Democracy Index

The Democracy Index is an index compiled by the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU), the research division of the Economist Group, a UK-based private company which publishes the weekly newspaper The Economist. The index is self-described as intending to measure the state of democracy in 167 countries, of which 166 are sovereign states and 164 are UN member states.

The Economist Intelligence Unit Democracy Index map for 2020

The index is based on 60 indicators grouped in five different categories, measuring pluralism, civil liberties and political culture. In addition to a numeric score and a ranking, the index categorises each country into one of four regime types: full democracies, flawed democracies, hybrid regimes and authoritarian regimes.

The Economist has published reports with updated versions of the Democracy Index for 2006,[1] 2008,[2] 2010,[3] 2011,[4] 2012,[5] 2013,[6] 2014,[7] 2015,[8] 2016,[9] 2017,[10] 2018,[11] 2019,[12] and 2020.[13]

Methodology

As described in the report,[5] the democracy index is a weighted average based on the answers of 60 questions, each one with either two or three permitted answers. Most answers are experts' assessments. Some answers are provided by public-opinion surveys from the respective countries. In the case of countries for which survey results are missing, survey results for similar countries, and expert assessments are used in order to fill in gaps.

The questions are grouped into five categories: electoral process and pluralism, civil liberties, functioning of government, political participation, and political culture. Each answer is converted to a score, either 0 or 1, or for the three-answer questions, 0, 0.5 or 1. With the exceptions mentioned below, within each category, the scores are added, multiplied by ten, and divided by the total number of questions within the category. There are a few modifying dependencies, which are explained much more precisely than the main rule procedures. In a few cases, an answer yielding zero for one question voids another question; e.g. if the elections for the national legislature and head of government are not considered free (question 1), then the next question, "Are elections... fair?", is not considered, but automatically scored zero. Likewise, there are a few questions considered so important that a low score on them yields a penalty on the total score sum for their respective categories, namely:

  1. "Whether national elections are free and fair";
  2. "The security of voters";
  3. "The influence of foreign powers on government";
  4. "The capability of the civil servants to implement policies".

The five category indices, which are listed in the report, are then averaged to find the overall score for a given country. Finally, the score, rounded to two decimals, decides the regime type classification of the country.

The report discusses other indices of democracy, as defined, e.g. by Freedom House, and argues for some of the choices made by the team from the Economist Intelligence Unit. In this comparison, a higher emphasis is placed on the public opinion and attitudes, as measured by surveys, but on the other hand, economic living standards are not weighted as one criterion of democracy (as seemingly some other investigators have done).[3][1]

The report is widely cited in the international press as well as in peer reviewed academic journals.[14]

Definitions

Full democracies are nations where civil liberties and fundamental political freedoms are not only respected but also reinforced by a political culture conducive to the thriving of democratic principles. These nations have a valid system of governmental checks and balances, an independent judiciary whose decisions are enforced, governments that function adequately, and diverse and independent media. These nations have only limited problems in democratic functioning.[8]

Flawed democracies are nations where elections are fair and free and basic civil liberties are honoured but may have issues (e.g. media freedom infringement and minor suppression of political opposition and critics). These nations have significant faults in other democratic aspects, including underdeveloped political culture, low levels of participation in politics, and issues in the functioning of governance.[8]

Hybrid regimes are nations with regular electoral frauds, preventing them from being fair and free democracies. These nations commonly have governments that apply pressure on political opposition, non-independent judiciaries, widespread corruption, harassment and pressure placed on the media, anaemic rule of law, and more pronounced faults than flawed democracies in the realms of underdeveloped political culture, low levels of participation in politics, and issues in the functioning of governance.[8]

Authoritarian regimes are nations where political pluralism is nonexistent or severely limited. These nations are often absolute monarchies or dictatorships, may have some conventional institutions of democracy but with meagre significance, infringements and abuses of civil liberties are commonplace, elections (if they take place) are not fair and free, the media is often state-owned or controlled by groups associated with the ruling regime, the judiciary is not independent, and censorship and suppression of governmental criticism are commonplace.[8]

By regime type

The following table indicates the number of nations and the percentage of World population for each type of regime. Some microstates are not considered in the calculation.

Year 2020[13]
Type of regime Colors Score Countries Countries (%) World population (%)
Full democracies 8.01–102313.8%8.4%
Flawed democracies 6.01–85231.1%41.0%
Hybrid regimes 4.01–63521.0%15.0%
Authoritarian regimes 0–45734.1%35.6%

By region

The following table lists the average score for each geographic area.

Rank Region Coun­tries 2006 2008 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
1North America28.648.648.638.598.598.598.598.568.568.568.568.598.58
2Western Europe218.608.618.458.408.448.418.418.428.408.388.358.358.29
3Latin America and the Caribbean246.376.436.376.356.366.386.366.376.336.266.246.136.09
4Asia and Australasia285.445.585.535.515.565.615.705.745.745.635.675.675.62
5Central and Eastern Europe285.765.675.555.505.515.535.585.555.435.405.425.425.36
6Sub-Saharan Africa444.244.284.234.324.334.364.344.384.374.354.364.264.16
7Middle East and North Africa203.543.483.523.623.733.683.653.583.563.543.543.533.44
 World1675.525.555.465.495.525.535.555.555.52 5.48 5.48 5.44 5.37

The following table lists the number of countries in each of the four democracy classifications.

Year 2020
Rank Region Countries Authoritarian Hybrid regime Flawed democracy Full democracy Average score
1 North America200118.58
2 Western Europe21017138.29
3 Latin America and the Caribbean24351336.09
4 Asia and Australasia28761055.62
5 Central and Eastern Europe28781305.36
6 Sub-Saharan Africa442413614.16
7 Middle East and North Africa20162203.44
World167573552235.37

By country

The following table shows each nation's score over the years. The regions are assigned by the Economist Intelligence Unit, and may differ from conventional classifications (for example, Turkey is grouped in Western Europe).

