Hunan

Hunan (UK: /hˈnæn/, US: /hˈnɑːn/;[5] 湖南) is a landlocked province of the People's Republic of China, part of the South Central China region. Located in the middle reaches of the Yangtze watershed, it borders the province-level divisions of Hubei to the north, Jiangxi to the east, Guangdong and Guangxi to the south, Guizhou to the west and Chongqing to the northwest. Its capital and largest city is Changsha, which also abuts the Xiang River. With a population of just over 67 million as of 2014 residing in an area of approximately 210,000 km2 (81,000 sq mi), it is China's 7th most populous province by population and the 10th most extensive province by area. Its 2018 nominal GDP was more than US$500 billion, which is among the top 30 largest sub-national economies in the world with its PPP GDP being over US$1 trillion.

Hunan Province

湖南省
Name transcription(s)
  Chinese湖南省 (Húnán Shěng)
  AbbreviationHN / (pinyin: Xiāng)
(clockwise from top)
  • Wulingyuan
  • Fenghuang Old Town
  • Yueyang Tower
  • Tianmen Mountain
  • Yuelu Academy
Map showing the location of Hunan Province
Coordinates: 28°06′46″N 112°59′00″E
CountryChina
Named for,   lake
, nán  south
"South of the lake"
Capital
(and largest city)
Changsha
Divisions14 prefectures, 122 counties, 1,933 townships (2018), 29,224 villages (2018)
Government
  TypeProvince
  BodyHunan Provincial People's Congress
  CCP SecretaryXu Dazhe
  Congress chairmanXu Dazhe
  GovernorMao Weiming
  CPPCC chairmanLi Weiwei
Area
  Total210,000 km2 (80,000 sq mi)
Area rank10th
Highest elevation
(Mount Lingfeng)
2,115.2 m (6,939.6 ft)
Population
 (2020)[2]
  Total66,444,864
  Rank7th
  Density320/km2 (820/sq mi)
  Density rank13th
Demographics
  Ethnic compositionHan – 90%
Tujia – 4%
Miao – 3%
Dong – 1%
Yao – 1%
Other peoples – 1%
  Languages and dialectsChinese varieties:
Xiang, Gan, Southwestern Mandarin, Xiangnan Tuhua, Waxiang, Hakka
Non-Chinese languages:
Xong, Tujia, Mien, Gam
ISO 3166 codeCN-HN
GDP (2018 [3])CNY 3.64 trillion
USD 549.00 billion
$1.038 trillion (PPP)[3] (9nd)
 • per capita¥57,540
$ 8,341(16th)
$16,454 (PPP)
HDI (2018) 0.751[4]
high · 15th
Websitewww.enghunan.gov.cn
Hunan
"Hunan" in Chinese characters
Chinese湖南
Xiangɣu˩˧ nia˩˧ (fu-lã)
Literal meaning"South of the (Dongting) Lake"

The name Hunan literally means "south of the lake".[6] The lake that is referred to is Dongting Lake, a lake in the northeast of the province; Vehicle license plates from Hunan are marked Xiāng (Chinese: ), after the Xiang River, which runs from south to north through Hunan and forms part of the largest drainage system for the province.

The area of Hunan first came under Chinese rule around 350 BC, when the province became part of the State of Chu. Hunan was the birthplace of communist revolutionary Mao Zedong,[7] who became the founding father of the People's Republic of China. Hunan today is home to some ethnic minorities, including the Tujia and Miao, along with the Han Chinese, who make up a majority of the population. Varieties of Chinese spoken include Xiang, Gan and Southwestern Mandarin.

Hunan is located on the south bank of the Yangtze River. The site of Wulingyuan was inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1992.[8] Changsha, the capital, is located in the eastern part of the province; it is now an important commercial, manufacturing and transportation centre.[9]

History

Fenghuang, a traditional town of Hunan

Hunan's primeval forests were first occupied by the ancestors of the modern Miao, Tujia, Dong and Yao peoples. The province entered written Chinese history around 350 BC, when under the kings of the Zhou dynasty, the province became part of the State of Chu. After Qin conquered the Chu heartland in 278 BC, the region came under the control of Qin, and then the Changsha Kingdom during the Han dynasty. At this time, and for hundreds of years thereafter, the province was a magnet for settlement of Han Chinese from the north, who displaced and assimilated the original indigenous inhabitants, cleared forests and began farming rice in the valleys and plains.[10] The agricultural colonization of the lowlands was carried out in part by the Han empire, which managed river dikes to protect farmland from floods.[11] To this day many of the small villages in Hunan are named after the Han families who settled there. Migration from the north was especially prevalent during the Eastern Jin dynasty and the Northern and Southern dynasties periods, when nomadic invaders pushed these peoples south.

