Government in exile
A government in exile (abbreviated as GiE) is a political group which claims to be a country or semi-sovereign state's legitimate government, but is unable to exercise legal power and instead resides in another state or foreign country. Governments in exile usually plan to one day return to their native country and regain formal power. A government in exile differs from a rump state in the sense that a rump state controls at least part of its former territory. For example, during World War I, nearly all of Belgium was occupied by Germany, but Belgium and its allies held on to a small slice in the country's west. A government in exile, in contrast, has lost all its territory. However, in practice the difference might be minor; in the above example, the Belgian government at Sainte-Adresse was located in French territory and acted as a government in exile for most practical purposes.
|Part of the Politics series|
|Basic forms of government|
Exiled governments tend to occur during wartime occupation or in the aftermath of a civil war, revolution, or military coup. For example, during German expansion in World War II, some European governments sought refuge in the United Kingdom, rather than face destruction at the hands of Nazi Germany. On the other hand, the Provisional Government of Free India proclaimed by Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose sought to use support from the invading Japanese to gain control of the country from what it viewed as British occupiers. A government in exile may also form from widespread belief in the illegitimacy of a ruling government. Due to the outbreak of the Syrian Civil War in 2011, for instance, the National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces was formed by groups whose members sought to end the rule of the ruling Ba'ath Party.
The effectiveness of a government in exile depends primarily on the amount of support it receives, either from foreign governments or from the population of its own country. Some exiled governments come to develop into a formidable force, posing a serious challenge to the incumbent regime of the country, while others are maintained chiefly as a symbolic gesture.
The phenomenon of a government in exile predates the formal utilization of the term. In periods of monarchical government, exiled monarchs or dynasties sometimes set up exile courts—as the House of Stuart did when driven from their throne by Oliver Cromwell and again at the Glorious Revolution (see James Francis Edward Stuart § Court in exile). The House of Bourbon would be another example because it continued to be recognized by other countries at the time as the legitimate government of France after it was overthrown by the populace during the French Revolution. This continued to last through the rule of Napoleon Bonaparte and the Napoleonic Wars from 1803–04 to 1815. With the spread of constitutional monarchy, monarchical governments which were exiled started to include a prime minister, such as the Dutch government during World War II headed by Pieter Sjoerds Gerbrandy.
International law recognizes that governments in exile may undertake many types of actions in the conduct of their daily affairs. These actions include:
- becoming a party to a bilateral or international treaty
- amending or revising its own constitution
- maintaining military forces
- retaining, or newly obtaining, diplomatic recognition from other states
- issuing identity cards
- allowing the formation of new political parties
- holding elections
In cases where a host country holds a large expatriate population from a government in exile's home country, or an ethnic population from that country, the government in exile might come to exercise some administrative functions within such a population. For example, the WWII Provisional Government of Free India had such authority among the ethnically Indian population of British Malaya, with the consent of the then Japanese military authorities.
Current governments in exile
Governments in exile may have little or no recognition from other states. Some exiled governments have some characteristics in common with rump states. Such disputed or partially in exile cases are noted in the tables below.
Deposed governments of current states
These governments in exile were created by deposed governments or rulers who continue to claim legitimate authority of the state they once controlled.
|Name||Exile since||State controlling its claimed territory (entirely or partially)||Notes||References|
|Rada of the Belarusian Democratic Republic||1920||Republic of Belarus||
The oldest current government (formally, a provisional parliament) in exile, currently led by Ivonka Survilla in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
|Imperial State of Iran||1979||Islamic Republic of Iran||The Pahlavi dynasty, led by Reza Pahlavi and living in Potomac, Maryland, United States|
|Royal Lao Government in Exile||1975||Lao People's Democratic Republic||
The former government of the Kingdom of Laos; based in Gresham, Oregon, United States
|Quetta Shura||2001||Islamic Republic of Afghanistan||
Based in Quetta, Pakistan as a continuation of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan. After the Taliban were removed from power in the 2001 Afghan war, the veteran high-ranking leaders of the former government including Mullah Mohammed Omar, founder and spiritual leader of the Taliban, fled to Quetta, Balochistan Province, Pakistan where they set up Quetta Shura in exile to organize and direct the insurgency and retake Afghanistan.
|Government of the Republic of Yemen||2015||Republic of Yemen (Supreme Political Council)||
Leadership based in Riyadh.
|National Unity Government of Myanmar||2021||Republic of the Union of Myanmar (State Administration Council)||
This government was formed in response to the 2021 Myanmar coup d'état. The cabinet members of the National Unity Government are in hiding within Myanmar.