Region 2020 Rank Country Regime type 2006 2008 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
North America 5  Canada Full democracy 9.07 9.07 9.08 9.08 9.08 9.08 9.08 9.08 9.15 9.15 9.15 9.22 9.24
25  United States Flawed democracy 8.22 8.22 8.18 8.11 8.11 8.11 8.11 8.05 7.98 7.98 7.96 7.96 7.92
Western Europe 18  Austria Full democracy 8.69 8.49 8.49 8.49 8.62 8.48 8.54 8.54 8.41 8.42 8.29 8.29 8.16
36  Belgium Flawed democracy 8.15 8.16 8.05 8.05 8.05 8.05 7.93 7.93 7.77 7.78 7.78 7.64 7.51
34  Cyprus Flawed democracy 7.60 7.70 7.29 7.29 7.29 7.29 7.40 7.53 7.65 7.59 7.59 7.59 7.56
7  Denmark Full democracy 9.52 9.52 9.52 9.52 9.52 9.38 9.11 9.11 9.20 9.22 9.22 9.22 9.15
6  Finland Full democracy 9.25 9.25 9.19 9.06 9.06 9.03 9.03 9.03 9.03 9.03 9.14 9.25 9.20
24  France Flawed democracy 8.07 8.07 7.77 7.77 7.88 7.92 8.04 7.92 7.92 7.80 7.80 8.12 7.99
14  Germany Full democracy 8.82 8.82 8.38 8.34 8.34 8.31 8.64 8.64 8.63 8.61 8.68 8.68 8.67
37  Greece Flawed democracy 8.13 8.13 7.92 7.65 7.65 7.65 7.45 7.45 7.23 7.29 7.29 7.43 7.39
2  Iceland Full democracy 9.71 9.65 9.65 9.65 9.65 9.65 9.58 9.58 9.50 9.58 9.58 9.58 9.37
8  Ireland Full democracy 9.01 9.01 8.79 8.56 8.56 8.68 8.72 8.85 9.15 9.15 9.15 9.24 9.05
29  Italy Flawed democracy 7.73 7.98 7.83 7.74 7.74 7.85 7.85 7.98 7.98 7.98 7.71 7.52 7.74
13  Luxembourg Full democracy 9.10 9.10 8.88 8.88 8.88 8.88 8.88 8.88 8.81 8.81 8.81 8.81 8.68
30  Malta Flawed democracy 8.39 8.39 8.28 8.28 8.28 8.28 8.39 8.39 8.39 8.15 8.21 7.95 7.68
9  Netherlands Full democracy 9.66 9.53 8.99 8.99 8.99 8.84 8.92 8.92 8.80 8.89 8.89 9.01 8.96
1  Norway Full democracy 9.55 9.68 9.80 9.80 9.93 9.93 9.93 9.93 9.93 9.87 9.87 9.87 9.81
26  Portugal Flawed democracy 8.16 8.05 8.02 7.81 7.92 7.65 7.79 7.79 7.86 7.84 7.84 8.03 7.90
22  Spain Full democracy 8.34 8.45 8.16 8.02 8.02 8.02 8.05 8.30 8.30 8.08 8.08 8.29 8.12
3  Sweden Full democracy 9.88 9.88 9.50 9.50 9.73 9.73 9.73 9.45 9.39 9.39 9.39 9.39 9.26
12   Switzerland Full democracy 9.02 9.15 9.09 9.09 9.09 9.09 9.09 9.09 9.09 9.03 9.03 9.03 8.83
104  Turkey Hybrid regime 5.70 5.69 5.73 5.73 5.76 5.63 5.12 5.12 5.04 4.88 4.37 4.09 4.48
16  United Kingdom Full democracy 8.08 8.15 8.16 8.16 8.21 8.31 8.31 8.31 8.36 8.53 8.53 8.52 8.54
Central and Eastern Europe 71  Albania Flawed democracy 5.91 5.91 5.86 5.81 5.67 5.67 5.67 5.91 5.91 5.98 5.98 5.89 6.08
89  Armenia Hybrid regime 4.15 4.09 4.09 4.09 4.09 4.02 4.13 4.00 3.88 4.11 4.79 5.54 5.35
146  Azerbaijan Authoritarian 3.31 3.19 3.15 3.15 3.15 3.06 2.83 2.71 2.65 2.65 2.65 2.75 2.68
148  Belarus Authoritarian 3.34 3.34 3.34 3.16 3.04 3.04 3.69 3.62 3.54 3.13 3.13 2.48 2.59
101  Bosnia and Herzegovina Hybrid regime 5.78 5.70 5.32 5.24 5.11 5.02 4.78 4.83 4.87 4.87 4.98 4.86 4.84
52  Bulgaria Flawed democracy 7.10 7.02 6.84 6.78 6.72 6.83 6.73 7.14 7.01 7.03 7.03 7.03 6.71
59  Croatia Flawed democracy 7.04 7.04 6.81 6.73 6.93 6.93 6.93 6.93 6.75 6.63 6.57 6.57 6.50
31  Czech Republic Flawed democracy 8.17 8.19 8.19 8.19 8.19 8.06 7.94 7.94 7.82 7.62 7.69 7.69 7.67
27  Estonia Flawed democracy 7.74 7.68 7.68 7.61 7.61 7.61 7.74 7.85 7.85 7.79 7.97 7.90 7.84
91  Georgia Hybrid regime 4.90 4.62 4.59 4.74 5.53 5.95 5.82 5.88 5.93 5.93 5.50 5.42 5.31
55  Hungary Flawed democracy 7.53 7.44 7.21 7.04 6.96 6.96 6.90 6.84 6.72 6.64 6.63 6.63 6.56
128  Kazakhstan Authoritarian 3.62 3.45 3.30 3.24 2.95 3.06 3.17 3.06 3.06 3.06 2.94 2.94 3.14
107  Kyrgyzstan Hybrid regime 4.08 4.05 4.31 4.34 4.69 4.69 5.24 5.33 4.93 5.11 5.11 4.89 4.21
38  Latvia Flawed democracy 7.37 7.23 7.05 7.05 7.05 7.05 7.48 7.37 7.31 7.25 7.38 7.49 7.24
42  Lithuania Flawed democracy 7.43 7.36 7.24 7.24 7.24 7.54 7.54 7.54 7.47 7.41 7.50 7.50 7.13
80  Moldova Hybrid regime 6.50 6.50 6.33 6.32 6.32 6.32 6.32 6.35 6.01 5.94 5.85 5.75 5.78
81  Montenegro Hybrid regime 6.57 6.43 6.27 6.15 6.05 5.94 5.94 6.01 5.72 5.69 5.74 5.65 5.77
78  North Macedonia Hybrid regime 6.33 6.21 6.16 6.16 6.16 6.16 6.25 6.02 5.23 5.57 5.87 5.97 5.89
50  Poland Flawed democracy 7.30 7.30 7.05 7.12 7.12 7.12 7.47 7.09 6.83 6.67 6.67 6.62 6.85
62  Romania Flawed democracy 7.06 7.06 6.60 6.54 6.54 6.54 6.68 6.68 6.62 6.44 6.38 6.49 6.40
124  Russia Authoritarian 5.02 4.48 4.26 3.92 3.74 3.59 3.39 3.31 3.24 3.17 2.94 3.11 3.31
66  Serbia Flawed democracy 6.62 6.49 6.33 6.33 6.33 6.67 6.71 6.71 6.57 6.41 6.41 6.41 6.22
47  Slovakia Flawed democracy 7.40 7.33 7.35 7.35 7.35 7.35 7.35 7.29 7.29 7.16 7.10 7.17 6.97
35  Slovenia Flawed democracy 7.96 7.96 7.69 7.76 7.88 7.88 7.57 7.57 7.51 7.50 7.50 7.50 7.54
159  Tajikistan Authoritarian 2.45 2.45 2.51 2.51 2.51 2.51 2.37 1.95 1.89 1.93 1.93 1.93 1.94
162  Turkmenistan Authoritarian 1.83 1.72 1.72 1.72 1.72 1.72 1.83 1.83 1.83 1.72 1.72 1.72 1.72
79  Ukraine Hybrid regime 6.94 6.94 6.30 5.94 5.91 5.84 5.42 5.70 5.70 5.69 5.69 5.90 5.81
155  Uzbekistan Authoritarian 1.85 1.74 1.74 1.74 1.72 1.72 2.45 1.95 1.95 1.95 2.01 2.01 2.12
Latin America and the Caribbean 48  Argentina Flawed democracy 6.63 6.63 6.84 6.84 6.84 6.84 6.84 7.02 6.96 6.96 7.02 7.02 6.95
94  Bolivia Hybrid regime 5.98 6.15 5.92 5.84 5.84 5.79 5.79 5.75 5.63 5.49 5.70 4.84 5.08
49  Brazil Flawed democracy 7.38 7.38 7.12 7.12 7.12 7.12 7.38 6.96 6.90 6.86 6.97 6.86 6.92
17  Chile Full democracy 7.89 7.89 7.67 7.54 7.54 7.80 7.80 7.84 7.78 7.84 7.97 8.08 8.28