During the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, Hunan was home to its own independent regime, Ma Chu.

Hunan and Hubei became a part of the province of Huguang until the Qing dynasty. Hunan province was created in 1664 from Huguang, renamed to its current name in 1723.

Hunan became an important communications center due to its position on the Yangzi River. It was an important centre of scholarly activity and Confucian thought, particularly in the Yuelu Academy in Changsha. It was also on the Imperial Highway constructed between northern and southern China. The land produced grain so abundantly that it fed many parts of China with its surpluses. The population continued to climb until, by the nineteenth century, Hunan became overcrowded and prone to peasant uprisings. Some of the uprisings, such as the ten-year Miao Rebellion of 1795–1806, were caused by ethnic tensions. The Taiping Rebellion began in the south in Guangxi Province in 1850. The rebellion spread into Hunan and then further eastward along the Yangzi River valley. Ultimately, it was a Hunanese army under Zeng Guofan who marched into Nanjing to put down the uprising in 1864.

Japanese invading soldiers firing across the Miluo River during the Battle of Changsha of the WWII in Asia

In 1920, a famine raged throughout Hunan and killed an estimated 2 million Hunanese civilians.[12] This sparked the Autumn Harvest Uprising of 1927. It was led by Hunanese native Mao Zedong, and established a short-lived Hunan Soviet in 1927. The Communists maintained a guerrilla army in the mountains along the Hunan-Jiangxi border until 1934. Under pressure from the Nationalist Kuomintang (KMT) forces, they began the Long March to bases in Shaanxi Province. After the departure of the Communists, the KMT army fought against the Japanese in the second Sino-Japanese war. They defended Changsha until it fell in 1944. Japan launched Operation Ichigo, a plan to control the railroad from Wuchang to Guangzhou (Yuehan Railway). Hunan was relatively unscathed by the civil war that followed the defeat of the Japanese in 1945. In 1949, the Communists returned once more as the Nationalists retreated southward.

As Mao Zedong's home province, Hunan supported the Cultural Revolution of 1966–1976 . However, it was slower than most provinces in adopting the reforms implemented by Deng Xiaoping in the years that followed Mao's death in 1976.

In addition to Mao Zedong, a number of other first-generation communist leaders were also from Hunan: President Liu Shaoqi; Secretary-generals Ren Bishi and Hu Yaobang; Marshals Peng Dehuai, He Long, and Luo Ronghuan; Wang Zhen, one of the Eight Elders; Xiang Jingyu, the first female member of the party's central committee; Senior General Huang Kecheng; and veteran diplomat Lin Boqu. An example of a more recent leader from Hunan is former Premier Zhu Rongji.

Geography

Hunan is located on the south bank of the Yangtze River, about half way along its length, situated between 108° 47'–114° 16' east longitude and 24° 37'–30° 08' north latitude. Hunan covers an area of 211,800 square kilometres (81,800 square miles), making it the 10th largest provincial-level division. The east, south and west sides of the province are surrounded by mountains and hills, such as the Wuling Mountains to the northwest, the Xuefeng Mountains to the west, the Nanling Mountains to the south, and the Luoxiao Mountains to the east. Mountains and hills occupy more than 80% of the province, and plains less than 20%. At 2115.2 meters above sea level, the highest point in Hunan province is Lingfeng (酃峰).[13][14][15]

The Xiang, the Zi, the Yuan and the Lishui Rivers converge on the Yangtze River at Lake Dongting in the north of Hunan. The center and northern parts are somewhat low and a U-shaped basin, open in the north and with Lake Dongting as its center. Most of Hunan lies in the basins of four major tributaries of the Yangtze River.

Lake Dongting is the largest lake in the province and the second largest freshwater lake of China.