Deposed governments of former states
These governments in exile were created by deposed governments or rulers who continue to claim legitimate authority of the state they once controlled but whose state no longer exists.
|Name||Exile||Current control of claimed territory||Notes||References|
|Republic of South Maluku||1963||Independent state||Republic of Indonesia||Maluku Province||Based in the Netherlands and formed by members of the exiled government of the Republic of South Maluku which was an unrecognized independent state between 1950 and 1963.|
Current government regarded by some as a "government-in-exile"
Government of the Republic of China: The currently Taipei-based Republic of China government does not regard itself as a government-in-exile, but is claimed to be such by some participants in the debate on the political status of Taiwan. In addition to the island of Taiwan and some other islands it currently controls, the Republic of China formally maintains claims over territory now controlled by the People's Republic of China as well as some parts of Afghanistan, Bhutan, India, Japan, Myanmar, Pakistan, Russia, and Tajikistan. The usual formal reasoning on which this "government-in-exile" claim is based relies on an argument that the sovereignty of Taiwan was not legitimately handed to the Republic of China at the end of World War II, and on that basis the Republic of China is located in foreign territory, therefore effectively making it a government in exile. By contrast, this theory is not accepted by those who view the sovereignty of Taiwan as having been legitimately returned to the Republic of China at the end of the war. Both the People's Republic of China government and the Kuomintang in Republic of China (Taiwan) hold the latter view.
However, there are also some who do not accept that the sovereignty of Taiwan was legitimately returned to the Republic of China at the end of the war nor that the Republic of China is a government-in-exile, and China's territory does not include Taiwan. The current Democratic Progressive Party in Taiwan is inclined to this view, and supports Taiwanese independence.
These governments in exile claim legitimacy of autonomous territories of another state and have been created by deposed governments or rulers, who do not claim independence as a separate state.
|Name||Exile||Current control of claimed territory||Notes|
|Government of the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia||1993||autonomous republic||Republic of Abkhazia||de facto independent state||Georgian provincial government, led by Ruslan Abashidze, whose territory is under the control of Abkhaz separatists|
|Azerbaijani Community of Nagorno-Karabakh||1994||Republic of Artsakh||Azerbaijan provisional government, led by Tural Ganjaliyev, whose territory is under the control of Armenian separatists|
|Provisional Administrative Entity of South Ossetia||2008||provisional administrative entity||Republic of South Ossetia||Georgian provincial administration, led by Dmitry Sanakoyev, whose territory is under the control of South Ossetian separatists|
|Autonomous Republic of Crimea||2014||autonomous republic||Russian Federation||federal subject (republic)||Ukrainian autonomous republic, whose territory was seized and annexed by Russia in March 2014, following a disputed status referendum; Presidential Representative-in-exile now based in Kherson|
|City of Sevastopol||special city||federal city||Ukrainian special city, whose territory was seized and annexed by Russia in March 2014, following a disputed status referendum|
|Name||Exile Period||Actual control of claimed territory||Notes||References|
|Generalitat de Catalunya||1939-1977||Spain||In 1939, as the Spanish Civil War finished with the defeat of the Republican side, the Francoist dictatorship abolished the Generalitat de Catalunya, autonomous government of Catalonia, and its president Lluís Companys was tortured and executed. However, the Generalitat maintained its official existence in exile from 1939 to 1977, led by presidents Josep Irla (1940-1954) and Josep Tarradellas (1954-1980). In 1977 Tarradellas returned to Catalonia and was recognized by the post-Franco Spanish government, ending the Generalitat's exile.|
Alternative governments of current states
These governments have been created in exile by political organisations and opposition parties, aspire to become actual governing authorities or claim to be legal successors to previously deposed governments, and have been created as alternatives to incumbent governments.
