GNOME Web (called Epiphany until 2012) is a free and open-source web browser based on the GTK port of Apple's WebKit rendering engine, called WebKitGTK. It is developed by the GNOME project for Unix-like systems. It is the default and official web browser of GNOME, and part of the GNOME Core Applications.
|Original author(s)||Marco Pesenti Gritti|
|Developer(s)||The GNOME Project (mostly by Michael Catanzaro and Xan Lopez, both from Igalia)|
|Initial release||24 December 2002|
|Stable release(s) [±]|
|40.2 (4 June 2021 ) [±]|
|Preview release(s) [±]|
|40.beta (24 February 2021 ) [±]|
|Written in||C (GTK)|
|Size||2.6 MB (compiled package for AMD64, without dependencies)|
|Available in||many languages with different translation percentage of User Interface and documents|
GNOME Web was originally named "Epiphany", but was rebranded in 2012 as part of GNOME 3.4. The name Epiphany is still used internally for development and in the source code. The package remains epiphany-browser in Debian (to avoid a name collision with a video game that is also called "Epiphany") and epiphany in Fedora.
Marco Pesenti Gritti, the initiator of Galeon, originally developed Epiphany in 2002 as a fork of Galeon. The fork occurred because of the disagreement between Gritti and the rest of Galeon developers about new features. While Gritti regarded Galeon's monolithic design and the number of user-configurable features as factors limiting Galeon's maintainability and usability, the rest of the Galeon developers wanted to add more features.
Around the same time, the GNOME project adopted a set of human interface guidelines, which promoted simplification of user interfaces. As Galeon was oriented towards power users, most developers disapproved. As a result, Gritti created a new browser based on Galeon, with most of the non-critical features removed. He intended Epiphany to comply with the GNOME HIG. As such, Epiphany used the global GNOME theme and other settings from inception.
Gritti explained his motivations:
While Mozilla has an excellent rendering engine, its default XUL-based interface is considered to be overcrowded and bloated. Furthermore, on slower processors even trivial tasks such as pulling down a menu is less than responsive.
Epiphany aims to utilize the simplest interface possible for a browser. Keep in mind that simple does not necessarily mean less powerful. We believe the commonly used browsers of today are too big, buggy, and bloated. Epiphany addresses simplicity with a small browser designed for the web—not mail, newsgroups, file management, instant messaging or coffee making. The Unix philosophy is to design small tools that do one thing, and do it well.
Epiphany's main goal is to be integrated with the gnome desktop. We don't aim to make Epiphany usable outside Gnome. If someone will like to use it anyway, it's just a plus. For example: Making people happy that don't have control center installed is not a good reason to have mime configuration in Epiphany itself.
Galeon continued after the fork, but lost momentum due to the remaining developers' failure to keep up with changes in the Mozilla platform. Galeon development stalled and the developers decided to work on extensions to bring Galeon's advanced features to Epiphany.
The development of Epiphany was mainly focused on usability improvements compared to major browsers at the time. The most notable was the new text entry widget, which was introduced in version 1.8. The new widget supported icons inside the text area and reduced the screen space needed to present information, while improving GNOME integration.
The next major milestone was version 2.14, which was the first to follow GNOME's version numbering. It also featured network awareness using NetworkManager, smart bookmarks improvements, and the option to build with XULRunner.
The latter was critical. Previously, Epiphany could only use an installed Mozilla web browser as a web engine provider. The XULRunner support made it possible to install Epiphany as the only web browser on the system.
The development process suffered from major problems related to the Gecko backend. Notably, the release cycles of the two projects did not line up efficiently. Also, Mozilla increasingly disregarded third party software that wished to make use of Gecko, until it became viewed as an integrated Firefox component. To address these issues, in July 2007, the Epiphany team added support for WebKit as an alternative rendering engine. On April 1, 2008, the team announced that it would remove the ability to build it using Gecko and proceed using only WebKit.