The Xiaoxiang area and Lake Dongting figure prominently in Chinese poetry and paintings, particularly during the Song dynasty when they were associated with officials who had been unjustly dismissed.[16]

Changsha (which means "long sands") was an active ceramics district during the Tang dynasty, its tea bowls, ewers and other products mass-produced and shipped to China's coastal cities for export abroad. An Arab dhow dated to the 830s and today known as the Belitung Shipwreck was discovered off the small island of Belitung, Indonesia with more than 60,000 pieces in its cargo. The salvaged cargo is today housed in nearby Singapore.

Hunan's climate is subtropical, and, under the Köppen climate classification, is classified as being humid subtropical (Köppen Cfa), with short, cool, damp winters, very hot and humid summers, and plenty of rainfall. January temperatures average 3 to 8 °C (37 to 46 °F) while July temperatures average around 27 to 30 °C (81 to 86 °F). Average annual precipitation is 1,200 to 1,700 millimetres (47 to 67 in). The Furongian Epoch in the Cambrian Period of geological time is named for Hunan; Furong (芙蓉) means "lotus" in Mandarin and refers to Hunan which is known as the "lotus state".[17]

Administrative divisions

Hunan is divided into fourteen prefecture-level divisions: thirteen prefecture-level cities and an autonomous prefecture:

Administrative divisions of Hunan
Division code[18] Division Area in km2[19] Population 2010[20] Seat Divisions[21]
Districts Counties Aut. counties CL cities
430000Hunan Province 210000.0065,683,722Changsha city3661718
430100Changsha city 11,819.467,044,118Yuelu District612
430200Zhuzhou city 11,262.203,855,609Tianyuan District531
430300Xiangtan city 5,006.462,748,552Yuetang District212
430400Hengyang city 15,302.787,141,462Zhengxiang District552
430500Shaoyang city 20,829.637,071,826Daxiang District3612
430600Yueyang city 14,897.885,477,911Yueyanglou District342
430700Changde city 18,177.185,747,218Wuling District261
430800Zhangjiajie city 9,516.031,476,521Yongding District22
430900Yiyang city 12,325.164,313,084Heshan District231
431000Chenzhou city 19,317.334,581,778Beihu District281
431100Yongzhou city 22,255.315,180,235Lengshuitan District281
431200Huaihua city 27,562.724,741,948Hecheng District1551
431300Loudi city 8,107.613,785,627Louxing District122
433100Xiangxi Autonomous Prefecture 15,462.302,547,833Jishou city71

The fourteen prefecture-level divisions of Hunan are subdivided into 122 county-level divisions (35 districts, 17 county-level cities, 63 counties, 7 autonomous counties). Those are in turn divided into 2587 township-level divisions (1098 towns, 1158 townships, 98 ethnic townships, 225 subdistricts, and eight district public offices). At the year end of 2017, the total population is 68.6 million.

Urban areas

Population by urban areas of prefecture & county cities
#CityUrban area[22]District area[22]City proper[22]Census date
1Changsha[lower-alpha 1]2,963,2183,092,2137,040,9522010-11-01
(1)Changsha (new district)[lower-alpha 1]230,136523,660see Changsha2010-11-01
2Hengyang1,115,6451,133,9677,148,3442010-11-01
3Zhuzhou[lower-alpha 2]999,4041,055,1503,857,1002010-11-01
(3)Zhuzhou (new district)[lower-alpha 2]94,326383,598see Zhuzhou2010-11-01
4Yueyang924,0991,231,5095,476,0842010-11-01
5Xiangtan903,287960,3032,752,1712010-11-01
6Changde846,3081,457,4195,714,6232010-11-01
7Yiyang697,6071,245,5174,307,9332010-11-01
8Liuyang588,0811,279,469see Changsha2010-11-01
9Chenzhou582,971822,5344,583,5312010-11-01
10Shaoyang574,527753,1947,071,7352010-11-01
11Yongzhou540,9301,020,7155,194,2752010-11-01
(12)Ningxiang[lower-alpha 3]498,055116,6138see Changsha2010-11-01
13Leiyang476,1731,151,554see Hengyang2010-11-01
14Huaihua472,687552,6224,741,6732010-11-01
15Liling449,067947,387see Zhuzhou2010-11-01
16Loudi425,037496,7443,784,6342010-11-01
17Changning332,927810,447see Hengyang2010-11-01
18Miluo321,074692,080see Yueyang2010-11-01
19Yuanjiang281,097666,270see Yiyang2010-11-01
20Zhangjiajie250,489494,5281,478,1492010-11-01
21Lianyuan245,360995,515see Loudi2010-11-01
22Lengshuijiang238,275327,146see Loudi2010-11-01
23Linxiang225,054498,319see Yueyang2010-11-01
24Zixing215,707337,294see Chenzhou2010-11-01
25Jishou212,328302,065part of Xiangxi Prefecture2010-11-01
26Xiangxiang210,799788,216see Xiangtan2010-11-01
27Hongjiang197,753477,996see Huaihua2010-11-01
28Wugang187,436734,870see Shaoyang2010-11-01
29Jinshi156,230250,898see Changde2010-11-01
30Shaoshan27,61386,036see Xiangtan2010-11-01
  1. New district established after census: Wangcheng (Wangcheng County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  2. New district established after census: Lukou (Zhuzhou County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  3. Ningxiang County is currently known as Ningxiang CLC after census.