|Name||Claimed exile||Exile proclamation||Government presently controlling claimed territory||Notes||References|
|Committee for the Five Northern Korean Provinces||—||1949||North Korea||Based in Seoul, the South Korean government's provisional administration for the five pre-1945 provinces which became North Korea at the end of World War II and the division of Korea. The five provinces are North Hamgyeong, South Hamgyeong, Hwanghae, North Pyeongan, South Pyeongan|
| Delegation of Taiwan Province, National People's Congress/CPPCC of PRC
Taiwan Affairs Office
|—||Republic of China||As representative body and executive organ, work together with Taiwan Democratic Self-Government League (Political Party), All-China Federation of Taiwan Compatriots (Civil)|
|East Turkistan Government-in-Exile||1949||2004||People's Republic of China||Campaigns for the restoration of an independent East Turkistan; based in Washington, DC, United States|
|National Council of Iran||—||2013||Islamic Republic of Iran||Political umbrella coalition of forty Iranian opposition political organizations, led by Prince Reza Pahlavi; based in Maryland, United States|
|Democratic Republic of Iran||—||1981||Run by the National Council of Resistance of Iran, a political umbrella coalition of five Iranian opposition political organizations, the largest organization being the People's Mujahedin of Iran led by Maryam and Massoud Rajavi; based in Paris with the aim to establish the “Democratic Republic of Iran” to replace the current religious rule in Iran.|
|Progress Party of Equatorial Guinea||—||2003||Republic of Equatorial Guinea||Proclaimed Severo Moto President of Equatorial Guinea in Madrid|
|Third Republic of Vietnam||1990||1991||Socialist Republic of Vietnam||Third Republic of Vietnam previously named Provisional National Government of Vietnam was formed in Orange County, California by former soldiers and refugees from the former South Vietnamese. Declared a terrorist organization in Vietnam.|
|Syrian Interim Government||—||2012||Syrian Arab Republic||Opposes the government of the Syrian Arab Republic; based in Istanbul; has ties to some Free Syrian Army groups.|
|Royal Lao Government in Exile||—||1993||Lao People's Democratic Republic||Opposes communist government in Laos; seek to institute a constitutional monarchy, based in Gresham, Oregon.|
|Coordination Council for the Transfer of Power||—||2020||Republic of Belarus||Opposes Alexander Lukashenko's rule led by candidate Sviatlana Tsikhanouskaya (exiled in Lithuania) after losing the disputed election to Lukashenko, which sparked nationwide protests in order for him to be removed from power.|
|Rada of the Belarusian Democratic Republic||—||1919||The BNR has been led by Ivonka Survilla since 1997 and has recognised Tsikhanouskaya as the legitimate president. It is the oldest government in exile in the world|
Alternative separatist governments of current subnational territories
These governments have been created in exile by political organisations, opposition parties, and separatist movements, and desire to become the governing authorities of their territories as independent states, or claim to be the successor to previously deposed governments, and have been created as alternatives to incumbent governments.
|Name||Claimed exile||Exile proclamation||Government presently controlling claimed territory||Notes||References|
|Free City of Danzig Government in Exile||1939||1947||Republic of Poland||Based in Berlin, Germany|
|West Papuan Government in Exile||1963||1969||Republic of Indonesia||Campaigns for an independent West Papua; based in the Netherlands|
|Biafran Government in Exile||1970||2007||Federal Republic of Nigeria||An arm of the Movement for the Actualization of the Sovereign State of Biafra, seeking to reestablish the Republic of Biafra; based in Washington, DC|
|Republic of Cabinda||1975||Republic of Angola||Based in Paris, France|
|Tatar Government in Exile||1994||Russian Federation|
|Chechen Republic of Ichkeria||2000||Russian Federation||Some members are fighting as rebels against the Russian Armed Forces; based in Western Europe and the United States, with its leaders in London.
There is a contested claim that it has been succeeded by the Caucasus Emirate.
|Manchukuo Temporary Government||1945||2004||People's Republic of China||Based in Hong Kong|
|Koma Civakên Kurdistan||—||1998||Republic of Turkey||Aims to create a Kurdish entity in Turkey; successor organization of Kurdish parliament in exile|
|Republic of Ambazonia||—||1999||Republic of Cameroon||Former British mandate and trust territory of Southern Cameroons; declared independence on December 31, 1999|
|Western Kurdistan Government in Exile||—||2004||Syrian Arab Republic||Aims to create a Kurdish state in Syria; based in London|
|Transnational Government of Tamil Eelam||2009||2010||Sri Lanka||Aims to establish an independent state of Tamil Eelam|
Exiled governments of non-self-governing or occupied territories
These governments in exile are governments of non-self-governing or occupied territories. They claim legitimate authority over a territory they once controlled, or claim legitimacy of a post-decolonization authority. The claim may stem from an exiled group's election as a legitimate government.
