Imelda Romualdez Marcos (Tagalog pronunciation: [ɪˈmelda ˈmaɾkɔs]; born Imelda Remedios Visitacion Trinidad Romualdez; July 2, 1929) is a Filipino politician and convicted criminal who was First Lady of the Philippines for 21 years, during which she and her husband Ferdinand Marcos stole billions:176 from the Filipino people, amassing a personal fortune estimated to have been worth US$5 billion to 10 billion by the time they were deposed in 1986. By 2018, about $3.6 billion of this had been recovered by the Philippine government, either through compromise deals or sequestration cases.
|Member of the |
Philippine House of Representatives
from Ilocos Norte's 2nd District
June 30, 2010 – June 30, 2019
|Preceded by||Ferdinand Marcos Jr.|
|Succeeded by||Eugenio Angelo Barba|
|Member of the |
Philippine House of Representatives
from Leyte's 1st District
June 30, 1995 – June 30, 1998
|Preceded by||Cirilo Roy Montejo|
|Succeeded by||Alfred Romualdez|
|Member of Parliament |
for Region IV (Metro Manila)
June 12, 1978 – June 5, 1984
|1st Governor of Metro Manila|
February 27, 1975 – February 25, 1986
|Appointed by||Ferdinand Marcos|
|Preceded by||Office created|
|Succeeded by||Joey Lina (OIC)|
|10th First Lady of the Philippines|
December 30, 1965 – February 25, 1986
|Preceded by||Eva Macapagal|
|Succeeded by||Vacant (Ballsy Aquino-Cruz, de facto) |
Amelita Ramos (1992)
July 2, 1929
San Miguel, Manila, Philippine Islands
|Political party||Nacionalista (1965–1978; 2009–present)|
|Kilusang Bagong Lipunan (1978–2013)|
(m. 1954; d. 1989)
|Net worth||₱ 923.8 million declared (Dec 2018)|
|Criminal status||Released on bail pending appeal|
She married Marcos in 1954 and became First Lady in 1965 when he became President of the Philippines. She ordered the construction of many grandiose architectural projects, using public funds and "in impossibly short order" – a propaganda practice, which eventually came to be known as her "edifice complex."
The People Power Revolution in February 1986 unseated the Marcoses and forced the family into exile in Hawaii. In 1991, President Corazon Aquino allowed the Marcos family to return to the Philippines after the 1989 death of Ferdinand Marcos. Imelda Marcos was elected four times to the House of Representatives of the Philippines, and ran twice for the presidency of the Philippines but failed to garner enough votes.
She and her family gained notoriety for living a lavish lifestyle during a period of economic crisis and civil unrest in the country. She spent much of her time abroad on state visits, extravagant parties, and shopping sprees, and spent much of the State's money on her personal art, jewelry and shoe collections. She and her husband Ferdinand hold the Guinness World Record for the Greatest Robbery of a Government. The subject of dozens of court cases around the world, she was eventually convicted of corruption charges for her activities during her term as governor of Metro Manila in 2018; the case is under appeal.
Birth and family background
Imelda Remedios Visitación Romuáldez was born at dawn in San Miguel, Manila, on July 2, 1929. Her parents were Vicente Orestes Romuáldez, a lawyer, and his second wife, Remedios Trinidad. Imelda is the sixth of Vicente's eleven children, and Remedios's firstborn.
Born into the Romuáldez political dynasty from the province of Leyte, Imelda grew up in a wealthy clan of devout Catholics. She was baptized in the nearby San Miguel Church on the day after her birth.
Notable members of Imelda's family include the clan matriarch Doña Trinidad López de Romuáldez; her uncle Norberto Romuáldez, who was a Supreme Court Associate Justice; and her younger brother Benjamín “Kokoy” Romuáldez, who served as Governor of Leyte and later as an ambassador under the regime of Imelda’s husband, Ferdinand Marcos.
Imelda's parents were separated for a time, during which Remedios worked for the nuns at the Asilo de San Vicente de Paul. Vicente and Remedios eventually reconciled but to avoid further conflict, she and her children, including Imelda, moved to their house's garage. In 1937 after Conchita's birth, Remedios's health began to fail and she died on April 7, 1938, due to double pneumonia. In her ten years of marriage, Imelda had five siblings – Benjamin, Alita, Alfredo, Armando and Conchita.
In the same year, 1938, Imelda's father gave up Manila due to his declining fortunes in his law practice and returned to Tacloban where he could support his family with a simpler lifestyle. She grew up learning Waray language, learned Tagalog language and, eventually, English.
Imelda finished grade one in the nearby College of the Holy Spirit Manila, where her older half-sisters also studied.
She continued her early studies at Holy Infant Academy, a convent school run by Order of Saint Benedict. The old wooden structure of the school still stands today four blocks away from the Romualdez house. At school, Imelda had to face her family's humiliating poverty, and she was frequently among the students who had to apologize for late payments.
In 1942, the Romualdezes returned to Tacloban, and around that time, Imelda's father refused to let her go back to school. When the Americans returned in 1944, she was eager to resume her studies at Leyte Progressive High School. She finished her first year at the provincial high school where she was also chosen Miss I-A; then in her second year, she moved to Holy Infant and stayed there until she graduated.
Imelda continued her higher studies at Holy Infant Academy from 1938 to 1948, the year she graduated from high school. As a student, her scholastic record shows that she had a general average of 80 percent throughout her primary and high school.
Imelda ran for President of the student council at St. Paul's College (now named Divine Word University) in 1951, three years before her marriage to Marcos. At that time, she was about to graduate with a degree in Education. She was put up as candidate for the Department of Education, which had an enrollment of 800 students. Even during the nomination, her victory was already a foregone conclusion, but the school authorities insisted that another candidate be put up to make the elections a democratic procedure. That was how the College of Law, with 200 students, put up Francisco Pedrosa.
While an undergraduate student, Marcos taught at a local Chinese high school before graduating in 1952. She had won a scholarship to study music at the Philippine Women's University under Adoración Reyes, a close friend of the family. She briefly held a job at a music store but left this for a better one at the Central Bank. After a few lessons, Adoración was convinced that Imelda had talent and persuaded her to enroll at the College of Music and Fine Arts at PWU, under a special arrangement that would put her on register while Adoración would continue to give her free lessons.
- Life in Manila with Daniel Romuáldez
Imelda returned to Manila in 1952 under the rule of President Elpidio Quirino and stayed in the house of her relative, House of Representatives of the Philippines Speaker Pro tempore Daniel Romuáldez, who had three adopted children. Imelda's status in the Romuáldez household during this time has been described as "higher than servants and lower than family members as a poor relative". Imelda found work as a salesgirl in a store called P.E. Domingo, which infuriated her father when he learnt of during one of his visits, perceiving it as ill treatment of Imelda.
- Work at the Central Bank Intelligence Division and lessons at the Philippine Women's University
To calm the indignation of Vicente Romuáldez, Eduardo and Daniel exercised their political and economic influence to find work for Imelda in the Central Bank where she worked under Braulio Hipuna, the Chief Clerk of the Intelligence Division.(p143–144)
During this time her cousin Loreto Ramos introduced her to Adoración Reyes, a teacher from the College of Music and Fine Arts of Philippine Women's University (PWU), who gave her vocal lessons and a chance to get a PWU scholarship. She later sang three songs at a performance with her cousin Loreto at Holy Ghost College (now named College of the Holy Spirit Manila).
Imelda also joined the 1953 Miss Manila beauty pageant. The results became controversial, resulting in both Imelda and Miss Norma Jiménez being declared Manila's candidate to the larger Miss Philippines pageant. Both of them eventually lost to Miss Cristina Galang.
Courtship and marriage to Ferdinand Marcos
Imelda and Ferdinand Marcos met on April 6, 1954, during a budget hearing at the Philippine Congress. Ferdinand was part of the opposition team who led the argument against the budget, while Imelda was there to visit her cousin Daniel, who was the Speaker of the House. During a recess, Imelda caught Ferdinand's eye, and he asked his journalist friend José Guevarra of The Manila Times to introduce him to Imelda. At that time, Ferdinand already knew of Imelda and her reputation. Imelda, on the other hand, knew very little of Ferdinand Marcos. After comparing heights and confirming that he was at least an inch taller than her, Ferdinand sought the help of Guevarra to pursue Imelda in marriage. This whirlwind courtship lasted only eleven days.
During Holy Week of that year, Ferdinand visited Imelda's house, and when Imelda claimed that she planned to spend the holidays in Baguio, Ferdinand and Guevarra offered her a ride up to Daniel's family mansion where she planned to stay, while the two booked a room in nearby Pines. For the remainder of that Holy Week, Ferdinand showered Imelda with flowers and gifts and would visit her daily, prodding her to sign the marriage license that would seal the agreement. On April 16, 1954, Good Friday, after having been jokingly asked by Guevarra if she wanted to be "the First Lady of the Land someday", Imelda finally agreed to sign it. On April 17, 1954, Ferdinand and Imelda were secretly married by a reluctant Francisco Chanco, a judge befriended by Ferdinand who lived in the area. The church wedding followed only after receiving the blessing of Vicente Orestes, Imelda's father, which Ferdinand asked via telegram on Easter Sunday. Their wedding was held on May 1, 1954, at the San Miguel Pro-Cathedral in Manila where Imelda was christened.
The marriage meant that Ferdinand's common-law wife, Carmen Ortega of La Union's Ortega political clan, with whom he had already sired three children, had to be quietly taken out of the public eye.