Politics

Young Mao Zedong statue in Changsha

The politics of Hunan is structured in a dual party-government system like all other governing institutions in mainland China.

The Governor of Hunan is the highest-ranking official in the People's Government of Hunan. However, in the province's dual party-government governing system, the Governor has less power than the Hunan Communist Party of China Provincial Committee Secretary, colloquially termed the "Hunan CPC Party Chief".

Economy

As of the mid 19th century, Hunan exported rhubarb, musk, honey, tobacco, hemp, and birds.[23] The Lake Dongting area is an important center of ramie production, and Hunan is also an important center of tea cultivation. Aside from agricultural products, in recent years Hunan has grown to become an important center for steel, machinery and electronics production, especially as China's manufacturing sector moves away from coastal provinces such as Guangdong and Zhejiang.[24]

The Lengshuijiang area is noted for its stibnite mines, and is one of the major centers of antimony extraction in China.

Hunan is also well known for a few global makers of construction equipment such as concrete pumps, cranes, etc. These companies include Sany Group, Zoomlion and Sunward. Sany is one of the world's major players. The city of Liuyang is the world's top center for manufacturing fireworks.[25]

As of 2016, its nominal GDP was US$475 billion (CNY 3.16 trillion), the per capita GDP was US$6,983 (CNY 46,382).[26]

Historical GDP of Hunan Province for 1952 –present (SNA2008)[27]
(purchasing power parity of Chinese Yuan, as Int'l. dollar based on IMF WEO October 2017[28])
year GDP GDP per capita (GDPpc)
based on mid-year population
Reference index
GDP in millions real
growth
(%)
GDPpc exchange rate
1 foreign currency
to CNY
CNY USD PPP
(Int'l$.)
CNY USD PPP
(Int'l$.)
USD 1 Int'l$. 1
(PPP)
20163,155,137475,007901,2368.046,3826,98313,2496.64233.5009
20152,917,217468,373821,8678.543,1576,92912,1596.22843.5495
20142,728,177444,126768,4149.540,6356,61511,4456.14283.5504
20132,483,465400,999694,30710.137,2636,01710,4186.19323.5769
20122,233,833353,875629,10711.433,7585,3489,5076.31253.5508
20111,981,655306,815565,29912.830,1034,6618,5876.45883.5055
20101,615,325238,618487,92514.624,8973,6787,5206.76953.3106
20091,315,627192,597416,66713.920,5793,0136,5176.83103.1575
20081,162,761167,422366,01614.118,2612,6295,7486.94513.1768
2007948,599124,750314,63715.114,9421,9654,9567.60403.0149
2006772,23296,870268,35012.812,1921,5294,2377.97182.8777
2005662,34580,856231,67012.210,6061,2953,7108.19172.8590
2000355,14942,901130,6039.05,4256551,9958.27842.7193
1995213,21325,53178,11710.33,3594021,2318.35102.7294
199074,44415,56443,7244.01,2282577214.78321.7026
198534,99511,91724,96612.16262134472.93661.4017
198019,17212,79512,8205.23652442441.49841.4955
197511,8406,36610.32391291.8598
19709,3053,78017.6211862.4618
19656,5322,65313.2170692.4618
19606,4072,603-1.0176712.4618
19553,5831,37618.5104402.6040
19522,7811,25186392.2227