46  Colombia Flawed democracy 6.40 6.54 6.55 6.63 6.63 6.55 6.55 6.62 6.67 6.67 6.96 7.13 7.04
18  Costa Rica Full democracy 8.04 8.04 8.04 8.10 8.10 8.03 8.03 7.96 7.88 7.88 8.07 8.13 8.16
140  Cuba Authoritarian 3.52 3.52 3.52 3.52 3.52 3.52 3.52 3.52 3.46 3.31 3.00 2.84 2.84
63  Dominican Republic Flawed democracy 6.13 6.20 6.20 6.20 6.49 6.74 6.67 6.67 6.67 6.66 6.54 6.54 6.32
69  Ecuador Flawed democracy 5.64 5.64 5.77 5.72 5.78 5.87 5.87 5.87 5.81 6.02 6.27 6.33 6.13
77  El Salvador Hybrid regime 6.22 6.40 6.47 6.47 6.47 6.53 6.53 6.64 6.64 6.43 5.96 6.15 5.90
97  Guatemala Hybrid regime 6.07 6.07 6.05 5.88 5.88 5.81 5.81 5.92 5.92 5.86 5.60 5.26 4.97
75  Guyana Flawed democracy 6.15 6.12 6.05 6.05 6.05 6.05 5.91 6.05 6.25 6.46 6.67 6.15 6.01
106  Haiti Hybrid regime 4.19 4.19 4.00 4.00 3.96 3.94 3.82 3.94 4.02 4.03 4.91 4.57 4.22
88  Honduras Hybrid regime 6.25 6.18 5.76 5.84 5.84 5.84 5.84 5.84 5.92 5.72 5.63 5.42 5.36
42  Jamaica Flawed democracy 7.34 7.21 7.21 7.13 7.39 7.39 7.39 7.39 7.39 7.29 7.02 6.96 7.13
72  Mexico Flawed democracy 6.67 6.78 6.93 6.93 6.90 6.91 6.68 6.55 6.47 6.41 6.19 6.09 6.07
120  Nicaragua Authoritarian 5.68 6.07 5.73 5.56 5.56 5.46 5.32 5.26 4.81 4.66 3.63 3.55 3.60
40  Panama Flawed democracy 7.35 7.35 7.15 7.08 7.08 7.08 7.08 7.19 7.13 7.08 7.05 7.05 7.18
67  Paraguay Flawed democracy 6.16 6.40 6.40 6.40 6.26 6.26 6.26 6.33 6.27 6.31 6.24 6.24 6.18
57  Peru Flawed democracy 6.11 6.31 6.40 6.59 6.47 6.54 6.54 6.58 6.65 6.49 6.60 6.60 6.53
51  Suriname Flawed democracy 6.52 6.58 6.65 6.65 6.65 6.77 6.77 6.77 6.77 6.76 6.98 6.98 6.82
41  Trinidad and Tobago Flawed democracy 7.18 7.21 7.16 7.16 6.99 6.99 6.99 7.10 7.10 7.04 7.16 7.16 7.16
15  Uruguay Full democracy 7.96 8.08 8.10 8.17 8.17 8.17 8.17 8.17 8.17 8.12 8.38 8.38 8.61
143  Venezuela Authoritarian 5.42 5.34 5.18 5.08 5.15 5.07 5.07 5.00 4.68 3.87 3.16 2.88 2.76
Asia and Australasia 139  Afghanistan Authoritarian 3.06 3.02 2.48 2.48 2.48 2.48 2.77 2.77 2.55 2.55 2.97 2.85 2.85
9  Australia Full democracy 9.09 9.09 9.22 9.22 9.22 9.13 9.01 9.01 9.01 9.09 9.09 9.09 8.96
76  Bangladesh Hybrid regime 6.11 5.52 5.87 5.86 5.86 5.86 5.78 5.73 5.73 5.43 5.57 5.88 5.99
84  Bhutan Hybrid regime 2.62 4.30 4.68 4.57 4.65 4.82 4.87 4.93 4.93 5.08 5.30 5.30 5.71
130  Cambodia Authoritarian 4.77 4.87 4.87 4.87 4.96 4.60 4.78 4.27 4.27 3.63 3.59 3.53 3.10
151  China Authoritarian 2.97 3.04 3.14 3.14 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.14 3.18 3.10 3.32 2.26 2.27
83  Fiji Hybrid regime 5.66 5.11 3.62 3.67 3.67 3.61 5.61 5.69 5.64 5.85 5.85 5.85 5.72
87  Hong Kong Hybrid regime 6.03 5.85 5.92 5.92 6.42 6.42 6.46 6.50 6.42 6.31 6.15 6.02 5.57
53  India Flawed democracy 7.68 7.80 7.28 7.30 7.52 7.69 7.92 7.74 7.81 7.23 7.23 6.90 6.61
64  Indonesia Flawed democracy 6.41 6.34 6.53 6.53 6.76 6.82 6.95 7.03 6.97 6.39 6.39 6.48 6.30
21  Japan Full democracy 8.15 8.25 8.08 8.08 8.08 8.08 8.08 7.96 7.99 7.88 7.99 7.99 8.13
161  Laos Authoritarian 2.10 2.10 2.10 2.10 2.32 2.21 2.21 2.21 2.37 2.37 2.37 2.14 1.77
39  Malaysia Flawed democracy 5.98 6.36 6.19 6.19 6.41 6.49 6.49 6.43 6.54 6.54 6.88 7.16 7.19
61  Mongolia Flawed democracy 6.60 6.60 6.36 6.23 6.35 6.51 6.62 6.62 6.62 6.50 6.50 6.50 6.48
135  Myanmar Authoritarian 1.77 1.77 1.77 1.77 2.35 2.76 3.05 4.14 4.20 3.83 3.83 3.55 3.04
92    Nepal Hybrid regime 3.42 4.05 4.24 4.24 4.16 4.77 4.77 4.77 4.86 5.18 5.18 5.28 5.22
4  New Zealand Full democracy 9.01 9.19 9.26 9.26 9.26 9.26 9.26 9.26 9.26 9.26 9.26 9.26 9.25
167  North Korea Authoritarian 1.03 0.86 1.08 1.08 1.08 1.08 1.08 1.08 1.08 1.08 1.08 1.08 1.08
105  Pakistan Hybrid regime 3.92 4.46 4.55 4.55 4.57 4.64 4.64 4.40 4.33 4.26 4.17 4.25 4.31
70  Papua New Guinea Flawed democracy 6.54 6.54 6.54 6.32 6.32 6.36 6.03 6.03 6.03 6.03 6.03 6.03 6.10
55  Philippines Flawed democracy 6.48 6.12 6.12 6.12 6.30 6.41 6.77 6.84 6.94 6.71 6.71 6.64 6.56
74  Singapore Flawed democracy 5.89 5.89 5.89 5.89 5.88 5.92 6.03 6.14 6.38 6.32 6.38 6.02 6.03
23  South Korea Full democracy 7.88 8.01 8.11 8.06 8.13 8.06 8.06 7.97 7.92 8.00 8.00 8.00 8.01
68  Sri Lanka Flawed democracy 6.58 6.61 6.64 6.58 5.75 5.69 5.69 6.42 6.48 6.48 6.19 6.27 6.14
11  Taiwan Full democracy 7.82 7.82 7.52 7.46 7.57 7.57 7.65 7.83 7.79 7.73 7.73 7.73 8.94
73  Thailand Flawed democracy 5.67 6.81 6.55 6.55 6.55 6.25 5.39 5.09 4.92 4.63 4.63 6.32 6.04
44  Timor-Leste Flawed democracy 6.41 7.22 7.22 7.22 7.16 7.24 7.24 7.24 7.24 7.19 7.19 7.19 7.06
137  Vietnam Authoritarian 2.75 2.53 2.94 2.96 2.89 3.29 3.41 3.53 3.38 3.08 3.08 3.08 2.94
Middle East and North Africa 115  Algeria Authoritarian 3.17 3.32 3.44 3.44 3.83 3.83 3.83 3.95 3.56 3.56 3.50 4.01 3.77
150  Bahrain Authoritarian 3.53 3.38 3.49 2.92 2.53 2.87 2.87 2.79 2.79 2.71 2.71 2.55 2.49
138  Egypt Authoritarian 3.90 3.89 3.07 3.95 4.56 3.27 3.16 3.18 3.31 3.36 3.36 3.06 2.93
152  Iran Authoritarian 2.93 2.83 1.94 1.98 1.98 1.98 1.98 2.16 2.34 2.45 2.45 2.38 2.20
118  Iraq Authoritarian 4.01 4.00 4.00 4.03 4.10 4.10 4.23 4.08 4.08 4.09 4.06 3.74 3.62
27  Israel Flawed democracy 7.28 7.48 7.48 7.53 7.53 7.53 7.63 7.77 7.85 7.79 7.79 7.86 7.84
118  Jordan Authoritarian 3.92 3.93 3.74 3.89 3.76 3.76 3.76 3.86 3.96 3.87 3.93 3.93 3.62
114  Kuwait Authoritarian 3.09 3.39 3.88 3.74 3.78 3.78 3.78 3.85 3.85 3.85 3.85 3.93 3.80