The 1965 presidential campaign
It was during the 1965 campaign that Imelda became influential as a political figure at the national level, supporting her husband’s political tactics through her charismatic appeal and youth.(p125) Crowds of working class Filipinos came out in droves to Marcos campaigns because they wanted to see the "beautiful wife of Marcos".
Campaign strategists incorporated Imelda’s public appeal into the overall tone of the Marcos-led Nacionalista campaign, asking Imelda to always appear at her best in public at all times regardless of the type of audience and encouraging her to wear her signature ternos as an integral part of their image strategy.
It was in this period that Imelda described herself - a neophyte transitioning into a true political partner to her husband – as "a butterfly breaking out of its cocoon". This led one foreign journalist to call her "the iron butterfly."
Imelda had assumed a managerial position in her husband's campaign early on, when Marcos faced his first challenge of the campaign, which was to win the presidential candidacy for the Nacionalista Party. She enthusiastically ran a detailed campaign, befriending the 1,347 delegates of the Nacionalista Party Convention until Ferdinand Marcos won the party’s presidential nomination on November 21, 1964, for the Nacionalista Party.
McCoy recounts that it was supposedly also Imelda who convinced Fernando Lopez to accept the vice-presidential nomination alongside Marcos.(p507) She met Lopez personally, appealing to him by recounting the many struggles she and Ferdinand faced during the campaign. Lopez refused to give in multiple times, until Imelda cried in front of him. When he relented, Imelda proceeded to hand a document to sign, stating that he had accepted the nomination as the Nacionalista vice-presidential candidate.(p507)
During the presidential election itself, she delivered votes from the southern province of Leyte and Manila. She was especially popular with the poor. Imelda also used her voice to appeal to voters, singing during campaigns. Her songs were usually varieties of local folk songs.
The first Marcos term (1965–1969)
Imelda began Ferdinand Marcos's first term doing the duties traditionally expected of a First Lady, mostly social events and public appearances. Imelda became a power broker. Receptions at her offices in the Malacañang "Music Room" were sought after by cabinet members, heads of financing institutions, and business leaders who felt that she had Ferdinand's ear.
A year later in March 1966, Marcos established the Cultural Center of the Philippines through Executive Order No. 60 and arranged for Imelda to be elected chairman of the board in a bid to change the perception that she was just another "politician's wife."
The 1965 inauguration
The Romualdez clan had been torn apart by the presidential campaign. To fix this, Imelda allegedly sent out invitations to family members, some of whom supported the opposing party, and told them they were all welcome at their house on Ortega Street, San Juan, Metro Manila.
Early projects as First Lady
In the first three years of being First Lady, she spent PHP 1 million for the beautification of the Paco Park and 24 million for the beautification of Fort Santiago.
In May 1966, Imelda pushed a 12 million peso plan to pool together the social welfare efforts of several dozen social welfare groups. The plan involved the construction of welfare villages and the reorientation of personnel to staff them. The cornerstone for first village, the Reception and Study Center in Quezon City was laid in 1966, and several more were built from then until 1968: Marilla Hills in Alabang, the Children's Orphanage in Pasay, the Molave Village in Tanay, Rizal, a Home for the Aged in Quezon City, and the Philippine Village at the Manila International Airport.
In mid-1967, Imelda started the "Share for Progress" Seed Dispersal Program a project that suggested making vegetable gardens out of idle lots all over the country. By 1968, 309,392 kits containing seeds had been distributed in over 1500 towns.
The Blue Ladies
The "Blue Ladies", a group initially composed of wives of political men in the Nacionalista Party, had played a critical role during Marcos's 1965 campaign. They contributed funds and provided publicity, giving the campaign a personal touch by visiting factories and farms to shake hands and have small conversations with the voters, making door-to-door appeals in the slum areas. They also utilized the new innovation brought into politics that year by buying radio and television time in order to campaign for Marcos through the use of little speeches for the voters. The cost was not a problem for Marcos seeing as how most of its members were composed of prominent matrons and/or beautiful youthful girls married to men of means.
Imelda's Blue Ladies—specifically Maria Luisa, a daughter of the rich Madrigal family and the wife of Daniel Vazquez—contributed to the fashion spending of Imelda. In 1968, Maria Luisa accompanied Imelda on an overseas trip, during which Imelda and daughter Imee spent $3.3 million. It was also at this time that Vazquez and Maria Luisa opened a Citibank account. In November 1968, the couple added Fernanda Vazquez as a joint holder of the bank account. An allegation that Imelda and Fernanda Vazquez are one and the same is validated by the notations for the bank account had Imelda Marcos's handwriting.
The Beatles incident
On July 4, 1966, the First Lady also invited the Beatles to perform at a private event in the Palace but the invitation was declined. An order to lock down the Manila International Airport was enacted as a result of the rejection. This resulted in mobs trying to storm the band's hotel rooms and prevent them from leaving the country. There were also reports that their manager was issued a PHP 100,000 tax assessment.(p200)
The Dovie Beams scandal, which began as rumors in the late 60s, eventually led to a significant change in Imelda's public role.(p"225") President Marcos had met the American actress after she arrived in Manila in 1968 to play the female lead in "Maharlika," a propaganda film portraying Ferdinand's supposed exploits during World War II. According to Beams, the two had an affair and she was moved into one of Ferdinand's safe houses, where she recorded their sexual encounters with Ferdinand's full consent.(p"225") These tapes were later played in a press conference, causing great humiliation for Imelda.(p"225")
Members of the Marcos Cabinet such as Cesar Virata and Gerardo Sicat recount that Imelda used the humiliation of the Dovie Beams affair(p"225") as leverage to begin developing an independent political agenda which gave her more and more political power. Initially, this meant that Imelda had free rein on her projects while her husband prepared for the Ferdinand Marcos presidential campaign, 1969, but as Marcos's health declined, it involved her being put in increasingly powerful positions, including those of Minister of Human Settlements and of Governor of Metro Manila.
The second Marcos term (1969–1972)
In July 1974, the annual Ms. Universe pageant was held in Manila, to which then First Lady Imelda Marcos allegedly spent PHP 40 million (USD 5.5 million) for the renovation of all public and private infrastructures throughout Manila, and the other cities in which the Ms. Universe pageant participants were subsequently toured.
Foreign relations roles
When the Marcoses went to the United States in September 1966, President Lyndon B. Johnson offered Imelda the Philippine war damage claims totaling US$28 million. President Johnson agreed to have US$3.5 million be used as funds for the Cultural Center, one of Imelda's projects.
For the inauguration of the CCP, a gala opening of the Golden Salakot, a pageant-drama of a story about the prehistory of the Philippines, occurred on September 8, 1969. US President Richard Nixon was invited but instead California Governor Ronald Reagan, along with his wife, flew to the country on Air Force One for the event. There were accounts that the First Lady attempted to bring other celebrities by getting them tickets to ride Air Force One but she was denied this luxury by President Nixon. Accounts have also mentioned that this trip by the then-Governor Reagan and his wife led to the closeness of the Reagans and Marcoses.
In 1971, Imelda attended Iran's 2,500 year celebration of the Persian Empire of the founding of the Persian Empire. This trip, according to palace insiders, provided her with a social introduction to some of the world's wealthiest people.
Accusation of bribery in Constitutional Convention
On May 19, 1972, the Constitutional Convention delegate for Leyte's first district, Eduardo Quintero, accused Imelda and thirteen others of bribing some of the convention members to vote against provisions which would have prevented Marcos from retaining power beyond the two four-year terms allowed him by the previous constitution.
In the stress following the accusations and media circus, Imelda claimed to have suffered a miscarriage. Later, this was revealed to be a hoax to avoid Quintero's charges. According to Ellison, this was "an eloquent example of the lengths to which Imelda would go to support [Ferdinand] and her ambition."
Imelda's actions preceding martial law
In Ferdinand's diary preceding May, he revealed that he and Imelda were planning to wager all their power and wealth "on a single throw of the dice of fate for the sake of the people and the Republic."
On the eve of September 5, 1972, tourism minister Manuel Elizalde called each member of Manila's foreign press corps to a party. Imelda arrived at the party, allegedly rambling about democracy and how only the Americans could afford it. On that same day, Martial Law was announced. Ferdinand stated the purpose of the Martial Law was to create a "New Society" with reformed institutions, no inequalities, corruption, or crime. Imelda called it "martial law with a smile." Days after the announcement, a warrant of arrest was issued for Amelita Cruz, author of the "you-know-who" columns on Imelda. Cruz was told that the orders "came directly from the music room", Imelda's palace study.
Martial law (1972–1981)
During this time period, she orchestrated public events using national funds to bolster her and her husband's image. She secured the Miss Universe 1974 pageant in Manila, which required the construction of the Folk Arts Theater in less than three months. She organized the Kasaysayan ng Lahi, a festival showcasing Philippine history. She also initiated social programs, such as the Green Revolution, which was intended to address hunger by encouraging the people to plant produce in household gardens, and created a national family-planning program. In 1972, she took control of the distribution of a bread ration called Nutribun, which actually came from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). An assassination attempt against Imelda Marcos occurred on December 7, 1972, when an assailant tried to stab her with a bolo knife but was shot by the police.The motive appeared to have been her role in her husband's presidency but human rights dissidents believed it was staged by the government.
Foreign relations roles
In 1972, Imelda Marcos initiated the first of many trips to the Soviet Union; it was dubbed as "cultural missions" but eventually led to the establishment of diplomatic relations between the Soviet Union and the Philippines.
In 1975, after the assassination of King Faisal of Saudi Arabia, Imelda wanted to extend the official condolences. Women were not welcome in the Saudi court, but Imelda, through her connection to the surgeon who previously performed a heart surgery on the new king, managed to be the first woman guest to be honored.