From the Palestinian Declaration of Independence in 1988 in exile in Algiers by the Palestine Liberation Organization, it has effectively functioned as the government in exile of the Palestinian State. In 1994, however the PLO established the Palestinian National Authority interim territorial administration as result of the Oslo Accords signed by the PLO, Israel, the United States, and Russia. Between 1994 and 2013, the PNA functioned as an autonomy, thus while the government was seated in the West Bank it was not sovereign. In 2013, Palestine was upgraded to a non-member state status in the UN. All of the above created an ambiguous situation, in which there are two distinct entities: The Palestinian Authority, exercising a severely limited amount of control on the ground and the State of Palestine, recognized by the United Nations and by numerous countries as a sovereign and independent state, but not able to exercise such sovereignty on the ground. Both are headed by the same person—as of February 2016, President Mahmud Abbas—but are judicially distinct.
Exiled governments with ambiguous status
These governments have ties to the area(s) they represent, but their claimed status and/or stated aims are sufficiently ambiguous that they could fit into other categories.
|Name||Exile||Current control of claimed territory||Notes||References|
|Central Tibetan Administration||1959||People's Republic of China||Founded by the Dalai Lama in Dharamsala, India with cooperation of Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru; see also Tibetan sovereignty debate and Tibetan independence movement||Tibet.net|
|Ukrainian Salvation Committee||2015||Ukraine||Formed in Moscow, Russia, by former Prime Minister of Ukraine Mykola Azarov, with the intention of holding new elections in Ukraine.|
|Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic||1976||Morocco||Proclaimed on February 27, 1976, following the Spanish withdrawal from what was until then Spanish Sahara after the POLISARIO insurgency. Not strictly a government in exile since it does control 20–25% of its claimed territory. Nevertheless, often referred to as such, especially since most day-to-day government business is conducted in the Tindouf refugee camps in Algeria, which house most of the Sahrawi exile community, rather than in the proclaimed temporary capital (first Bir Lehlou, moved to Tifariti in 2008).|
Past governments in exile
|Name||Exiled or created(*) since||Defunct, reestablished,(*) or integrated(°) since||State that controlled its claimed territory||Notes||References|
|Republican Government of Siena||1555||1559||Grand Duchy of Tuscany||After the Italian city-state of Siena was defeated in the Battle of Marciano and annexed to the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, 700 Sienese families did not concede defeat, established themselves in Montalcino and declared themselves to be the legitimate Republican Government of Siena. This lasted until 1559, when Tuscan troops arrived and annexed Montalcino, too.|
|Exile government of the Electoral Palatinate||1622–1623*||1648°||Electorate of Bavaria||In the early stages of the Thirty Years' War, Maximilian I, Elector of Bavaria, occupied the Electoral Palatinate and was awarded possession of it by Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor. In late 1622 and early 1623, the fugitive Frederick V, Elector Palatine organised a Palatinate government-in-exile at The Hague. This Palatinate Council was headed by Ludwig Camerarius, replaced in 1627 by Johann Joachim Rusdorf. Frederick himself died in exile, but his son and heir Charles Louis was able to regain the Lower Palatinate following the Peace of Westphalia in 1648.|
|Privy Council of England||1649||1660°||Based for most of the Interregnum in the Spanish Netherlands and headed by Charles II; actively supported Charles' claim to the thrones of England, Scotland and Ireland|
|Hanover exile court/Guelphic Legion||1866||1878|| Prussia
|On September 20, 1866, Prussia annexed Hanover. Living in exile in Austria, at Hietzing and Gmunden, King George V of Hanover never abandoned his claim to the Hanoverian throne and from 1866 to 1870 maintained at his own expense an exile Hanoverian armed force, the Guelphic Legion. George was forced to give up this Legion after the Prussian lower chamber passed in 1869 a law sequestering his funds. George V died in 1878. Though his son and heir Prince Ernest Augustus retained a formal claim to be the legitimate King of Hanover until 1918 (when all German Royal Families were dethroned), he does not seem to have kept up a government-in-exile.|