The size of the team and complexity of porting the browser to Webkit caused version 2.22 to be re-released with bugfixes alongside GNOME 2.24, so the releases stagnated until July 1, 2009, when it was announced that 2.26 would be the final Gecko-based version.
Developers of GNOME Web maintain a complete and accurate changelog in its official repository that shows complete and detailed changes between all the releases, following table just shows arbitrarily mentioned some notable and important changes:
|GNOME Web version history|
|0.4||December 25, 2002||Initial release.|
|0.5||April 13, 2003||Ability to drag bookmarks, smart bookmarks, and topics to the toolbar. Optional "Go" button for URL bar. "Help" support.|
|0.6||May 4, 2003||Drag and drop of links to tab bar. Security preferences. User language automatic detection. New history dialog. Default bookmarks toolbar.|
|0.7||June 7, 2003||Zoom control for the toolbar. Ability to reload page while bypassing cache (shift+reload). Traditional bookmarks menu. Exit fullscreen button.|
|0.8||July 13, 2003||Tooltips. Improved GNOME integration. Fast search for bookmarks and history. Drag and drop of URLs in the bookmarks toolbar.|
|0.9||August 22, 2003||Bugfixes only.|
|1.0||September 8, 2003
|Support for Mozilla 1.6.|
|1.2||March 15, 2004
|Support for Mozilla 1.7 and 1.8, Lockdown mode. Caret navigation.|
|1.4||September 13, 2004
|Offline mode. Per-site pop-up blocking.|
|1.6||March 9, 2005
|1.8||September 5, 2005
|Python bindings, Find toolbar, Favicon and SSL icons displayed in location bar. Gecko 1.8 support. Error messages display in content area. Use of the GNOME printing system.|
|2.14||March 12, 2006||XULRunner backend supported. Topic suggestions in bookmarks manager. Version numbering synced to GNOME. NetworkManager DBUS interface support.|
|2.16||September 6, 2006||History preserved for links opened in new tabs. Spell checking support. Page security info dialogue from Certificates extension. New GTK Printing dialog. Stability improvements.|
|2.18||March 14, 2007||Bookmarks online storage. UI for Ad Blocker.|
|2.20||September 19, 2007||Migration from Gecko to WebKit. PDF printing. Migration from GnomeVFS to GIO.|
|2.22||March 12, 2008|
|2.24||September 24, 2008|
|2.26||March 31, 2009|
|2.28||September 24, 2009||Gecko backends removed. Python extension support removed. WebInspector.|
|2.30||March 31, 2010||Broken SSL certificate warning, custom page menus support.|
|2.32||September 29, 2010||Bugfixes only.|
|3.0||April 6, 2011||Reduced the amount of user interface chrome. Geolocation support. Switched from text zooming to full content zooming. New download manager. Migration to GTK 3 and GNOME 3 technologies.|
|3.2||September 28, 2011||Separate font settings. WebKit's page source viewer made default. Web Applications mode introduced.|
|3.4||March 28, 2012||Renamed from Epiphany to Web. Major interface overhaul. Performance improvements. Super menu introduced.|
|3.6||September 26, 2012||Overview screen and Full Screen mode introduced.|
|3.10||September 26, 2013||New toolbar placement into "Header Bar", the new GNOME titlebar design.|
|3.12||March 25, 2014||A major update version, including improved performance and user interface enhancements. Implemented a single process for each tab.|
|3.14||September 24, 2014||A minor update adding support blocking invalid SSL certificates, warning users about mixed content for improved security, adblocker performance improvements and overall small UI improvements and polishing.|
|3.16||March 23, 2015||UI updated, fixes to improve incognito mode's privacy and discoverability.|
|3.18||September 23, 2015||UI improvements. Enabled Do Not Track and the ad blocker by default.|
|3.20||March 23, 2016||UI improvements. Session restore.|
|3.22||September 21, 2016||UI improvements.|
|3.30||September 6, 2018||Reader mode, others.|
|3.34||September 12, 2019||Rewritten and improved ad blocker which uses Webkit's content filtering. Web process sandboxing for improved security. Favorite tabs can be pinned. plug-in support removed.|