In 1978, she was also appointed as Ambassador Plenipotentiary and Extraordinary, allowing her to tour the United States, the Soviet Union, Yugoslavia, and Cuba. Throughout her travels, she became friends with Richard Nixon, Muammar Gaddafi, Saddam Hussein, Fidel Castro, and Joseph Tito. She traveled to Iraq to secure oil and to Libya for a peace treaty with the Moro National Liberation Front.
Governor of Metro Manila
In 1975, Ferdinand Marcos issued Presidential Decree 824, establishing the Metro Manila Commission (MMC) which would serve as the central government of Metro Manila, and named Imelda to head it, making her Governor of Metro Manila from that point until the Marcoses were deposed in 1986.
Minister of Human Settlements
Ferdinand Marcos appointed Imelda to the position of Minister of Human Settlements in 1976—a post which she held until the EDSA Revolution of February 1986, and which allowed her to construct the Cultural Center of the Philippines, the Philippine Heart Center, the Lung Center of the Philippines, the Philippine International Convention Center, the Coconut Palace, the Manila Film Center, and the Calauit Safari Park.
Batasan Pambansa Assemblyman
In 1978, the administration Kilusang Bagong Lipunan party fielded Imelda as a candidate in the Philippine parliamentary elections of 1978. Because most of the opposition candidates were either in jail or had limited mobility as a result of Martial Law, Imelda Marcos easily won a seat as a member of the Interim Batasang Pambansa (National Congress) representing Calabarzon.
Role in Benigno Aquino's exile
In 1980, Imelda Marcos was instrumental in the exile of opposition leader Benigno Aquino Jr., who had suffered a heart attack during his imprisonment. Aquino wanted to go to the United States for medical treatment. This was arranged after a secret hospital visit by Imelda. Aquino supposedly agreed to her conditions that he would return to the Philippines, and he would not speak out against the Marcos regime in the US. Having made a quick recovery, Aquino decided to remain in the US, saying, "a pact with the devil is no pact at all".
Six months after martial law was lifted on January 17, 1981, Ferdinand Marcos was re-elected as president. While her husband began to suffer from lupus erythematosus, Imelda effectively ruled in his place.
Aquino returned to the Philippines on August 21, 1983 and was assassinated at the Manila International Airport upon his arrival. With accusations against her beginning to rise, Ferdinand created the Agrava Commission, a fact-finding committee, to investigate her, ultimately finding her not guilty.
Downfall of Marcos
On February 7, 1986, snap elections were held between Ferdinand Marcos and Corazon Aquino, the widow of Benigno Aquino Jr. Despite Ferdinand Marcos claiming to have won the election, allegations of vote rigging led to mass protests that would be later known as the People Power Revolution.
On February 25, Ferdinand Marcos, with his wife Imelda by his side, still held the inauguration at Malacañang Palace. The couple later emerged on the Palace balcony in front of a loyalist crowd and Imelda sang a song for the crowd.
Later that day, Ferdinand Marcos finally agreed to step down and was given safe passage for him and his entire family to flee to Hawaii, United States.
Exile in Hawaii (1986–1991)
The US Government initially hosted the exiles at Hickam Air Force Base. Ferdinand and Imelda moved into a pair of residences in Makiki Heights, Honolulu, a month later.
After Imelda left Malacañang Palace, press reports worldwide took note of her lavish wardrobe, said to include 15 mink coats, 508 gowns, 888 handbags, and 3,000 pairs of shoes. Some news reports estimated that there were up to 7,500 pairs, but Time magazine reported that the final tally was 1,060. The US government documented that the Marcos family entered the United States with millions of dollars in cash, stocks, jewelry, and gold kilobars inscribed "To my husband on our 24th anniversary".
Return from exile (1991–present)
On November 4, 1991, Imelda and her children were allowed to return to the Philippines by President Corazon Aquino after living in exile in Hawaii for more than five years. After her return from exile, the former First Lady Imelda quickly established herself in the political scene of the Philippines. In later years, she also attempted to establish business in the world of fashion.
She was elected as a congresswoman of Leyte during the 1995 Philippine general election, representing the first district, despite facing a disqualification lawsuit in which the Supreme Court ruled in her favor.
She sought the presidency again in the 1998 Philippine presidential election, but later withdrew to support the eventual winner Joseph Estrada while she finished 9th among 11 candidates. She was also "tempted" to run for mayor of Manila in the 2001 Philippine general election but did not push through with it.
Imelda ran for the second district of Ilocos Norte in the 2010 Philippine House of Representatives elections to replace her son, Ferdinand Jr., who ran for Senate under the Nacionalista Party. During her term, she held the position of Millennium Development Goals chairwoman in the Lower House.
Major court cases
Imelda Marcos has been involved in court cases against her in the Philippines and abroad. Some of these, such as her corruption charges in the Philippines, are criminal cases. Others, such as the rulings of the Swiss Federal Court on her bank accounts, are either civil or forfeiture cases.
1988 racketeering case (Manhattan)
In October 1988, Ferdinand and Imelda Marcos, together with eight associates (including Adnan Khashoggi, a Saudi Arabian businessman and weapons smuggler believed to have been involved with her husband's regime), were indicted by a federal grand jury in Manhattan on charges of racketeering, conspiracy, fraud and obstruction of justice. She pleaded not guilty to federal charges that she used $103 million in stolen government funds to buy Manhattan real estate and art. Tobacco heiress Doris Duke posted $5 million bail for the former First Lady. The Marcos couple's defense team was led by criminal defense attorney Gerry Spence. Actor George Hamilton, an unindicted co-conspirator, testified at trial under a grant of immunity, acknowledging that he had received a $5.5-million loan from Marcos' associate. In July 1990, following a three-month trial, she was acquitted of all charges.
1990 Swiss Federal Supreme Court forfeiture case
In 1990, the Federal Supreme Court of Switzerland ruled that funds in the Marcoses' Swiss bank accounts were of "criminal provenance." This cleared the way for the transfer of assets worth around $356 million back to the Philippines. These assets were previously frozen by Swiss courts in 1986 shortly after the People Power Revolution. The decision eventually led to reforms in 1998 that made it more difficult for dictators and criminals to keep their money in the Swiss banking system.
1995 Human Rights Victims Class Suit (Hawaii)
In February 1995, the United States District Court in Hawaii ruled against the Marcoses, awarding $1.96 billion to 9,539 victims of human rights violations during the Marcos dictatorship. This decision was upheld by US 9th Circuit Court of Appeals in 1996. However, the ruling has yet to be enforced in the Philippines due to jurisdiction issues.
Corruption cases in the Philippines
Upon the Marcos family's return to the Philippines in the early 1990s, 28 criminal cases were filed against Mrs. Marcos by the Philippines' Office of the Ombudsman from 1991 to 1995. These included cases of graft and malversation of public funds.
In 1993, Marcos was convicted on a graft case. However, this was overturned by the Appellate Court in 2008, and the reversal was upheld by the Philippine Supreme Court in 2018 because of technical issues with the evidence.
In 2011, the Sandiganbayan Fifth Division ordered her to return US$280,000 in government funds taken by her and her husband from the National Food Authority. On November 9, 2018 the Sandiganbayan convicted Marcos on seven counts of graft and corruption, which disqualified Marcos from holding any public office.
2018 Swiss foundation cases convictions
Twenty-seven years later, on November 9, 2018, she was convicted on seven counts of violating the Anti-Graft and Corrupt Practices Act, for funneling roughly US$200 million to various Swiss foundations while she was still serving as governor of Metro Manila in the 1970s. That same day, the court announced her acquittal on the three remaining counts, but since she failed to appear, the court also ordered the forfeiture of the earlier bond that she had posted in 1991.
She was sentenced to prison terms ranging from six to eleven years for each count – totalling a minimum of 42 years and 7 months, and a maximum of 77 years. The Sandiganbayan also disqualified Marcos, a representative for the first district of Ilocos Norte and a candidate for governor of the same province, from holding any public office. The sanction will not go into immediate effect, pending appeal by her, but she nonetheless withdrew her candidacy for the governorship.
On November 12, 2018, Marcos's attorney filed a "Motion for Leave of Court to Avail of Post-Conviction Remedies", which included a provision for bail. The court granted bail due to her "ill health", but reserved ruling on the balance of the requests until November 28. Marcos posted bail on November 16, 2018, a week after her conviction. She intends to appeal her conviction. The normal form of appeal is a "motion for reconsideration" to the Sandiganbayan; however, she also requested a direct appeal to the Philippine Supreme Court, which while originally denied as premature, was granted on November 28.
Court rulings on and estimated amount of stolen wealth
The Philippine Supreme Court considers the unexplained wealth of Ferdinand and Imelda Marcos to be "ill-gotten" based on the definitions set forth in Republic Act 1379, which was passed in 1955. The Supreme Court's interpretation of R.A. 1379 says that property acquired by a public officer or employee which is "manifestly out of proportion to his salary as such public officer and to his other lawful income" is "presumed prima facie to have been unlawfully acquired". The bulk of the assets of the Marcoses, including the Marcos jewels, were treated as unlawful in a 2012 decision which specified that "according to the Official Report of the Minister of Budget, the total salaries of former President Marcos as President from 1966 to 1976 was ₱60,000 a year and from 1977 to 1985, ₱100,000 a year; while that of the former First Lady, Imelda R. Marcos, as Minister of Human Settlements from June 1976 to February 22–25, 1986 was ₱75,000 a year" – about $304,372.43.
