Drug cartel

A drug cartel is any criminal organization with the intention of supplying drug trafficking operations. They range from loosely managed agreements among various drug traffickers to formalized commercial enterprises. The term was applied when the largest trafficking organizations reached an agreement to coordinate the production and distribution of cocaine. Since that agreement was broken up, drug cartels are no longer actually cartels, but the term stuck and it is now popularly used to refer to any criminal narcotics related organization.

The basic structure of a drug cartel is as follows:

  • Falcons (Spanish: Halcones): Considered as the "eyes and ears" of the streets, the "falcons" are the lowest rank in any drug cartel. They are responsible for supervising and reporting the activities of the police, the military, and rival groups.[1]
  • Hitmen (Spanish: Sicarios): The armed group within the drug cartel, responsible for carrying out assassinations, kidnappings, thefts, and extortions, operating protection rackets, and defending their plaza (turf) from rival groups and the military.[2][3]
  • Lieutenants (Spanish: Tenientes): The second highest position in the drug cartel organization, responsible for supervising the hitmen and falcons within their own territory. They are allowed to carry out low-profile murders without permission from their bosses.[4]
  • Drug lords (Spanish: Capos): The highest position in any drug cartel, responsible for supervising the entire drug industry, appointing territorial leaders, making alliances, and planning high-profile murders.[5]

There are other operating groups within the drug cartels. For example, the drug producers and suppliers,[6] although not considered in the basic structure, are critical operators of any drug cartel, along with the financiers and money launderers.[7][8][9] In addition, the arms suppliers operate in a completely different circle,[10] and are technically not considered part of the cartel's logistics.

Africa

  • Cape Verdean organized crime
  • Mungiki[11]
  • Nigerian organized crime[12][13][14][15][16][17]
    • Confraternities in Nigeria
      • Black Axe Confraternity
    • Anini gang
  • Mai-Mai militia gangs
  • Moroccan hashish smugglers
    • Ahmed organization

Americas

Canada

  • Rivard organization
  • Red Scorpions
  • Bacon Brothers
  • Montreal
    • West End Gang[18][19]
    • Blass gang
    • Dubois Brothers
  • Indo-Canadian organized crime
    • Punjabi Mafia ਜੌਹਲ ਗਿਰੋਹ (Canada)[19]
  • Canadian mafia families

Mexico

The Mérida Initiative, a U.S. Counter-Narcotics Assistance to Mexico

Mexican cartels (also known in Mexico as: la Mafia (the mafia or the mob), La Maña (the skill / the bad manners),[21] narcotraficantes (narco-traffickers), or simply as narcos usually refers to several, rival, criminal organizations that are combated by the Mexican government in the Mexican War on Drugs (List sorted by branches and heritage):[22] The DEA considers (2020) the Cartel of Sinaloa, Cartel Jalisco Nueva Generación, Organización Beltrán Leyva, Cartel del Noreste y Los Zetas, Guerreros Unidos, Cártel del Golfo, Cártel de Juárez y La Línea, La Familia Michoacana, Los Rojos the most influential cartels in Mexico.[23]

  • Gulf Cartel (The oldest Mexican criminal syndicate, started as prohibition-era bootlegging gang)
    • Los Zetas (Formerly part of the Gulf Cartel, now independent)
    • La Familia Michoacana (Formerly a branch of the Gulf Cartel, then went independent)[24][25] (Disbanded)
    • Los Caballeros Templarios (Splintered from La Familia Cartel)[26]
  • Guadalajara Cartel (The first full-fledged Mexican drug cartel, from which most of the big cartels spawned) (disbanded in 1989)
  • Sinaloa Cartel (Spawned from the Guadalajara Cartel)
    • Colima Cartel (Disbanded, former members are now a branch of the Sinaloa Cartel)[27]
    • Sonora Cartel (Disbanded in 1989, its remnants joined the Sinaloa Cartel)[27]
    • Artistas Asesinos (hitman squad)[28] (Disbanded)
    • Gente Nueva (Sinaloa cell in Chihuahua)[29] (Disbanded)
    • Los Ántrax (enforcer squad)
      Drug trafficking tunnel under the U.S.-Mexico border used by the Sinaloa Cartel
  • Milenio Cartel (First loyal to the Sinaloa Cartel federation, later independent) (disbanded)
    • La Resistencia[30] (Splintered from the milenio cartel) (Disbanded)
    • Jalisco New Generation Cartel[31] (Independent remnants of the Milenio cartel)
  • Beltrán-Leyva Cartel (Formerly part of the Sinaloa Cartel federation, later independent) (disbanded)
    • Los Negros (Beltran-Leyva enforcement squad) (Disbanded)
    • South Pacific Cartel (branch of the Beltran Leyva Cartel in Morelos)[32][33][34]
      Drug War related murders in Mexico, 2006–2011
    • Cártel del Centro[35] (cell of the Beltran-Leyva Cartel in Mexico City) (Disbanded)
    • Cártel Independiente de Acapulco[36] (Splinter from the Beltran-Leyva Cartel)
    • La Barredora (gang)[37]
    • El Comando Del Diablo (gang)[38] (Hitman squad of la Barredora)[39] (Disbanded)
    • La Mano Con Ojos (gang)[40] (small cell of Beltran-Leyva members in the State of Mexico) (Disbanded)
    • La Nueva Administración[41] (Splintered from the Beltran-Leyva Cartel) (Disbanded)
    • La Oficina (gang)[42] (cell of the Beltran-Leyva Cartel in Aguascalientes) (Disbanded)
    • Cártel de la Sierra (cell in Guerrero)[43][44]
    • Cártel de La Calle (cell in Chiapas)[45][46]
    • Los Chachos (gang in Tamaulipas) (Disbanded)[47][48]
  • Tijuana Cartel (Spawned from the Guadalajara Cartel)
    • Oaxaca Cartel (Was a branch of the disbanded Tijuana Cartel, its regional leader was captured in 2007)
  • Juárez Cartel(Spawned from the Guadalajara Cartel)
    • La Línea (Juárez Cartel enforcer squad)
    • Barrio Azteca (U.S. street gang)[49] (Allied with La Linea)
      El Azul is a Mexican drug lord. He is a former Mexican secret police (DFS) agent.
  • Lesser-known small-criminal organizations:
    • Los Mexicles (U.S. street gang)[50]
    • Los Texas (street gang) (disbanded)[51]
  • Government officials: Other organizations that have been involved in drug trade or traffic in Mexico (this does not necessarily apply for the whole institution):

