Ifá

Ifá is a Yoruba religion and system of divination. Its literary corpus is the Odu Ifá. Orunmila is identified as the Grand Priest, as he is who revealed divinity and prophecy to the world. Babalawos or Iyanifas use either the divining chain known as Opele, or the sacred palm or kola nuts called Ikin, on the wooden divination tray called Opon Ifá.

Sixteen Principal Odu
Name 1 2 3 4
Ogbe I I I I
Oyẹku II II II II
Iwori II I I II
Odi I II II I
Irosun I I II II
Iwọnrin II II I I
Ọbara I II II II
Ọkanran II II II I
Ogunda I I I II
Ọsa II I I I
Ika II I II II
Oturupọn II II I II
Otura I II I I
Irẹtẹ I I II I
Ọsẹ I II I II
Ofun II I II I

Sixteen Principal Afa-du
(Yeveh Vodou)
Name 1 2 3 4
Eji-Ogbe I I I I
Ọyeku-Meji II II II II
Iwori-Meji II I I II
Odi-Meji I II II I
Irosun-Meji I I II II
Ọwanrin-Meji II II I I
Ọbara-Meji I II II II
Ọkanran-Meji II II II I
Ogunda-Meji I I I II
Ọsa-Meji II I I I
Ika-Meji II I II II
Oturupon-Meji II II I II
Otura-Meji I II I I
Irete-Maji I I II I
Ọse-Meji I II I II
Ofu meji II I II I

Ifá is practiced throughout the Americas, West Africa, and the Canary Islands, in the form of a complex religious system, and plays a critical role in the traditions of Santería, Candomblé, Palo, Umbanda, Vodou, and other Afro-American faiths, as well as in some traditional African religions.

History

The 16-principle system seems to have its earliest history in West Africa. Each Niger–Congo-speaking ethnic group that practices it has its own myths of origin; Yoruba religion suggests that it was founded by Orunmila in Ilé-Ifẹ̀ when he initiated himself and then he initiated his students, Akoda and Aseda. Other myths suggest that it was brought to Ilé-Ifẹ̀ by Setiu, a Nupe man who settled in Ilé-Ifẹ̀. According to the book The History of the Yorubas from the Earliest of Times to the British Protectorate (1921) by Nigerian historian Samuel Johnson and Obadiah Johnson, it was Arugba, the mother of Onibogi, the 8th Alaafin of Oyo who introduced Oyo to Ifá in the late 1400s.[1] She initiated the Alado of Ato and conferred on him the rites to initiate others. The Alado, in turn, initiated the priests of Oyo and that was how Ifá came to be in the Oyo empire. Odinani suggests that Dahomey Kings noted that the system of Afá was brought by a diviner known as Gogo from the Yoruba town of Ketu in eastern Benin.[2]

Orunmila came to establish an oral literary corpus incorporating stories and experiences of priests and their clients along with the results. This odu corpus emerges as the leading documentation on the Ifá tradition to become a historical legacy.

Yoruba canon

In Yorubaland, divination gives priests unreserved access to the teachings of Orunmila.[3] Eshu is the one said to lend ashe to the oracle during provision of direction and or clarification of counsel. Eshu is also the one that holds the keys to one's ire (fortune or blessing)[4] and thus acts as Oluwinni (one's Creditor): he can grant ire or remove it.[5] Ifá divination rites provide an avenue of communication to the spiritual realm and the intent of one's destiny.[6]

Igbo canon

In Igboland, Ifá is known as Afá, and is performed by specialists called Dibia. The Dibia is considered a doctor and specializes in the use of herbs for healing and transformation.[7]

Ewe canon

Among the Ewe people of southern Togo and southeast Ghana, Ifá is known as Afá, where the Vodun spirits come through and speak. In many of their Egbes, it is Alaundje who is honored as the first Bokono to have been taught how to divine the destiny of humans using the holy system of Afá. The Amengansi are the living oracles who are higher than a bokono. A priest who is not a bokono is known as Hounan, similar to Houngan, a male priest in Haitian Vodou, a derivative religion of Vodun, the religion of the Ewe.