|3.36||March 7, 2020||User interface improvements for small screens. Native support for PDF documents. Improved support for handling dark GTK themes. Native viewing of web page source. Removal of vestigial NPAPI support. Support for Service workers. More secure handling of cookies. Security improvements to better isolate sites from each other in a tab process.|
|3.38||September 16, 2020||Intelligent Tracking Prevention added and enabled by default, and option added to turn off websites storing local data.|
|40||March 26, 2021||New option for Google search suggestions, revamped tabs, and Google Safe Browsing disabled by default.|
As a component of GNOME Core Applications, it provides full integration with GNOME settings and other components like GNOME Keyring to securely store passwords, following the GNOME Human Interface Guidelines and the GNOME software stack to provide first-class support for the all new-adopted edge technologies such as Wayland and the latest major GTK versions, multimedia support using GStreamer, small package size (2.6MB) and very fast execution/startup time due to using shared components; other features include the reader mode, mouse gestures, smart bookmarks, praised web application integration mechanism, built-in ad blocking, the "Insert Emoji" option in the context menu for quick and easy inserting of Emoji and Miscellaneous Symbols and Pictographs into the text boxes, Google Safe Browsing, supports reading and saving MHTML, an archive format for web pages that combines all the files of web pages into only one single file; and consume fewer system resources than the major cross-platform web browsers.
Web standards support
Encrypted Media Extensions support is not a goal, as the standard does not specify a Content Decryption Module to use, all available modules are proprietary even if licensing is possible, and the system imposes Digital Rights Management that hides what the user's computer is doing to make copying "premium content" difficult. However, Media Source Extensions is supported, as YouTube began to require this technology in November 2018.
Apple, which is the primary corporate backer of Webkit, rejected at least 16 web APIs because they could be used in a fingerprinting attack to help personally identify users and track them, while providing limited or no benefit to the user. As HTML5test checks for most of these APIs, it artificially lowers Webkit's "score" in points (as does lack of DRM support).
Web once supported NPAPI plug-ins, such as Java and Adobe Flash, but support was removed in GNOME 3.34. In the modern web platform, these have fallen out of favor and support has been removed from all major browsers. Flash has been deprecated by Adobe itself. Flash had gained infamy throughout the years for usability and stability issues, incessant security vulnerabilities, its proprietary nature, its ability to let sites deploy particularly obnoxious web ads, and Adobe's poor and inconsistent Linux support. Many of these issues were raised by Steve Jobs, then CEO of Apple, in his essay Thoughts on Flash.
Web reuses GNOME frameworks and settings, including the user interface theme, network settings, and printing. Settings are stored with GSettings and GNOME default applications are used for internet media types handling. The user configures these, centrally, in GNOME's settings app.
The built-in preference manager for Web presents basic browser-specific settings while advanced settings which could radically alter Web's behavior can be changed with utilities such as dconf (command line) and dconf-editor (graphical).
Web follows the GNOME Human Interface Guidelines and platform-wide design decisions. For example, in Web 3.4, the menu for application actions was moved to the GNOME Shell's top panel application menu and the menu bar was replaced with "super menu" button, which triggers the display of window-specific menu entries.
Google Safe Browsing and security sandboxing
Since GNOME 3.34, Web explicitly requires a minimum of WebkitGTK 2.26 or later. This provides the "Bubblewrap Sandbox" for tab processes, which is intended to prevent malicious websites from hijacking the browser and using it to spy on other tabs or run malicious code on the user's computer. If such code found another exploit in the operating system allowing it to become root, the result could be a disaster for all users of the system.