United States

Map of violent crime per 100,000 people in the US by state in 2016

The United States of America is the world's largest consumer of cocaine[67] and other illegal drugs.[68][69][70] This is a list of American criminal organizations involved in illegal drug traffic, drug trade and other related crimes in the United States:

  • National Crime Syndicate[18][71]
  • Polish Mob
    • Saltis-McErlane Gang[71]
    • Kielbasa Posse[73]
    • The Greenpoint Crew[74]
    • Flats Mob
    • The Flathead gang[75]
  • Prohibition-era gangs
    • Galveston
      • Downtown Gang
      • Beach Gang
      • The Maceo syndicate
    • Shelton Brothers Gang[71][76]
    • Sheldon Gang[71]
    • Broadway Mob[71]
    • The Lanzetta Brothers
    • Circus Cafe Gang[71]
    • Wandering Family
    • Remus organization
  • Hispanic-American
    • Marielitos

Mexican Mafia

Area of influence map of the Jalisco New Generation Cartel in the United States.
      • Surenos or SUR 13
    • Puerto Rican mafia
      • Agosto organization
      • La ONU
      • Martinez Familia Sangeros
      • Solano organization
      • Negri organization
      • Márquez gambling ring
    • Polanco-Rodriguez organization[14]
  • Los Angeles (See also Rampart scandal)
  • Dixie Mafia[71]
  • Greek-American organized crime
    • Philadelphia Greek Mob[79]
    • Velentzas Family[80]
  • Assyrian/Chaldean mafia[81]
  • Hawaii
    • The Company
    • Leota mob
  • Wall gang
  • Elkins mob
  • The Chickens and the Bulls
  • Binion mob
  • Johnston gang
American Mafia

Italian immigrants to the United States in the early 19th century formed various small-time gangs which gradually evolved into sophisticated crime syndicates which dominated organized crime in America for several decades. Although government crackdowns and a less-tightly knit Italian-American community have largely reduced their power, they remain an active force in the underworld.

Active crime families
Defunct mafia families
  • Morello crime family[18][20]
  • Genna crime family[20]
  • Porrello crime family[20]
  • St. Louis crime family[20]
  • Rochester Crime Family[20]
  • Bufalino crime family[20]
  • Dallas crime family[20]
  • Denver crime family[20]
  • San Francisco crime family[20]
  • San Jose crime family[20]
  • Seattle crime family
  • Omaha crime family
  • Licavoli Mob[18][20]
  • Cardinelli gang
  • New York Camorra
  • East Harlem Purple Gang[83]
Jewish mafia
  • New York City
  • Boston
    • 69th Street Gang[72]
    • Sagansky organization
    • Solomon organization[72]
  • Los Angeles
    • Cohen crime family (mix between Jewish and Italian members)[20][71][72]
  • The Purple Gang[18][72][75]
  • Zwillman gang[72]
  • Kid Cann's gang[72]
  • Birger mob[76]
  • Cleveland Syndicate
African-American organized crime
  • New York City
  • The Family
  • Detroit
    • Black Mafia Family[87]
    • Young Boys, Inc.[14]
    • Chambers Brothers[14]
  • Philadelphia
  • Oakland, California
  • Baltimore
    • Williams organization (drug trafficking)[86]
  • Washington, D.C.
    • Rayful Edmond organization[86]
  • Chicago
    • Theodore Roe's gambling ring
    • Stokes organization
  • Atlantic City
    • Aso Posse
  • Miami
    • Miami Boys
  • Rosemond Organization
Irish Mob
  • Prohibition-era Chicago gangs
    • North Side Gang[18][71][88]
    • James Patrick O'Leary organization
    • John Patrick Looney gang
    • Valley Gang[71]
    • Ragen's Colts[71]
    • Touhy gang
  • Boston
  • Danny Hogan's gang
  • Danny Walsh gang
  • Tom Dennison empire
  • Danny Greene's Celtic Club[18][88]
  • Nucky Johnson's Organization
  • K&A Gang
  • Enright gang
  • New York
    • Dwyer gang
    • The Westies[18][88]
    • White Hand Gang[18]
    • Higgins gang
  • St Louis

Caribbean

Brazil

  • Comando Vermelho
  • Primeiro Comando da Capital
  • Terceiro Comando Puro
  • Terceiro Comando
  • Amigos dos Amigos

Bolivia

  • Bolivian drug cartels (See also García Meza regime drug trafficking)
    • Chapare Drug Cartel
    • La Corporación
    • Santa Cruz Cartel

Colombia

Luis Hernando Gomez-Bustamante, also known as "Rasguño", arrest performed by the National Police of Colombia

Colombia is the largest producer of cocaine on the planet,[94] Cocaine production in Colombia reached an all-time high in 2017.[95]

Active Colombian Drug Cartels.

  • The Black Eagles
  • Clan del Golfo
  • Oficina de Envigado
  • National Liberation Army (Colombia)
  • FARC dissidents
  • Los Rastrojos

Historical Colombian Drug Cartels.

Peru

  • Peruvian drug cartels (see also Shining Path and Vladimiro Montesinos)
    • Zevallos organisation

Venezuela

Historically Venezuela has been a path to the United States for illegal drugs originating in Colombia, through Central America and Mexico and Caribbean countries such as Haiti, the Dominican Republic, and Puerto Rico.

