Cirth

The Cirth (Sindarin pronunciation: [ˈkirθ], meaning "runes"; sg. certh [ˈkɛrθ]) is a semi‑artificial script, based on real‑life runic alphabets, invented by J. R. R. Tolkien for the constructed languages he devised and used in his works. Cirth is written with a capital letter when referring to the writing system; the letters themselves can be called cirth.

Cirth
The word "Cirth" written using the Cirth in the Angerthas Daeron mode
Script type
CreatorJ. R. R. Tolkien
DirectionVaries
LanguagesKhuzdul, Sindarin, Quenya, Westron, English
ISO 15924
ISO 15924Cirt, 291 , Cirth
Rock carving in Cirth in the Sydney Harbour National Park, dating back to the 1980s at least

In the fictional history of Middle-earth, the original Certhas was created by the Sindar (or Grey Elves) for their language, Sindarin. Its extension and elaboration was known as the Angerthas Daeron, as it was attributed to the Sinda Daeron, despite the fact that it was most probably arranged by the Noldor in order to represent the sounds of other languages like Quenya and Telerin.

Although it was later largely replaced by the Tengwar, the Cirth was nonetheless adopted by the Dwarves to write down both their Khuzdul language (Angerthas Moria) and the languages of Men (Angerthas Erebor). The Cirth was also adapted, in its oldest and simplest form, by various races including Men and even Orcs.

External history

Concept and creation

Many letters have shapes also found in the historical runic alphabets, but their sound values are only similar in a few of the vowels. Rather, the system of assignment of sound values is much more systematic in the Cirth than in the historical runes (e.g., voiced variants of a voiceless sound are expressed by an additional stroke). A similar system has been proposed for a few historical runes but is in any case much more obscure.

The division between the older Cirth of Daeron and their adaptation by Dwarves and Men has been interpreted as a parallel drawn by Tolkien to the development of the Fuþorc to the Younger Fuþark.[1] The original Elvish Cirth "as supposed products of a superior culture" are focused on logical arrangement and a close connection between form and value whereas the adaptations by mortal races introduced irregularities. Similar to the Germanic tribes who had no written literature and used only simple runes before their conversion to Christianity, the Sindarin Elves of Beleriand with their Cirth were introduced to the more elaborate Tengwar of Fëanor when the Noldorin Elves returned to Middle-earth from the lands of the divine Valar.[2]

Internal history and Description

Certhas

In the Appendix E to The Return of the King, Tolkien writes that the Sindar of Beleriand first developed an alphabet for their language some time between the invention of the Tengwar by Fëanor (YT 1250) and the introduction thereof to Middle-earth by the Exiled Noldor at the beginning of the First Age.[3]

This alphabet was devised to represent only the sounds of their Sindarin language and its letters were mostly used for inscribing names or brief memorials on wood, stone or metal, hence their angular shapes and straight lines.[3] In Sindarin these letters were named cirth (sing. certh), from the Elvish root *kir- meaning "to cleave, to cut".[4] An abecedarium of cirth, consisting of the runes listed in due order, was commonly known as Certhas ([ˈkɛrθɑs], meaning "rune-rows" in Sindarin and loosely translated as "runic alphabet"[5]).

The oldest cirth were the following:[3]

Consonants p b mh m
t d n
k g ng
r l ~ h or s s or h ss
Vowels i u e o

The form of these letters was somewhat unsystematic, unlike later rearrangements and extensions that made them more featural.[3] The cirth and were used for h and s, but varied as to which was which.[3] Many of the runes consisted of a single vertical line (or "stem") with an appendage (or "branch") attached to one or both sides. If the attachment was made on one side only, it was usually to the right, but "the reverse was not infrequent" and did not change the value of the letter.[3] (For example, the variants or specifically mentioned for h or s, also or for t, etc.)

Angerthas Daeron

In Beleriand, before the end of the First Age, the Certhas was rearranged and further developed, partly under the influence of the Tengwar introduced by the Noldor. This reorganisation of the Cirth was commonly attributed to the Elf Daeron, minstrel and loremaster of King Thingol of Doriath. Thus, the new system became known as the Angerthas Daeron[3] (where "angerthas" [ɑŋˈɡɛrθɑs] is from Sindarin "an(d)" [ɑn(d)] + "certhas" [ˈkɛrθɑs], meaning "long rune-rows"[6]).