Estimates of this ill-gotten wealth vary, with sources estimating a figure of about US$5 billion–10 billion for wealth acquired in the last years of the Marcos administration.(p175) The Telegraph estimates her current net worth at a more modest $22M (the amount declared by Imelda Marcos in 2012), but states that it is likely that she and her husband stole billions while in power, and that the amount they stole could have paid off the entirety of the Philippine foreign debt.
In a 1985 report to the United States Congress House Committee on Foreign Affairs, US Ambassador to the Philippines Stephen Bosworth estimated that the Marcoses had stolen an accumulated wealth of US$10 billion "in recent years", in the context of the rapid decline of the Philppine economy in the early 1980s.(p634–635) The same figure was cited by the Philippines' Office of the Solicitor General soon after Marcos was deposed by the EDSA Revolution in 1986. Bosworth's source, Dr. Bernardo Villegas of the Philippine think tank the Center for Research and Communication (CRC), noted that the figure ultimately cited by Bosworth was a conservative estimate, and that the amount probably came closer to $13 billion.(p"27")
The PCGG's first chairperson, Jovito Salonga, later said that he estimated the figure to be US$5 billion–10 billion, based on the documentary trail left behind by the Marcoses in 1986. Internationally, Salonga's estimate has become the popularly cited estimate of the Marcoses' unexplained wealth. However Dr. Jesus Estanislao, another noted economist from the CRC, pointed out that this figure reflected amounts taken out of the country in the years immediately prior to the ouster of the Marcos administration, and that there was no way to accurately estimate the wealth acquired by the Marcoses since the 1950s. He suggested that the figure could be as much as $30 billion.(p175)
Aside from the Marcoses' amassed wealth, Imelda Marcos was famous for spending it, with some accounts calling her "the ultimate personification of conspicuous consumption." On one occasion, Imelda spent $2,000 on chewing gum at the San Francisco International Airport and, on another, forced a plane to do a U-turn mid-air because she had forgotten to buy cheese in Rome. A portion of her famous shoe collection is now kept in the National Museum of the Philippines, while another is displayed in a shoe museum in Marikina. Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda) damaged her ancestral home in Tacloban, which also serves as a museum, although she still retains homes in Ilocos Norte and Makati, where she resides.
Some of this wealth has been recovered as the result of various court cases - and have either been returned to the Philippine government, or awarded as reparations to the victims of human rights abuses under Marcos' presidency. Some of it has also been recovered by the Philippine government through settlements and compromise deals, either with Imelda herself or with cronies who say that certain properties had been entrusted to them by the Marcoses. However, some of the recovery cases have been dismissed by the courts for reasons such as improper case filing procedures and technical issues with documentary evidence. An amount of unidentified proportions has yet to be recovered, as the full extent of the family's wealth remains unknown.
In March 1968, Ferdinand and Imelda opened four accounts, under the names of William Saunders and Jane Ryan, with Credit Suisse in Zurich,—Marcos using the alias "William Saunders" and Imelda using the alias "Jane Ryan." These were later moved into other accounts under various dummy foundations, but when relevant records were discovered by the new Philippine government after the 1986 EDSA revolution, the Swiss Federal council froze them. On December 21, 1990, the Swiss Federal Supreme Court ruled that these accounts could be turned over to the Philippine government, on the condition that there be a concurring "final and absolute judgment" by a Philippine court. In 1997, the Swiss Federal Supreme Court established the funds to have been "of criminal provenance" and permitted their transfer to an escrow account in Manila, pending a ruling from a Philippine court which came in the form a confiscation ruling by the Philippine Supreme court on July 15, 2003. Switzerland finally released a total of $683 million in Marcos funds to the Philippines Treasury in 2004.
Throughout the 1980s, Imelda Marcos bought four prominent buildings in Manhattan. These were the US$51 million Crown Building at the corner of 57th and Fifth; 40 Wall Street, which would later be renamed the Trump building; the US$60 million Herald Center; and the building at 200 Madison Avenue. She declined to buy the Empire State Building because she felt it was "too ostentatious."
On January 13, 2014, three collections of Imelda Marcos's jewelry: the Malacanang collection, the Roumeliotes collection, and the Hawaii collection; along with paintings by Claude Monet were seized by the Philippine government. In 2015, a rare pink diamond worth $5 million was discovered in her jewelry collection. The value of the three collections was appraised to be at about $21 million on February 16, 2016, when the government of the Philippines announced their intention to auction them off. However, they had not been auctioned off as of April 17, 2020.
Her property also used to include a 175-piece art collection, which included works by Michelangelo, Botticelli, Canaletto, Raphael, as well as Monet's L'Église et La Seine à Vétheuil (1881), Alfred Sisley's Langland Bay (1887), and Albert Marquet's Le Cyprès de Djenan Sidi Said (1946). On October 17, 2013, the attempted sale of two Claude Monet paintings, L'Eglise de Vetheuil and Le Bassin Aux Nymphéas, became the subject of a legal case in New York against Vilma Bautista, a one-time aide to Imelda Marcos. Bautista was sentenced in 2014 to 2–6 years in prison for attempting to sell "valuable masterpieces that belonged to her country".
All told, about P170 billion worth of the Marcos wealth had been recovered by the PCGG by 2018 from the Marcoses - about $3.6 billion out of their $5 billion to 10 billion estimated ill-gotten wealth.
Net worth in 2012
In 2012, Imelda Marcos declared her net worth to be US$22 million and was likewise listed as the second-richest Filipino politician behind boxer and politician Manny Pacquiao. She has claimed that her fortune came from Ferdinand Marcos' discovery of Yamashita's gold, a semi-mythical treasure trove that is widely believed in the Philippines to be part of the Japanese loot in World War II.
World record for largest theft from a government
The amount the Marcoses were estimated to have plundered from the Philippines is so large that it has been the subject of world records. Imelda Marcos, together with her husband Ferdinand (who is considered by many to be one of the greatest plunderers in history according to the Washington Post), were jointly credited in 1989 by Guinness World Records with the largest-ever theft from a government: an estimated 5 billion to 10 billion dollars salted away. She is quoted as having stated: "We practically own everything in the Philippines, from electricity, telecommunications, airlines, banking, beer and tobacco, newspaper publishing, television stations, shipping, oil and mining, hotels and beach resorts, down to coconut milling, small farms, real estate and insurance." In 2009, Imelda Marcos was listed by Newsweek as being one of the "greediest people of all time." To this, Marcos replied "I plead guilty. For me, greedy is giving. I was first lady for 20 years, you have to be greedy first to give to all. It is natural. The only things we keep in life are those we give away."
The term "edifice complex" has been applied to Imelda and her penchant for grandiose public buildings, often constructed in impossibly short order. Imelda's building projects were often of the Brutalist architectural style characterized by fortress-like, massive shapes intended to effect a sense of grandiosity.
In 1966, Ferdinand Marcos issued Executive Order No. 60, establishing the Cultural Center of the Philippines and appointing its board of directors. The board elected Imelda as their chairperson, giving her the legal mandate to negotiate and manage funds for the center.
The Cultural Center of the Philippines (CCP) Complex is considered the premier symbol of Imelda's edifice complex. It was designed by Architect Leandro Locsin, and was built on a reclaimed land along Roxas Boulevard in Manila and covered an area of about 21 hectares. Ninety thousand pesos was granted by the Philippine-American Culture Foundation for its construction and was aided with funds from the Cultural Development Fund and the Special Fund for Education. Upon completion, however, it amounted to Php 50 million—a 50 000% increase from the original budget. Although it is notable that prices of the construction materials such as cement, steel, and tiles increased by 30–40 per cent within this time frame, the escalation in the increase of the expenditures are highly questionable. Imelda called the CCP Complex the "sanctuary of the Filipino soul," as it became the locus of all state-initiated cultural productions.
Another construction project linked with Imelda during her husband's first term as President is the San Juanico Bridge, which links the island of Samar to Imelda's home province, Leyte. Although it wasn't initiated by Imelda herself, it was promoted by the administration as Ferdinand Marcos's gift to his wife. It was funded with foreign loans of US$22 million (about ₱140 million ), from Japan's Overseas Technical Cooperation Agency (OTCA), the predecessor of today's Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). Upon its completion on July 2, 1973, Imelda's birthday, economists and public works engineers quickly tagged it as a white elephant which was "constructed several decades too soon," because its average daily traffic (ADT) was too low to justify the cost of its construction.
The word "Imeldific"
The late 1980s, the revelation that Imelda Marcos had "amassed a huge collection of art, jewellery, property and – most famously – at least 1,000 pairs of shoes", had turned her into a household name, frequently compared to Marie Antoinette of France, except "with shoes."
It has also come to be used in International English, with dictionary writer and Atlantic columnist Anne Soukhanov expounding on the "ostentatious extravagance" etymology. In popular international media, the Sydney Morning Herald's Jackie Dent sums up the meaning of the word simply by saying it "means to be ... well, like Imelda."
The coining of term is often attributed to Imelda Marcos describing, although it was used by People Magazine's Carlos Lopez as early as April 1986, when he said:
Influence on Philippine fashion
Marcos influenced fashion in the Philippines, although her role as a patroness of the arts and fashion is still controversial. For instance, she actively promoted the terno, which also became her sartorial symbol, through projects such as "Bagong Anyo" and exhibitions abroad such as the Philippine contribution to the Expo '75 in Okinawa Japan.
In a section of the 2003 Ramona Diaz film named after her, Imelda says that she took 3,000 pairs of shoes with her when she went into exile, and justifies her extravagant clothing by saying that it "inspired the poor to dress better".
