficial motto of the Republic of Nicaragua, which can be seen on most of Nicaragua's coins.[19]

Additionally, the phrase has been used in heraldic settings. In 1860, the phrase was included in the coat of arms of New Westminster, British Columbia, and it stayed there ever since.[192][193] Also, ntil 1997, the heraldic motto of Brighton, England was the Latin equivalent of the phrase, In Deo Fidemus.[194][195]

See also

  • Deus seja louvado
  • Dieu et mon droit
  • God Save the Queen
  • God zij met ons
  • Gott mit uns
  • In God We Trust: All Others Pay Cash
  • List of Florida state symbols
  • May God have mercy upon your soul
  • National symbols of the United States
  • Religion in the United States
  • So help me God
  • Trust in God and keep your powder dry


  1. "H. CON. RES. 13" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 May 2019. Retrieved 13 May 2019. Reaffirming ‘‘In God We Trust’’ as the official motto of the United States
  2. "Title 36 – Patriotic and National Observances, Ceremonies, and Organizations". U.S. Government Publishing Office. Archived from the original on 12 May 2019. Retrieved 12 May 2019. §302. National motto "In God we trust" is the national motto.
  3. "36 U.S. Code § 302. National motto". LII / Legal Information Institute. Archived from the original on 7 February 2019. Retrieved 12 May 2019. “In God we trust” is the national motto.
  4., NSTATE, LLC. "Florida State Motto In God We Trust". Archived from the original on 2017-06-14. Retrieved 2018-02-24.
  5. "State Motto – Florida Department of State". Archived from the original on 2018-02-16. Retrieved 2018-02-24.
  6. Bittker, Boris; Idleman, Scott; Ravitch, Frank (2015). Religion and the State in American Law. Cambridge University Press. p. 136. ISBN 9781107071827 via Google Books.
  7. Lienesch, Michael (May 2019). ""In God We Trust:" The U.S. National Motto and the Contested Concept of Civil Religion". Religions. 10 (5): 340. doi:10.3390/rel10050340. Retrieved 2021-05-29 via MDPI.
  8. U.S. Department of the Treasury (2011). "History of 'In God We Trust'". Archived from the original on 2016-04-17. Retrieved 2017-03-14.
  9. 36 U.S.C. § 302 National motto
  10. "U.S. on the History of "In God We Trust"". United States Department of the Treasury. Archived from the original on 2015-04-17. Retrieved 2009-04-22.
  11. United States Public Law 84-851 Archived 2018-07-05 at the Wayback Machine, United States Public Law 84-851.
  12. Kelley, Bryan. "'In God We Trust': Public School Displays of the National Motto". Retrieved 2021-05-25.
  13. "Display of National Motto in Public Schools" (PDF). National Conference of State Legislatures. September 2019. Retrieved 2021-05-25.
  14. "Atheist in battle to remove 'In God We Trust' from US currency". The Daily Telegraph. London. 2010-03-12. Archived from the original on 31 October 2013. Retrieved 2014-02-04.
  15. Drakeman, Donald L. (1 January 1991). Church-state Constitutional Issues: Making Sense of the Establishment Clause. Greenwood Press. ISBN 9780313276637.
  16. Dunn, Christopher (2015-10-02). "Column: The Pope, Invoking God, and New York Courtrooms (New York Law Journal)". New York Civil Liberties Union. Retrieved 2021-06-01. The Supreme Court has never ruled on any aspect of government use of “In God We Trust,” and the phrase appears only as an aside in a few of the Court’s opinions.
  17. "USA TODAY/CNN/Gallup Poll results". USA Today. 2011. Retrieved 15 November 2011. C. The inscription "In God We Trust" on U.S. coins; 2003 Sep 19–21; Approve 90; Disapprove 8; No opinion 2
  18. Kabbany-Fix, Jennifer; 2019 (2019-08-28). "Nearly half of college students believe 'In God We Trust' should be removed from U.S. currency: poll". The College Fix. Retrieved 2021-05-24.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  19. "Billetes y Monedas en Circulación". Central Bank of Nicaragua (in Spanish). Retrieved 2021-05-29.
  20. Chase, Salmon P (December 9, 1863). Letter to James Pollock. Document # RG 104_UD 87-A_Folder In God We Trust 1861_Part1. National Archives and Records Administration. p. 11.
  21. "Founders Online: Colors of the Associator Companies, 12 January 1748 and 16 April 1748". Retrieved 2021-05-29.