|Kingdom of Hawaii||1893||1895||Republic of Hawaii||Royal government exiled following the Hawaiian Revolution of 1893, dissolved after the abdication of Queen Liliuokalani in response to the Hawaiian Counter-revolution of 1895.|
|Provisional Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh||1971*||1972°||East Pakistan||Based in Calcutta; led by Tajuddin Ahmad, the first Prime Minister of Bangladesh, during the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971.|
|Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea||1919*||1948°||Korea||Based in Shanghai, and later in Chongqing; after Japan's defeat in World War II, President Syngman Rhee became the first president of the First Republic of South Korea|
|All-Palestine Government||1948||1959||The All-Palestine government was proclaimed in Gaza in September 1948, but was shortly relocated to Cairo in fear of Israeli offensive. Despite Egyptian ability to keep control of the Gaza Strip, the All-Palestine Government was forced to remain in exile in Cairo, gradually stripping it of its authority, until in 1959 it was dissolved by President Gamal Abdel Nasser's decree.|
|Provisional Government of the Algerian Republic||1958*||1962*||French Algeria (France)||Established during the latter part of the Algerian War of Independence; after the war, a compromise agreement with the Armée de Libération Nationale dissolved it but allowed most of its members to enter the post-independence government|
|Revolutionary Government of Angola in Exile||1962*||1992°||People's Republic of Angola||Based in Kinshasa; its military branch, the National Liberation Front of Angola, was recognized as a political party in 1992 and holds three seats in Angola's parliament|
Government of Free Vietnam
|1995*||2013°||Socialist Republic of Vietnam||The Government of Free Vietnam was an anti-communist political organization centered in Garden Grove, California and Missouri City, Texas. It was disbanded in 2013.|
|Namibian Government in Exile||1966*||1989°||South Africa||Formed after opposition to the apartheid South African administration over South-West Africa, which had been ruled as illegal by the United Nations; in 1990, Namibia achieved independence after the South African Border War.|
|Sinkiang Provincial Government Office||1949||1992||Xinjiang Autonomous Region||Relocated to Taipei, Taiwan in 1949 after Sinkiang fell to the communists. Office was abolished in 1992 after the Taiwan government accepted the "One China" Consensus.|
|Coalition Government of Democratic Kampuchea||1982*||1993°||People's Republic of Kampuchea||Established with UN recognition in opposition to the Vietnamese-backed government. Elections in 1993 brought the reintegration of the exiled government into the newly reconstituted Kingdom of Cambodia.|
||Based in Paris, Angers, and London, it opposed German occupied Poland and the Soviet satellite state, the People's Republic of Poland; disbanded following the fall of communism in Poland.|
|Estonian government-in-exile||1953*||1992||Soviet Union||Established in Sweden by several members of Otto Tief's government; did not achieve any international recognizion. In fact, it was not recognized even by Estonian diplomatic legations that were seen by western countries as legal representatives of the annexed state. However the government in exile was recognized by the restored Government of Estonia when the government in exile ceased its activity in 1992 and gave over its credentials to the restored Republic of Estonia. A rival electoral committee was created by another group of Estonian exiles in the same year in Detmold, North Rhine-Westphalia, West Germany, but it was short lived.|
|Spanish Republican government in exile||1939||1977||Spanish State||Created after Francisco Franco's coup d'état; first based in Paris, France from 1939 until 1940 when France fell to the Nazis. The exiled government was then moved to Mexico City and stayed there from 1940 to 1946, when it was moved back to Paris, where it lasted until Franco's death and democracy in Spain was restored in the transition.|
|Government of the Democratic Republic of Georgia in Exile||1921||1954||Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic||Formed after the Soviet invasion of Georgia of 1921; based in Leuville-sur-Orge, France|
|Dubrovnik Republic (1991)||1991||1992||Republic of Croatia||Formed in Cavtat with the help of the Yugoslav People's Army after Croatia declared independence from Yugoslavia. Claimed to be the historic successor of the Republic of Ragusa (1358–1808).|
|President of Ukraine (in exile)||1920||1992||Organized after the Soviet occupation of Ukraine during the Russian Civil War.|
|Free Aceh Movement||1976*||2005||Republic of Indonesia||Headquartered in Sweden; surrendered its separatist intentions and dissolved its armed wing following the 2005 peace agreement with the Indonesian government|