108  Lebanon Hybrid regime 5.82 5.62 5.82 5.32 5.05 5.05 5.12 4.86 4.86 4.72 4.63 4.36 4.16
157  Libya Authoritarian 1.84 2.00 1.94 3.55 5.15 4.82 3.80 2.25 2.25 2.32 2.19 2.02 1.95
96  Morocco Hybrid regime 3.90 3.88 3.79 3.83 4.07 4.07 4.00 4.66 4.77 4.87 4.99 5.10 5.04
136  Oman Authoritarian 2.77 2.98 2.86 3.26 3.26 3.26 3.15 3.04 3.04 3.04 3.04 3.06 3.00
113  Palestine Authoritarian 6.01 5.83 5.44 4.97 4.80 4.80 4.72 4.57 4.49 4.46 4.39 3.89 3.83
126  Qatar Authoritarian 2.78 2.92 3.09 3.18 3.18 3.18 3.18 3.18 3.18 3.19 3.19 3.19 3.24
156  Saudi Arabia Authoritarian 1.92 1.90 1.84 1.77 1.71 1.82 1.82 1.93 1.93 1.93 1.93 1.93 2.08
149  Sudan Authoritarian 2.90 2.81 2.42 2.38 2.38 2.54 2.54 2.37 2.37 2.15 2.15 2.70 2.54
164  Syria Authoritarian 2.36 2.18 2.31 1.99 1.63 1.86 1.74 1.43 1.43 1.43 1.43 1.43 1.43
54  Tunisia Flawed democracy 3.06 2.96 2.79 5.53 5.67 5.76 6.31 6.72 6.40 6.32 6.41 6.72 6.59
145  United Arab Emirates Authoritarian 2.42 2.60 2.52 2.58 2.58 2.52 2.64 2.75 2.75 2.69 2.76 2.76 2.70
157  Yemen Authoritarian 2.98 2.95 2.64 2.57 3.12 2.79 2.79 2.24 2.07 2.07 1.95 1.95 1.95
Sub-Saharan Africa 117  Angola Authoritarian 2.41 3.35 3.32 3.32 3.35 3.35 3.35 3.35 3.40 3.62 3.62 3.72 3.66
102  Benin Hybrid regime 6.16 6.06 6.17 6.06 6.00 5.87 5.65 5.72 5.67 5.61 5.74 5.09 4.58
33  Botswana Flawed democracy 7.60 7.47 7.63 7.63 7.85 7.98 7.87 7.87 7.87 7.81 7.81 7.81 7.62
116  Burkina Faso Authoritarian 3.72 3.60 3.59 3.59 3.52 4.15 4.09 4.70 4.70 4.75 4.75 4.04 3.73
154  Burundi Authoritarian 4.51 4.51 4.01 4.01 3.60 3.41 3.33 2.49 2.40 2.33 2.33 2.15 2.14
32  Cape Verde Flawed democracy 7.43 7.81 7.94 7.92 7.92 7.92 7.81 7.81 7.94 7.88 7.88 7.78 7.65
142  Cameroon Authoritarian 3.27 3.46 3.41 3.41 3.44 3.41 3.41 3.66 3.46 3.61 3.28 2.85 2.77
165  Central African Republic Authoritarian 1.61 1.86 1.82 1.82 1.99 1.49 1.49 1.57 1.61 1.52 1.52 1.32 1.32
163  Chad Authoritarian 1.65 1.52 1.52 1.62 1.62 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.61 1.61 1.55
132  Comoros Authoritarian 3.90 3.58 3.41 3.52 3.52 3.52 3.52 3.71 3.71 3.71 3.71 3.15 3.09
129  Republic of the Congo Authoritarian 3.19 2.94 2.89 2.89 2.89 2.89 2.89 2.91 2.91 3.25 3.31 3.11 3.11
109  Ivory Coast Hybrid regime 3.38 3.27 3.02 3.08 3.25 3.25 3.53 3.31 3.81 3.93 4.15 4.05 4.11
166  Democratic Republic of the Congo Authoritarian 2.76 2.28 2.15 2.15 1.92 1.83 1.75 2.11 1.93 1.61 1.49 1.13 1.13
144  Djibouti Authoritarian 2.37 2.37 2.20 2.68 2.74 2.96 2.99 2.90 2.83 2.76 2.87 2.77 2.71
160  Equatorial Guinea Authoritarian 2.09 2.19 1.84 1.77 1.83 1.77 1.66 1.77 1.70 1.81 1.92 1.92 1.92
153  Eritrea Authoritarian 2.31 2.31 2.31 2.34 2.40 2.40 2.44 2.37 2.37 2.37 2.37 2.37 2.15
133  Eswatini Authoritarian 2.93 3.04 2.90 3.26 3.20 3.20 3.09 3.09 3.03 3.03 3.03 3.14 3.08
123  Ethiopia Authoritarian 4.72 4.52 3.68 3.79 3.72 3.83 3.72 3.83 3.60 3.42 3.35 3.44 3.38
121  Gabon Authoritarian 2.72 3.00 3.29 3.48 3.56 3.76 3.76 3.76 3.74 3.61 3.61 3.61 3.54
103  Gambia Hybrid regime 4.39 4.19 3.38 3.38 3.31 3.31 3.05 2.97 2.91 4.06 4.31 4.33 4.49
59  Ghana Flawed democracy 5.35 5.35 6.02 6.02 6.02 6.33 6.33 6.86 6.75 6.69 6.63 6.63 6.50
133  Guinea Authoritarian 2.02 2.09 2.79 2.79 2.79 2.84 3.01 3.14 3.14 3.14 3.14 3.14 3.08
147  Guinea-Bissau Authoritarian 2.00 1.99 1.99 1.99 1.43 1.26 1.93 1.93 1.98 1.98 1.98 2.63 2.63
95  Kenya Hybrid regime 5.08 4.79 4.71 4.71 4.71 5.13 5.13 5.33 5.33 5.11 5.11 5.18 5.05
64  Lesotho Flawed democracy 6.48 6.29 6.02 6.33 6.66 6.66 6.66 6.59 6.59 6.64 6.64 6.54 6.30
90  Liberia Hybrid regime 5.22 5.25 5.07 5.07 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 5.31 5.23 5.35 5.45 5.32
85  Madagascar Hybrid regime 5.82 5.57 3.94 3.93 3.93 4.32 4.42 4.85 5.07 5.11 5.22 5.64 5.70
82  Malawi Hybrid regime 4.97 5.13 5.84 5.84 6.08 6.00 5.66 5.55 5.55 5.49 5.49 5.50 5.74
111  Mali Authoritarian 5.99 5.87 6.01 6.36 5.12 5.90 5.79 5.70 5.70 5.64 5.41 4.92 3.93
112  Mauritania Authoritarian 3.12 3.91 3.86 4.17 4.17 4.17 4.17 3.96 3.96 3.82 3.82 3.92 3.92
20  Mauritius Full democracy 8.04 8.04 8.04 8.04 8.17 8.17 8.17 8.27 8.28 8.22 8.22 8.22 8.14
122  Mozambique Authoritarian 5.28 5.49 4.90 4.90 4.88 4.77 4.66 4.60 4.02 4.02 3.85 3.65 3.51
58  Namibia Flawed democracy 6.54 6.48 6.23 6.24 6.24 6.24 6.24 6.31 6.31 6.31 6.25 6.43 6.52
125  Niger Authoritarian 3.54 3.41 3.38 4.16 4.16 4.08 4.02 4.62 3.96 3.76 3.76 3.29 3.29
110  Nigeria Hybrid regime 3.52 3.53 3.47 3.83 3.77 3.77 3.76 3.85 4.50 4.44 4.44 4.12 4.10
130  Rwanda Authoritarian 3.82 3.71 3.25 3.25 3.36 3.38 3.25 3.07 3.07 3.19 3.35 3.16 3.10
86  Senegal Hybrid regime 5.37 5.37 5.27 5.51 6.09 6.15 6.15 6.08 6.21 6.15 6.15 5.81 5.67
99  Sierra Leone Hybrid regime 3.57 4.11 4.51 4.51 4.71 4.64 4.56 4.55 4.55 4.66 4.66 4.86 4.86
45  South Africa Flawed democracy 7.91 7.91 7.79 7.79 7.79 7.90 7.82 7.56 7.41 7.24 7.24 7.24 7.05
93  Tanzania Hybrid regime 5.18 5.28 5.64 5.64 5.88 5.77 5.77 5.58 5.76 5.47 5.41 5.16 5.10
141  Togo Authoritarian 1.75 2.43 3.45 3.45 3.45 3.45 3.45 3.41 3.32 3.05 3.10 3.30 2.80
98  Uganda Hybrid regime 5.14 5.03 5.05 5.13 5.16 5.22 5.22 5.22 5.26 5.09 5.20 5.02 4.94
99  Zambia Hybrid regime 5.25 5.25 5.68 6.19 6.26 6.26 6.39 6.28 5.99 5.68 5.61 5.09 4.86
127  Zimbabwe Authoritarian 2.62 2.53 2.64 2.68 2.67 2.67 2.78 3.05 3.05 3.16 3.16 3.16 3.16