Odù Ifá

Divination tray

There are sixteen major books in the Odu Ifá[8] literary corpus. When combined, there are a total of 256 Odu (a collection of sixteen, each of which has sixteen alternatives ⇔ 162, or 44) that are believed to reference all situations, circumstances, actions and consequences in life based on the uncountable ese (or "poetic tutorials") relative to the 256 Odu coding. These form the basis of traditional Yoruba spiritual knowledge and are the foundation of all Yoruba divination systems. Ifá proverbs, stories, and poetry are not written down. Rather, they are passed down orally from one babalawo to another. Yoruba people consult Ifá for divine intervention and spiritual guidance.[9]

International recognition

The Ifá divination system was added in 2005 by UNESCO to its list of the "Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity".[10]

Ifá in Santería

Ifá is employed in the Afro-Cuban religion of Santería;[11] it is the most complex and prestigious divinatory system used in the religion.[12] The two are closely linked, sharing the same mythology and conception of the universe,[13] although Ifá also has a separate existence from Santería.[14] High priests of Ifá are known as babalawos and although their presence is not essential to Santería ceremonies, they often attend in their capacity as diviners.[15] Many santeros are also babalawos,[16] although it is not uncommon for babalawos to perceive themselves as being superior to most santeros.[17] Unlike the more open policy for Santería initiates, only heterosexual men are traditionally allowed to become babalawos,[18] although homosexual male babalawos do exist.[19] Women are typically prohibited from taking on the role,[20] a restriction explained through the story that the oricha Orula was furious that Yemaya, his wife, had used his tabla divining board and subsequently decided to ban women from ever touching it again.[21] By the early 21st century, a small number of women had nevertheless been initiated.[22] Initiation as a babalawo requires a payment to the initiator and is typically regarded as highly expensive.[23]

The oricha of Ifá, Orula or Ọ̀rúnmila, also has a prominent place within Santería.[14] He is believed to oversee divination; once an individual is initiated as a babalawo they are given a pot containing various items, including palm nuts, which is believed to be the literal embodiment of Orula.[24] Babalawos provide offerings to Orula, including animal sacrifices and gifts of money.[25] In Cuba, Ifá typically involves the casting of consecrated palm nuts to answer a question. The babalawo then interprets the message of the nuts depending on how they have fallen; there are 256 possible configurations in the Ifá system, which the babalawo is expected to have memorised.[26] Individuals approach the babalawo seeking guidance, often on financial matters, at which the diviner will consult Orula through the established divinatory method.[27] In turn, those visiting the babalawos pay them for their services.[28]

Notable followers

  • 21 Savage, British-American rapper
  • Sage Elsesser, Rapper, Record Producer, Professional Skater
  • Osunlade, musician, record producer, DJ
  • Wande Abimbola, Nigerian linguist
  • Nisi Shawl, African-American writer, editor, and journalist
  • Patrisse Cullors, co-founder of the Black Lives Matter movement[29]

See also

  • African diaspora religions
  • Babalawo
  • Iyalawo
  • Orunmila

References

  1. Johnson, Samuel (1921). History of the Yorubas from the Earliest of Times to the Beginning of the British Protectorate. Nigeria Bookshops.
  2. "Afa in the African Diaspora".
  3. Lijadu, E. M. Ifá: ImọLe Rẹ Ti I Ṣe Ipile Isin Ni Ilẹ Yoruba. Ado-Ekiti: Omolayo Standard Press, 1898. 1972.
  4. https://aseire.yolasite.com/meaning.php
  5. Archived September 25, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
  6. Adéẹ̀kọ́, Adélékè. "'Writing' and 'Reference' in Ifá Divination Chants." Oral Tradition 25, no. 2 (2010).
  7. "Igbo Medicine".
  8. Sixteen major 'books in Odù Ifá Archived July 2, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  9. Karade, Baba I. (2020). The Handbook of Yoruba Religious Concepts. Google Scholar. ISBN 9781578636679.
  10. "Ifa Divination System". Retrieved 5 July 2017.
  11. Hagedorn 2001, p. 104; Holbraad 2012, p. 90.
  12. Fernández Olmos & Paravisini-Gebert 2011, p. 70.
  13. Holbraad 2005, p. 233; Holbraad 2012, p. 90.
  14. Hagedorn 2001, p. 104.
  15. Hagedorn 2001, pp. 104–105; Holbraad 2012, p. 90.
  16. Hagedorn 2001, p. 105; Wirtz 2007, p. ix.
  17. Holbraad 2005, pp. 233–234.
  18. Holbraad 2005, p. 234; Holbraad 2012, p. 90.
  19. Pérez y Mena 1998, p. 20.
  20. Wedel 2004, p. 157; Fernández Olmos & Paravisini-Gebert 2011, p. 61.
  21. Fernández Olmos & Paravisini-Gebert 2011, pp. 52–53.
  22. Clark 2005, p. 63.
  23. Holbraad 2005, pp. 235–236.
  24. Holbraad 2012, pp. 90–91.
  25. Holbraad 2005, p. 237–238.
  26. Wedel 2004, p. 92; Holbraad 2012, p. 91.
  27. Holbraad 2005, p. 234.
  28. Holbraad 2005, pp. 234–235.
  29. https://religiondispatches.org/the-role-of-spirit-in-the-blacklivesmatter-movement-a-conversation-with-activist-and-artist-patrisse-cullors/