Making the sandbox a priority was brought on, according to Michael Catanzaro, because he was particularly concerned with the code quality of OpenJPEG and the numerous security problems that had been discovered in it, including many years of failing security reviews by Ubuntu. He further explained that web compatibility requires that sites believe that Web is a major browser. Sending them the user agent of Apple Safari causes fewer broken websites than others (due to sharing the Webkit engine), but also causes caching servers to deliver JPEG 2000 images, of which Safari is the only major browser to support. There is no other usable open source option for JPEG 2000 support. Fixing OpenJPEG, which is the official reference software, will be a massive undertaking that could take years to sort out. Enabling the Bubblewrap Sandbox would cause many vulnerabilities in this and other components to become "minimally useful" to potential attackers.
In GNOME 3.36, Web gained native support for PDF documents by using PDF.js. Michael Catanzaro explained that having websites open Evince to display PDF files was insecure, as it could be used to escape the browser's security sandbox. Since Evince was the last user of NPAPI, this allowed the remaining support code for the obsolete plug-in model (where additional vulnerabilities could be hiding) to be removed. Since the NPAPI support had a hard dependency on X11, moving to PDF.js also allowed that dependency to be dropped.
Since PDF.js internally converts PDF documents so that they can be displayed by the web browser's engine, it does not add security vulnerabilities to the browser the way that compiled plug-ins such as Adobe Acrobat or Evince could.
While most browsers feature a hierarchical folder-based bookmark system, Web uses categorized bookmarks, where a single bookmark (e.g. this page) can exist in multiple categories (such as "Web Browsers", "GNOME", and "Computer Software"). A special category includes bookmarks that have not yet been categorized. Bookmarks, along with browsing history, are accessed from the address bar in find-as-you-type manner.
Web Application Mode
Since GNOME 3.2, released in September 2011, Web allows creating application launchers for web applications. The subsequent invocation of a launcher brings up a plain site-specific browser (single instance) of Web limited to one domain, with off-site links opening in a normal browser. The launcher created this way is accessible from the desktop and is not limited to GNOME Shell. For instance it may be used with Unity, used on Ubuntu. This feature facilitates the integration of the desktop and World Wide Web, which is a goal of Web's developers. Similar features can be found in the Windows version of Google Chrome. For the same purpose Mozilla Foundation previously developed a standalone application Mozilla Prism, which was superseded by the project Chromeless.
Web applications are managed within the browser's main instance. The applications can be deleted from the page, accessible with a special URI about:applications. This approach was supposed to be a temporary while a centralized GNOME web application management was to be implemented in GNOME 3.4, but this never happened.
Since GNOME 3.26, Web has support for Firefox Sync, which allows users to sync their bookmarks, history, passwords, and open tabs with Firefox Sync, which can then be shared between any copy of Firefox or Web that the user signs into Firefox Sync with.
Web once supported extensions and a package was maintained containing the official ones. This was later removed due to problems with stability and maintainability.
Some popular extensions, such as ad blocking, were moved to the core application.
The project has expressed an interest in implementing support for the WebExtension add-on format used by Chrome, Firefox, and some other major browsers, if interested contributors can be found.
In reviewing the WebKit-powered Epiphany 2.28 in September 2009, Ryan Paul of Ars Technica said "Epiphany is quite snappy in GNOME 2.28 and scores 100/100 on the Acid3 test. Using WebKit will help differentiate Epiphany from Firefox, which is shipped as the default browser by most of the major Linux distributors."
In March 2011, Veronica Henry reviewed Epiphany 2.32, saying "To be fair, this would be a hard sell as a primary desktop browser for most users. In fact, there isn't even a setting to let you designate it as your default browser. But for those instance where you need to fire up a lighting-fast browser for quick surfing, Epiphany will do the trick." She further noted, "Though I still use Firefox as my primary browser, lately it seems to run at a snail's pace. So, one of the first things I noticed about Epiphany is how quickly it launches. And subsequent page loads on my system are equally as fast." Henry criticized Epiphany for its short list of extensions, singling out the lack of Firebug as a deficiency. Web instead supports Web Inspector offered by the WebKit engine, which has similar functionality.