According to the United Nations, there has been an increase of cocaine trafficking through Venezuela since 2002.[96] In 2005, Venezuela severed ties with the United States Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), accusing its representatives of spying.[97] Following the departure of the DEA from Venezuela and the expansion of DEA's partnership with Colombia in 2005, Venezuela became more attractive to drug traffickers.[98] Between 2008 and 2012, Venezuela's cocaine seizure ranking among other countries declined, going from being ranked fourth in the world for cocaine seizures in 2008[99] to sixth in the world in 2012.[100] The cartel groups involved include:

  • The Cuntrera-Caruana Mafia clan moved to Venezuela,[101] which became an important hideout as the clan bought hotels and founded various businesses in Caracas and Valencia, as well as an extended ranch in Barinas, near the Colombian border. "Venezuela has its own Cosa Nostra family as if it is Sicilian territory," according to the Italian police. "The structure and hierarchy of the Mafia has been entirely reproduced in Venezuela." The Cuntrera-Caruana clan had direct links with the ruling Commission of the Sicilian Mafia, and are acknowledged by the American Cosa Nostra.[101]

Pasquale, Paolo and Gaspare Cuntrera were expelled from Venezuela in 1992, "almost secretly smuggled out of the country, as if it concerned one of their own drug transports. It was imperative they could not contact people on the outside who could have used their political connections to stop the expulsion." Their expulsion was ordered by a commission of the Venezuelan Senate headed by Senator Cristobal Fernandez Dalo and his money laundering investigator, Thor Halvorssen Hellum. They were arrested in September 1992 at Fiumicino airport (Rome),[102][103] and in 1996 were sentenced to 13–20 years.[101]

  • Norte del Valle Cartel : In 2008 the leader of the Colombian Norte del Valle Cartel, Wilber Varela, was found murdered in a hotel in Mérida in Venezuela.[104] In 2010, Venezuela arrested and deported to the United States Jaime Alberto "Beto" Marin, then head of the Norte del Valle Cartel.[105]
  • The Cartel of the Suns According to Jackson Diehl. Deputy Editorial Page Editor of The Washington Post, the Bolivarian government of Venezuela shelters "one of the world’s biggest drug cartels". There have also been allegations that former president Hugo Chávez and Diosdado Cabello being involved with drug trafficking.[106]

In May 2015, The Wall Street Journal reported from United States officials that drug trafficking in Venezuela increased significantly with Colombian drug traffickers moving from Colombia to Venezuela due to pressure from law enforcement.[107] One United States Department of Justice official described the higher ranks of the Venezuelan government and military as "a criminal organization", with high ranking Venezuelan officials, such as National Assembly President Diosdado Cabello, being accused of drug trafficking.[107] Those involved with investigations stated that Venezuelan government defectors and former traffickers had given information to investigators and that details of those involved in government drug trafficking were increasing.[107]

Honduras

  • Honduran drug cartels
    • Matta organization
    • Cachiros

El Salvador

  • Mara Salvatrucha

Nicaragua

  • Nicaraguan drug cartels (see also Contras)
    • Oscar Danilo Blandón

Asia

Korea

  • Korean criminal organizations (see also North Korea's illicit activities)
    • Jongro street gang
Japanese criminal organizations

See also Kenji Doihara's criminal activities

The yakuza of Japan are similar to the Italian mafias in that they originated centuries ago and follow a rigid set of traditions, but have several aspects that make them unique, such as their full-body tattoos and their fairly open place in Japanese society. Many yakuza groups are umbrella organizations, smaller gangs reporting to a larger crime syndicate.

Active yakuza groups
  • Roku-daime Yamaguchi-gumi 六代目山口組[12][13][18][108]
    • Yon-daime Yamaken-gumi 四代目山健組[18][108]
    • Ni-daime Kodo-kai 二代目弘道会[18]
    • Ni-daime Takumi-gumi 二代目宅見組[108]
    • Go-daime Kokusui-kai 五代目國粹会[108]
  • Inagawa-kai 稲川会[12][18][108]
  • Sumiyoshi-kai 住吉会[13][18][108]
    • Sumiyoshi-ikka Shinwa-kai 住吉一家親和会
      • Kansuke Juni-daime 勘助十二代目
  • Kobe Yamaguchi-gumi
  • Matsuba-kai 松葉会[108]
  • Kyokuto-kai 極東会[108]
  • Dojin-kai[108] 道仁会
    • Kitamura-gumi
  • Yon-daime Kudo-kai[108] 四代目工藤會
  • Roku-daime Aizu-Kotetsu-kai 六代目会津小鉄会[108]
  • Okinawa Kyokuryu-kai 沖縄旭琉会[108]
  • Kyushu Seido-kai 九州誠道会
  • Go-daime Kyosei-kai 五代目共政会[108]
  • San-daime Fukuhaku-kai 三代目福博会
  • Soai-kai 双愛会[108]
  • Yon-daime Kyokuryu-kai 四代目旭琉会[108]
  • San-daime Kyodo-kai 三代目俠道会[108]
  • Taishu-kai 太州会[108]
  • Shichi-daime Goda-ikka 七代目合田一家[108]
  • Toa-kai 東亜会[18]
  • Ni-daime Azuma-gumi 二代目東組[108]
  • Yon-daime Asano-gumi 四代目浅野組[108]
  • Hachi-daime Sakaume-gumi 八代目酒梅組
  • Yon-daime Kozakura-ikka 四代目小桜一家[108]
  • Ni-daime Shinwa-kai 二代目親和会[108]
Defunct yakuza groups
  • Kantō-kai 関東会[108]
  • Ni-daime Honda-kai 二代目本多会[108]
  • Yamaguchi-gumi
    • Goto-gumi 後藤組[108]
    • Suishin-kai 水心会[109]
  • Ichiwa-kai 一和会[13][108]
  • San-daime Yamano-kai 三代目山野会[108]
  • Nakano-kai 中野会[18][108]
  • Kyokuto Sakurai-soke-rengokai 極東桜井總家連合会[108]

China

The Triads is a popular name for a number of Chinese criminal secret societies, which have existed in various forms over the centuries (see for example Tiandihui). However, not all Chinese gangs fall into line with these traditional groups, as many non-traditional criminal organizations have formed, both in China and the Chinese diaspora.