In this arrangement, the assignment of values to each certh is systematic. The runes consisting of a stem and a branch attached to the right are used for voiceless stops, while other sounds are allocated according to the following principles:[3]

  1. adding a stroke to a branch adds voice (e.g., [p] [b]);
  2. moving the branch to the left indicates opening to a spirant (e.g., [t] [θ]);
  3. placing the branch on both sides of the stem adds voice and nasality (e.g., [k] [ŋ]).

The cirth constructed in this way can therefore be arranged into series, each corresponding to a place of articulation:

  • labial consonants, based on ;
  • dental consonants, based on ;
  • front consonants, based on ;
  • velar consonants, based on ;
  • labialized velar consonants, based on .

Other letters introduced in this system include: and for a and w, respectively; runes for long vowels, evidently originated by doubling and binding the certh of the corresponding short vowel (e.g., oo ō); two front vowels, probably stemming from ligatures of the corresponding back vowel with the i-certh (i.e., ü, and ö); some homorganic nasal + stop clusters (e.g., [nd]).

Back to the fictional history, since the new -series and -series encompass sounds which do not occur in Sindarin but are present in Quenya, they were most probably introduced by the Exiled Noldor[3] who spoke Quenya as a language of knowledge.

By loan-translation, the Cirth became known in Quenya as Certar [ˈkɛrtar], while a single certh was called certa [ˈkɛrta].

After the Tengwar became the sole script used for writing, the Angerthas Daeron was essentially relegated to carved inscriptions. The Elves of the West, for the most part, abandoned the Cirth altogether, with the exception of the Noldor dwelling in the country of Eregion, who maintained it in use[3] and made it known as Angerthas Eregion.

Note: In this article, the runes of the Angerthas come with the same peculiar transliteration used by Tolkien in the Appendix E, which differs from the (Latin) spelling of both Quenya and Sindarin. The IPA transcription that follows is applicable to both languages, except where indicated otherwise.

Regularly formed cirth
Labial
consonants
Certh
Transliteration pbfvm[i]mh, mb
IPA [p][b][f][v][m](S.) [ṽ]
(Q.) [mb]
Dental
consonants
Certh or
Transliteration tdthdhnnd[ii]
IPA [t][d][θ][ð][n][nd]
Front
consonants[iii]
Certh
Transliteration ch[iv]j[v]sh[vi]zhnj[vii]
IPA(N.) [c⁽ȷ̊⁾][ɟj][ç][ʝ]ɟ[ɲj][ɲɟj]
(V.) [t͡ʃ][d͡ʒ][ʃ][ʒ][nd͡ʒ]
Velar
consonants
Certh
Transliteration kgkhghŋng
IPA [k][ɡ][x][ɣ][ŋ][ŋɡ]
Labiovelar
consonants
Certh
Transliteration kw[7]gw[8]khwghwnw[viii]ngw[8]
IPA(Q.) [kʷ₍w̥₎][ɡʷw][ʍ][w][nʷw][ŋʷw][ŋɡʷw]
Additional cirth
ConsonantsCerth or
Transliteration rrhllhsss or z[ix]h[x]
IPA [r][r̥][l][l̥][s][sː] or [z][h]
ApproximantsCerth
Transliteration whw[xi]
IPA [w][ʍ]
VowelsCerth
Transliteration i, yueao
IPA [i], [j][u][e][a][o]
Long
vowels
Certh or
Transliteration ūēāō
IPA [uː][eː][aː][oː]
Fronted
vowels
Certh or or
Transliteration üö
IPA [y][œ]

Notes:

  1. ^ According to the principles outlined above, the labial nasal would be assigned to the certh . However, archaic Sindarin had two labial nasals: the occlusive [m], and the spirant [ṽ][9] (spelt mh). Since the mh sound could best be represented by a reversal of the sign for m (to indicate its spirantization), the reversible was given the value m, and was assigned to mh.[3] The sound [ṽ] merged with [v] in later Sindarin.
  2. ^ The certh was not clearly related in shape to the dentals.[3]
  3. ^ The -series, which represents the front consonants of Quenya, is essentially the Cirth counterpart to the Tengwar tyelpetéma (column III in the General Use).
    In this article, each certh of this series comes with two IPA transcriptions. The reason is that these consonants are realised as palatals in Noldorin Quenya, but as postalveolars in Vanyarin Quenya. Although the Angerthas Daeron was devised for the Noldorin variety, it is deemed necessary to show the Vanyarin pronunciation as well, given that the very transliteration used by Tolkien is more akin to the Vanyarin phonology.
  4. ^ The certh indicates Quenya ty, which is pronounced [cȷ̊] in Noldorin[10] but is a voiceless postalveolar affricate [t͡ʃ] in Vanyarin.[11]
  5. ^ The certh represents Quenya dy, formerly pronounced [ɟj].[12]
  6. ^ The certh stands for Quenya hy, which is a voiceless palatal fricative [ç] in Noldorin[13] and a voiceless postalveolar fricative [ʃ] in Vanyarin.[11]
  7. ^ The certh denotes Quenya ndy, formerly pronounced [ɲɟj]. In Noldorin, this cluster was later reduced to ny[14] (articulated as [ɲj][15]). On the other hand, in Vanyarin, the cluster underwent assibilation, turning into [nd͡ʒ].[11]
  8. ^ The certh , much like the tengwa "ñwalme", formerly represented Quenya ñw (pronounced [ŋʷw]), occurring only in initial position. This sound later evolved into [nʷw], explaining the transliteration of this certh as nw. Non-initial occurrences of [nʷw] are most probably interpreted as n+w (i.e., two separate cirth).[16]
  9. ^ The certh , the theoretical value of which is z, is instead used as ss in both Quenya and Sindarin (cf. the tengwa "esse"/"áze").[3]
  10. ^ The new certh was introduced for h: it is similar in shape both to the certh (formerly used for h, then reassigned to ty) and to the tengwa "hyarmen".
  11. ^ The certh , the theoretical value of which was m, was used for Sindarin hw for the reasons stated above[3] (cf. the tengwa "hwesta sindarinwa").

Angerthas Moria

According to Tolkien's legendarium, the Dwarves first came to know the runes of the Noldor at the beginning of the Second Age. The Dwarves "introduced a number of unsystematic changes in value, as well as certain new cirth".[3] They modified the previous system to suit the specific needs of their language, Khuzdul. The Dwarves spread their revised alphabet to Moria, where it came to be known as Angerthas Moria, and developed both carved and pen-written forms of these runes.[3]

Many cirth here represent sounds not occurring in Khuzdul[17] (at least in published words of Khuzdul: of course, our corpus is very limited to judge the necessity or not, of these sounds). Here they are marked with a black star ().

CerthTranslit.IPA' CerthTranslit.IPA CerthTranslit.IPA' CerthTranslit.IPA
p/p/ l/l/ e/e/
b/b/ z/z/ lh/ɬ/ ê/eː/
f/f/ k/k/ nd/nd/ a/a/
v/v/ g/ɡ/ h[A]/h/ â/aː/
hw/ʍ/ kh/x/ ʻ [A]/ʔ/ o/o/
m/m/ gh/ɣ/ ŋ/ŋ/  or ô/oː/
mb/mb/ n/n/ ng/ŋɡ/  or ö/œ/
t/t/ kw/kʷ/  or nj/ndʒ/ n/n/
d/d/ gw/ɡʷ/ i/i/ s/s/
th/θ/ khw/xʷ/ y/j/  or [B]/ə/
dh/ð/ ghw/ɣʷ/ hy/j̊, ç/  or [B]/ʌ/
r, ʁ, r/ ngw/ŋɡʷ/ u/u/
ch/tʃ, c/ nw/nʷ/ û/uː/
j/dʒ, ɟ/ w/w/ +h[C]/◌ʰ/
sh/ʃ/ zh/ʒ/  or ü/y/ &[D]

Notes on Angerthas Moria

A.^ The Khuzdul language has two glottal consonants: /h/ and /ʔ/, the latter being "the glottal beginning of a word with an initial vowel".[3] Thus, in need of a reversible certh to represent these sounds, and were switched, giving the former the value /s/ and using the latter for /h/, and its reversed counterpart for /ʔ/.
B.^ These cirth were a halved form of , used for vowels like those in the word butter /ˈbʌtə/. Thus, represented a /ə/ sound in unstressed syllables, while represented /ʌ/, a somehow similar sound, in stressed syllables. When weak they were reduced to a stroke without a stem (, ).[3]
C.^ This letter denotes aspiration in voiceless stops, occurring frequently in Khuzdul as kh and th.[3]
D.^ This certh is a scribal abbreviation used to represent a conjunction, and is basically identical to the ampersand & used in Latin script.
Runes in the upper inscription of Balin's tomb use Angerthas Moria, reading left-to-right:
Balin
Fu[nd]inul
UzbadKʰazaddûmu