In April 2012, Ryan Paul of Ars Technica used Web as an example to his criticism of GNOME 3.4 design decisions: "Aside from the poor initial discoverability of the panel menu, this model works reasonably well for simple applications. [...] Unfortunately, it doesn't scale well in complex applications. The best example of where this approach can pose difficulties is in GNOME's default Web browser. [...] Having the application's functionality split across two completely separate menus does not constitute a usability improvement." This was addressed in later versions, with a single unified menu.
In an October 2016 review, Bertel King Jr. noted on MakeUseOf, "Later versions offer the best integration you will find with GNOME Shell. It lacks the add-ons found in mainstream browsers, but some users will like the minimalism, the speed, and the tab isolation that prevents one misbehaving site from crashing the entire browser."
In an April 2019 review, Bertel King Jr. wrote another article on MakeUseOf, this time reviewing GNOME Web for its Web Applications Mode. He stated, "When you check your email, you’re using a web app. If you open YouTube, Netflix, or Spotify in a browser, again, you’re using a web app. These days, you can replace most of your desktop apps with web apps. [...] GNOME Web provides tools to better integrate web apps with the rest of your desktop, so you can open them via your app launcher and view them in your dock or taskbar. This way they feel more like apps and less like sites." He also praised the security provided by walling off Web Applications from the rest of the browser and each other. Like Mozilla's container feature, this helps prevent sites such as Facebook from seeing what the user is doing in the main browser. It also allows the user to create multiple "apps" for the same site, to easily switch between different accounts.
- About URI scheme § GNOME Web
- Midori, another web browser based on GTK and WebKitGTK
- List of web browsers for Unix and Unix-like operating systems
- "Contributors · GNOME / Epiphany · GitLab". gitlab.gnome.org. Retrieved March 15, 2017.
- "Epiphany turns 7", The GNOME Web Browser Developers, December 24, 2009, retrieved June 15, 2011
- Catanzaro, Michael (June 4, 2021). "GNOME 40 released". GNOME Mail Services (Mailing list). Retrieved July 1, 2021.
- Kitouni, Abderrahim (February 24, 2021). "GNOME 40.beta released!". GNOME Mail Services (Mailing list). Retrieved March 12, 2021.
- "Debian -- Details of package epiphany-browser in bullseye". April 27, 2020.
- Blaede, Cassidy James (October 16, 2018). "elementary OS 5 Juno is Here". medium.com. Archived from the original on May 2, 2020. Retrieved May 10, 2020.
- "Bodhi Linux 5.1.0 Released". bodhilinux.com. Retrieved May 11, 2020.
In addition to replacing epad with leafpad, midori with epiphany
- "Bodhi Linux 5.1 Review: Slightly Different Lightweight Linux". itsfoss.com. Retrieved May 11, 2020.
- "Bodhi Linux 5.1.0 Released, Based on Latest Ubuntu Point Release". OMG! Ubuntu!. Retrieved May 11, 2020.
- "Bodhi's Modular Moksha Desktop Is Modern and Elegant". linuxinsider.com. Retrieved May 11, 2020.
- The GNOME Project, September 28 (March 28, 2012), "GNOME 3.4 Release Notes", gnome-announce mailing list
- "The Epiphany GitLab repository". Retrieved May 27, 2020.
- Canonical Ltd (April 22, 2016). "epiphany-browser package in Ubuntu". Retrieved May 20, 2016.
- "Overview - rpms/epiphany - src.fedoraproject.org". src.fedoraproject.org. Retrieved October 1, 2019.