  • Hong Kong-based Triads
  • Sio Sam Ong (小三王)
  • Chinese-American gangs (See also Tongs)
    • Wah Ching 華青[111]
    • Ping On
    • Black Dragons 黑龍[112]
    • Jackson Street Boys 積臣街小子[113]
  • Taiwan-based Triads
  • Mainland Chinese crime groups (see also Hanlong Group)
    • Chongqing group 重慶組
    • Defunct
      • Honghuzi gangs
      • Green Gang 青帮
  • Triads in Cholon
    • Wu Bang

Southeast Asia

  • Golden Triangle[12][18][85][14][115]
    • Burmese drug cartels(see also Myanmar Nationalities Democratic Alliance Army)
      • Khun Sa cartel[18][14] (see also Mong Tai Army)
      • Red Wa Cartel (see also United Wa State Army and National Democratic Alliance Army)
      • Hawngleuk Militia
      • Han cartel
    • Laotian drug cartels (see also Ouane Rattikone)
  • Chao pho
    • Red Wa
  • Filipino crime gangs (See also Abu Sayyaf and New People's Army)
      • Kuratong Baleleng[12]
      • Waray-Waray gangs[116]
      • Bahala Na Gang
      • Sigue Sigue Sputnik
      • Defunct
        • Putik gang
  • Cambodian crime gangs
    • Teng Bunma organization
  • Malaysian crime gangs
  • Secret societies in Singapore
    • Ang Soon Tong昂很快塘
    • Ghee Hin Kongsi 酥油軒懸空寺
    • Hai San 海新
    • Wah Kee華記
    • Ah Kong 新加坡黑手黨

Vietnamese Xã Hội Đen

  • Bình Xuyên[118]
  • Đại Cathay's mafia during the 60s
  • Năm Cam's mafia of the 90s[12][18]
  • Khánh Trắng's "Đồng Xuân Labor Union", a crime syndicate under the guise of a legal entity
  • Dung Hà's gang
  • Vũ Xuân Trường's gang: a crime syndicate led by Vũ Xuân Trường, a government official and also a drug lord.

South Asia

  • Indian mafia (See also Insurgency in Northeast India)
    • Mumbai
      • D-Company डी कंपनी[13][18]
      • Chhota Rajan gang राजन गिरोह[13]
      • Gawli gang गवली गिरोह[13]
      • Bada Rajan gang
      • Surve gang
      • Mudaliar gang
      • Mastan gang
      • Budesh gang
      • Kalani gang
    • Pathan mafia
      • Lala gang
    • Uttar Pradesh
      • Ansari gang
      • Yadav gang
    • Bangalore
      • Rai gang
      • Ramachandra gang
      • Jayaraj gang
    • Kala Kaccha Gang
    • Chaddi Baniyan Gang
  • Sri Lankan criminal groups
  • Pakistani mafia (See also Peoples' Aman Committee, Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan, Muttahida Qaumi Movement and ISI involvement with drugs)
    • Chotu gang
    • Lyari Gang
  • Mafia Raj
  • Dacoit gangs
    • Singh gang
    • Veerappan gang
    • Devi gang

Middle East

[119][120]

  • Israeli mafia[12][81][121] (see also Stern Gang)
    • Abergil Crime Family משפחת אברג'יל[12][13]
    • Alperon crime family אלפרון משפחת פשע[12]
    • Zeev Rosenstein organization זאב רוזנשטיין הארגון[12]
    • Palestinian organized crime (See also Abu Nidal Organization)
      • Doghmush clan
  • Turkish mafia[12][13][122]
    • Crime groups in Turkey (see also Deep state and Yüksekova Gang)
      • Kılıç gang[18]
      • Çakıcı gang[18][122]
      • Peker gang
      • Yaprak gang
      • Topal organisation
      • Söylemez Gang
    • Kurdish mafia (see also Kurdistan Workers' Party)
      • Baybaşin drug organization[122]
      • Cantürk organization
    • Turkish organised crime in Great Britain
    • Turkish organised crime in Germany
    • İmaç clan (Netherlands)
  • Iranian organized crime (see also Jundallah and illegal activities of the IRGC)
    • Tahvili crime family[125]
  • Lebanese mafia (See also Lebanese Civil War militias)
    • Mhallami-Lebanese crime clans
      • Miri-Clan
      • Al-Zein Clan
    • Juomaa drug trafficking organisation (See also Hezbollah)
    • Ibrahim clan

Afghanistan

  • Golden Crescent[12][14]
    • Afridi Network
    • Afghan drug cartels[13][81] (see also Taliban)
      • Noorzai Organization[126]
      • Khan organization
      • Karzai organization (alleged)
      • Bagcho organization

Central Asia

  • Uzbek mafia (See also Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan)
    • Rakhimov organization
  • Kyrgyz mafia
    • Erkinbayev group
    • Akmatbayev group
    • Kolbayev group

Eurasia

Russia

Although organized crime existed in the Soviet era, the gangs really gained in power and international reach during the transition to capitalism. The term Russian Mafia, 'mafiya' or mob is a blanket (and somewhat inaccurate) term for the various organized crime groups that emerged in this period from the 15 former republics of the USSR and unlike their Italian counterparts does not mean members are necessarily of Russian ethnicity or uphold any ancient criminal traditions, although this is the case for some members.

  • Russian-Jewish mafia
  • Brothers' Circle (Existence is debatable)
  • Russian mafia (See also Lubyanka Criminal Group, Three Whales Corruption Scandal and Sergei Magnitsky)
    • Moscow
    • St Petersburg (See also Baltik-Eskort)
    • Togliatti mafia
    • Uralmash gang
    • Lazovsky gang
    • Vladivostok gang
    • Kurganskaya group
    • Tsapok gang
    • 'Elephants' group
    • Kazan gang

Caucasus

See also Caucasus Emirate

  • Georgian mafia[128] (See also Mkhedrioni and Forest Brothers)
  • Armenian mafia[130]
    • Mirzoyan-Terdjanian organization[130]
    • Armenian Power[130]
  • Azeri mafia
  • Chechen mafia[12][13][128] (See also Special Purpose Islamic Regiment and Kadyrovtsy)

Europe

Sweden

  • Original Gangsters[132]
  • Fucked For Life[132]
  • Uppsalamaffian
  • Chosen Ones
  • Werewolf Legion
  • Asir
  • Vårvädersligan

Netherlands

  • Dutch 'Penose'
    • Bruinsma drug gang[18]
    • Holleeder gang[18]
    • Mieremet gang

France

  • French Milieu (See also Service d'Action Civique)
    • Corsican mafia[18][115][133] (see also National Liberation Front of Corsica)
    • Les Caïds Des Cités
      • Faïd gang
      • The Barbarians[134]
    • Wigs gang
    • North African Brigade (see also Carlingue)
    • Tractions Avant gang[135]
    • Bande des Trois Canards
    • French gypsy gangs