Score changes

The following table shows the original 2006 score and the changes in each new report. Changes of regime type are marked with background color.

Country 2006 2008 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
 
North America
 Canada 9.07 0.01 0.07 0.07 0.02
 United States 8.22 0.04 0.07 0.06 0.07 0.02 0.04
Western Europe
 Austria 8.69 0.20 0.13 0.14 0.06 0.13 0.01 0.13 0.13
 Belgium 8.15 0.01 0.11 0.12 0.16 0.01 0.14 0.13
 Cyprus 7.60 0.10 0.41 0.11 0.13 0.12 0.06 0.03
 Denmark 9.52 0.14 0.27 0.09 0.02 0.07
 Finland 9.25 0.06 0.13 0.03 0.11 0.11 0.05
 France 8.07 0.30 0.11 0.04 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.32 0.13
 Germany 8.82 0.44 0.04 0.03 0.33 0.01 0.02 0.07 0.01
 Greece 8.13 0.21 0.27 0.20 0.22 0.06 0.14 0.04
 Iceland 9.71 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.08 0.21
 Ireland 9.01 0.22 0.23 0.12 0.04 0.13 0.30 0.09 0.19
 Italy 7.73 0.25 0.15 0.09 0.11 0.13 0.27 0.19 0.22
 Luxembourg 9.10 0.22 0.07 0.13
 Malta 8.39 0.11 0.11 0.24 0.06 0.26 0.27
 Netherlands 9.66 0.13 0.54 0.15 0.08 0.12 0.09 0.12 0.05
 Norway 9.55 0.13 0.12 0.13 0.06 0.06
 Portugal 8.16 0.11 0.03 0.21 0.11 0.27 0.14 0.07 0.02 0.19 0.13
 Spain 8.34 0.11 0.29 0.14 0.03 0.25 0.22 0.21 0.17
 Sweden 9.88 0.38 0.23 0.28 0.06 0.13
  Switzerland 9.02 0.13 0.06 0.06 0.20
 Turkey 5.70 0.01 0.04 0.03 0.13 0.51 0.08 0.16 0.51 0.28 0.39
 United Kingdom 8.08 0.07 0.01 0.05 0.10 0.05 0.17 0.01 0.02
Central and Eastern Europe
 Albania 5.91 0.05 0.05 0.14 0.24 0.07 0.09 0.19
 Armenia 4.15 0.06 0.07 0.11 0.13 0.12 0.23 0.68 0.75 0.19
 Azerbaijan 3.31 0.12 0.04 0.09 0.23 0.12 0.06 0.10 0.07
 Belarus 3.34 0.18 0.12 0.65 0.07 0.08 0.41 0.65 0.11
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 5.78 0.08 0.38 0.08 0.13 0.09 0.24 0.05 0.04 0.11 0.12 0.02
 Bulgaria 7.10 0.08 0.18 0.06 0.06 0.11 0.10 0.41 0.13 0.02 0.32
 Croatia 7.04 0.23 0.08 0.20 0.18 0.12 0.06 0.07
 Czech Republic 8.17 0.02 0.13 0.12 0.12 0.20 0.07 0.02
 Estonia 7.74 0.06 0.07 0.13 0.11 0.06 0.18 0.07 0.06
 Georgia 4.90 0.28 0.03 0.15 0.79 0.42 0.13 0.06 0.05 0.43 0.08 0.11
 Hungary 7.53 0.09 0.23 0.17 0.08 0.06 0.06 0.12 0.08 0.01 0.07
 Kazakhstan 3.62 0.17 0.15 0.06 0.29 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.12 0.20
 Kyrgyzstan 4.08 0.03 0.26 0.03 0.35 0.55 0.09 0.40 0.18 0.22 0.67
 Latvia 7.37 0.14 0.18 0.43 0.11 0.06 0.06 0.13 0.11 0.25
 Lithuania 7.43 0.07 0.12 0.30 0.07 0.06 0.09 0.37
 Moldova 6.50 0.17 0.01 0.03 0.34 0.07 0.09 0.10 0.03
 Montenegro 6.57 0.14 0.16 0.12 0.10 0.11 0.07 0.29 0.03 0.05 0.09 0.12
 North Macedonia 6.33 0.12 0.05 0.09 0.23 0.79 0.34 0.30 0.10 0.08
 Poland 7.30 0.25 0.07 0.35 0.38 0.26 0.16 0.05 0.23
 Romania 7.06 0.46 0.06 0.14 0.06 0.18 0.06 0.11 0.09
 Russia 5.02 0.54 0.22 0.34 0.18 0.15 0.20 0.08 0.07 0.07 0.23 0.17 0.20
 Serbia 6.62 0.13 0.16 0.34 0.04 0.14 0.16 0.19
 Slovakia 7.40 0.07 0.02 0.06 0.13 0.06 0.07 0.20
 Slovenia 7.96 0.27 0.07 0.12 0.31 0.06 0.01 0.04
 Tajikistan 2.45 0.06 0.14 0.42 0.06 0.04 0.01
 Turkmenistan 1.83 0.11 0.11 0.11
 Ukraine 6.94 0.64 0.36 0.03 0.07 0.42 0.28 0.01 0.21 0.09
 Uzbekistan 1.85 0.11 0.02 0.73 0.50 0.06 0.11
Latin America and the Caribbean
 Argentina 6.63 0.21 0.18 0.06 0.06 0.07
 Bolivia 5.98 0.17 0.23 0.08 0.05 0.04 0.12 0.14 0.21 0.86 0.24
 Brazil 7.38 0.26 0.26 0.42 0.06 0.04 0.11 0.11 0.04
 Chile 7.89 0.22 0.13 0.26 0.04 0.06 0.06 0.13 0.11 0.20
 Colombia 6.40 0.14 0.01 0.08 0.08 0.07 0.05 0.29 0.17 0.09
 Costa Rica 8.04 0.06 0.07 0.07 0.08 0.19 0.06 0.03
 Cuba 3.52 0.06 0.15 0.31 0.16
 Dominican Republic 6.13 0.07 0.29 0.25 0.07 0.01 0.12 0.22
 Ecuador 5.64 0.13 0.05 0.06 0.09 0.06 0.21 0.25 0.06 0.20
 El Salvador 6.22 0.18 0.07 0.06 0.11 0.21 0.47 0.19 0.25
 Guatemala 6.07 0.02 0.17 0.07 0.11 0.06 0.26 0.34 0.29
 Guyana 6.15 0.03 0.07 0.14 0.14 0.20 0.21 0.21 0.52 0.14
 Haiti 4.19 0.19 0.04 0.02 0.12 0.12 0.08 0.01 0.88 0.34 0.35
 Honduras 6.25 0.07 0.42 0.08 0.08 0.20 0.09 0.21 0.06
 Jamaica 7.34 0.13 0.08 0.26 0.10 0.27 0.06 0.17
 Mexico 6.67 0.11 0.15 0.03 0.01 0.23 0.13 0.08 0.06 0.22 0.10 0.02
 Nicaragua 5.68 0.39 0.34 0.17 0.10 0.14 0.06 0.45 0.15 1.03 0.08 0.05
 Panama 7.35 0.20 0.07 0.11 0.06 0.05 0.03 0.13
 Paraguay 6.16 0.24 0.14 0.07 0.06 0.04 0.07 0.06
 Peru 6.11 0.20 0.09 0.19 0.12 0.07 0.04 0.07 0.16 0.11 0.07
 Suriname 6.52 0.06 0.07 0.12 0.01 0.22 0.16
 Trinidad and Tobago 7.18 0.03 0.05 0.17 0.11 0.06 0.12
 Uruguay 7.96 0.12 0.02 0.07 0.05 0.26 0.23
 Venezuela 5.42 0.08 0.16 0.10 0.07 0.08 0.07 0.32 0.81 0.71 0.28 0.04
Asia and Australasia
 Afghanistan 3.06 0.04 0.54 0.29 0.22 0.42 0.12
 Australia 9.09 0.13 0.09 0.12 0.08 0.13
 Bangladesh 6.11 0.59 0.35 0.01 0.08 0.05 0.30 0.14 0.31 0.11
 Bhutan 2.62 1.68 0.38 0.11 0.08 0.17 0.05 0.06 0.15 0.22 0.41
 Cambodia 4.77 0.10 0.09 0.36 0.18 0.51 0.64 0.04 0.06 0.43
 China 2.97 0.07 0.10 0.14 0.14 0.04 0.08 0.22 1.06 0.01
 Fiji 5.66 0.55 1.49 0.05 0.06 2.00 0.08 0.05 0.21 0.13