  22. Popik, Barry (2009-07-02). "In God we trust (all others pay cash)". The Big Apple. Retrieved 2021-05-29.
  23. Shapiro, Fred Q. (2006). The Yale Book of Quotations. New Haven, Ct.: Yale University Press. p. 145. ISBN 9780300107982.
  24. Kidd, Thomas S. (2015-11-10). "The Origin of "In God We Trust"". Anxious Bench. Retrieved 2021-05-29.
  25. "Defence of Fort M'Henry". The Analectic Magazine. 4: 433–434. November 1814. hdl:2027/umn.31951000925404p.
  26. Fisher, Louis; Mourtada-Sabbah, Nada (2002). "Adopting In God We Trust as the U.S. National Motto". Journal of Church and State. 44 (4). doi:10.1093/jcs/44.4.671. JSTOR 23920474.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  27. Popik, Barry (2009-07-02). "In God we trust (all others pay cash)". The Big Apple. Retrieved 2021-05-29.
  28. "The Liberator. v.15:no.17(1845:Apr.25)". Retrieved 2021-05-28 via Digital Commonwealth.
  29. Latterell, Justin (2015-04-21). "In God We Trust: Abraham Lincoln and America's Deathbed Repentance". Political Theology. doi:10.1558/poth.v12i4.594 via Taylor and Francis.
  30. Disney, David T. (February 1845). "Bro. Disney's Address". The Ark, and Odd Fellows Magazine. 2 (2): 20, 184 via Google Books.
  31. "History of 'In God We Trust'". U.S. Department of the Treasury. Archived from the original on 17 April 2015. Retrieved 3 October 2013.
  32. United States (1897). Congressional Serial Set. US: Government Printing Office, p. 260. Archived 2016-11-18 at the Wayback Machine
  33. Myers, R. Andrew (25 July 2020). "How did "In God We Trust" come to be on American currency? A 19th century Presbyterian played a major role". Log College Press. Retrieved 6 August 2020.
  34. "History of 'In God We Trust'". Archived from the original on 2015-04-17. Retrieved 2016-04-29.
  35. See preamble of CSA Constitution: ...invoking the favor and guidance of Almighty God...
  36. Begley, Sarah (2016-01-13). "How 'In God We Trust' Got on the Currency in the First Place". Time. Retrieved 2021-05-24.
  37. The Regimental Committee, 125th PA Volunteers, 1862–1863 (2009). Regimental History. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Library. pp. 150–152. ISBN 978-1-112-13570-5.
  38. Alexander, ted (2011). The Battle of Antietam. Charleston, SC: The History Press. p. 76. ISBN 978-1-60949-179-6.
  39. 125th PA Vol. Infantry: IN GOD WE TRUST. WTAJ (Television production). 28 June 2012. Archived from the original on 10 August 2016. Retrieved 29 November 2016 via YouTube.
  40. "Antietam: 125th Pennsylvania Infantry". Retrieved 2021-05-29.
  41. "Sketches of the Metropolitan Fair". Harper's Weekly. 8: 261. 1864-04-23. Retrieved 2021-05-29 via Internet Archive.
  42. Harp, Gillis J. (2019-08-02). Protestants and American Conservatism: A Short History. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 95–96. ISBN 978-0-19-997741-3.
  43. According to The Congressional Record (1908, House), p. 3387, the motto was adopted "doubtless with his [Lincoln's] knowledge and approval".
  44. Congressional Record, 1956, p. 13917 Archived 2009-01-06 at the Wayback Machine, via
  45. Duncan, Ann W. (2008). Religion, Rhetoric, and Ritual in the U.S. Government," Church-state Issues in America Today. Westport CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, pp. 77.
  46. Giedroyc, Richard. "Two Cent". Professional Coin Grading Service. Retrieved 2021-05-24.
  47. Lange, David W. (2005). History of the United States Mint and its Coinage. Whitman Publisher LLC. pp. 98–99. ISBN 978-0794819729.
  48. Mislin, David. "The complex history of 'In God We Trust'". The Conversation. Retrieved 2021-05-24.
  49. "Type 2, No Motto". Professional Coin Grading Service. Retrieved 2021-05-25.
  50. "THE NEW LEGEND ON OUR COINS". The New York Times. 1865-12-18. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2021-05-29.