Economic and technological development zones

  • Changsha National Economic and Technical Development Zone

The Changsha National Economic and Technology Development Zone was founded in 1992. It is located east of Changsha. The total planned area is 38.6 km2 (14.9 sq mi) and the current area is 14 km2 (5.4 sq mi). Near the zone is National Highways G319 and G107 as well as Jingzhu Highway. Besides that, it is very close to the downtown and the railway station. The distance between the zone and the airport is 8 km (5.0 mi). The major industries in the zone include high-tech industry, biology project technology and new material industry.[29]

  • Changsha National New & Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone
  • Chenzhou Export Processing Zone

Approved by the State Council, Chenzhou Export processing Zone (CEPZ) was established in 2005 and is the only export processing zone in Hunan province. The scheduled production area of CEPZ covers 3km2. The industrial positioning of CEPZ is to concentrate on developing export-oriented hi-tech industries, including electronic information, precision machinery, and new-type materials. The zone has good infrastructure, and the enterprises inside could enjoy the preferential policies of tax-exemption, tax-guarantee and tax-refunding. By the end of the "Eleventh Five-Year Plan", the CEPZ achieved a total export and import volume of over US$1 billion and provided more than 50,000 jobs. It aimed to be one of the first-class export processing zones in China.[30]

  • Zhuzhou National New & Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone

Zhuzhou Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone was founded in 1992. Its total planned area is 35 km2 (14 sq mi). It is very close to National Highway G320. The major industries in the zone include biotechnology, food processing and heavy industry. In 2007, the park signed a cooperation contract with Beijing Automobile Industry, one of the largest auto makers in China, which will set up a manufacturing base in Zhuzhou HTP.[31]

Demographics

Ethnic minority-inhabited areas in Hunan
Historical population
YearPop.±%
1912[32] 27,617,000    
1928[33] 31,501,000+14.1%
1936-37[34] 28,294,000−10.2%
1947[35] 25,558,000−9.7%
1954[36] 33,226,954+30.0%
1964[37] 37,182,286+11.9%
1982[38] 54,008,851+45.3%
1990[39] 60,659,754+12.3%
2000[40] 63,274,173+4.3%
2010[41] 65,683,722+3.8%

As of the 2000 census, the population of Hunan is 64,400,700 consisting of forty-one ethnic groups. Its population grew 6.17% (3,742,700) from its 1990 levels. According to the census, 89.79% (57,540,000) identified themselves as Han Chinese and 10.21% (6,575,300) as minority groups. The minority groups are Tujia, Miao, Dong, Yao, Bai, Hui, Zhuang, Uyghurs and so on.

In Hunan, ethnic minority languages are spoken in the following prefectures.

  • Xiangxi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture: Qo Xiong language, Tujia language
  • Huaihua: Qo Xiong language, Dong language, Hm Nai language, Hmu language
  • Shaoyang: Maojia language, Hm Nai language, Pa-Hng language
  • Yongzhou: Mien language, Biao Min language
  • Chenzhou: Dzao Min language

Religion in Hunan[42][note 1]

  Chinese BuddhismTaoist traditions and Chinese folk religions (20.19%)
  Christianity (0.77%)
  Other religions or not religious people[note 2] (79.04%)

Hunanese Uyghurs

Around 5,000 Uyghurs live around Taoyuan County and other parts of Changde.[43][44][45][46] Hui and Uyghurs have intermarried in this area.[47][48][49] In addition to eating pork, the Uygurs of Changde practice other Han Chinese customs, like ancestor worship at graves. Some Uyghurs from Xinjiang visit the Hunan Uyghurs out of curiosity or interest.[50] The Uyghurs of Hunan do not speak the Uyghur language, instead, Chinese is spoken as their native language.[51]

Religion

The predominant religions in Hunan are Chinese Buddhism, Taoist traditions and Chinese folk religions. According to surveys conducted in 2007 and 2009, 20.19% of the population believes and is involved in ancestor veneration, while 0.77% of the population identifies as Christian.[42] The reports didn't give figures for other types of religion; 79.04% of the population may be either irreligious or involved in worship of nature deities, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, folk religious sects.