Portrayals in media and the arts
In August 2019, writer/director Lauren Greenfield debuted her documentary film The Kingmaker at the 76th Venice Film Festival, after which it premiered at the Telluride Film Festival, the Toronto International Film Festival, and the London Film Festival, the first documentary to ever debut at all four festivals in the same year. The documentary features the political career of Imelda Marcos with a focus on the Marcos family's efforts to rehabilitate the family's image and to return to political power - including her plans to see her son Bongbong become Vice President of the Philippines. It has a 97% fresh rating from Rotten Tomatoes and a 76/100 from Metacritic.
In the late 90s, Imelda Marcos agreed to be the subject of a television documentary episode for PBS's Independent Lens, simply titled Imelda, by Ramona S. Diaz. Released in 2003, the film documents her marriage to future President of the Philippines Ferdinand Marcos, her rule under the dictatorship, her exile in Hawaii and her eventual return to the Philippines.
Imelda had its world premiere at the International Documentary Film Festival Amsterdam and its North American premiere in the documentary competition of the 2004 Sundance Film Festival, where it won the Excellence in Cinematography Award Documentary. The film was also screened at the Maryland Film Festival in Baltimore. It has a 94% fresh rating from Rotten Tomatoes and a 69/100 from Metacritic.
Imelda obtained a temporary injunction that prevented the film from being shown in the Philippines for a brief time. However, when the injunction was canceled and the film was released, it earned more than Spider-Man 2 and was considered a smash hit.
The second track of Mark Knopfler's 1996 album Golden Heart is a sardonic song about her. In 2010, British producer Fatboy Slim and musician David Byrne released a concept album about her life called Here Lies Love, which later became a rock musical. In Manila, local performance artist Carlos Celdran became known for his Living La Vida Imelda walking tour, which was also performed in Dubai in 2012. Filipino-American drag artist Manila Luzon impersonated Mrs. Marcos in the "Snatch Game" challenge in the third season of RuPaul's Drag Race, deriving humor from the First Lady's renowned obsession with shoes. Hawaiian comedian Frank De Lima has impersonated Imelda on various occasions.
Honors and decorations
- Member of the Order of Gabriela Silang
- Grand Cross of the National Order of Merit
- Grand Cordon (Paulownia) of the Order of the Precious Crown
- Honorary Recipient of the Order of the Crown of the Realm
- Recipient of the King Birendra Coronation Medal
- Dame Grand Cross of the Order of Isabella the Catholic
- Knight Grand Cordon (Special Class) of the Order of Chula Chom Klao
- Pedrosa 1987, pp. 16–17.
- Cabico, Gaea Katreena (June 14, 2019). "Who's who: Richest, poorest House lawmakers in 2018". The Philippine Star. Manila. Archived from the original on June 19, 2019. Retrieved October 21, 2019.
- "Imelda Marcos posts bail for graft conviction in Philippines". NBC News. Archived from the original on November 17, 2018. Retrieved August 13, 2020.
- "Imelda Marcos ordered arrested for seven counts of graft". CNN Philippines. November 10, 2018. Archived from the original on November 16, 2018.
- Lalu, John Gabriel (November 9, 2018). "FULL TEXT: Sandigan ruling on 10 graft cases vs Imelda Marcos". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved March 12, 2019.
- Macaraig, Mynardo. "5 questions on the dictator Ferdinand Marcos". ABS-CBN News. Agence France-Presse.
- Bueza, Michael (February 28, 2016). "At 30: PCGG by the numbers". Rappler.
- Fischer, Heinz-Dietrich, ed. (January 20, 2020). 1978–1989: From Roarings in the Middle East to the Destroying of the Democratic Movement in China (Reprint 2019 ed.). Berlin: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG, 2020. ISBN 978-3-11-086292-8. OCLC 1138498892.
- Manapat, Ricardo (1991) Some Are Smarter than Others: The History of Marcos' Crony Capitalism. Ateneo de Manila University Press.
- Through the Years, PCGG at 30: Recovering Integrity –A Milestone Report. Manila: Republic of the Philippines Presidential Commission on Good Government. 2016.
- Warf, Barney (2018). Handbook on the Geographies of Corruption. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 335. ISBN 9781786434746.
- "FALSE: 'No proof' that Marcos couple stole billions from Filipinos". Rappler. November 15, 2018.
- Tiongson-Mayrina, Karen (September 21, 2017). "The Supreme Court's rulings on the Marcoses' ill-gotten wealth". GMA News Online.
- Gerth, Jeff (March 16, 1986). "The Marcos Empire: Gold, Oil, Land and Cash". The New York Times.
- Viray, Patricia Lourdes. "Money Trail: The Marcos Billions". The Philippine Star. Retrieved September 29, 2020.
- "Marcoses willing to return part of wealth to Philippines, says Duterte". The Singapore Straits Times. August 30, 2017. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
- Lustre, Philip M. Jr. (February 25, 2016). "Recovering Marcos' ill-gotten wealth: After 30 years, what?". Retrieved June 23, 2020.
- "The Woman Behind the Man". Martial Law Chronicles Project. April 25, 2018. Retrieved November 14, 2018.
- "The Powerful Imelda Marcos". The Washington Post. January 18, 1981.
- Rybczynski, Witold (October 19, 2005). "The political uses of public buildings". Slate Magazine. Retrieved October 4, 2020.
- Lico, Gerald (2003). Edifice Complex: Power, Myth and Marcos State Architecture. Quezon City, Philippines: Ateneo de Manila University Press. p. 178. ISBN 971-550-435-3.
- de Villa, Kathleen (September 16, 2017). "Imelda Marcos and her 'edifice complex'". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
- Duet for EDSA: Chronology of a Revolution. Manila, Philippines: Foundation for Worldwide People Power. 1995. ISBN 978-9719167006. OCLC 45376088.
- Dent, Sydney (November 23, 2012). "A dynasty on steroids". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved September 1, 2018.
- Mydans, Seth (November 4, 1991). "Imelda Marcos Returns to Philippines". The New York Times. Archived from the original on December 12, 2009. Retrieved August 16, 2018.
- Casauay, Angela (May 23, 2013). "Pacquiao, Imelda Marcos wealthiest House members". Rappler.
- Tully, Shawn (January 9, 2014). "My afternoon with Imelda Marcos". Fortune.
- Chiu, Patricia Denise M. (December 20, 2019). "Imelda asked to yield 896 'ill-gotten' artworks". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
- Ellison 1988, p. 1–10.
- Tantuco, Vernise L (September 21, 2018). "3,000 pairs: The mixed legacy of Imelda Marcos' shoes". Rappler.
- "Greatest robbery of a Government". Guinness World Records. Retrieved August 20, 2020.
- Drogin, Bob (November 4, 1991). "Imelda Marcos Weeps on Return to Philippines". Los Angeles Times.
- The Guinness Book of World Records 1989. Bantam. March 1989. p. 400. ISBN 978-0-553-27926-9.
- "What's the latest on cases vs Imelda Marcos, family?". Rappler. Retrieved September 28, 2020.
- "Imelda Marcos convicted of graft, sentenced to prison". NBC News. Associated Press. November 9, 2018. Retrieved November 10, 2018.
- Gutierrez, Jason (November 9, 2018). "Imelda Marcos Is Sentenced to Decades in Prison for Corruption". The New York Times. Retrieved November 9, 2018.
- Pedrosa 1969, p. 61.
- Pedrosa 1987b.
- Aureus-Briscoe, Leonor (February 24, 2011). "The Untold Story of Imelda Marcos". Sunday Inquirer Magazine.
- Dinglasan, Rouchelle R. (February 21, 2012). "Kokoy Romualdez, powerful younger brother of Imelda Marcos, dies at 81". GMA News. Retrieved February 22, 2012.
- Pedrosa 1969.
- Polotan 1970.
- Pedrosa 1987b, p. 54.
- Polotan 1970, p. 54.
- Polotan 1970, p. 56.
- Polotan 1970, p. 65.
- Pedrosa 1969, p. 118.
- James., Hamilton-Paterson (1998). America's boy. London: Granta Books. ISBN 1862070245. OCLC 40336290.
- Pedrosa 1969, p. 126.
- Diaz, Ramona (2003). Imelda (Documentary Film).
- Jimenez, Fidel R. (July 2, 2015). "Sinalihang beauty pageant ni Imelda Marcos na naging kontrobersiyal". GMA News and Public Affairs (in Filipino). Retrieved November 16, 2018.
- Ellison 1988, p. 35–48.
- Ellison 1988.
- Research, CNN Editorial. "Imelda Marcos Fast Facts". CNN. Retrieved May 26, 2021.
- Gomez, Buddy. "A romance that began with deception". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved November 9, 2018.
- Mijares 1976, p. 108.
- Magno, Alexander R., ed. (1998). "Democracy at the Crossroads". Kasaysayan, The Story of the Filipino People Volume 9:A Nation Reborn. Hong Kong: Asia Publishing Company Limited.
- Rafael, Vicente L. (1990). "Patronage and Pornography: Ideology and Spectatorship in the Early Marcos Years". Comparative Studies in Society and History. 32 (2): 282–304. doi:10.1017/S0010417500016492. ISSN 0010-4175. JSTOR 178916.
- Crisostomo, Isabelo T. (1980). Imelda Romualdez Marcos: Heart of the Revolution. Quezon City, Philippines: J. Kriz Pub.
- Pedrosa 1987b, p. 103.
- Romulo, Beth Day (1987). Inside the palace. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons.
- Greenfield, Lauren (Director) (November 8, 2019). The Kingmaker (Documentary film). Philippines: Showtime Networks.
- McCoy, Alfred W. (1994). An Anarchy of families : state and family in the Philippines. Quezon City, Manila, Philippines: Ateneo de Manila University Press. ISBN 9715501281. OCLC 36756851.