  51. "THE NEW FIVE CENT PIECE. [COMMUNICATED]". American Journal of Numismatics, and Bulletin of the American Numismatic and Archaeological Society. 1 (4): 27. 1866. ISSN 2381-4586. JSTOR 43585592.
  52. "In God We Trust; All Others Cash". Quote Investigator. 2017-12-10. Retrieved 2021-05-30.
  53. Garret, Jeff; Guth, Ron (2008). Encyclopedia of U.S. Gold Coins, 1795–1933 (2nd ed.). Atlanta: Whitman Publishing. p. 476. ISBN 978-0-7948-2254-5.
  54. "100 Greatest U.S. Coins". Retrieved 2021-05-30.
  55. Gatewood, Willard B. (1966). "Theodore Roosevelt and the Coinage Controversy". American Quarterly. 18 (1): 35–51. doi:10.2307/2711109. ISSN 0003-0678 via JSTOR.
  56. Burdette, Roger W. (2006). Renaissance of American Coinage, 1905–1908. Great Falls, Va.: Seneca Mill Press. pp. 193–195. ISBN 978-0-9768986-1-0.
  57. "10 Interesting Facts About Theodore Roosevelt". 2009-03-04. Archived from the original on 2014-02-17. Retrieved 2014-02-04.
  58. "Roosevelt Dropped 'IN GOD WE TRUST'; President Says Such a Motto on Coin Is Irreverence, Close to Sacrilege. NO LAW COMMANDS ITS USE He Trusts Congress Will Not Direct Him to Replace the Exalted Phrase That Invited Constant Levity". The New York Times. November 14, 1907. Archived from the original on 26 February 2018. Retrieved 26 August 2010.
  59. Merriman, Scott A. Religion and the Law in America: An Encyclopedia of Personal Belief and Public Policy Archived 2019-05-29 at the Wayback Machine. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2007. Print. "In 1956, the United States, changed its motto to 'In God We Trust', in large part to differentiate itself from the Soviet Union, its Cold War enemy that was widely seen as promoting atheism."
  60. Kruse, Kevin M. (2015). One Nation Under God: How Corporate America Invented Christian America. New York: Basic Books. pp. xiv–xv. ISBN 978-0-465-04949-3.
  61. Herzog, Jonathan P. (2011-08-05). The Spiritual-Industrial Complex: America's Religious Battle Against Communism in the Early Cold War. New York: Oxford University Press, USA. pp. 97, 101. ISBN 978-0-19-539346-0.CS1 maint: date and year (link)
  62. "NEW STAMP GETS MOTTO; ' In God We Trust' 8-Center to Go on Sale Early in April". The New York Times. 1954-02-26. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2021-05-31.
  63. Christopher, West (2014). A History of America in Thirty-Six Postage Stamps. London: Picador. p. 232. ISBN 978-1250043689.
  64. Cep, Casey N. (2014-02-20). "When Did Americans Start Trusting in God?". Pacific Standard. Retrieved 2021-05-31.
  65. "The legislation placing "In God We Trust" on national currency | US House of Representatives: History, Art & Archives". 1955-07-11. Archived from the original on 2017-05-19. Retrieved 2017-05-13.
  66. United States Currency Inscription. Miscellaneous Hearings. Tuesday, May 17th 1955. House of Representatives. Committee on Banking and Currency. pps 47–57
  67. Fitschen, Steve (2018-02-11). "Defending "In God We Trust"". National Legal Foundation. Retrieved 2021-05-31.
  68. "Congressional Record, Volume 148 Issue 105 (Monday, July 29, 2002)". Retrieved 2021-05-31. The following year, 1955, largely at the instigation of Matt Rothert, later president of the American Numismatic Association, Congress amended the U.S. Code to require the national motto to be placed on all coins and currency.
  69. "An Act to provide that all United States currency shall bear the inscription "In God We Trust."" (PDF). 1955-07-11.
  70. "The Legislation Placing "In God We Trust" on National Currency'". Retrieved 2019-09-16.