Notable people:

  • Zeng Guofan (1811–1872)
  • Yuet-ching Lee (1918–1997), Hong Kong actress
  • Ted Hui (born 1982), Hong Kong politician

Culture

Hunan's culture industry generated 87 billion yuan (US$11.76 billion) in economic value in 2007,[52] and is major contributor to the province's economic growth. The industry accounts for 7.5 percent of the region's GDP.

Language

Xiang Chinese (湘语) is the eponymous variety of Chinese spoken in Hunan. In addition to Xiang Chinese, there are also other dialects and languages present, such as Southwestern Mandarin, Hakka, Waxiang, and Xiangnan Tuhua. Nü shu, a writing system for Xiangnan Tuhua, is used exclusively among women in Jiangyong County and neighboring areas in southern Hunan.

Yongfeng chili sauce

Cuisine

Hunanese cuisine is noted for its near-ubiquitous use of chili peppers, garlic, and shallots. These ingredients give rise to a distinctive dry-and-spicy (干辣; gānlà) taste,[53] with dishes such as smoked cured ham, and stir-fried spicy beef being prime examples of the flavor.[53]

Music

Huaguxi is a local form of Chinese opera that is very popular in Hunan province.

Tourism

Located in the south central part of the Chinese mainland, Hunan has long been known for its natural environment. It is surrounded by mountains on the east, west, and south, and by the Yangtze River on the north. For thousands of years, the region has been a major center of agriculture, growing rice, tea, and oranges. China's first all glass suspension bridge was also opened in Hunan, in Shiniuzhai National Geological Park.[54]

  • Wulingyuan is a World Heritage Site and a 5A Scenic Area. Located in south-central Hunan, Wulingyuan is noted for its thousands of quartzite sandstone pillars, caves, and waterfalls. The area also contains Zhangjiajie National Forest Park.
  • Shaoshan County, known for being the birthplace of Mao Zedong
  • Yueyang Tower, on the shores of Lake Dongting, was built in the Han and Jin dynasties, and has existed in its current state since the Qing Dynasty. Alongside the Pavilion of Prince Teng and Yellow Crane Tower, it is one of the Three Great Towers of Jiangnan.
  • Mount Heng, in Hengyang, is one of the Five Great Mountains of China, and is home to the largest temple in southern China.
  • Fenghuang County, in Xiangxi Prefecture, has been placed on the UNESCO World Heritage Tentative List for its ancient town. Fenghuang is known for its incorporation of mountain features and water flow into city design, and the ancient syncretism between the local Han and Miao cultures.[55]


Panoramic view of Mount Heng

Sports

Yiyang Olympic Stadium

Professional sports teams in Hunan include:

  • Chinese Football Association League One
    • Hunan Billows F.C.

See also

  • Major national historical and cultural sites in Hunan
  • Xiaoxiang, the "lakes and rivers" region of south-central China
  • State of Chu, ancient Chinese state partly in modern-day Hunan

Notes

  1. The data was collected by the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) of 2009 and by the Chinese Spiritual Life Survey (CSLS) of 2007, reported and assembled by Xiuhua Wang (2015)[42] in order to confront the proportion of people identifying with two similar social structures: ① Christian churches, and ② the traditional Chinese religion of the lineage (i. e. people believing and worshipping ancestral deities often organised into lineage "churches" and ancestral shrines). Data for other religions with a significant presence in China (deity cults, Buddhism, Taoism, folk religious sects, Islam, et. al.) was not reported by Wang.
  2. This may include:
    • Buddhists;
    • Confucians;
    • Deity worshippers;
    • Taoists;
    • Members of folk religious sects;
    • Small minorities of Muslims;
    • And people not bounded to, nor practicing any, institutional or diffuse religion.