- Mijares 1976.
- Ocampo, Ambeth (August 25, 2011). "Sanctuary for the Filipino Soul". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved October 10, 2011.
- Ellison 1988, p. 7–10.
- Ellison, Katherine (2005). Imelda: Steel Butterfly of the Philippines. p. 73.
- Seagrave, Sterling (1988). The Marcos Dynasty. New York: Harper & Row.
- Reyes, Oliver X.A. (May 24, 2017). "The Beatles' Worst Nightmare in Manila". Esquire Magazine Philippines. Retrieved April 27, 2018.
- Seagrave, Sterling (1988). The Marcos dynasty. New York ...[etc.]: Harper & Row. ISBN 978-0060161477. OCLC 1039684909.
- "I WAS MARCOS LOVER: ACTRESS". Chicago Tribune. United Press International. February 1, 1986. Retrieved November 23, 2018.
- Hill, Hal (May 2016). "Review of Cesar Virata. Life and Times through Four Decades of Philippine Economic History by Gerardo P. Sica". Asian-Pacific Economic Literature. 30 (1): 147–149. doi:10.1111/apel.12141. ISSN 0818-9935.
- Sicat, Gerardo P. (2014). Cesar Virata : life and times through four decades of Philippine economic history. Diliman, Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press. ISBN 9789715427418. OCLC 885027140.
- "QUINTERO, Eduardo T. – Bantayog ng mga Bayani". Bantayog ng mga Bayani. May 16, 2016. Retrieved June 2, 2018.
- "Looking Back: The 1971 Constitutional Convention". Newsbreak. February 17, 2003. Archived from the original on May 24, 2018. Retrieved June 2, 2018.
- Ellison 1988, p. 89–93.
- "Ferdinand Marcos, Former Philippines Dictator, Forced Generals To Perform Drag Show, According To WikiLeaks". HuffPost. April 9, 2013.
- Ellison 1988, p. 139.
- Ellison 1988, p. 280.
- Senauth 2012, p. 137. sfn error: no target: CITEREFSenauth2012 (help)
- Ellison 1988, p. 119.
- Ellison 1988, p. 180.
- Masagana 99, Nutribun, and Imelda's 'edifice complex' of hospitals. GMA News. September 20, 2012.
- Nutrition and Related Services Provided to the Republic of the Philippines. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. September 1979.
- Ellison 1988, p. 134.
- Ellison 1988, p. 140.
- Francia, Luis H. (March 29, 2016). "Waiting for the other shoe(s) to drop". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on April 16, 2016.
- Mydans, Seth; Times, Special To the New York (November 8, 1985). "Marcos's Soviet Card Is Played by His Wife". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved May 24, 2020.
- Senauth 2012, p. 136. sfn error: no target: CITEREFSenauth2012 (help)
- Ellison 1988, p. 16.
- Ellison 1988, p. 93–97.
- Cruz, Elfren (October 31, 2015). "MMDA is NOT MMC". The Philippine Star. Retrieved July 31, 2018.
- Macasero, Ryan; Marcelo, Elizabeth (December 5, 2018). "Imelda Marcos posts P300,000 bail as she appeals graft conviction". The Philippine Star. Retrieved December 10, 2018.
- "An insider's guide to Manila: where brutalism meets bamboo", The Guardian. March 14, 2016.
- At Philippine Safari Park, Serengeti on South China Sea. Bloomberg Businessweek. December 3, 2013.
- Get to know former First Lady Imelda Marcos on Powerhouse. Dream Home (talkshow). GMA Network. July 8, 2013.
- Cojuangco, Tingting (August 22, 2004). "Flashback: Ninoy & the 1978 elections". The Philippine Star. Retrieved December 10, 2018.
- Imelda Marcos TalkAsia Transcript. CNN. January 24, 2007.
- Reyes, Jun (Director) (August 21, 2009). The Last Journey of Ninoy (Documentary film). Philippines: ABS-CBN.
- Philippine Star. "Ninoy Aquino: Fight for Freedom". Cite journal requires
- Ellison 1988, p. 58.
- "Filipino Women Protest Mrs. Marcos' Extravagance." Telegraph Herald. October 28, 1983.
- The Steel Butterfly Still Soars. The New York Times. October 6, 2012.
- "Sandiganbayan ruling on Ninoy assassination" (PDF). Philippine Consortium for Investigative Journalism. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 3, 2009. Retrieved December 30, 2013. Cite journal requires
- "Presidential Decree No. 1886: Creating a Fact-Finding Board with Plenary Powers to Investigate the Tragedy Which Occurred on August 21, 1983". Chan Robles Virtual Law Library. October 14, 1983. Archived from the original on November 23, 2008.
- Pedrosa 1987.
- Brands, H. W. (May 12, 2015). Reagan: The Life.
- Holley, David (February 27, 1986). "Marcos Party Reaches Hawaii in Somber Mood". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on October 22, 2015. Retrieved August 16, 2018.
- "The Marcos Party In Honolulu". The New York Times. Associated Press. Archived from the original on May 24, 2015. Retrieved August 16, 2018.
- Richburg, Keith B.; Branigin, William (September 29, 1989). "Ferdinand Marcos Dies in Hawaii at 72". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 16, 2018.
- Aruiza, Arturo C. (1991). Ferdinand E. Marcos : Malacañang to Makiki. Quezon City, Philippines: ACA Enterprises. ISBN 978-9718820001. OCLC 27428517.
- "Imeldarabilia: A Final Count". Time. February 23, 1987. Retrieved December 30, 2006.
- "The day in numbers: $100". CNN. November 7, 2006.
- Davies, Nick (May 7, 2016). "The $10bn question: what happened to the Marcos millions?". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved May 26, 2018.
- Imelda Marcos Fast Facts. CNN. October 10, 2015.
- Imelda Marcos Has an $829 Billion Idea. Bloomberg Businessweek. October 24, 2013.
- "Anti-Corruption Campaigner and General Lead in Early Philippine Returns". The New York Times. May 13, 1992. Retrieved September 11, 2015.
- Imelda Romualdez Marcos v. Crilo Roy Montejo. Republic of the Philippines: Supreme Court. September 18, 1995.
- "Faces of the week." BBC News. November 10, 2006.
- Imelda's crown jewels to go under the hammer BBC News, May 13, 2003
- "Philippine Daily Inquirer - Google News Archive Search". news.google.com. Retrieved September 22, 2020.
- "Imelda Marcos bids for seat as Philippine race begins." BBC News. March 26, 2010.
- An audience with the one and only Imelda Marcos. BBC. May 27, 2010.
- "INTREVIEW [sic] – Philippines' Marcos fights to get wealth back". Reuters. May 13, 2010.
- Imelda Marcos stays as MDG committee chair. ABS-CBN News. September 15, 2010.
- Unthinkable: Guess who came to Enrile book launch. Philippine Daily Inquirer. September 29, 2012.
- Imelda seeks second term, files COC. ABS-CBN News. October 3, 2012.
- Hranjski, Hrvoje; Gomez, Jim (May 14, 2013). "Ex-Philippine president wins mayoral race in Manila, Imelda Marcos gets 2nd congressional term". Fox News. Retrieved February 16, 2016.
- "Bongbong Marcos, Imelda and family pray for 'poll integrity'". Philippine Daily Inquirer. May 15, 2016. Retrieved May 26, 2016.
- "Imelda, Imee poised for re-election in Ilocos Norte". ABS-CBN News. May 9, 2016. Retrieved May 26, 2016.
- Imelda Marcos comes into fashion. BBC. November 7, 2006.
- Rowan, Roy (March 29, 1979). "Orchid or Iron Butterfly, Imelda Marcos Is a Prime Mover in Manila". People. Retrieved July 23, 2006.
- "What's the latest on cases vs Imelda Marcos, family?". Rappler.
- "Marcos' Wife Also Pleads 5th in Probe", Los Angeles Times. October 2. 1986.
- "Gettysburg Times - Google News Archive Search". news.google.com. Retrieved September 22, 2020.
- "Imelda Marcos Racketeering Case Goes to Trial". The Christian Science Monitor. March 19, 1990.
- "Lodi News-Sentinel - Google News Archive Search". news.google.com. Retrieved September 22, 2020.
- Judge Delays Hearing for Marcos, Not Wife. The New York Times. October 28, 1988.
- Lubasch, Arnold (October 22, 1988). "Marcos and wife, 8 others : Charged by US with fraud". The New York Times. Retrieved August 30, 2013.
- Doris Duke Putting Up $5 Million Bail for Her Friend Imelda Marcos, Associated Press (November 2, 1988).
- Celestine Bohlen, Doris Duke Offers Mrs. Marcos's Bail, The New York Times (November 3, 1988).
- Craig Wolff, The Marcos Verdict; Marcos Is Cleared of All Charges In Racketeering and Fraud Case. The New York Times. July 3, 1990.
- "From the archive, 3 July 1990: Tears and cheers as Imelda cleared". The Guardian. July 2, 2015. Retrieved September 11, 2015.
- William C. Rempel & Kristina M. Luz, Imelda Marcos Saved Mother, Hamilton Says, Los Angeles Times (May 16, 1990).
- Olson, Elizabeth (October 23, 1998). "Ferdinand Marcos's Swiss Bank Legacy: Tighter Rules for Despots and Criminals". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 4, 2020.
- Marcelo, Elizabeth (September 11, 2017). "Cases vs Marcoses, cronies remain pending at Sandigan since late '80s". The Philippine Star. Retrieved November 9, 2018.
- Sandigan OKs Imelda bid for daily hearings on graft cases. GMA News. September 21, 2007.