- DeRosia, Chris (July 29, 2003), Galeon, A History or, why Galeon is the way it is, retrieved October 16, 2011
- Min, Andrew, "Epiphany, the ultimate Gnome browser", The Ubuntu Applications book (under construction), Free Software Magazine, archived from the original on October 31, 2008, retrieved October 16, 2011
- Marco Pesenti Gritti (December 8, 2002), Epiphany's initial home page, archived from the original on April 24, 2003, retrieved October 17, 2011
- Persch, Christian (April 1, 2008), "ANNOUNCEMENT: The Future of Epiphany", epiphany mailing list-list
- "Marco". gnome.org. Retrieved November 28, 2015.
- Granneman, Scott (2005), Don't click on the blue e!: switching to Firefox, Sebastopol, CA, United States: O'Reilly Media (published October 16, 2005), p. 201, ISBN 0-596-00939-9
- "New text entry field with focus indication and icons", The GNOME Web Browser Developers, August 3, 2005, retrieved October 17, 2011
- "π -1", The GNOME Web Browser Developers, March 14, 2006, retrieved October 16, 2011
- "1.9.8 released; XULRunner", The GNOME Web Browser Developers, February 27, 2006, retrieved October 17, 2011
- Lopez, Xan (July 24, 2007), If you see the Buddha on the road, port it to GTK, retrieved November 25, 2011
- Lopez, Xan (April 6, 2008), Epiphany ♥ WebKit, retrieved November 25, 2011
- "Gecko end-of-life", The GNOME Web Browser Developers, July 1, 2009, retrieved November 25, 2011
- Paul, Ryan (September 24, 2009), "Linux garden gets a new GNOME with version 2.28", Ars Technica, retrieved October 16, 2011
- "GNOME Release Notes", The GNOME Project, retrieved October 16, 2011
- "NEWS file", The GNOME Project's git repository, retrieved October 17, 2011
- Gritti, Marco Pesenti (December 25, 2002), "[Epiphany] Epiphany 0.4", epiphany mailing list
- Gritti, Marco Pesenti (April 13, 2003), "[Epiphany] Epiphany 0.5.0", epiphany mailing list
- Gritti, Marco Pesenti (May 4, 2003), "[Epiphany] Epiphany 0.6.0", epiphany mailing list
- Gritti, Marco Pesenti (June 7, 2003), "[Epiphany] Epiphany 0.7.0", epiphany mailing list
- "Epiphany 0.8.0 Released", mozillaZine, July 13, 2003, archived from the original on November 26, 2010, retrieved October 17, 2011
- Gritti, Marco Pesenti (August 22, 2003), "[Epiphany] Epiphany 0.9.0", epiphany mailing list
- Gritti, Marco Pesenti (September 8, 2003), "[Epiphany] Epiphany 1.0", epiphany mailing list
- Gritti, Marco Pesenti (March 15, 2004), "Epiphany 1.2.0", epiphany mailing list
- Persch, Christian (September 13, 2004), "Epiphany 1.4.0", epiphany mailing list
- Persch, Christian (March 9, 2005), "Epiphany 1.6.0", epiphany mailing list
- van Schouwen, Reinout (September 5, 2005), "Epiphany and Epiphany-extensions 1.8.0", epiphany mailing list
- van Schouwen, Reinout (March 12, 2006), "Epiphany 2.14.0 released!", epiphany mailing list
- "Topic suggestions", The GNOME Web Browser Developers, January 22, 2006, retrieved October 17, 2011
- Newren, Elijah (September 6, 2006), "Celebrating the release of GNOME 2.16!", gnome-announce mailing list, retrieved September 20, 2007
- "Epiphany 2.16 Release Notes", The GNOME Project, March 2, 2008, archived from the original on September 8, 2008, retrieved October 17, 2011
- "A new stabler stable release", The GNOME Web Browser Developers, January 30, 2007, retrieved October 16, 2011
- Newren, Elijah (March 14, 2007), "Celebrating the release of GNOME 2.18!", gnome-announce mailing list, retrieved September 20, 2007
- "Foresight and Epilicious", The GNOME Web Browser Developers, March 4, 2007, retrieved October 16, 2011
- Paul, Ryan (September 19, 2007), "GNOME 2.20 officially released", Ars Technica, retrieved September 20, 2007
- Untz, Vincent (March 12, 2008), "Celebrating the release of GNOME 2.22!", gnome-announce mailing list-list, retrieved March 12, 2008
- Untz, Vincent (September 24, 2008), "Celebrating the release of GNOME 2.24!", gnome-announce mailing list-list, retrieved September 27, 2008
- Untz, Vincent (March 18, 2009), "Celebrating the release of GNOME 2.26!", gnome-announce mailing list-list, retrieved March 18, 2009
- Holwerda, Thom (September 24, 2009). "GNOME 2.28 Released". OSNews. Retrieved April 5, 2009.