 Hong Kong 6.03 0.18 0.07 0.50 0.04 0.04 0.08 0.11 0.16 0.13 0.45
 India 7.68 0.12 0.52 0.02 0.22 0.17 0.23 0.18 0.07 0.58 0.33 0.29
 Indonesia 6.41 0.07 0.19 0.23 0.06 0.13 0.08 0.06 0.58 0.09 0.18
 Japan 8.15 0.10 0.17 0.12 0.03 0.11 0.11 0.14
 Laos 2.10 0.22 0.11 0.16 0.23 0.37
 Malaysia 5.98 0.38 0.17 0.22 0.08 0.06 0.11 0.34 0.28 0.03
 Mongolia 6.60 0.24 0.13 0.12 0.16 0.11 0.12 0.02
 Myanmar 1.77 0.58 0.41 0.29 1.09 0.06 0.37 0.28 0.51
   Nepal 3.42 0.63 0.19 0.08 0.61 0.09 0.32 0.10 0.06
 New Zealand 9.01 0.18 0.07 0.01
 North Korea 1.03 0.17 0.22
 Pakistan 3.92 0.54 0.09 0.02 0.07 0.24 0.07 0.07 0.09 0.08 0.06
 Papua New Guinea 6.54 0.22 0.04 0.33 0.07
 Philippines 6.48 0.36 0.18 0.11 0.36 0.07 0.10 0.23 0.07 0.08
 Singapore 5.89 0.01 0.04 0.11 0.11 0.24 0.06 0.06 0.36 0.01
 South Korea 7.88 0.13 0.10 0.05 0.07 0.07 0.09 0.05 0.08 0.01
 Sri Lanka 6.58 0.03 0.03 0.06 0.83 0.06 0.73 0.06 0.29 0.08 0.13
 Taiwan 7.82 0.30 0.06 0.11 0.08 0.18 0.04 0.06 1.21
 Thailand 5.67 1.14 0.26 0.30 0.86 0.30 0.17 0.29 1.69 0.28
 Timor-Leste 6.41 0.81 0.06 0.08 0.05 0.13
 Vietnam 2.75 0.22 0.41 0.02 0.07 0.40 0.12 0.12 0.15 0.30 0.14
Middle East and North Africa
 Algeria 3.17 0.15 0.12 0.39 0.12 0.39 0.06 0.51 0.24
 Bahrain 3.53 0.15 0.11 0.57 0.39 0.34 0.08 0.08 0.16 0.06
 Egypt 3.90 0.01 0.82 0.88 0.61 1.29 0.11 0.02 0.13 0.05 0.30 0.13
 Iran 2.93 0.10 0.89 0.04 0.18 0.18 0.11 0.07 0.18
 Iraq 4.01 0.01 0.03 0.07 0.13 0.15 0.01 0.03 0.32 0.12
 Israel 7.28 0.20 0.05 0.10 0.14 0.08 0.06 0.07 0.02
 Jordan 3.92 0.01 0.19 0.15 0.13 0.10 0.10 0.09 0.06 0.31
 Kuwait 3.09 0.30 0.49 0.14 0.04 0.07 0.08 0.13
 Lebanon 5.82 0.20 0.20 0.50 0.27 0.07 0.26 0.14 0.09 0.27 0.20
 Libya 1.84 0.16 0.06 1.61 1.60 0.33 1.02 1.55 0.07 0.13 0.17 0.07
 Morocco 3.90 0.02 0.09 0.04 0.24 0.07 0.66 0.11 0.10 0.12 0.11 0.06
 Oman 2.77 0.21 0.12 0.40 0.11 0.11 0.02 0.06
 Palestine 6.01 0.18 0.39 0.47 0.17 0.08 0.15 0.08 0.03 0.07 0.50 0.06
 Qatar 2.78 0.14 0.17 0.09 0.01 0.05
 Saudi Arabia 1.92 0.02 0.06 0.07 0.06 0.11 0.11 0.15
 Sudan 2.90 0.09 0.39 0.04 0.16 0.17 0.22 0.55 0.16
 Syria 2.36 0.18 0.13 0.32 0.36 0.23 0.12 0.31
 Tunisia 3.06 0.10 0.17 2.74 0.14 0.09 0.55 0.41 0.32 0.08 0.09 0.31 0.13
 United Arab Emirates 2.42 0.18 0.08 0.06 0.06 0.12 0.11 0.06 0.07 0.16
 Yemen 2.98 0.03 0.31 0.07 0.55 0.33 0.55 0.17 0.12
Sub-Saharan Africa
 Angola 2.41 0.94 0.03 0.03 0.05 0.22 0.10 0.06
 Benin 6.16 0.10 0.11 0.11 0.06 0.13 0.22 0.07 0.05 0.06 0.13 0.65 0.51
 Botswana 7.60 0.13 0.16 0.22 0.13 0.11 0.06 0.19
 Burkina Faso 3.72 0.12 0.01 0.07 0.63 0.06 0.61 0.05 0.71 0.31
 Burundi 4.51 0.50 0.41 0.19 0.08 0.84 0.09 0.07 0.18 0.01
 Cape Verde 7.43 0.38 0.13 0.02 0.11 0.13 0.06 0.10 0.13
 Cameroon 3.27 0.19 0.05 0.03 0.03 0.25 0.20 0.15 0.33 0.43 0.08
 Central African Republic 1.61 0.25 0.04 0.17 0.50 0.08 0.04 0.09 0.20
 Chad 1.65 0.13 0.10 0.12 0.11 0.06
 Comoros 3.90 0.32 0.17 0.11 0.19 0.56 0.06
 Republic of the Congo 3.19 0.25 0.05 0.02 0.34 0.06 0.20
 Ivory Coast 3.38 0.11 0.25 0.06 0.17 0.28 0.22 0.50 0.12 0.22 0.10 0.06
 Democratic Republic of the Congo 2.76 0.48 0.13 0.23 0.09 0.08 0.36 0.18 0.32 0.12 0.36
 Djibouti 2.37 0.17 0.48 0.06 0.22 0.03 0.09 0.07 0.07 0.11 0.10 0.06
 Equatorial Guinea 2.09 0.10 0.35 0.07 0.06 0.06 0.11 0.11 0.07 0.11 0.11
 Eritrea 2.31 0.03 0.06 0.04 0.07 0.22
 Eswatini 2.93 0.11 0.14 0.36 0.06 0.11 0.06 0.11 0.06
 Ethiopia 4.72 0.20 0.84 0.11 0.07 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.23 0.18 0.07 0.09 0.06
 Gabon 2.72 0.28 0.29 0.19 0.08 0.20 0.02 0.13 0.07
 Gambia 4.39 0.20 0.81 0.07 0.26 0.08 0.06 1.15 0.25 0.02 0.16
 Ghana 5.35 0.67 0.31 0.53 0.11 0.06 0.06 0.13
 Guinea 2.02 0.07 0.70 0.05 0.17 0.13 0.06
 Guinea-Bissau 2.00 0.01 0.56 0.17 0.67 0.05 0.65
 Kenya 5.08 0.29 0.08 0.42 0.20 0.22 0.07 0.13
 Lesotho 6.48 0.19 0.27 0.31 0.33 0.07 0.05 0.10 0.24
 Liberia 5.22 0.03 0.18 0.12 0.36 0.08 0.12 0.10 0.13
 Madagascar 5.82 0.25 1.63 0.01 0.39 0.10 0.43 0.22 0.04 0.11 0.42 0.06
 Malawi 4.97 0.16 0.71 0.24 0.08 0.34 0.11 0.06 0.01 0.24
 Mali 5.99 0.12 0.14 0.35 1.24 0.78 0.11 0.09 0.06 0.23 0.49 0.99
 Mauritania 3.12 0.79 0.05 0.31 0.21 0.14 0.10
 Mauritius 8.04 0.13 0.10 0.01 0.06 0.08
 Mozambique 5.28 0.21 0.59 0.02 0.11 0.11 0.06 0.58 0.17 0.20 0.14
 Namibia 6.54 0.06 0.25 0.01 0.07 0.06 0.18 0.09
 Niger 3.54 0.13 0.03 0.78 0.08 0.06 0.60 0.66 0.20 0.47
 Nigeria 3.52 0.01 0.06 0.36 0.06 0.01 0.09 0.65 0.06 0.32 0.02
 Rwanda 3.82 0.11 0.46 0.11 0.02 0.13 0.18 0.12 0.16 0.19 0.06
 Senegal 5.37 0.10 0.24 0.58 0.06 0.07 0.13 0.06 0.34 0.18
 Sierra Leone 3.57 0.54 0.40 0.20 0.07 0.08 0.01 0.11 0.20
 South Africa 7.91 0.12 0.11 0.08 0.26 0.15 0.17 0.19
 Tanzania 5.18 0.10 0.36 0.24 0.11 0.19 0.18 0.29 0.06 0.25 0.06
 Togo 1.75 0.68 1.02 0.04 0.09 0.27 0.05 0.20 0.50
 Uganda 5.14 0.11 0.02 0.08 0.03 0.06 0.04 0.17 0.11 0.18 0.08
 Zambia 5.25 0.43 0.51 0.07 0.13 0.11 0.29 0.31 0.07 0.52 0.23
 Zimbabwe 2.62 0.09 0.11 0.04 0.01 0.11 0.27 0.11