In Angerthas Moria the cirth /dʒ/ and /ʒ/ were dropped. Thus and were adopted for /dʒ/ and /ʒ/, although they were used for /r/ and /r̥/ in Elvish languages. Subsequently, this script used the certh for /ʀ/ (or /ʁ/), which had the sound /n/ in the Elvish systems. Therefore, the certh (which was previously used for the sound /ŋ/, useless in Khuzdul) was adopted for the sound /n/. A totally new introduction was the certh , used as an alternative, simplified and, maybe, weaker form of . Because of the visual relation of these two cirth, the certh was given the sound /z/ to relate better with that, in this script, had the sound /s/.[3]

Angerthas Erebor

At the beginning of the Third Age the Dwarves were driven out of Moria, and some migrated to Erebor. As the Dwarves of Erebor would trade with the Men of the nearby towns of Dale and Lake-town, they needed a script to write in Westron (the lingua franca of Middle-earth, usually rendered in English by Tolkien in his works). The Angerthas Moria was adapted accordingly: some new cirth were added, while some were restored to their Elvish usage, thus creating the Angerthas Erebor.[3]

While the Angerthas Moria was still used to write down Khuzdul, this new script was primarily used for Mannish languages. It is also the script used in the first and third page of the Book of Mazarbul.

CerthTranslit.IPA CerthTranslit.IPA CerthTranslit.IPA CerthTranslit.IPA
p/p/ zh/ʒ/ l/l/ e/e/
b/b/ ks/ks/
f/f/ k/k/ nd/nd/ a/a/
v/v/ g/ɡ/ s/s/
hw/ʍ/ kh/x/ o/o/
m/m/ gh/ɣ/ ŋ/ŋ/
mb/mb/ n/n/ ng/ŋɡ/  or ö/œ/
t/t/ kw/kʷ/ n/n/
d/d/ gw/ɡʷ/ i/i/ h/h/
th/θ/ khw/xʷ/ y/j/  or /ə/
dh/ð/ ghw/ɣʷ/ hy/j̊/ or /ç/  or /ʌ/
r/r/ ngw/ŋɡʷ/ u/u/ ps/ps/
ch/tʃ/ nw/nʷ/ z/z/ ts/ts/
j/dʒ/ g/ɡ/ w/w/ +h/◌ʰ/
sh/ʃ/ gh/ɣ/  or ü/y/ &

Angerthas Erebor also features combining diacritics:

  • a circumflex used to denote long consonants;
  • a macron below to indicate a long vowel sound;
  • an underdot to mark cirth used as numerals. As a matter of fact, in the Book of Mazarbul some cirth are used as numerals: for 1, for 2, for 3, for 4, for 5.
The bottom inscription of Balin's tomb is written in English using the Angerthas Erebor. It reads left-to-right: "Balin sʌn ov Fu[nd]in lord ov Moria"

The Angerthas Erebor is used twice in The Lord of the Rings to write in English:

  1. in the upper inscription of the title page, where it reads "[dh]ə·lord·ov·[dh]ə·riŋs·translatᵊd·from·[dh]ə·red·b[oo]k' ..." (the sentence follows in the bottom inscription, written in Tengwar: "... of Westmarch by John Ronald Reuel Tolkien. Herein is set forth/ the history of the War of the Ring and the Return of the King as seen by the Hobbits.");
  2. in the bottom inscription of Balin's tomb—being the translation of the upper inscription, which is written in Khuzdul using Angerthas Moria.

The Book of Mazarbul shows some additional cirth used in Angerthas Erebor: one for a double l ligature, one for the definite article, and six for the representation of the same number of English diphthongs:

CerthEnglish spelling
ll
the[A]
ai, ay
au, aw
ea
ee
eu, ew
oa
oo
ou, ow

Notes on Angerthas Erebor

A.^ This certh is a scribal abbreviation used to represent the definite article. Although in English it stands for the, it can assume different values according to the used language.
∗.^ The cirth marked with an asterisk are unique to Angerthas Erebor.