Greece

  • Greek mafia

Ireland

  • Ireland (See also Irish Republican Army)
    • Dublin
      • Cahill gang[18][89]
      • Gilligan gang[18][89]
      • Foley gang
      • Hyland gang
      • Dunne gang
      • The Westies
    • Limerick
      • McCarthy-Dundon
      • Keane-Collopy
    • Rathkeale Rovers
    • Kinahan gang

Spain

  • Spain (see also ETA)
    • Galician mafia
    • Romani clans
      • El Clan De La Paca

Poland

  • Poland (See also Group 13)
    • Pruszków mafia
    • Wołomin mafia

Slovakia

  • Slovak mafia
    • Hungaro-Slovak mafia

Hungary

  • Raffael clan
  • Sztojka clan

Czech Republic

    • Mrázek organization
    • Krejčíř organization

Belgium

  • The Belgian Milieu
    • 'Hormone mafia'
    • Milieu Liègeois

Italy

  • Sicilian Mafia[12][13][18][20][17][121]
    • Sicilian Mafia Commission
    • Mandamenti
      • See also List of Sicilian Mafia clans
      • Cuntrera-Caruana Mafia clan
      • Inzerillo Mafia clan
      • Corleonesi[12][18]
      • Greco Mafia clan
      • Motisi Mafia clan
  • 'Ndrangheta[12][18][17]
  • La Provincia
    • See also List of 'ndrine
    • Honoured Society (Melbourne)[136]
    • Mammoliti 'ndrina
    • Bellocco 'ndrina
    • Cataldo 'ndrina
    • Commisso 'ndrina
    • Cordì 'ndrina
    • De Stefano 'ndrina
    • Pesce 'ndrina
    • Barbaro 'ndrina
    • Piromalli 'ndrina
    • Serraino 'ndrina
    • Siderno Group[19]
  • Camorra[12][18][81][17]
    • Secondigliano Alliance
    • Di Lauro Clan[17]
    • Casalesi clan[17]
    • Fabbrocino clan[17]
    • Vollaro clan[17]
    • Scissionisti di Secondigliano[17]
    • La Torre clan[17]
    • Polverino clan
    • Rinaldi clan
    • De Luca Bossa clan
    • Aprea-Cuccaro clan
    • Cesarano clan
    • Puca clan
  • Sacra Corona Unita[12][13][18][17]
  • Società foggiana[137][138]
  • Stidda[18]
  • Mala del Brenta[17]
  • Banda della Magliana[139]
  • Mafia Capitale
  • Sinti Casamonica clan
  • Clan Spada di Ostia
  • Milanese gangs
    • Banda della Comasina[140]
    • Turatello crew

Balkans

Balkan organized crime gained prominence in the chaos following the communist era, notably the transition to capitalism and the wars in former Yugoslavia.

Great Britain

Ukraine

  • Ukrainian mafia
    • Donetsk Clan
    • Salem gang

Lithuania

  • Lithuanian mafia

Estonia

  • Estonian mafia/Obtshak
    • Linnuvabriku group

Transnistria

  • Transnistrian mafia

Other organized crime groups based in Europe

Australia

  • Sydney
    • 5T gang[146] (1985–1999)
    • Freeman gang (defunct)
    • Lenny's gang (1960s)
    • Mr Sin's gang
    • Balkan cartel[147]
    • Razor gangs[148] (1920s)
  • Melbourne