References

  1. "Doing Business in China – Survey". Ministry Of Commerce – People's Republic Of China. Archived from the original on 5 August 2013. Retrieved 5 August 2013.
  2. "Communiqué of the Seventh National Population Census (No. 3)". National Bureau of Statistics of China. 11 May 2021. Retrieved 11 May 2021.
  3. "Hunan Gov't 2019 Work Report Highlights at a Glance".
  4. "Sub-national HDI - Subnational HDI - Global Data Lab". globaldatalab.org. Retrieved 2020-04-17.
  5. "Guizhou". Lexico UK Dictionary. Oxford University Press.
  6. (in Chinese) Origin of the Names of China's Provinces Archived 2016-04-27 at the Wayback Machine, People's Daily Online.
  7. Schram, Stuart R. (Stuart Reynolds), 1924-2012. (1967). Mao Tse-tung. Harmondsworth: Penguin. ISBN 0140208402. OCLC 7874661.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  8. Centre, UNESCO World Heritage. "Wulingyuan Scenic and Historic Interest Area". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 2019-06-11. Retrieved 2019-06-12.
  9. Planet, Lonely. "Changsha travel | Hunan, China". Lonely Planet. Archived from the original on 2019-07-11. Retrieved 2019-06-12.
  10. Harold Wiens. Han Expansion in South China. (Shoe String Press, 1967).
  11. Brian Lander. State Management of River Dikes in Early China: New Sources on the Environmental History of the Central Yangzi Region . T'oung Pao 100.4-5 (2014): 325–362
  12. Dianda, Bas (15 March 2019). Political Routes to Starvation: Why Does Famine Kill?. ISBN 9781622735082.
  13. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2018-04-08. Retrieved 2018-04-08.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  14. 湖南"新高度"——酃峰. Xinhua Hunan. 2013-09-26. Retrieved 2015-07-29.
  15. Wang, Shuo (王砚) (2016-01-30). Pei, Li (裴力) (ed.). 最美的山峰:酃峰海拔2115.2米湖南第一高峰. 潇湘晨报. Archived from the original on 2018-04-08. Retrieved 2018-04-08.
  16. Alfreda Murck (2000). Poetry and Painting in Song China: The Subtle Art of Dissent. Harvard Univ Asia Center. ISBN 978-0-674-00782-6. Archived from the original on 2017-01-10. Retrieved 2016-10-03.
  17. Peng, Shanchi; Babcock, Loren; Robison, Richard; Lin, Huanling; Rees, Margaret; Saltzman, Matthew (30 November 2004). "Global Standard Stratotype-section and Point (GSSP) of the Furongian Series and Paibian Stage (Cambrian)" (PDF). Lethaia. 37 (4): 365–379. doi:10.1080/00241160410002081. Retrieved 14 September 2012.
  18. 中华人民共和国县以上行政区划代码 (in Chinese). Ministry of Civil Affairs. Archived from the original on 2015-04-02. Retrieved 2015-12-11.
  19. Shenzhen Bureau of Statistics. 《深圳统计年鉴2014》 (in Chinese). China Statistics Print. Archived from the original on 2015-05-12. Retrieved 2015-05-29.
  20. Census Office of the State Council of the People's Republic of China; Population and Employment Statistics Division of the National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China (2012). 中国2010人口普查分乡、镇、街道资料 (1 ed.). Beijing: China Statistics Print. ISBN 978-7-5037-6660-2.
  21. Ministry of Civil Affairs (August 2014). 《中国民政统计年鉴2014》 (in Chinese). China Statistics Print. ISBN 978-7-5037-7130-9.
  22. 国务院人口普查办公室、国家统计局人口和社会科技统计司编 (2012). 中国2010年人口普查分县资料. Beijing: China Statistics Print. ISBN 978-7-5037-6659-6.
  23. Roberts, Edmund (1837). Embassy to the Eastern Courts of Cochin-China, Siam, and Muscat. New York: Harper & Brothers. p. 123. Archived from the original on 2013-10-16. Retrieved 2013-10-16.
  24. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-10-08. Retrieved 2011-10-31.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  25. Government, Hunan. "Hunan Government Website International-enghunan.gov.cn". www.enghunan.gov.cn. Archived from the original on 2009-02-08. Retrieved 2009-02-20.
  26. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2017-12-22. Retrieved 2017-12-20.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  27. Historical GDP of Hunan Province published on Hunan Statistical Yearbook 2017, ALSO see Hunan'GDP Revison (Chinese) Archived 2017-12-22 at the Wayback Machine
  28. Purchasing power parity (PPP) for Chinese yuan is estimate according to IMF WEO (October 2017 Archived 2006-02-14 at Archive-It) data; Exchange rate of CN¥ to US$ is according to State Administration of Foreign Exchange, published on China Statistical Yearbook Archived 2015-10-20 at the Wayback Machine.