- Hatcher, Timothy (September 30, 2008), "Web Inspector Redesign", Webkit developers blogs, retrieved October 18, 2011
- Holwerda, Thom (March 31, 2010). "GNOME 2.30 Released". OSNews. Retrieved April 4, 2010.
- Untz, Vincent (September 29, 2010), "Celebrating the release of GNOME 2.32!", gnome-announce mailing list
- Untz, Vincent (April 6, 2011), "GNOME 3.0 Released", gnome-announce mailing list
- Clasen, Matthias (September 28, 2011), "GNOME 3.2 Released", gnome-announce mailing list
- The GNOME Project, September 26 (September 26, 2012), "GNOME 3.6 Release Notes", gnome-announce mailing list
- The GNOME Project, March 27 (March 27, 2013), "GNOME 3.8 Release Notes", gnome-announce mailing list
- "Epiphany source coder". Gnome. September 26, 2013. Retrieved October 14, 2013.
- "Epiphany source code". Gnome. March 25, 2014. Retrieved March 31, 2014.
- "3.12 Released with New Features for Users and Developers". GNOME. March 26, 2014. Retrieved April 7, 2014.
- "epiphany – A simple, clean, beautiful view of the Web". Gnome. September 24, 2014. Retrieved October 14, 2014.
- "Epiphany 3.14 News file". GNOME. September 24, 2014. Retrieved October 14, 2014.
- "epiphany – A simple, clean, beautiful view of the Web". Retrieved December 3, 2015.
- "epiphany – A simple, clean, beautiful view of the Web". Retrieved December 3, 2015.
- The GNOME Project, September 6 (September 6, 2018), "GNOME 3.30 Release Notes", gnome-announce mailing list
- "GNOME 3.34 Release Notes". help.gnome.org.
- "WebKitGTK 2.26.0 released! - The WebKitGTK Project". webkitgtk.org.
- "GNOME 3.36 Release Notes". help.gnome.org.
- "Epiphany 3.36 and WebKitGTK 2.28 – Michael Catanzaro". Retrieved May 26, 2020.
- "Epiphany 3.38 and WebKitGTK 2.30 - Michael Catanzaro".
- "Frequently Asked Questions". Retrieved June 13, 2019.
- "GNOME Web Browser is Adding a Reader Mode – OMG! Ubuntu!". June 22, 2018. Retrieved June 13, 2019.
- "5 Reasons to Start Using GNOME Epiphany Web Apps". makeuseof.com. April 4, 2019. Retrieved June 13, 2019.
- "Epiphany 3.28 Development Kicks Off With Safe Browsing, Better Flatpak Handling – Phoronix". phoronix.com. Retrieved April 9, 2018.
- "SpecSupport", WebKit project, retrieved November 14, 2011
- "WebKitGTK+ 2.22.2 and 2.22.3, Media Source Extensions, and YouTube – Michael Catanzaro". Retrieved May 26, 2020.
- Cimpanu, Catalin. "Apple declined to implement 16 Web APIs in Safari due to privacy concerns". ZDNet. Retrieved June 29, 2020.
- "Get ready to finally say goodbye to Flash — in 2020".
- "Adobe Flash Player : List of security vulnerabilities". www.cvedetails.com.
- "Adobe U-Turns, Decides to Support Flash for Linux".