References

  1. "Va Marina por 'halcones del crimen organizado". Blog del Narco. 21 April 2011. Archived from the original on 27 August 2011.
  2. Bowden, Charles (Feb 6, 2011). "El sicario, un documental proscrito en México (1)". Archived from the original on 2016-04-11.
  3. Bowden, Charles F (Feb 6, 2011). "El sicario, un documental proscrito en México (2)". Archived from the original on 2016-06-30.
  4. "Ejército detiene a lugarteniente del cártel del Golfo". El Universal. 2 June 2009. Archived from the original on 12 October 2012.
  5. "DATOS — Principales capos de la droga en México". International Business Times. Archived from the original on July 15, 2012. Retrieved November 6, 2010.
  6. "Uncovering the link between the Mexican drug cartels" (PDF). National Defense University: Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-06-15.
  7. "Las 5 caras del lavado de dinero". CNNExpansión. 8 June 2010.
  8. "Cae 'El Adal' operador financiero de los Zetas". TV Milenio. Archived from the original on 10 January 2015. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
  9. "Cae 'El Míchel' operador financiero de Los Zetas en Aguascalientes". Tele Diario. Archived from the original on 10 January 2015. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
  10. "Entrevista a el Mamito, presunto fundador de los Zetas". CNN Videos. Jul 6, 2011. Archived from the original on 2016-05-29.
  11. Kinnear, Karen L (2009) Gangs: a reference handbook, ABC-CLIO, ISBN 1-59884-125-4
  12. Shanty, Frank & Mishra, Patit (2007) Organized crime : from trafficking to terrorism, ABC-CLIO, ISBN 1-57607-337-8
  13. Glenny, Misha (2009) McMafia, Vintage Books, ISBN 1-4000-9512-3
  14. Chepesiuk, Ron (1999) The war on drugs: an international encyclopedia, ABC-CLIO, ISBN 0-87436-985-1
  15. "New Jersey Commission of Investigation Report - Changing face of organized crime" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2011-12-19. Retrieved 2012-02-19.
  16. "New Jersey Commission of Investigation Report - Afro-lineal organized crime" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2012-10-19. Retrieved 2012-02-19.
  17. Roberto Saviano (2006) Gomorrah: Italy's Other Mafia, Mondadori, ISBN 88-04-55450-9.
  18. Newton, Michael (2007) Gangsters Encyclopedia, Anova Books, ISBN 1-84340-402-8
  19. Schneider, Stephen (2009) Iced: The Story of Organized Crime in Canada, John Wiley and Sons, ISBN 0-470-83500-1
  20. Capeci, Jerry (2002) The complete idiot's guide to the Mafia, Alpha Books, ISBN 0-02-864225-2
  21. "Controla 'La Maña' a Reynosa, Tamaulipas". Terra Noticias. 2 March 2009.
  22. Guerrero Gutiérrez, Eduardo. "At the root of the violence" (PDF). Nexos. Retrieved 9 October 2011.
  23. "Estos son los nueve cárteles mexicanos que influyen en el trafico de drogas hacia EEUU, según la DEA". infobae (in Spanish). Infobae. March 3, 2021. Retrieved March 3, 2021.
  24. La Familia Michoacana
  25. Carlos Rosales Mendoza
  26. "La Resistencia y Jalisco Nueva Generación". Archived from the original on 20 December 2014. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
  27. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-03-09. Retrieved 2010-09-19.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  28. Notimex. "Caen cuatro sicarios de los "Artistas asesinos" en Chihuahua". El Economista. Archived from the original on 2011-10-04.
  29. Castillo, Mariano (May 18, 2007). "'Gente Nueva' enter border drug wars" (PDF). Laredo Morning Times. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 29, 2011.
  30. "La Resistencia, nueva organización delictiva en Guadalajara". Mundo Narco. Archived from the original on 2011-02-07.
  31. "Cártel Jalisco Nueva Generación va contra todos". Blog Del Narco. Archived from the original on 2011-08-07.
  32. "El Universal - - Arresto de El Ponchis exhibe vacos legales". 23 June 2013. Archived from the original on 13 April 2014. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
  33. "Child Assassin named "El Ponchis"Arrested By Mexican Army!! - In Flex We Trust". In Flex We Trust. 2010-12-04. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
  34. "Alleged U.S teen cartel assassin arrested - Stun Gun Savior Self Defense Blog". Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
  35. Romero, Óscar Romero (2011-07-22). "Presuntos narcos revelan red policial de protección". Milenio Noticias. Archived from the original on 2011-07-23.
  36. "Capturan a "El Padrino", identificado como líder del Cártel Independiente de Acapulco". Milenio TV. Archived from the original on 2012-09-10.
  37. "Caen otros seis integrantes de La Barredora". Blog del Narco. Archived from the original on 8 April 2014. Retrieved 24 August 2011.
  38. "El Comando del Diablo aceptan tregua con condiciones en Guerrero". Universo Narco (Noticias). 25 August 2011. Archived from the original on 11 January 2012.
  39. Edward Fox (2012-07-19). "Splinter Gangs Wage War in Acapulco: The Future of Mexico's Conflict". Retrieved 16 December 2014.
  40. "¿Quienes son "La Mano Con Ojos"". Mundo Narco. Archived from the original on 2011-06-03.
  41. "Narcos de Morelos se pelean por el DF". Milenio Noticias (online). 2010-10-15. Archived from the original on 2012-01-11.
  42. "Capturan a varios integrantes del grupo La Oficina". Blog del Narco. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
  43. "Se presenta el Cártel de la Sierra en Guerrero con seis ejecutados". La Crónica. 2010-07-27. Archived from the original on 2012-04-03.
  44. "En Guerrero, 26 cárteles del narcotráfico". 13 October 2014. Archived from the original on 21 January 2017. Retrieved 20 January 2017.
  45. "Aparece el Cártel de La Calle en Chiapas". Blog del Narco. Retrieved 6 August 2011.
  46. "Organización Editorial Mexicana". Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 20 January 2017.
  47. Cacho, Lydia. "La otra historia de 'La Barbie'". Zócalo Saltillo. Archived from the original on 2011-09-29.
  48. Otero, Sylvia (20 August 2003). "Surge nuevo 'narcoperfil'". El Universal. Archived from the original on 11 January 2012.
  49. "Los Aztecas fueron los asesinos; en EU y México hay 5 mil". La Razón. Archived from the original on 2012-03-19.
  50. Cruz, Juan Manuel (5 July 2011). "Caen seis presuntos integrantes de Los Mexicles". El Universal. Archived from the original on 9 July 2011.
  51. Cobos González, Carmen (14 May 2003). "Desmantela Ejército banda de Los Texas". PRESIDENCIA DE LA REPÚBLICA • MÉXICO. Archived from the original on 30 September 2011. Retrieved 1 August 2011.
  52. "Caen tres por crimen de Policía Municipal". Mundo Narco.