  71. Not produced since 1971
  72. Steven B. Epstein, "Rethinking the Constitutionality of Ceremonial Deism Archived 2017-03-17 at the Wayback Machine" Columbia Law Review, Vol. 96, No. 8. (Dec., 1996), p. 2083–2174, quoting the peroration (abridged here) of the speech by Charles Edward Bennett, sponsor in the House, the only speech in either House of Congress on the subject. President Eisenhower and W. Randolph Burgess, Deputy to the Treasury for Monetary Affairs, had approved of the legislation! 101 Congressional Record pp. 4384 (quoted), 7796. (1955)
  73. Merriman, Scott A. (2007). Religion and the Law in America: An Encyclopedia of Personal Belief and Public Policy. 1. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO. p. 281. ISBN 978-1-85109-863-7.CS1 maint: date and year (link)
  74. Margaret Wood (April 22, 2013). "In God We Trust". Library of Congress. Retrieved April 2, 2021.
  75. "New National Motto Of U. S. Recalls Key's Words Of 1814". Palladium-Item. Richmond, Indiana. 13 Aug 1956. p. 8. Archived from the original on 26 February 2018. Retrieved 2018-02-15 via
  76. Miller, Douglas and Nowak, Marion, The Fifties: The Way We Really Were. 1977, 89. "'In God We Trust' was adopted as the national motto in 1956, with neither debate nor a single dissenting vote in the House or Senate."
  77. Public Law 84-851
  78. Felicia Sonmez (1 November 2011). "Social issues return to fore with 'In God We Trust' resolution". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 4 November 2011. Retrieved 7 November 2011. 'In 2006, on the 50th anniversary of its adoption, the Senate reaffirmed 'In God We Trust' as the official national motto of the United States,' Forbes said in a statement announcing the vote. 'Tomorrow, the House of Representatives will have the same opportunity to reaffirm our national motto and directly confront a disturbing trend of inaccuracies and omissions, misunderstandings of church and state, rogue court challenges, and efforts to remove God from the public domain by unelected bureaucrats.'
  79. Jennifer Steinhauer (3 November 2011). "In God We Trust, With the House's Help". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 7 November 2011. Retrieved 7 November 2011. Citing a crisis of national identity and mass confusion among Americans about their nation's motto, the House on Tuesday voted on a resolution 'reaffirming "In God We Trust" as the official motto of the United States.'
  80. Todd Starnes (3 November 2011). "See Which Congressmen Voted Against 'In God We Trust'". Fox News. Archived from the original on 2011-11-04. Retrieved 7 November 2011. The House of Representatives passed a bi-partisan resolution Tuesday night reaffirming "In God We Trust" as the official motto of the United States. The 396–9 vote came at the request of Rep. Randy Forbes (R-VA).
  81. "House Votes For Display Of 'in God We Trust' Motto In Public Buildings". Americans United for Separation of Church and State. 2000-07-23. Retrieved 2021-05-25.
  82. "H. Res. 548 Engrossed in House". Retrieved 2021-05-31.
  83. "Furniture | US House of Representatives: History, Art & Archives". Retrieved 2021-05-25.
  84. "The 2020 Florida Statutes: 15.0301". Retrieved 2021-05-25. State motto.—“In God We Trust” is hereby designated and declared the official motto of the State of Florida.
  85. "State Seal - Florida Department of State". Retrieved 2021-05-25.
  86. "State Flag - Florida Department of State". Retrieved 2021-05-25.
  87. Smith, Whitney (March 25, 2004). "Flag of Georgia | United States state flag". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2021-05-25.
  88. Mississippi Legislature (January 2014). "Mississippi Religious Freedom Restoration Act; enact and modify the great seal" (PDF). Senate Bill No. 2681. Mississippi: State of Mississippi. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 2, 2014. Retrieved April 2, 2014.
  89. Wagster Pettus, Emily (31 January 2014). "Miss. Senate OKs adding 'In God We Trust' to seal". WorldNow and WLBT. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
  90. Knowles, Lindsay (2020-07-08). "Satanic Temple threatens lawsuit if 'In God We Trust' appears on new Mississippi flag". WLBT-3. Retrieved 2021-05-25.
  91. "Mississippi governor signing law for flag without rebel sign". The Independent. 2021-01-11. Retrieved 2021-04-04.
  92. "'In God We Trust' Posters to Be Displayed in Arkansas Public Schools". Fox News Insider. 12 March 2018. Archived from the original on 3 June 2019. Retrieved 3 June 2019.
  93. Perozek, Dave (11 March 2018). "Some Arkansas schools will display 'In God we trust' after posters donated". Arkansas Democrat-Gazette. Archived from the original on 3 June 2019. Retrieved 3 June 2019.
  94. Sterling, Joe. "Florida lawmakers advance a bill that requires 'In God We Trust' displayed on school grounds". Archived from the original on 2018-02-24. Retrieved 2018-02-24.