- "Chrome will block obnoxious Flash ads starting September 1st".
- "Thoughts on Flash – Apple".
- Grand, Rickford (2004), Linux for non-geeks: a hands-on, project-based, take-it-slow guidebook, San Francisco, United States: No Starch Press (published October 16, 2004), pp. 116–117, ISBN 1-59327-034-8
- Peterson, Richard (May 2009), Fedora 10 Linux Desktop, San Francisco, United States: Surfing Turtle Press (published June 15, 2008), p. 224, ISBN 0984103627
- Dalheimer, Matthias Kalle; Welsh, Matt (December 22, 2005), Running Linux (March 28, 5 ed.), Sebastopol, CA, United States: O'Reilly Media (published March 28, 2006), p. 94, ISBN 978-0-596-00760-7
- McCallister, Michael (January 2006), SUSE Linux 10 unleashed, Unleashed Series, United States: Sams Publishing (published October 16, 2006), p. 225, ISBN 0-672-32726-0
- Paul, Ryan (April 1, 2012), "Hands-on: GNOME 3.4 arrives, introducing significant design changes", Ars Technica, retrieved April 1, 2012
- "My Name is Handy, Lib Handy". bytesgnomeschozo.blogspot.com.
- "Work is Underway to Make the GNOME Web Browser Mobile Friendly". OMG! Ubuntu!. Retrieved May 8, 2020.
Web have two modes that I named normal and narrow. The normal mode is Web as you know it, while the narrow mode moves all buttons from the header bar but the hamburger menu to a new action bar at the bottom, letting the windows reach yet unreachable widths.
- "Port the adblocker to the Content Blockers API (#288) · Issues · GNOME / Epiphany". GitLab.
- "Introduction to WebKit Content Blockers". June 12, 2015.
- "Use the new WebKit content filters API for the adblocker (!178) · Merge Requests · GNOME / Epiphany". GitLab.
- "Require WebKitGTK 2.26.0 (8c63e4b3) · Commits · GNOME / Epiphany". GitLab.
- "Sandboxing for the unprivileged with bubblewrap [LWN.net]". lwn.net.
- "Bug #711061 "[MIR] openjpeg2" : Bugs : openjpeg2 package : Ubuntu". bugs.launchpad.net.
- "186272 – [GTK][WPE] Support JPEG 2000 images". bugs.webkit.org.
- "On Ubuntu Updates – Michael Catanzaro".
- Wallen, Jack (July 2010). "Epiphany: An efficient, but different, web browser". Ghacks.net. Retrieved March 24, 2011.
- "Smart Bookmarks", The GNOME Project, retrieved December 14, 2011
- Vitters, Olav; Klapper, André; Day, Allan (September 28, 2011), "GNOME 3.2 Release Notes", The GNOME Project, retrieved October 16, 2011
- Lopez, Xan (August 31, 2011), Web application mode in GNOME 3.2, retrieved October 16, 2011
- Andrew (October 3, 2011), Install Epiphany 3.2.0 with Web Application mode in Ubuntu 11.10 Oneiric Ocelot, retrieved October 16, 2011
- Lopez, Xan (April 11, 2011), The Web comes to GNOME, ready or not, retrieved October 16, 2011
- Hilaiel, Lloyd (February 11, 2011), "Prism is now Chromeless", Mozilla Labs, archived from the original on August 8, 2011, retrieved November 14, 2011
- "On Firefox Sync – Michael Catanzaro". blogs.gnome.org. Retrieved September 25, 2017.
- "Apps/Web/Docs/FrequentlyAskedQuestions - GNOME Wiki!". wiki.gnome.org.
- Henry, Veronica (March 9, 2011), "Top 3 Alternative Linux Browsers", Train Signal Training, retrieved March 25, 2011
- King Jr, Bertel. "The Best Linux Software". makeuseof.com. Retrieved October 11, 2016.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to GNOME Web.|