- Imelda Marcos innocent of dollar salting. United Press International. May 10, 2008.
- Gomez, Jim (November 9, 2018). "Imelda Marcos convicted of graft, court orders her arrest". The Miami Herald. Archived from the original on November 9, 2018.
- Aning, Jerome (September 22, 2018). "SC upholds Imelda acquittal, scolds gov't". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved November 9, 2018.
- Imelda Marcos Acquitted, Again. The New York Times. March 11, 2008.
- Unthinkable: State lawyers want to know where Marcos funds went Philippine Daily Inquirer. August 29, 2012.
- Cayabyab, Marc Jayson. "Imelda Marcos allowed to travel to Singapore despite graft cases". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
- Baun, Lian (January 17, 2017). "Imelda Marcos snubs last day of trial for 1991 graft case". Rappler. Philippines. Archived from the original on January 22, 2017.
- Malasig, Jeline (November 9, 2018). "Guilty: The case of Imelda Marcos and her illegal Swiss-based organizations". InterAksyon. Archived from the original on November 16, 2018.
- Marcelo, Elizabeth (November 20, 2018). "Imelda Marcos' lawyer told to explain absences". The Philippine Star. Archived from the original on November 20, 2018.
- "Imelda Marcos withdraws bid for governor after graft conviction". ABS-CBN News. November 29, 2018. Archived from the original on November 30, 2018.
- "Imelda Marcos temporarily free as Sandiganbayan decides on her appeal for post-conviction remedies". CNN Philippines. November 16, 2018. Archived from the original on November 23, 2018.
- Nonato, Vince F. (December 4, 2018). "Like Enrile, 'old age' also applied in Imelda's case". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on December 4, 2018.
- Punongbayan, Michael (December 1, 2018). "Sandiganbayan allows Imelda Marcos to run to Supreme Court". The Philippine Star. Archived from the original on December 4, 2018.
- "Philippines court defers Marcos arrest after her graft conviction". Malay Mail. November 16, 2018. Archived from the original on November 16, 2018.
- Morales, Neil Jerome (November 8, 2018). "Philippines' ex-first lady Imelda Marcos to appeal court's graft ruling". Reuters. Archived from the original on November 9, 2018.
- "Imelda Marcos faces Philippines arrest after guilty verdict". BBC News. November 9, 2018.
- Ayalin, Adrian (November 27, 2018). "Sandiganbayan sets aside Marcos plea to elevate fight vs graft conviction to SC". ABS-CBN News. Archived from the original on November 27, 2018.
- IMELDA ROMUALDEZ-MARCOS, vs. REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES, G.R. No. 189505 (Supreme Court of the Philippines April 25, 2012).
- "FALSE: Wealth of Marcos family from 'hard work,' and 'not from public funds'". Rappler. September 30, 2019.
- Buan, Lian. "SC affirms forfeiture of Imelda Marcos' 3rd jewelry set". Archived from the original on July 26, 2020. Retrieved July 26, 2020.
- "VERA FILES FACT SHEET: The 1993 secret deal: what the Marcoses wanted in exchange for their ill-gotten wealth". VeraFiles. September 28, 2017. Retrieved June 23, 2020.
- "Imelda Marcos' net worth: P932.8-M". ABS-CBN News. Agence France-Presse. May 4, 2012.
- Halls, Eleanor (December 6, 2019). "$7 million shopping sprees and 3,000 pairs of shoes: the crazy rich life of Imelda Marcos". Retrieved September 18, 2020.
- Quinn, Hal (December 16, 1985). "The Marcos money empire". Maclean's. Archived from the original on June 23, 2020. Retrieved June 24, 2020.
- Subcommittee on Asian and Pacific Affairs, United States Congress House Committee on Foreign Affairs (1987). Investigation of Philippine Investments in the United States: Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Asian and Pacific Affairs of the Committee on Foreign Affairs, House of Representatives, Ninety-ninth Congress, First and Second Sessions, December 3, 11, 12, 13, 17, and 19, 1985; January 21, 23, and 29; March 18 and 19; April 9 and 17, 1986. U.S. Government Printing Office.
- Henry, James S. (2003). The blood bankers : tales from the global underground economy. New York: Hachette UK. ISBN 1-56858-305-2. OCLC 53930958.
- Romero, Jose V., Jr. (2008). Philippine political economy. Quezon City, Philippines: Central Book Supply. ISBN 9789716918892. OCLC 302100329.
- O'Connor, Maureen (April 15, 2013). "5 Shopping Sprees So Wild, They Made History". New York. Archived from the original on April 19, 2013.
- "Imeldific: Aquino gives guided tour of Palace". Philippine Daily Inquirer. May 29, 2016. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
- Homage to Imelda's shoes. BBC News. February 16, 2001.
- "Global Corruption Report" (PDF). Transparency International. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 4, 2007. Retrieved August 6, 2009.
- "Imelda Marcos's shoe collection gathers mould after years of neglect". The Guardian. September 23, 2012. Retrieved June 9, 2016.
- "Imelda Marcos shoe collection survives Typhoon Ketsana". The Guardian. October 8, 2009. Retrieved June 9, 2016.
- Manila: 10 Things to Do 7. Marikina Shoe Museum Time magazine. January 21, 2010.
- Yolanda destroys Imelda's ancestral house in Leyte. GMA News. November 19, 2013.
- Tully, Shawn (January 9, 2014). "My afternoon with Imelda Marcos". Fortune. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
- "VERA FILES FACT CHECK: Bongbong Marcos falsely claims martial law horrors fabricated". Vera Files.
- "Some Are Smarter Than Others & The Collection of Jane Ryan and William Saunders: Pio Abad's exploration of the Marcos horde", The Philippine Star. September 18, 2014.
- Witness Say Imelda Marcos Used Pseudonym to Open Account, The Daily News, April 19, 1990
- "Marcos Chronology Report". www.bibliotecapleyades.net.
- "Rep of the Phil vs Sandiganbayan : 152154 : July 15, 2003 : J. Corona : En Banc". Retrieved April 19, 2015.
- R., Salonga, Jovito (2000). Presidential plunder : the quest for the Marcos ill-gotten wealth. [Quezon City]: U.P. Center for Leadership, Citizenship and Democracy. ISBN 9718567283. OCLC 44927743.
- "Marcos convicted of graft in Manila". The New York Times. September 24, 1993. Retrieved August 30, 2013.
- The Political Economy of Corruption. University of Hawaii. July 1997.
- Perlez, Jane (March 21, 1986). "Marcos Linked to Four Manhattan Sites". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved May 24, 2020.
- "Manila After Marcos: Managing a Frail economy; Marcos Mansion Suggests Luxury". The New York Times. February 28, 1986.
- Subcommittee on Asian and Pacific Affairs, United States Congress House Committee on Foreign Affairs (1987). "Investigation of Philippine Investments in the United States: Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Asian and Pacific Affairs of the Committee on Foreign Affairs, House of Representatives, Ninety-ninth Congress, First and Second Sessions, December 3, 11, 12, 13, 17, and 19, 1985; January 21, 23, and 29; March 18 and 19; April 9 and 17, 1986". U.S. Government Printing Office. Retrieved May 24, 2020.
- Frantz, Douglas. "MARCOS N.Y. HOLDINGS $316 MILLION". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved May 24, 2020.
- "Real Estate Agent Gives Evidence of Marcos Buys". The Bulletin. Bend, Oregon. April 10, 1986.
- "Bling Ring". The New Yorker. Retrieved March 6, 2016.
- Imelda loses jewels in the Marcos crown. The Age. September 17, 2005.
- Show me the Monet: Philippines seeks return of Marcos paintings. Reuters. January 14, 2014
- Philippines Seeks Return of Marcos Paintings. Voice of America. January 14, 2014.
- Limjoco, Diana (July 31, 2015). "The Confiscated Jewels of Imelda Marcos". Rogue Magazine. Retrieved November 11, 2018.
- Barnes, Mark (May 6, 2016). "The value of Marcos jewels according to the Philippine government". Rappler.
- "Philippines revalues jewellery seized from Imelda Marcos in 1986". The Guardian. November 24, 2015. Retrieved December 17, 2015.
- Perry, Juliet (February 16, 2016). "Philippines to sell Imelda Marcos's 'ill-gotten' jewels, worth millions". CNN. Retrieved February 16, 2016.
- "Philippines to sell jewellery confiscated from Imelda Marcos". The Daily Telegraph. February 16, 2016. Retrieved March 27, 2016.
- Magcamit, Yann (April 17, 2020). "Palace considers selling Imelda's sequestered jewelry to fund COVID-19 efforts". NoliSoli.ph. Makati: Hinge Inquirer Publications/Inquirer Group of Companies. Retrieved August 18, 2020.
- Marcoses' Silver Sets Record At Auction. The New York Times. January 11, 1991.
- Marcoses' Raphael Sold To Italy for $1.65 Million. The New York Times. January 12, 1991.
- Buettner, Russ (November 20, 2012). "Imelda Marcos's Ex-Aide Charged in '80s Art Theft". The New York Times. Retrieved August 30, 2013.
- Shoes, jewels, and Monets: recovering the ill-gotten wealth of Imelda Marcos. Foreign Policy. January 16, 2014.
- "Imelda Marcos's Ex-Aide Charged in '80s Art Theft." The New York Times. November 20, 2012.
- Ex-Imelda Marcos aide on trial in NYC for selling Monet work. Philippine Daily Inquirer. October 17, 2013. Retrieved October 17, 2013.
- PCGG: Gov't, not Marcos victims, owns Monet painting Philippine Daily Inquirer. July 21, 2013. Retrieved October 17, 2013.