  95. "Florida lawmakers advance bill that would require 'In God We Trust' to be visible on all school buildings". 23 February 2018. Archived from the original on 24 February 2018. Retrieved 24 February 2018.
  96. "Atheist group offers to provide "In God We Trust" signs to Florida public schools". Tampa Bay Times. 26 March 2018. Archived from the original on 3 June 2019. Retrieved 3 June 2019.
  97. Balingit, Moriah (December 1, 2018). "Does 'In God We Trust' belong in schools? More and more states say yes". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2021-05-25.
  98. "HOUSE CONCURRENT RESOLUTION 32". Idaho State Legislature. Retrieved 2021-05-25.
  99. "7.090 Legislative Research Commission - Kentucky". Kentucky General Assembly. Retrieved 2021-05-25.
  100. "Display of national motto in public elementary and secondary schools -- Reading and posting in public schools of texts and documents on American history and heritage". Legislature of Kentucky. 2019-06-27. Retrieved 2021-05-25.
  101. Wood, Josh (2019-09-13). "'In God We Trust': display in Kentucky schools marks effort to mix church and state". The Guardian. Retrieved 2021-05-25.
  102. "'In God We Trust' found in form of dollar bill at Fayette County schools". WKYT. 14 Aug 2019. Archived from the original on 1 September 2019. Retrieved 1 September 2019.
  103. Rand, Brendan (2019-08-13). "Louisiana public schools will display 'In God We Trust' beginning this school year". ABC News. Retrieved 2021-05-25.
  104. Kelly McCleary (11 August 2019). "'In God We Trust' signs to greet Louisiana students in new school year". CNN. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  105. Torres, Ella (2019-07-26). "South Dakota public schools now required to display 'In God We Trust' on walls". ABC News. Retrieved 2021-05-25.
  106. "SENATE BILL NO. 224". Louisiana State Legislature. Retrieved 2021-05-25.
  107. "National News Briefs; 'In God We Trust' Motto For Mississippi Schools". The New York Times. Associated Press. 25 March 2001. Archived from the original on 22 December 2017. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
  108. "New Ohio Law Requires Schools to Display "In God We Trust"". Liberty Counsel. July 17, 2006. Retrieved 2021-05-25.
  109. Matias, Dani (July 25, 2019). "South Dakota Public Schools Add 'In God We Trust' Signs To Walls". Retrieved 2021-05-25.
  110. "'In God We Trust' going up at South Dakota public schools". Associated Press. 2019-07-24. Retrieved 2021-05-25.
  111. "Bill Title: Require the national motto of the United States to be displayed in public schools". Retrieved 16 May 2020.
  112. Meyer, Holly. "Tennessee lawmakers pass bill requiring public schools to post 'In God We Trust' motto". The Tennessean. Retrieved 2021-05-25.
  113. Constantine, Mary. "'In God We Trust' motto now required to be displayed in all Tennessee public schools". Knoxville News Sentinel. Retrieved 2021-05-25.
  114. Helderman, Rosalind S.; Samuels, Christina A. (2002-06-28). "Va. Schools Forge Ahead With National Motto". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2021-05-25.
  115. "2002 Uncodified Acts - Chapter 895". May 17, 2002. Retrieved 2021-05-25.
  116. Tanner, Courtney (July 27, 2019). "Utah has required schools to have 'In God We Trust' posted publicly for 17 years". The Salt Lake Tribune. Retrieved 2021-05-25.
  117. "53G-10-302. Instruction in American history and government -- Study and posting of American heritage documents". Retrieved 2021-05-25.
  118. Schleisman, Nicolette (2018-08-21). "New Alabama law allows "In God We Trust" in public schools". WKRG News 5. Retrieved 2021-05-25.
  119. Pyeatt, Matt (January 3, 2002). "Michigan government offices now urged to display 'In God We Trust' - Baptist Press". Baptist Press. Retrieved 2021-05-25.
  120. "Bill No. 2477 (An Act relating to schools)" (PDF). Oklahoma Legislature. Retrieved 2021-05-25.
  121. "Oklahoma SB1016 | 2018 | Regular Session". LegiScan. Retrieved 2021-05-25.
  122. "South Carolina Code of Laws. Title 10 - Public Buildings and Property". Retrieved 2021-05-25.
  123. "Government Legislature". In God We Trust. Retrieved 2021-05-25.