|Bongo Doit Partir||1998||2009||Gabon||Founded by Daniel Mengara in opposition to president Omar Bongo; after Bongo's death in June 2009, Mengara returned to Gabon in order to participate in the country's elections|
|Confederate government of Missouri||1861||1865||State of Missouri||Missouri had both Union and Confederate governments, but the Confederate government was exiled, eventually governing out of Marshall, Texas.|
|Confederate government of Kentucky||1861||1865||Commonwealth of Kentucky||Kentucky had both Union and Confederate governments. The Confederate government was soon forced out of the state, and was an exiled government traveling with the Confederate Army of Tennessee, except for during a short return when the Confederate army briefly occupied Frankfort.|
|Restored Government of Virginia||1861||1865||Commonwealth of Virginia|
|East Tennessee||1861||1862||State of Tennessee|
|De Broqueville government in exile||1914||1918||German Empire||Formed in 1915 by the Government of Belgium following the German invasion during World War I. It was disbanded following the restoration of Belgian sovereignty with the Armistice with Germany.|
|National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma||1990||2012||
||Led by Sein Win and composed of members of parliament elected in 1990 but not allowed by the military to take office; based in Rockville, Montgomery County, Maryland, U.S.|
|Philippine Commonwealth in exile||1942||1944°||
||After Japanese forces took control over the Philippine islands, the Philippine commonwealth government led by Manuel Quezon fled first to Melbourne, Australia and later to Washington, D.C. United States. It existed from May 1942 to October 1944 before returning to the Philippines along with U.S. forces during the Philippines campaign (1944–1945).|
|Emergency Government of the Republic of Indonesia||1948*||1949°||Dutch East Indies||Based in Bukittinggi; led by Sjafruddin Prawiranegara, founded after Operatie Kraai in December 1948. Disbanded after Roem–Van Roijen Agreement.|
|Crown Council of Ethiopia||1993||2004°||Led by Prince Ermias Sahle Selassie and based in the Washington D.C. Metropolitan Area. On July 28, 2004, the Crown Council redefined its role by redirecting its mission from the political realm to a mission of cultural preservation, development and humanitarian efforts in Ethiopia.|
|Sublime State of Persia||1925||1943||Imperial State of Iran||The Qajar dynasty went into exile in 1923 and continued to claim the Iranian throne until the death of Mohammad Hassan Mirza in 1943.|
|Interim Government of Federated Shan States||2005||2006||Union of Myanmar||Aimed to establish an independent state for the Shan ethnic group; it became defunct within several months.|
World War II
Governments in London
A large number of European governments-in-exile were set up in London.
|Belgian government in exile||Prime Minister: Hubert Pierlot|
|Free France||Charles de Gaulle, Henri Giraud, French Committee of National Liberation (from 1943)|
|Luxembourg government in exile|
Other exiled leaders in Britain in this time included King Zog of Albania and Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia.
Occupied Denmark did not establish a government in exile, although there was an Association of Free Danes established in London. The government remained in Denmark and functioned with relative independence until August 1943 when it was dissolved, placing Denmark under full German occupation. Meanwhile, Iceland, Greenland and the Faroe Islands were occupied by the Allies and effectively separated from the Danish crown. (See British occupation of the Faroe Islands, Iceland during World War II, and History of Greenland during World War II.)
Governments-in-exile in Asia
The Philippine Commonwealth (invaded December 9, 1941) established a government in exile, initially located in Australia and later in the United States. Earlier, in 1897, the Hong Kong Junta was established as a government in exile by the Philippine revolutionary Republic of Biak-na-Bato.
While formed long before World War II, the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea continued in exile in China until the end of the war.
At the fall of Java, and the surrender by the Dutch on behalf of Allied forces on March 8, 1942, many Dutch-Indies officials (including Dr van Mook and Dr Charles van der Plas) managed to flee to Australia in March 1942, and on December 23, 1943, the Royal Government (Dutch) decreed an official Netherlands East Indies Government-in-exile, with Dr van Mook as Acting Governor General, on Australian soil until Dutch rule was restored in the Indies.