Components

The following table shows the five parameters that made up the score of each nation in 2020 and the changes that had occurred since 2019.

Year 2020
Rank Δ Rank Country Regime type Elec­toral pro­cess and plura­lism Func­tioning of govern­ment Poli­tical partici­pation Poli­tical cul­ture Civil liber­ties Overall score Δ Score
Full democracies
1  Norway Full democracy10.009.6410.0010.009.419.81 0.06
2  Iceland Full democracy10.008.578.8910.009.419.37 0.21
3  Sweden Full democracy9.589.298.3310.009.129.26 0.13
4  New Zealand Full democracy10.008.938.898.759.719.25 0.01
5 2  Canada Full democracy9.588.938.899.389.419.24 0.02
6 1  Finland Full democracy10.008.938.898.759.419.20 0.05
7  Denmark Full democracy10.008.938.339.389.129.15 0.07
8 2  Ireland Full democracy10.007.868.339.389.719.05 0.19
9  Australia Full democracy10.008.577.788.759.718.96 0.13
9 2  Netherlands Full democracy9.589.298.338.758.828.96 0.05
11 20  Taiwan Full democracy10.009.647.228.139.718.94 1.21
12 2   Switzerland Full democracy9.588.577.789.388.828.83 0.20
13 1  Luxembourg Full democracy10.008.576.678.759.718.68 0.13
14 1  Germany Full democracy9.588.218.338.139.128.67 0.01
15  Uruguay Full democracy10.008.576.678.139.718.61 0.23
16 2  United Kingdom Full democracy10.007.508.897.508.828.54 0.02
17 4  Chile Full democracy9.588.216.678.138.828.28 0.20
18 2  Austria Full democracy9.587.508.336.888.538.16 0.13
18 1  Costa Rica Full democracy9.586.797.227.509.718.16 0.03
20 2  Mauritius Full democracy9.177.866.118.758.828.14 0.08
21 3  Japan Full democracy8.758.576.678.138.538.13 0.14
22 6  Spain Full democracy9.587.147.228.138.538.12 0.17
23  South Korea Full democracy9.178.217.227.507.948.01 0.01
Flawed democracies
24 4 France Flawed democracy9.587.507.786.888.247.99 0.13
25  United States Flawed democracy9.176.798.896.258.537.92 0.04
26 4 Portugal Flawed democracy9.587.506.117.508.827.90 0.13
27  Estonia Flawed democracy9.587.866.676.888.247.84 0.06
27 1 Israel Flawed democracy9.177.509.447.505.597.84 0.02
29 6 Italy Flawed democracy9.586.437.227.507.947.74 0.22
30 4 Malta Flawed democracy9.176.796.118.138.247.68 0.27
31 1 Czech Republic Flawed democracy9.586.076.677.508.537.67 0.02
32 2 Cape Verde Flawed democracy9.177.006.676.888.537.65 0.13
33 4 Botswana Flawed democracy9.176.796.117.508.537.62 0.19
34  Cyprus Flawed democracy9.175.367.227.508.537.56 0.03
35 1  Slovenia Flawed democracy9.586.437.226.258.247.54 0.04
36 3 Belgium Flawed democracy9.587.865.006.888.247.51 0.13
37 2  Greece Flawed democracy9.585.216.117.508.537.39 0.04
38  Latvia Flawed democracy9.586.076.675.638.247.24 0.25
39 4 Malaysia Flawed democracy9.587.866.676.255.597.19 0.03
40 6 Panama Flawed democracy9.586.437.225.007.657.18 0.13
41 2  Trinidad and Tobago Flawed democracy9.587.146.115.637.357.16
42 8 Jamaica Flawed democracy8.757.145.006.258.537.13 0.17
42 6  Lithuania Flawed democracy9.586.075.565.638.827.13 0.37
44 3 Timor-Leste Flawed democracy9.585.935.566.887.357.06 0.13
45 5  South Africa Flawed democracy7.427.148.335.007.357.05 0.19
46 1 Colombia Flawed democracy9.176.436.675.007.947.04 0.09
47 5 Slovakia Flawed democracy9.586.435.565.637.656.97 0.20
48  Argentina Flawed democracy9.175.366.675.637.946.95 0.07
49 3 Brazil Flawed democracy9.585.366.115.637.946.92 0.04
50 7 Poland Flawed democracy9.175.716.675.637.066.85 0.23
51 2  Suriname Flawed democracy9.586.076.115.007.356.82 0.16
52 5 Bulgaria Flawed democracy9.175.717.224.387.066.71 0.32
53 2 India Flawed democracy8.677.146.675.005.596.61 0.29
54 1 Tunisia Flawed democracy9.175.367.225.635.596.59 0.13
55 1 Philippines Flawed democracy9.175.007.784.386.476.56 0.08
55  Hungary Flawed democracy8.336.435.006.256.766.56 0.07
57 1 Peru Flawed democracy8.755.365.565.637.356.53 0.07
58 7 Namibia Flawed democracy7.005.366.675.637.946.52 0.09
59  Croatia Flawed democracy9.176.076.114.386.766.50 0.07
59 4 Ghana Flawed democracy8.335.366.676.255.886.50 0.13
61 1 Mongolia Flawed democracy8.755.715.565.636.766.48 0.02
62 1 Romania Flawed democracy9.175.366.673.757.066.40 0.09
63 3 Dominican Republic Flawed democracy9.174.296.115.007.066.32 0.22
64 4  Lesotho Flawed democracy9.174.146.115.636.476.30 0.24
64  Indonesia Flawed democracy7.927.506.114.385.596.30 0.18
66  Serbia Flawed democracy8.255.366.673.757.066.22 0.19
67 3  Paraguay Flawed democracy8.755.715.004.387.066.18 0.06
68 1 Sri Lanka Flawed democracy7.005.715.566.256.186.14 0.13
69 2 Ecuador Flawed democracy8.755.006.673.756.476.13 0.20
70 4 Papua New Guinea Flawed democracy6.926.073.336.257.946.10 0.07
71 8 Albania Flawed democracy7.005.364.446.257.356.08 0.19
72 1 Mexico Flawed democracy7.835.717.783.135.886.07 0.02
73 5 Thailand Flawed democracy7.005.006.676.255.296.04 0.28
74 1  Singapore Flawed democracy4.837.864.446.256.766.03 0.01
75 4  Guyana Flawed democracy6.505.366.115.007.066.01 0.14
Hybrid regimes
76 4 Bangladesh Hybrid regime7.426.076.115.634.715.99 0.11
77 6 El Salvador Hybrid regime9.174.296.113.756.185.90 0.25
78 1 North Macedonia Hybrid regime7.425.716.113.137.065.89 0.08
79 1 Ukraine Hybrid regime8.252.717.225.005.885.81 0.09
80 3 Moldova Hybrid regime7.004.646.114.386.765.78 0.03
81 3 Montenegro Hybrid regime7.425.716.113.136.475.77 0.12
82 5 Malawi Hybrid regime7.004.295.006.256.185.74 0.24
83 2 Fiji Hybrid regime6.585.006.115.635.295.72 0.13
84 7 Bhutan Hybrid regime8.756.793.335.004.715.71 0.41
85  Madagascar Hybrid regime7.923.576.675.634.715.70 0.06
86 4 Senegal Hybrid regime6.085.714.446.255.885.67 0.18
87 12 Hong Kong Hybrid regime3.173.645.007.508.535.57 0.45
88 1  Honduras Hybrid regime7.834.294.444.385.885.36 0.06
89 3 Armenia Hybrid regime7.505.006.113.135.005.35 0.19
90 2 Liberia Hybrid regime7.422.715.565.635.295.32 0.13
91 2 Georgia Hybrid regime7.833.576.113.755.295.31 0.11
92    Nepal Hybrid regime4.835.365.005.635.295.22 0.06
93 2 Tanzania Hybrid regime4.835.005.006.254.415.10 0.06
94 10 Bolivia Hybrid regime6.083.576.113.755.885.08 0.24
95 1 Kenya Hybrid regime3.505.366.675.634.125.05 0.13
96  Morocco Hybrid regime5.254.645.565.634.125.04 0.06
97 4 Guatemala Hybrid regime6.923.935.003.135.884.97 0.29
98 1 Uganda Hybrid regime4.333.215.006.885.294.94 0.08
99 2  Zambia Hybrid regime4.752.933.896.885.884.86 0.23
99 3  Sierra Leone Hybrid regime6.582.863.336.255.294.86
101 1 Bosnia and Herzegovina Hybrid regime7.002.935.563.135.594.84 0.02
102 5 Benin Hybrid regime3.335.363.895.634.714.58 0.51
103 4 Gambia Hybrid regime4.004.294.445.634.124.49 0.16
104 6 Turkey Hybrid regime3.505.365.565.632.354.48 0.39
105 3 Pakistan Hybrid regime5.675.363.332.504.714.31 0.06
106 1 Haiti Hybrid regime4.751.712.786.255.594.22 0.35
107 6 Kyrgyzstan Hybrid regime4.752.935.563.134.714.21 0.67
108 2 Lebanon Hybrid regime3.501.506.675.004.124.16 0.20
109 2 Ivory Coast Hybrid regime4.332.863.895.633.824.11 0.06
110 1 Nigeria Hybrid regime5.173.573.893.754.124.10 0.02
Authoritarian regimes
111 11 Mali Authoritarian5.170.004.445.634.413.93 0.99
112 4 Mauritania Authoritarian3.503.575.003.134.413.92
113 4 Palestine Authoritarian3.330.147.784.383.533.83 0.06
114  Kuwait Authoritarian3.583.933.894.383.243.80 0.13
115 2 Algeria Authoritarian3.082.504.445.003.823.77 0.24
116 4 Burkina Faso Authoritarian3.002.364.445.003.823.73 0.31
117 2 Angola Authoritarian2.252.865.565.002.653.66 0.06
118  Iraq Authoritarian5.250.006.675.001.183.62 0.12
118 4 Jordan Authoritarian2.673.933.894.383.243.62 0.31
120 2  Nicaragua Authoritarian0.422.865.005.634.123.60 0.05
121  Gabon Authoritarian2.581.864.445.003.823.54 0.07
122 2 Mozambique Authoritarian2.581.435.005.003.533.51 0.14
123 2 Ethiopia Authoritarian0.423.575.565.002.353.38 0.06
124 10  Russia Authoritarian2.172.145.003.134.123.31 0.20
125 2 Niger Authoritarian2.921.143.334.384.713.29
126 2 Qatar Authoritarian0.004.292.785.633.533.24 0.05
127 2  Zimbabwe Authoritarian0.002.504.445.633.243.16
128 11 Kazakhstan Authoritarian0.503.215.003.753.243.14 0.20
129 5 Republic of the Congo Authoritarian2.172.503.893.753.243.11
130 6 Cambodia Authoritarian0.003.933.895.632.063.10 0.43
130 1 Rwanda Authoritarian1.424.292.784.382.653.10 0.06
132 1 Comoros Authoritarian2.082.213.893.753.533.09 0.06
133 1 Eswatini Authoritarian0.922.862.785.633.243.08 0.06
133 4  Guinea Authoritarian3.500.434.444.382.653.08 0.06
135 13 Myanmar Authoritarian1.753.932.784.382.353.04 0.51
136 1  Oman Authoritarian0.083.932.784.383.823.00 0.06
137 1 Vietnam Authoritarian0.002.863.895.632.352.94 0.14
138 1 Egypt Authoritarian1.333.213.335.001.762.93 0.13
139 2 Afghanistan Authoritarian3.420.643.892.503.822.85
140 3 Cuba Authoritarian0.003.573.334.382.942.84
141 15 Togo Authoritarian3.171.793.335.003.242.80 0.50
142 1  Cameroon Authoritarian1.672.143.334.382.352.77 0.08
143 3 Venezuela Authoritarian0.001.795.004.382.652.76 0.04
144  Djibouti Authoritarian0.421.293.895.632.352.71 0.06
145  United Arab Emirates Authoritarian0.003.932.225.002.652.70 0.06
146  Azerbaijan Authoritarian0.502.863.333.752.942.68 0.07
147 1 Guinea-Bissau Authoritarian4.920.002.783.132.352.63
148 2 Belarus Authoritarian0.002.003.895.002.062.59 0.11
149 2 Sudan Authoritarian0.001.794.445.001.472.54 0.16
150 1 Bahrain Authoritarian0.832.712.784.381.762.49 0.06
151 2 China Authoritarian0.004.292.783.131.182.27 0.01
152 1 Iran Authoritarian0.002.503.893.131.472.20 0.18
153 1 Eritrea Authoritarian0.002.140.566.881.182.15 0.22
154  Burundi Authoritarian0.000.003.335.002.352.14 0.01
155 2 Uzbekistan Authoritarian0.081.862.785.000.882.12 0.11
156 3 Saudi Arabia Authoritarian0.003.572.223.131.472.08 0.15
157 1 Libya Authoritarian0.000.003.333.752.651.95 0.07
157  Yemen Authoritarian0.000.003.895.000.881.95
159  Tajikistan Authoritarian0.002.212.224.380.881.94 0.01
160 1 Equatorial Guinea Authoritarian0.000.433.334.381.471.92
161 6 Laos Authoritarian0.002.861.673.750.591.77 0.37
162  Turkmenistan Authoritarian0.000.792.225.000.591.72
163  Chad Authoritarian0.000.001.673.752.351.55 0.06
164  Syria Authoritarian0.000.002.784.380.001.43
165  Central African Republic Authoritarian1.250.001.111.882.351.32
166  Democratic Republic of the Congo Authoritarian0.000.001.673.130.881.13
167  North Korea Authoritarian0.002.501.671.250.001.08