Sources

  • Clark, Mary Ann (2005). Where Men Are Wives And Mothers Rule: Santería Ritual Practices and their Gender Implications. Gainesville: University Press of Florida. ISBN 978-0813028347.
  • Fernández Olmos, Margarite; Paravisini-Gebert, Lizabeth (2011). Creole Religions of the Caribbean: An Introduction from Vodou and Santería to Obeah and Espiritismo (second ed.). New York and London: New York University Press. ISBN 978-0-8147-6228-8.
  • Hagedorn, Katherine J. (2001). Divine Utterances: The Performance of Afro-Cuban Santería. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Books. ISBN 978-1560989479.
  • Holbraad, Martin (2005). "Expending Multiplicity: Money in Cuban Ifá Cults". The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute. 11 (2): 231–254. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9655.2005.00234.x. JSTOR 3804208.
  • Holbraad, Martin (2012). "Truth Beyond Doubt: Ifá Oracles in Havana". HAU: Journal of Ethnographic Theory. 2 (1): 81–109. doi:10.14318/hau2.1.006. S2CID 143785826.
  • Pérez y Mena, Andrés I. (1998). "Cuban Santería, Haitian Vodun, Puerto Rican Spiritualism: A Multiculturalist Inquiry into Syncretism". Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion. 37 (1): 15–27. doi:10.2307/1388026. JSTOR 1388026.
  • Wedel, Johan (2004). Santería Healing: A Journey into the Afro-Cuban World of Divinities, Spirits, and Sorcery. Gainesville: University Press of Florida. ISBN 978-0-8130-2694-7.
  • Wirtz, Kristina (2007). Ritual, Discourse, and Community in Cuban Santería: Speaking a Sacred World. Gainesville: University Press of Florida. ISBN 978-0-8130-3064-7.

Further reading

  • Chief FAMA Fundamentals of the Yoruba Religion (Orisa Worship) ISBN 0-9714949-0-8
  • Chief FAMA Practitioners' Handbook for the Ifa Professional ISBN 0-9714949-3-2
  • Chief FAMA Fundamentos de la Religion Yoruba (Adorando Orisa) ISBN 0-9714949-6-7
  • Fama, Chief (1994). Sixteen mythological stories of Ifá = (Ìtàn Ífá mẹ́rìndínlógún). San Bernardino, CA: Ilé Ọ̀rúnmìlà Communications. ISBN 9780964424722.
  • Chief FAMA FAMA'S EDE AWO (Orisa Yoruba Dictionary) ISBN 0-9644247-8-9
  • Chief FAMA The Rituals (novela) ISBN 0-9644247-7-0
  • Awo Fasina Falade Ifa: The Key to Its Understanding ISBN 0-9663132-3-2
  • Chief Adedoja Aluko The Sixteen (16) Major Odu Ifa from Ile-Ife ISBN 978-37376-6-X
  • Chief Hounon-Amengansie, Mama Zogbé (Vivian Hunter Hindrew) Mami Wata: Africa's Ancient God/dess Unveiled Vol. I ISBN 978-0-615-17936-0
  • Chief S. Solagbade Popoola library, INC Ifa Dida: Vol 1 (EjiOgbe - Orangun Meji), ISBN 978-0-9810013-1-9
  • Chief S. Solagbade Popoola library, INC Ifa Dida: Vol 2 (Ogbe Oyeku - Ogbe Ofun), ISBN 978-1-926538-12-9
  • Chief S. Solagbade Popoola & Fakunle Oyesanya Ikunle Abiyamo - The ASE of Motherhood ISBN 978-09810013-0-2
  • C. Osamaro Ibie Ifism the Complete Works of Orunmila ISBN 1-890157-05-8
  • William R. Bascom: Ifa Divination: Communication Between Gods and Men in West Africa ISBN 0-253-20638-3
  • William R. Bascom: Sixteen Cowries: Yoruba Divination from Africa to the New World ISBN 0-253-20847-5
  • Rosenthal, J. ‘Possession Ecstasy & Law in Ewe Voodoo" ISBN 0-8139-1805-7
  • Maupoil, Bernard. "La Geomancie L'ancienne Côte des Esclaves
  • Alapini, Julien. Les noix sacrées. Etude complète de Fa-Ahidégoun génie de la sagesse et de la divination au Dahomey
  • Dr. Ron Eglash (1997) American Anthropologist Recursion in ethnomathematics, Chaos Theory in West African divination.
  • Bàbálàwó Ifatunwase Tratados Enciclopédicos de Ifá (Colección Alafundé), ISBN 978-0-9810387-04
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