  53. Pedraza, Iván (2011-02-02). "Investiga PGR a policías federales relacionados con el narco en Sonora". Milenio Televisión. Archived from the original on 2012-09-06.
  54. "Detienen en Colima a 36 policías estatales por vínculos con el narco". Periodico Realidad BCS. 2011-02-16. Archived from the original on 2012-07-13.
  55. "Ejército ha procesado a 142 soldados por nexos con el narco". Animal Politico. June 9, 2011. Archived from the original on August 21, 2011.
  56. "Sedena procesa a 13 militares por nexos con el narco". La Policiaca. Archived from the original on 2012-03-25.
  57. Otero, Silvia (2010-03-20). "En prisión, 40 militares por nexos con el narco". El Universal. Archived from the original on 2012-10-12.
  58. "Investigan a 20 militares por nexos con narco". El Siglo de Torreón. Archived from the original on 2012-03-22. Retrieved Oct 3, 2010.
  59. "Detienen a marino por nexos con narco". El Universal. 28 May 2010. Archived from the original on 30 September 2011.
  60. Notimex (27 May 2010). "Detienen a marino por nexos con el narco". El Economista. Archived from the original on 4 October 2011.
  61. Otero, Silvia (2008-05-28). "En la mira, la tropa aduanal del narco". El Universal. Archived from the original on 2012-10-12.
  62. Morales, Alberto (June 4, 2011). "Le hallaron 88 armas a Jorge Hank Rhon". El Universal. Archived from the original on August 11, 2011.
  63. "Los 'Xolos' y Shakira, preocupación en Tijuana tras detención de Hank Rhon". CNN México. 5 June 2011. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011.
  64. Juan García Ábrego
  65. "EU arrestó a 127 agentes aduanales corrompidos por narco mexicanos". Mundo Narco. June 9, 2011. Archived from the original on September 6, 2012.
  66. "Detienen a agente aduanal por narco". El Mañana/El Universal. 29 July 2007. Archived from the original on 2012-03-23.
  67. "The World Factbook". CIA. Archived from the original on 29 December 2010. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
  68. "U.S. Leads the World in Illegal Drug Use". CBS News. 1 July 2008. Archived from the original on 27 September 2014.
  69. "U.S. drug habit keeps Mexican war boiling". NBC News. 2009-05-26. Archived from the original on 9 March 2014. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
  70. "Special Reports - Do The Math - Why The Illegal Business Is Thriving - Drug Wars - FRONTLINE". PBS. Archived from the original on 31 December 2014. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
  71. Sifakis, Carl. The Mafia Encyclopedia. New York: Da Capo Press, 2005. ISBN 978-0-8160-5694-1
  72. Rockaway, Robert A (2000) But he was good to his mother: the lives and crimes of Jewish gangsters, Gefen Publishing House Ltd, ISBN 965-229-249-4
  73. McGarvey, Brendan. "Pole-Vaulting". Philadelphia City Paper. Citypaper.net. Archived from the original on 2010-08-08. Retrieved 2012-02-19.
  74. "Greenpoint Crew Indictment". Justice.gov. 2006-03-08. Archived from the original on 2012-02-09. Retrieved 2012-02-19.
  75. Kavieff, Paul (2008) Detroit's Infamous Purple Gang Arcadia Publishing, ISBN 0-7385-5238-0
  76. Angle, Paul M (2991) Bloody Williamson: A Chapter in American Lawlessness, University of Illinois Press, ISBN 0-252-06233-7
  77. Allan MacDonell (2003-10-02). "In Too Deep". LA Times. Laweekly.com. Archived from the original on 2012-10-07. Retrieved 2012-02-19.
  78. "National Drug Intelligence Center - Wisconsin Drug Threat Assessment (2001)". Justice.gov. Archived from the original on 2012-01-22. Retrieved 2012-02-19.
  79. McGarvey, Brendan. "Buon Natale!". Philadelphia City Paper. Citypaper.net. Archived from the original on 2007-11-26. Retrieved 2012-02-19.
  80. "Man Tied to Mafia Guilty on 10 Counts". NY Times. 1992-06-20. Archived from the original on 2010-03-23. Retrieved 2012-02-19.
  81. Salinger, Lawrence (2005) Encyclopedia of white-collar & corporate crime: A - I, Volume 1 SAGE, ISBN 0-7619-3004-3
  82. Chepesiuk, Ron (2007) Gangsters of Harlem: the gritty underworld of New York City's most famous neighborhood, Barricade Books, ISBN 1-56980-318-8
  83. "Meet the Genovese Crime Family's New Boss". NY Sun. Archived from the original on 2012-02-27. Retrieved 2012-02-19.
  84. Rashbaum, William K. (2002-12-10). "Queens Father and Son Accused In Illegal Gambling Operation". NY Times. Archived from the original on 2015-12-09. Retrieved 2012-02-19.
  85. "DEA History Book, Part 1" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-01-18. Retrieved 2012-02-19.
  86. American Gangster, BET Archived May 29, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  87. "DEA - News Release: DEA Deals Motor City Mafia a Knock-out Blow". Justice.gov. Archived from the original on 2012-01-23. Retrieved 2012-02-19.
  88. English, T.J. Paddy Whacked: The Untold Story of the Irish American Gangster. New York: HarperCollins, 2005, ISBN 0-06-059002-5
  89. Morton, James Gangland Volume 2: The Underworld in Britain and Ireland, 1995, ISBN 978-0-7515-1406-3
  90. Summers, Chris (2002-05-17). "'Malign and corrosive' gangsters". BBC News. Archived from the original on 2009-01-25. Retrieved 2012-02-19.
  91. "London Evening Standard - Yardies at war on our doorsteps". Thisislondon.co.uk. Archived from the original on 2011-12-28. Retrieved 2012-02-19.
  92. "New York/New Jersey High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area Drug Market Analysis 2008 - Drug Trafficking Organizations". Justice.gov. Archived from the original on 2012-01-20. Retrieved 2012-02-19.
  93. "Supreme Court orders arrests of three". Diario Libre. Archived from the original on 2012-03-03. Retrieved 2012-02-19.
  94. https://latinamericanpost.com/23424-colombia-is-still-the-worlds-biggest-producer-of-cocaine
  95. "Colombia cocaine production acreage at 'record level'". BBC News. 20 September 2018.
  96. El Universal, 24 February 2008, Aumenta narcotráfico por Venezuela Archived 2016-10-28 at the Wayback Machine
  97. Neuman, William (26 July 2012). "In Venezuela, Remote Areas Provide a Drug Trafficking Hub « Previous". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 7 March 2016. Retrieved 5 June 2015.
  98. al-Ameri, Alaa (31 March 2014). "Venezuela's Drug-Running Generals May Be Who Finally Ousts Maduro". Vice News. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 26 May 2014.
  99. United Nations, World Drug Report 2010 Statistical Annex: Drug seizures Archived 2013-08-27 at the Wayback Machine
  100. "Drug seizures Report From Year: 2009 Until Year: 2012 Drug Group: Cocaine-type". United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
  101. Tom Blickman (1997), "The Rothschilds of the Mafia on Aruba Archived 2008-07-05 at the Wayback Machine", Transnational Organized Crime, Vol. 3, No. 2, Summer 1997