Axis-aligned governments in exile
In the later stages of World War II, with the German Army increasingly pushed back and expelled from various countries, Axis-aligned groups from some countries set up "governments-in-exile" under the auspices of the Axis powers, in the remaining Axis territory - even though internationally recognized governments were in place in their home countries. The main purpose of these was to recruit and organize military units composed of their nationals in the host country.
|Name||Exiled or created(*) since||Defunct, reestablished,(*) or integrated(°) since||State that controlled its claimed territory||Notes||References|
|Kingdom of Bulgaria||September 16, 1944*||May 10, 1945||Kingdom of Bulgaria (Fatherland Front)||Formed after the 1944 Bulgarian coup d'état brought socialists to power in Bulgaria, the government was based on Vienna and headed by Aleksandar Tsankov. It raised the 1st Bulgarian Regiment of the SS.|
|Sigmaringen Governmental Commission||September 7, 1944*||April 23, 1945°||Provisional Government of the French Republic||Members of the collaborationist French cabinet at Vichy were relocated by the Germans to the Sigmaringen enclave in Germany, where they became a government-in-exile until April 1945. They were given formal governmental power over the city of Sigmaringen, and the three Axis governments – Germany, Italy and Japan – established there what were officially their Embassies to France. Pétain having refused to take part in this, it was headed by Fernand de Brinon.|
|Hungarian Government of National Unity||28/29 March 1945||May 7, 1945|| Czechoslovak Republic
Kingdom of Hungary
|The Szálasi government fled in the face of the Soviet advance through Hungary. It was first based on Vienna and then Munich. Most of its leaders were arrested in the following months, in the aftermath of final Allied victory.|
|Hellenic State||September 1944||April 1945||Kingdom of Greece||After the liberation of Greece, a new collaborationist government had been established at Vienna, during September 1944, formed by former collaborationist ministers. It was headed by the former collaborationist minister Ektor Tsironikos. In April 1945, Tsironikos was captured during the Vienna offensive along with his ministers.|
|Legionary Romania||August, 1944||May 8, 1945||Kingdom of Romania||Germany had imprisoned Horia Sima and other members of the Iron Guard following the Legionnaires' rebellion of 1941. In 1944, King Michael's Coup brought a pro-Allied government to power in Romania. In response Germany released Sima to establish a pro-Axis government in exile in Vienna.|
|Montenegrin State Council||Summer of 1944||May 8, 1945||Kingdom of Yugoslavia||After the Germans withdrew from Montenegro, the fascist leader Sekula Drljević created a government-in-exile based on Zagreb, capital of the Independent State of Croatia (NDH). Drljević created the Montenegrin National Army, a military force set up by him and the Croatian fascist leader Ante Pavelić. However, his government was dissolved after the fall of the NDH.|
|Slovak Republic||April 4, 1945||May 8, 1945||Czechoslovak Republic||The government of the Slovak Republic, led by Jozef Tiso, went into exile on 4 April 1945 to the Austrian town of Kremsmünster when the Red Army captured Bratislava and occupied Slovakia. The exiled government capitulated to the American General Walton Walker on 8 May 1945 in Kremsmünster. In summer 1945, the captured members of the government were handed over to Czechoslovak authorities.|
|Provisional Government of Free India||October 21, 1943*||August 18, 1945||British Raj||India's First Independent Government in exile to fight with and get territorial independence from British-Raj. It was based in Rangoon and later in Port Blair. Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose was the leader of the government and the Head of State of this provisional Indian government in exile, established in Singapore but later given control of Japanese-controlled territory in far eastern India and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Indian Government has also issued its currency notes and started establishing bilateral relationships with anti-British countries. Azad Hind Fauj or Indian National Army INA was official military of Government of India led by Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose. This government was disestablished in 1945 following the defeat of the Axis powers in World War II. INA kept fighting for independence of India, which led to create revolt by Indian Navy against British Govt in India and that forced British to think about leaving India.|
|Second Philippine Republic||June 11, 1945||August 17, 1945||Philippine Commonwealth||After the Allied forces liberated the Philippines from Japanese occupiers and the reestablishment of the Philippine Commonwealth in the archipelago after a few years in exile in the United States, the Second Philippine Republic became a nominal government-in-exile from June 11, 1945 based in Nara / Tokyo. The government was later dissolved on August 17, 1945.|
|Croatian Government in exile||April 10, 1951||?||Yugoslavia||Many former members of the Government of the Independent State of Croatia fled to Argentina. From there they created a government in exile.|
Persian Gulf War
Following the Ba'athist Iraqi invasion and occupation of Kuwait, during the Persian Gulf War, on August 2, 1990, Sheikh Jaber Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah and senior members of his government fled to Saudi Arabia, where they set up a government-in-exile in Ta'if. The Kuwaiti government in exile was far more affluent than most other such governments, having full disposal of the very considerable Kuwaiti assets in western banks—of which it made use to conduct a massive propaganda campaign denouncing the Ba'athist Iraqi occupation and mobilizing public opinion in the Western world in favor of war with Ba'athist Iraq. In March 1991, following the defeat of Ba'athist Iraq at the hands of coalition forces in the Persian Gulf War, the Sheikh and his government were able to return to Kuwait.