Recent changes

In 2016, the United States was downgraded from a full democracy to a flawed democracy;[15] its score, which had been declining for some years, crossed the threshold from 8.05 in 2015 to 7.98 in 2016. The report states that this was caused by a myriad of factors dating back to at least the late 1960s which have eroded Americans' trust in governmental institutions.[16][17]

The 2017 Democracy Index registered, at the time, the worst year for global democracy since 2010–11. Asia was the region with the largest decline since 2016. Venezuela was downgraded from a hybrid regime to an authoritarian regime.

Australia (then ranked 8th) and Taiwan (then ranked 33rd) both legalised same-sex marriage in 2017. In China, Xi Jinping, General Secretary of the Communist Party of China, further entrenched his power by writing his contribution to the Communist Party of China's ideology, dubbed Xi Jinping Thought, into the party's constitution. Moldova was downgraded from a flawed democracy to a hybrid regime as a result of problematic elections. By contrast, Armenia was re-upgraded from an authoritarian regime to a hybrid regime as a result of constitutional changes that shifted power from the presidency to parliament.[10]

In 2017, the Gambia was upgraded again from an authoritarian regime to a hybrid regime after Yahya Jammeh, who was president from 1996 to 2017, was defeated by Adama Barrow, an opposition candidate in the 2016 presidential elections.

In 2019, France, Portugal and Chile were upgraded from flawed democracy to full democracy. In fact, this was not a new experience for the former two, which suffered from the eurozone crisis many years before. By contrast, Malta was downgraded from a full democracy to a flawed democracy. Thailand was upgraded again from its status as a hybrid regime to a flawed democracy.[12] Algeria was upgraded again from an authoritarian regime to a hybrid regime.

In 2020, Taiwan was upgraded from flawed democracy to full democracy following reforms in the judiciary,[18] and soared to 11th position (just 2 positions below Australia) from its previous position at 33. Japan was also upgraded again to a full democracy, while both France and Portugal were once again relegated to flawed democracies. Algeria was downgraded again from a hybrid regime to an authoritarian regime.

Democracy was dealt a major blow in 2020. Almost 70% of countries covered by the Democracy Index recorded a decline in their overall score, as most of them imposed lockdowns in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, in addition to some arresting journalists and citizens accused of spreading COVID-19 misinformation. The global average score fell to its lowest level since the index began in 2006.

Criticism

The Democracy Index has been criticised for lacking transparency and accountability beyond the numbers. To generate the index, the Economist Intelligence Unit has a scoring system in which various experts are asked to answer 60 questions and assign each reply a number, with the weighted average deciding the ranking. However, the final report does not indicate what kinds of experts, nor their number, nor whether the experts are employees of the Economist Intelligence Unit or independent scholars, nor the nationalities of the experts.[19]

See also

References

  1. "Democracy Index 2006" (PDF). The World in 2007. 15 November 2006. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  2. "Democracy Index 2008" (PDF). Economist Intelligence Unit. 21 October 2008. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 March 2017. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  3. "Democracy Index 2010: Democracy in retreat" (PDF). Economist Intelligence Unit. 6 December 2010. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 December 2017. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  4. "Democracy Index 2011: Democracy under stress". Economist Intelligence Unit. 14 December 2011. Archived from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  5. "Democracy Index 2012: Democracy at a standstill" (PDF). Economist Intelligence Unit. 14 March 2013. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 March 2017. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  6. "Democracy Index 2013: Democracy in limbo". The Economist Intelligence Unit. Archived from the original on 31 May 2019. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  7. "Democracy Index 2014:Democracy and its discontents" (PDF). The Economist Intelligence Unit. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 February 2016. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  8. "Democracy Index 2015: Democracy in an age of anxiety" (PDF). The Economist Intelligence Unit. Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  9. "Democracy Index 2016: Revenge of the "deplorables"". eiu.com. The Economist Intelligence Unit. 25 January 2017. Archived from the original on 11 November 2019. Retrieved 20 July 2017.
  10. "Democracy Index 2017: Free speech under attack". eiu.com. The Economist Intelligence Unit. Archived from the original on 31 January 2018. Retrieved 31 January 2018.
  11. "Democracy Index 2018: Me Too?". The Economist Intelligence Unit. 8 January 2019. Archived from the original on 2 February 2019. Retrieved 13 January 2019.
  12. "Democracy Index 2019 A year of democratic setbacks and popular protest". EIU.com. Retrieved 24 January 2020.
  13. "Democracy Index 2020: In sickness and in health?". EIU.com. Retrieved 2 February 2021.
  14. "More State than Nation: Lukashenko's Belarus | JIA SIPA". Journal of International Affairs. 65 (1): 93–113. 1 December 2011. Archived from the original on 21 December 2016. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  15. Karlis, Nicole (31 January 2018). "New report classifies US as a "flawed democracy" - Partisanship and Trump were to blame for the US's dismal ranking in the Economist's annual Democracy Index report". Salon. Archived from the original on 16 February 2018. Retrieved 17 February 2018.
  16. Eshe Nelson (25 January 2017). "The US has been downgraded to a "flawed democracy," but not just because of Trump". Qz.com. Archived from the original on 1 October 2017. Retrieved 30 September 2017.
  17. "Declining trust in government is denting democracy". The Economist. 25 January 2017. Archived from the original on 14 July 2017. Retrieved 13 July 2017.
  18. "Taiwan most democratic country in East Asia: The Economist". Retrieved 8 February 2021.
  19. "Peter Tasker: The flawed 'science' behind democracy rankings". asia.nikkei.com. Archived from the original on 2019-02-23. Retrieved 2019-02-22.
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