  29. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-08-26. Retrieved 2010-06-08.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  30. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-08-26. Retrieved 2010-06-08.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  31. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-02-24. Retrieved 2016-02-02.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  32. 1912年中国人口. Ier.hit-u.ac.jp. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
  33. 1928年中国人口. Ier.hit-u.ac.jp. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
  34. 1936-37年中国人口. Ier.hit-u.ac.jp. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
  35. 1947年全国人口. Ier.hit-u.ac.jp. Archived from the original on 13 September 2013. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
  36. 中华人民共和国国家统计局关于第一次全国人口调查登记结果的公报. National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on August 5, 2009.
  37. 第二次全国人口普查结果的几项主要统计数字. National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on September 14, 2012.
  38. 中华人民共和国国家统计局关于一九八二年人口普查主要数字的公报. National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on May 10, 2012.
  39. 中华人民共和国国家统计局关于一九九〇年人口普查主要数据的公报. National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on June 19, 2012.
  40. 现将2000年第五次全国人口普查快速汇总的人口地区分布数据公布如下. National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on August 29, 2012.
  41. "Communiqué of the National Bureau of Statistics of People's Republic of China on Major Figures of the 2010 Population Census". National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on July 27, 2013.
  42. China General Social Survey 2009, Chinese Spiritual Life Survey (CSLS) 2007. Report by: Xiuhua Wang (2015, p. 15) Archived September 25, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
  43. stin Jon Rudelson, Justin Ben-Adam Rudelson (1992). Bones in the sand: the struggle to create Uighur nationalist ideologies in Xinjiang, China. Harvard University. p. 30. Archived from the original on 2013-05-29. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  44. Ingvar Svanberg (1988). The Altaic-speakers of China: numbers and distribution. Centre for Mult[i]ethnic Research, Uppsala University, Faculty of Arts. p. 7. ISBN 91-86624-20-2. Archived from the original on 2013-05-28. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  45. Ingvar Svanberg (1988). The Altaic-speakers of China: numbers and distribution. Centre for Mult[i]ethnic Research, Uppsala University, Faculty of Arts. p. 7. ISBN 91-86624-20-2. Archived from the original on 2013-05-29. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  46. Kathryn M. Coughlin (2006). Muslim cultures today: a reference guide. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 220. ISBN 0-313-32386-0. Archived from the original on 2013-05-29. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  47. Chih-yu Shih, Zhiyu Shi (2002). Negotiating ethnicity in China: citizenship as a response to the state. Psychology Press. p. 133. ISBN 0-415-28372-8. Archived from the original on 2011-12-13. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  48. Chih-yu Shih, Zhiyu Shi (2002). Negotiating ethnicity in China: citizenship as a response to the state. Psychology Press. p. 137. ISBN 0-415-28372-8. Archived from the original on 2011-12-13. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  49. Chih-yu Shih, Zhiyu Shi (2002). Negotiating ethnicity in China: citizenship as a response to the state. Psychology Press. p. 138. ISBN 0-415-28372-8. Archived from the original on 2011-12-13. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  50. Chih-yu Shih, Zhiyu Shi (2002). Negotiating ethnicity in China: citizenship as a response to the state. Psychology Press. p. 136. ISBN 0-415-28372-8. Archived from the original on 2013-05-29. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  51. Chih-yu Shih, Zhiyu Shi (2002). Negotiating ethnicity in China: citizenship as a response to the state. Psychology Press. p. 133. ISBN 0-415-28372-8. Archived from the original on 2013-05-29. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  52. according to Hunan Provincial Bureau of Statistics
  53. Eats, Serious. "A Song of Spice and Fire: The Real Deal With Hunan Cuisine". www.seriouseats.com. Archived from the original on 2019-06-05. Retrieved 2019-06-05.
  54. "China's first glass-bottom bridge opens - CNN.com". CNN. Archived from the original on 2015-09-30. Retrieved 2015-09-29.
  55. Centre, UNESCO World Heritage. "Fenghuang Ancient City". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 2019-06-05. Retrieved 2019-06-05.
This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.