  124. "Niemerg's "In God We Trust" Legislation Passes Illinois House". Effingham's News and Sports Leader, 979XFM and KJ Country 102.3. April 22, 2021. Retrieved 2021-05-25.
  125. Rayno, Garry (2021-05-13). "Senate Sends Bills Changing Public Education To Governor". Retrieved 2021-05-25.
  126. Carmen Forman (4 March 2020). "Oklahoma House approves 'In God We Trust' bill". The Oklahoman. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  127. Forman, Carmen. "Oklahoma House speaker wants 'In God We Trust' displayed in state buildings". The Oklahoman. Retrieved 2021-05-25.
  128. Querry-Thompson, Kimberly (2021-03-08). "Oklahoma Senate passes bill to allow 'In God We Trust' on buildings". KFOR. Retrieved 2021-05-25.
  129. Bohra, Neelam (2021-05-24). "Some Texas schools would be required to hang "In God We Trust" signs under measure nearing passage by lawmakers". The Texas Tribune. Retrieved 2021-05-25.
  130. Herman, Ken (2021-05-27). "Herman: Legislature says non-school groups should be allowed to force posting of "In God We Trust"". Austin American-Statesman. Retrieved 2021-05-28.
  131. "'In God We Trust' to be placed on Jefferson Co., IL squad cars" (Archive). KFVS. August 1, 2015. Retrieved on August 2, 2015.
  132. "Atheist Group Asks Police Remove 'In God We Trust' Car Decal". October 2015. Archived from the original on 2018-02-25. Retrieved 2018-02-25.
  133. Sam, Morgan (6 June 2019). "'In God We Trust' decals to be placed on local police, fire vehicles". Media. Archived from the original on 7 June 2019. Retrieved 6 June 2019.
  134. "Home". In God We Trust America. Retrieved 2021-05-25.
  135. " – 'In God We Trust' pressed for schools". 19 February 2002. Archived from the original on 11 November 2013. Retrieved 23 January 2013.
  136. Bellah, Robert N. (1967). "Civil Religion in America". Daedalus. 96 (1): 1–21. ISSN 0011-5266.
  137. "In God We Trust: Civil and Uncivil Religion in America". National Radio - Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 1999-10-26. Retrieved 2021-05-25.
  138. Fait, Stefano. "Civil Religion". Retrieved 2021-05-25.
  139. Knicely, James J.; Whitehead, John W. (2010). "In God We Trust: The Judicial Establishment of American Civil Religion". The John Marshall Law Review. 43.
  140. Coleman, John A. (July 1, 1970). "Civil Religion". Sociology of Religion. 31 (2): 75. doi:10.2307/3710057.
  141. "In God We Trust: The Motto". All About History. Archived from the original on 2013-02-16. Retrieved 2013-02-26.
  142. "The Scottish Metrical Psalter". Retrieved 2021-05-29.
  143. "Verses including the word Putting One's Trust in Allah (Tawakkul)". Quran Index. Archived from the original on 2016-10-07. Retrieved 2016-06-16.
  144. Ramaswamy, Melkote (2012-08-11). "Faith/Values | Indianapolis Star". Archived from the original on 2014-10-19. Retrieved 2014-02-04.
  145. Mikkelson, David (2013-01-01). "New Dollar Coins and 'In God We Trust'". Snopes. Retrieved 2021-05-25.
  146. David S Morgan (2007-03-07). ""Godless" Dollar Coins Slip Through Mint". CBS News. Archived from the original on 2011-04-24. Retrieved 2010-11-03.
  147. Associated Press: Dollar Coins Missing 'In God We Trust', By David S Morgan, (Mar. 7, 2007), CBS News Archived March 19, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  148. "TV designer's second shot at £1m". British Broadcasting Corporation. 13 January 2006. Archived from the original on 25 July 2015. Retrieved 22 May 2015.
  149. "4503.763 Ohio Battleflag license plates". Ohio Administrative Code. Lawriter LLC. Archived from the original on 2018-05-30. Retrieved 2018-05-29. Ohio Battleflag" license plates shall be inscribed with the words "In God We Trust
  150. "Project Blitz - "In God We Trust" License Plates". BlitzWatch. Retrieved 2021-05-25.
  151. Parke, Caleb (2019-01-03). "Mississippi unveils new state license plates with 'In God We Trust'". Fox News. Retrieved 2021-05-31.
  152. "Mississippi adding 'In God We Trust' on new license plate". Associated Press. 2019-01-01. Retrieved 2021-05-31.