Municipal councils in exile
Following the Turkish Invasion of Cyprus in 1974 and the displacement of many Greek Cypriots from North Cyprus, displaced inhabitants of several towns set up what are in effect municipal councils in exile, headed by mayors in exile. The idea is the same as with a national government in exile – to assert a continuation of legitimate rule, even though having no control of the ground, and working towards restoration of such control. Meetings of the exiled Municipal Council of Lapithos took place in the homes of its members until the Exile Municipality was offered temporary offices at 37 Ammochostou Street, Nicosia. The current Exile Mayor of the town is Athos Eleftheriou. The same premises are shared with the Exile Municipal Council of Kythrea.
Also in the Famagusta District of Cyprus, the administration of the part retained by the Republic of Cyprus considers itself as a "District administration in exile", since the district's capital Famagusta had been under Turkish control since 1974.
Fictional governments in exile
- In Len Deighton's SS-GB, the UK is defeated in World War II and occupied by Germany. A British government in exile is formed, but finds it far from easy to secure international recognition. Specifically, Deighton refers to this government in exile needing to go to the US courts and wage a prolonged struggle against the London-based German-collaborating government, before securing possession of the British Embassy in Washington.
- In If Israel Lost the War by Robert Littell, Richard Z. Chesnoff and Edward Klein, Israel is defeated in the 1967 Six-Day War and its territory occupied by Arab armies. Thereupon, David Ben-Gurion and Golda Meir set up an Israeli government in exile in North America.
- Algis Budrys' The Falling Torch is set in a future time when Earth was conquered and occupied by extraterrestrial humanoid invaders. Many years later, the Earth government in exile, located at a human colony planet orbiting Alpha Centauri, is holding a regular meeting in an atmosphere of dejection and futility – its hosts being indifferent to Earth's plight and unwilling to offer any real help. The Exile Prime Minister is shown more involved with his successful career as the chef of a luxury hotel than with the seemingly non-existent hope of liberating Earth. This depiction might have drawn on the writer's actual experience as a member of the exile Lithuanian community in the 1950s US, at the time seeing little hope of shaking the Soviet hold of its homeland.
- Exclusive mandate
- Provisional government
- Shadow Cabinet
- Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization
- Lists of active separatist movements
- List of historical separatist movements
- List of historical unrecognized states and dependencies
- List of territorial disputes
- List of states with limited recognition
- United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories
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Chiang Kai-shek wanted to fight it out on an all-or-nothing basis. There are also reports that Chiang's advisors convinced him that if the ROC mission stayed to represent Taiwan, Chiang would be under pressure to demonstrate in some constitutional way that his Chinese government-in-exile represented the people of Taiwan rather than the vast population of China. Doing so would require Chiang to dismantle his existing regime (which was elected in 1947 on the Chinese mainland and continued to rule in Taiwan under emergency martial law provisions without benefit of elections), adopt an entirely new constitution, and install an entirely new government.
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[Quoting from a declassified CIA report on Taiwan written in March 1949] From the legal standpoint, Taiwan is not part of the Republic of China. Pending a Japanese peace treaty, the island remains occupied territory in which the US has proprietary interests.
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