  102. Fonzi, Gaeton. "The Troublemaker Archived 2015-09-09 at the Wayback Machine". The Pennsylvania Gazette (November 1994).
  103. Presumed Guilty, by Isabel Hilton, Gentlemen's Quarterly (GQ), July 1994 (UK edition)
  104. BBC, 1 February 2008, Colombian drugs lord found dead Archived 2008-02-07 at the Wayback Machine
  105. Venezuelanalysis.com, 20 September 2010, Venezuela Deports Two Drug Kingpins, Calls US Drug Blacklist "Abusive and Interventionist" Archived 2015-09-13 at the Wayback Machine
  106. Diehl, Jackson (29 May 2015). "A drug cartel's power in Venezuela". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 29 May 2015. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
  107. DeCórdoba, José; Forero, Juan (18 May 2015). "Venezuelan Officials Suspected of Turning Country into Global Cocaine Hub; U.S. probe targets No. 2 official Diosdado Cabello, several others, on suspicion of drug trafficking and money laundering". Dow Jones & Company Inc. The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 20 May 2015. Retrieved 19 May 2015.
  108. Kaplan, David E. & Dubro, Alec (2003) Yakuza: Japan's criminal underworld, University of California Press, ISBN 0-520-21562-1
  109. "Mayor's assassination sparks new yakuza fears". The Australian. 2007-04-19. Retrieved 2012-02-19.
  110. "Internet Archive Wayback Machine". 2008-01-09. Archived from the original on 2008-01-09. Retrieved 2012-02-19. Cite uses generic title (help)
  111. "Internet Archive Wayback Machine". 2007-01-24. Archived from the original on January 24, 2007. Retrieved 2012-02-19. Cite uses generic title (help)
  112. "Court May Have Slain Black Dragon". Streetgangs.com. 2005-06-21. Archived from the original on 2005-12-02. Retrieved 2012-02-19.
  113. https://web.archive.org/web/20070127082314/http://www.asianweek.com/2000_03_30/bay_21boysextortion.html. Archived from the original on January 27, 2007. Retrieved January 20, 2011. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  114. "'Mosquito brother' celebrates 90th birthday in style". Taipei Times. 2012-02-12. Archived from the original on 2012-02-08. Retrieved 2012-02-19.
  115. Booth, Martin (2000) The dragon syndicates: the global phenomenon of the Triads Basic Books, ISBN 0-7867-0869-7
  116. "6 gun-for-hire gang men killed in Rizal shootout". Tempo: News Flashes. October 10, 2018
  117. "Cops shoot dead four Mamak Gang members". The Star. Archived from the original on 2011-06-29. Retrieved 2012-02-19.
  118. Ooi, Keat Gin (2004) Southeast Asia: a historical encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor, Volume 1 ABC-CLIO, ISBN 1-57607-770-5
  119. Sherlock, Ruth (2012-09-08). "Syrian rebels use kidnappings to raise funds". Vancouversun.com. Archived from the original on 2012-09-12. Retrieved 2012-10-09.
  120. "BBC News — Syria unrest: Who are the shabiha?". Bbc.co.uk. 2012-05-29. Archived from the original on 2012-09-06. Retrieved 2012-10-09.
  121. Siegel, Dina (2003) Global organized crime: trends and developments, Springer, ISBN 1-4020-1818-5
  122. "Keeping tabs on the Turkish connection". BBC News. 2002-11-14. Archived from the original on 2008-05-20. Retrieved 2012-02-19.
  123. "US". independent.co.uk. Archived from the original on 2011-02-23.
  124. Rotlicht-Pate muss neun Jahre hinter Gitter Archived 2012-08-04 at archive.today (German)
  125. Vardi, Nathan (2008-04-25). "In Pictures: The World's 10 Most Wanted". Forbes. Archived from the original on 2012-11-02. Retrieved 2012-02-19.
  126. "Warlord or Druglord?". Time. 2007-02-08. Archived from the original on 2012-02-22. Retrieved 2012-02-19.
  127. Blumenthal, Ralph (1989-06-04). "Soviet Emigre Mob Outgrows Brooklyn, and Fear Spreads". NY Times. Retrieved 2012-02-19.
  128. Varese, Frederico (2005) The Russian mafia: private protection in a new market economy, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-927949-7
  129. Schwirtz, Michael (2008-07-30). "The New York Times - In a River Raid, a glimpse of Russia's criminal elite". Nytimes.com. Russia. Retrieved 2012-02-19.
  130. CBS News/Associated Press - Armenian Organized Crime Grows More Complex
  131. "Ded Dead: the assassination of Russian crime boss Aslan Usoyan ('Ded Khasan')". wordpress.com. 16 January 2013. Archived from the original on 18 February 2013.
  132. Dagens Nyheter - Ligorna har kopplat greppet om Sverige Archived 2010-08-19 at the Wayback Machine (Swedish)
  133. Gayraud, Jean-François (2009) Showbiz, people et corruption, Odile Jacob, ISBN 2-7381-2232-9
  134. "French 'Barbarian' killer jailed". BBC News. 2009-07-10. Retrieved 2012-02-19.
  135. Charles Bacelon, Max Clos, etc. Histoire du banditisme et des grandes affaires criminelles, Genève : éditions Famot, 1974. OCLC 77615747
  136. Ansley, Greg (April 24, 2010). "Aussie gang boss' death points to inside job". The New Zealand Herald. Archived from the original on February 23, 2013. Retrieved October 15, 2011.
  137. Civillini, Matteo (2016-03-21). "Come la Società Foggiana è diventata la mafia più brutale e sanguinosa d'Italia". Vice (in Italian). Retrieved 2020-05-13.
  138. "The forgotten Foggian mafia strikes terror in southern Italy". www.efe.com. Retrieved 2020-05-13.
  139. Nick Squires in Rome 10:00PM BST 05 Jul 2010 (2010-07-05). "Mafia gangster tomb reopened to solve 30-year-old mystery". London: The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 2012-05-26. Retrieved 2012-02-19.
  140. Cristiano Armati, Italia criminale. Personaggi, fatti e avvenimenti di un'Italia violenta, Newton Compton Editori, 2006 ISBN 978-88-541-1083-0
  141. FBI - Cases - Not your average syndicate Archived June 15, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  142. Aftenposten - Princ Dobroshi satt fri Archived 2010-01-13 at the Wayback Machine (Norwegian)
  143. "BBC News - 'Pink Panther' Tokyo heist suspect extradited to Japan". Bbc.co.uk. 2010-08-14. Archived from the original on 2012-02-22. Retrieved 2012-02-19.
  144. Thomas, Donald (2006) Villains' paradise: a history of Britain's underworld, Pegasus Books, ISBN 1-933648-17-1
  145. "NY Times - Lithuanians Close A Nuclear Reactor After 3 Threats". New York Times. 1994-11-15. Retrieved 2012-02-19.
  146. Small, Clive & Gilling, Tom (2010) Smack Express: How Organized Crime Got Hooked on Drugs, Allen & Unwin, ISBN 1-74237-208-2
  147. "The Aussie gangsters behind one of the world's biggest drug cartels". Courier Mail.
  148. Writer, Larry (2009) Razor: Tilly Devine, Kate Leigh and the Razor Gangs Pan Macmillan Australia Pty, ISBN 1-4050-3951-5

Further reading

This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.