- "Aide to former Philippine First Lady sentenced to prison for trying to sell country's art". Daily News. New York. January 14, 2014.
- Ex-Imelda Marcos secretary to be sentenced by NY court. GMA News. January 6, 2014.
- Marcos jewels could be sold after court rules they were 'ill-gotten'. Japan Times. January 14, 2014.
- "PCGG: More than P171 billion in Marcos family's ill-gotten wealth recovered". GMA News and Public Affairs. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
- Imelda Marcos claims net worth of US$22 million. Taipei Times. May 6, 2012.
- Imelda camp mum on Newsweek's 'greediest' tag. GMA News. April 6, 2009.
- What happened to the Marcos fortune?. BBC News. January 24, 2013.
- Marcos widow claims wealth due to 'Yamashita treasure'. The Bulletin. February 3, 1993.
- "On Petition For A Writ Of Certiorari To The United States Court Of Appeals For The Ninth Circuit: Petition For A Writ Of Certiorari.". Retrieved June 12, 2016.
- Richmond, Peter (December 1, 2013). Econophysics and Physical Economics. Oxford University Press. p. 216. ISBN 978-0199674701.
- Branigin, William (September 7, 1993). "Body of Marcos Back Home in Philippines". Los Angeles Times. The Washington Post.
- Laguatan, Ted (June 30, 2013). "Adding insult to injury: UP College named after Marcos' Prime Minister". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
- Doyo, Ma. Ceres P. (March 18, 2004). "Thief and Dictator". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
- Punongbayan, JC (September 11, 2017). "Marcos plundered to 'protect' the economy? Makes no economic sense". Rappler.
- "Imelda Marcos among Newsweek's greediest people". ABS-CBN News. April 5, 2009.
- Stern, Linda. "Economy: The Human History of Greed". Newsweek. Retrieved March 25, 2009.
- Sheridan, Barrett (April 8, 2009). "Imelda Marcos Agrees: She's "Guilty" of Greed". Newsweek.
- "Leandro Locsin's Brutal Opera". Rogue. Rogue Media Inc. November 16, 2015. Archived from the original on January 25, 2017.
- Balaguer, Clara (March 14, 2016). "An insider's guide to Manila: where brutalism meets bamboo". The Guardian. Retrieved May 19, 2020.
- Gerard., Lico (2003). Edifice complex: power, myth, and Marcos state architecture. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press. ISBN 978-9715504355. OCLC 53371189.
- Landingin, Roel R. (February 13, 2008). "7 in 10 ODA projects fail to deliver touted benefits". Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism Website. Archived from the original on October 12, 2009.
- Afinidad-Bernardo, Deni Rose M. (2016). "31 Years of Amnesia: Edifice Complex". The Philippine Star. Archived from the original on March 4, 2017.
- "Edifice Complex: Building on the Backs of the Filipino People". Martial Law Museum. Archived from the original on May 1, 2018.
- Quirante, Ninfa Iluminada (March 13, 2018). "San Juanico Bridge, a symbol of love". Philippine Information Agency. Archived from the original on June 12, 2018.
- "ASEAN Dialogues: Former Philippines Premier Virata Looks Back on Decades of Working with Japan". www.jica.go.jp. Japan International Cooperation Agency. Archived from the original on June 30, 2018.
- McGeown, Kate (2013). "What happened to the Marcos fortune?". BBC News. Retrieved November 11, 2018.
- Thomson, Desson (July 16, 2004). "'Imelda': Don't Cry for Her". The Washington Post.
- "The weird world of Imelda Marcos". The Independent. February 25, 2006.
- Liberman, Anatoly; Hoptman, Ari; Carlson, Nathan E. (2010). A Bibliography of English Etymology. University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 9780816667727.
- Bautista, Ma. Lourdes S. (1997). "The lexicon of Philippine English". English Is an Asian Language: The Philippine Context. Proceedings of the Conference Held in Manila on August 2–3, 1996. Sydney: Macquarie Library Ltd. pp. 49–72.
- Ramoran, Carol (September 21, 2013). "Imelda Marcos: Style icon, for better and worse". Rappler.
- Pedrosa, Carmen (March 5, 2016). "Make your own surveys; "Imeldific" is now a word". The Philippine Star.
- Soukhanov, Anne H. (1995). Word watch : the stories behind the words of our lives (1st ed.). New York: H. Holt. ISBN 978-0805035643. OCLC 31436606.
- Lopez, Carlos (April 28, 1986). "Imelda Marcos". People Magazine.
- Fitzpatrick, Liam (March 7, 2005). "Walk the Talk". Time. Retrieved September 16, 2010.
- "The Marcos years: 'Golden age' of PH fashion". Philippine Daily Inquirer. September 27, 2015. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
- The day I met Imelda Marcos. BBC News. October 31, 2000.
- "The Life of Imelda Marcos, in PowerPoint and Plastic." The New York Times. March 21, 2006.
- "Imelda Marcos and the 'terno' of her affections". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved November 19, 2015.
- Ross, Robert (2008). Clothing: A Global History. Cambridge, UK: Polity. p. 134. ISBN 9780745631868.
- Burghoorn, Wil; Iwanaga, Kazuki; Milwertz, Cecilia; Wang, Qi (2008). Gender Politics in Asia: Women Manoeuvring Within Dominant Gender Orders. Copenhagen: NIAS Press. p. 31. ISBN 9788776940157.
- Shin, Han (2004). Beauty With a Purpose: A Spiritual Odyssey. New York: iUniverse, Inc. p. 168. ISBN 0595309267.
- Imelda. Film Threat. Retrieved on January 8, 2014.
- Debruge, Peter (August 30, 2019). "Film Review: 'The Kingmaker'".
- Tartaglione, Nancy (July 25, 2019). "Venice Film Festival 2019 Lineup: Polanski, 'Joker', 'The Laundromat', 'Ad Astra', 'Marriage Story' In Competition – Full List Awards". Deadline. Retrieved February 20, 2019.
- Pedrosa, Carmen N. "Untold story of 'pathetic' Imelda". The Philippine Star.
- "New Imelda Marcos Film Offers Her Version of Philippine History". Bloomberg. November 2, 2019.
- Schager, Nick (November 1, 2019). "A Scathing Portrait of the Female Donald Trump" – via www.thedailybeast.com.
- The Kingmaker. Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved on May 25, 2020.
- The Kingmaker. Metacritic. Retrieved on May 25, 2020.
- https://www.imdb.com/title/tt0160398/ "Imelda" for PBS/Independent Lens, Season 6, Episode 22
- Review: 'Imelda'. Variety. March 17, 2004.
- For a Regal Pariah, Despite It All, the Shoe Is Never on the Other Foot. The New York Times. June 9, 2004.
- Director fights for Imelda movie. BBC News. July 7, 2004.
- Keen, Adam (October 1, 2004). Film Review 2004–2005: The Definitive Film Yearbook. Reynolds & Hearn. ISBN 9781903111871.
- Imelda. Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved on January 8, 2014.
- Imelda. Metacritic. Retrieved on January 8, 2014.
- "A walk in the shoes of Imelda Marcos". The Boston Globe. Published on August 6, 2004. Retrieved on January 8, 2014.
- Golden Heart. Warner Music Group. March 26, 1996.
- The Imelda Marcos Story — As Told by David Byrne Time magazine. April 10, 2010.
- Brantley, Ben. "A Rise to Power, Disco Round Included", The New York Times, April 23, 2013. Retrieved June 9, 2016
- Whaley, Floyd (October 12, 2012). "In Manila, 'Livin' La Vida Imelda!'". The New York Times. Retrieved October 14, 2012.
- "Celdran held, questioned over Imelda Marcos art in Dubai". Philippine Daily Inquirer. April 7, 2012. Retrieved June 9, 2016.
- "Censored in Dubai, Carlos Celdran cancels Imelda show". GMA News. March 23, 2012. Retrieved June 9, 2016.
- "On the Spot: Manila Luzon". SPOT.PH.
- The Best of De Lima. Perf. Frank De Lima. 1988. Pocholinga Productions, 2002. DVD.
- The Best of De Lima Too!! Perf. Frank De Lima. 1991. Pocholinga Productions, 2002. DVD.
- Frank DeLima Live at the Polynesian Palace. Perf. Frank De Lima. 1994. Pocholinga Productions, 2002. DVD.
- Ellison, Katherine (1988). Imelda: Steel Butterfly of the Philippines (1st ed.). McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0-07019-335-2. Retrieved June 13, 2016.
- Mijares, Primitivo (1976). The Conjugal Dictatorship of Ferdinand and Imelda Marcos. Union Square Publications. Retrieved June 13, 2016.
- Pedrosa, Carmen Navarro (1969). The Untold Story of Imelda Marcos. Tandem Publishing Co. ASIN B004X1NGV2.
- Pedrosa, Carmen Navarro (1987). Imelda Marcos: The Rise and Fall of One of the World's Most Powerful Women. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-31200-058-5.
- Pedrosa, Carmen Navarro (1987b). The Rise and Fall of Imelda Marcos. Bookmark. ISBN 978-9-71134-031-5.
- Polotan, Kerima (1970). Imelda Romualdez Marcos: A Biography (First ed.). Cleveland, Ohio: The World Publishing Company. ASIN B0006CUAQQ.
- Quah, Jon S. T. (2011). Curbing Corruption in Asian Countries: an Impossible Dream?. Emerald Group Publishing. ISBN 978-0-85724-819-0.
- Tarling, Nicholas (1999). The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia: Volume 2, Part 2, From World War II to the Present. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-66372-4. Retrieved June 13, 2016.