  153. "In God We Trust - Utah". Utah Department of Motor Vehicles. Retrieved 2021-06-01.
  154. "License Plates & Registration". Florida Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles. Retrieved 2021-05-25.
  155. "2019 Georgia Code :: Title 40 - Motor Vehicles and Traffic :: Chapter 2 - Registration and Licensing of Motor Vehicles :: Article 1 - General Provisions :: § 40-2-9. Space for county name decal; display of "In God We Trust" decal in lieu of county name decal". Justia Law. Retrieved 2021-05-25.
  156. Stradling, Richard (2019-07-01). "'In God We Trust' now an option on your next North Carolina license plate". The News & Observer. Retrieved 2021-05-25.
  157. Sokol, Samantha (2020-07-02). "Mississippi Trades Confederate Emblem For 'In God We Trust' On State Flag". Americans United for Separation of Church and State. Retrieved 2021-05-31.
  158. Boston, Rob (2019-01-25). "If 'In God We Trust' Isn't Really A Religious Statement, Then What Exactly Is It?". Americans United for Separation of Church and State. Retrieved 2021-05-31.
  159. Nachreiner-Mackesey, Bailey. "TAKE ACTION: "In God We Trust" bill has passed the Ill. House - Freedom From Religion Foundation". Retrieved 2021-05-31.
  160. Nachreiner-Mackesey, Bailey. "Take Action: N.H. lawmakers advance 'In God We Trust' in schools - Freedom From Religion Foundation". Retrieved 2021-05-31.
  161. "Project Blitz - "In God We Trust" Displays in Schools". BlitzWatch. Retrieved 2021-05-31.
  162. Taylor, David (2019-01-14). "'In God We Trust' - the bills Christian nationalists hope will 'protect religious freedom'". the Guardian. Retrieved 2021-05-31.
  163. Foster, Thomas A. (2011-11-09). ""In God We Trust" or "E Pluribus Unum"? The American Founders Preferred the Latter Motto | Origins: Current Events in Historical Perspective". Retrieved 2021-05-31.
  164. "Why Is This Significant?". In God We Trust. Retrieved 2021-05-31.
  165. Avery, Daniel (2019-08-06). "Where does "In God We Trust" come from? National motto appearing in public schools across America". Newsweek. Retrieved 2021-05-31.
  166. Richard H. Fallon (2004). The Dynamic Constitution: an Introduction to Americans Constitutional Law. Cambridge University Press. p. 60. ISBN 978-0-521-60078-1. Archived from the original on 2016-11-18. Retrieved 2016-09-24. "Strict separationists" believe that the government has no business supporting religious beliefs or institutions in any way – for example, by providing tax breaks to churches, assisting parochial schools, including prayers or benedictions in public ceremonies, or inscribing "In God We Trust" on the currency. Religious accommodationists can well explain why certain entrenched social practices (such as the inscription of "In God We Trust" on the currency) were not historically perceived as presenting constitutional difficulties: The relevant practices are not coercive and do not prefer one narrow sect over another.
  167. ABA Journal Sep 1962. September 1962. Archived from the original on November 19, 2016. Retrieved September 24, 2016. Much more recently, in 1952, speaking through Mr. Justice Douglas in Zorach v. Clauson, 343 U.S. 306, 313, the Supreme Court repeated the same sentiments, saying: We are a religious people whose institutions presuppose a Supreme Being. Mr. Justice Brewer in the Holy Trinity case, supra, mentioned many of these evidences of religion, and Mr. Justice Douglas in the Zorach case referred to ... [P]rayers in our legislative halls; the appeals to the Almighty in the messages of the Chief Executive; the proclamation making Thanksgiving Day a holiday; "So help me God" in our courtroom oaths – these and ... other references to the Almighty ... run through our laws, our public rituals, our ceremonies ... the supplication with which the Court opens each session: "God save the United States and this Honorable Court" (312–313). To this list may be added tax exemption of churches, chaplaincies in the armed forces, the "Pray for Peace" postmark, the widespread observance of Christmas holidays, and, in classrooms, singing the fourth stanza of America which is prayer invoking the protection of God, and the words "in God is our trust" as found in the National Anthem, and the reciting of the Pledge of Allegiance to the Flag, modified by an Act of Congress of June 14, 1954, to include the words "under God.
  168. Merriam, Jesse; Lupu, Ira; Elwood, F.; Davis, Eleanor; Tuttle, Robert; R., David; Kirschner, Sherry (2008-08-28). "On Ceremonial Occasions, May the Government Invoke a Deity?". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. Retrieved 2021-05-31.
  169. Thorne, M. (Sep 2003). "The Tangled Web of Ceremonial Deism". Liberty Magazine. Retrieved 2021-05-31.
  170. JONES, RICHARD H. (1989). ""In God We Trust" and the Establishment Clause". Journal of Church and State. 31 (3): 381–417. ISSN 0021-969X via JSTOR.
  171. Lain, Corinna Barrett (2015). "God, Civic Virtue, and the American Way: Reconstructing Engel". Stanford Law Review. 67.
  172. Lyons, Linda (2002-12-10). "The Gallup Brain: Prayer in Public Schools". Gallup. Retrieved 2021-05-31.
  173. "THE SUPREME COURT DECISION ON PRAYER IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS OF NEW YORK" (PDF). Congressional Record - Senate: 12226. 1962-06-28.
  174. "THE SUPREME COURT DECISION ON PRAYER IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS OF NEW YORK" (PDF). Congressional Record - Senate: 11709. 1962-06-26.
  175. Aronow v. United States, 432 F.2d 242, 243 (9th Cir. October 6, 1970).
  176. Duncan, Ann W. (2008). Church-state Issues in America Today. Westport CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, p. 88.
  177. "GAYLOR v. UNITED STATES". Findlaw. 1996-01-23. Retrieved 2021-06-01.
  178. Bob Egelko, 'In God We Trust' suit rejected by Supreme Court, San Francisco Chronicle, Archived 2018-02-13 at the Wayback Machine March 8, 2011
  179. "Lawsuit to remove 'In God We Trust' from money gets dismissed -". Archived from the original on 2018-02-24. Retrieved 2018-02-24.
  180. Volokh, Eugene (2014-05-28). ""In God We Trust" on currency doesn't violate the First Amendment or the Religious Freedom Restoration Act". Washington Post. Retrieved 2021-06-01.
  181. "New Doe Child #1 v. Congress of the United States, No. 16-4345 (6th Cir. 2018)". Justia Law. Retrieved 2021-06-01.
  182. Jr, David L. Hudson. "8th Circuit: "In God We Trust" on money is constitutional". Retrieved 2021-06-01.
  183. Stempel, Jonathan (2018-08-28). "U.S. court rejects atheists' appeal over 'In God We Trust' on money". Reuters. Retrieved 2021-06-01.
  184. Salvador Rizzo. "Hearing 'Under God' in Pledge of Allegiance does not violate rights of atheist students, NJ judge rules". Archived from the original on March 10, 2016. Retrieved February 29, 2016.
  185. "Judge Refuses To Kick God Out Of Public Schools". Forbes. February 7, 2015. Archived from the original on February 29, 2016. Retrieved February 29, 2016.
  186. "AMERICAN HUMANIST ASSOCIATION v. 176". Findlaw. 2015-02-04. Retrieved 2021-06-01.
  187. "Opinion of the Justices, 108 N.H. 97". 1967-04-06. Retrieved 2021-06-01.
  188. "MYERS v. LOUDOUN COUNTY P | 418 F.3d 395 (2005) | 8f3d3951778 |". Leagle. Retrieved 2021-06-01.
  189. "LAMBETH v. BOARD OF COMMR'S OF DAVIDSON COUNTY | 407 F.3d 266 | 4th Cir. | Judgment | Law | CaseMine". Retrieved 2021-06-01.
  190. Douglas, Davison M. (2012-07-08). "National Motto In God We Trust". Civil Liberties in the United States. Retrieved 2021-06-01.
  191. "WOOLEY v. MAYNARD (1977) No. 75-1453". Findlaw. Retrieved 2021-06-01.
  192. "City of New Westminster". 2006-10-07. Archived from the original on 2006-10-07. Retrieved 2021-05-29.
  193. "City Symbols". New Westminster. Retrieved 2021-06-01.
  194. "Stock Photo – The coat of arms of Brighton with Motto: 'IN DEO FIDEMUS' – We trust in God on wall, Brighton, East Sussex, England UK in April". Alamy. Archived from the original on 2019-06-03. Retrieved 2019-06-03.
  195. Carder, Tim (1990). "Arms and motto - Encyclopedia of Brighton". Retrieved 2021-05-29 via My Brighton and Hove.
This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.