Other runic scripts by Tolkien

The Cirth is not the only runic writing system used by Tolkien in his legendarium. In fact, he devised a great number of runic alphabets, of which only a few others have been published. Some of these are included in the "Appendix on Runes" of The Treason of Isengard (The History of Middle-earth, vol. VII), edited by Christopher Tolkien.[18]

Runes from The Hobbit

According to Tolkien himself, those found in The Hobbit are a form of "English runes" used in lieu of the Dwarvish runes proper.[19] They can be interpreted as an attempt made by Tolkien to adapt the Fuþorc (i.e., the Old English runic alphabet) to the Modern English language.[20]

These runes are basically the same found in Fuþorc, but their sound may change according to their position, just like the letters of the Latin script: the writing mode used by Tolkien is, in this case, mainly orthographic.[21] This means that the system has one rune for each Latin letter, regardless of pronunciation.[21] For example, the rune c can sound /k/ in cover, /s/ in sincere, /ʃ/ in special, and even // in the digraph ch.[22]

A few sounds are instead written with the same rune, without considering the English spelling. For example, the sound /ɔː/ is always written with the rune whether in English it is spelt o as in north, a as in fall, or oo as in door. The only two letters that are subject to this phonemic spelling are a and o.[21]

Finally, there are also some runes which stand for particular English digraphs and diphthongs.[19][21]

Here the runes used in The Hobbit are displayed along with their Fuþorc counterpart and corresponding English grapheme:

RuneFuþorcEnglish grapheme RuneFuþorcEnglish grapheme
phonemic[i] r
s
b t
c u, v
d w
e x
f, ph y
g z[iii]
h th
i, j ea
[ii]k st
l ee
m ng
n eo
phonemic[i] [ii]oo
p [ii]sh

Notes:

  1. ^ This table summarises the transcription of English a and o in runes:[21]
English grapheme Sound value
(IPA)
Rune
a /æ/
every other sound
/ɔː/
o every sound
oo /ɔː/
every other sound
  1. ^ The three runes , , and were invented by Tolkien and are not attested in real-life Fuþorc.
  2. ^ According to Tolkien, this is a "dwarf-rune" which "may be used if required" as an addendum to the English runes.[19]
  3. Tolkien commonly writes the English digraph wh (pronounced [ʍ] in some varieties of English) as hw.
  4. There is no rune to transliterate q: the digraph qu (representing the sound [kʷw], like in queen) is always written as cw, reflecting the Anglo-Saxon spelling cƿ.

Gondolinic runes

Not all the runes mentioned in The Hobbit are Dwarf-runes. The swords found in the Trolls' cave bore runes that Gandalf allegedly could not read. In fact, the swords Glamdring and Orcrist (which were forged in the ancient kingdom of Gondolin) bore a type of letters known as Gondolinic runes. They seem to have become obsolete and been forgotten by the Third Age, and this is supported by Tolkien writing that only Elrond could still read the inscriptions of the swords.[19]

Tolkien devised this runic alphabet in a very early stage of his shaping of Middle-earth. Nevertheless, they are known to us from a slip of paper written by J. R. R. Tolkien, a photocopy of which Christopher Tolkien sent to Paul Nolan Hyde in February 1992. Hyde then published it, together with an extensive analysis, in the 1992 Summer issue of Mythlore, no. 69.[23]

The system provides sounds not found in any of the known Elven languages of the First Age, but perhaps it was designed for a variety of languages. However, the consonants seem to be, more or less, the same found in Welsh phonology, a theory supported by the fact that Tolkien was heavily influenced by Welsh when creating Elven languages.[24]

Consonants
Labial Dentals Palatal Dorsal Glottal
RuneIPA RuneIPA RuneIPA RuneIPA RuneIPA RuneIPA RuneIPA
Plosive p/p/ t/t/ k (c)/k/
b/b/ d/d/ g/ɡ/
Fricative f/f/ þ/θ/ s/s/ š/ʃ/ χ/x/ h/h/
v/v/ ð/ð/ z/z/ ž/ʒ/
Affricate tš (ch)/t͡ʃ/
dž (j)/d͡ʒ/
Nasal m/m/ n/n/ ŋ/ŋ/
(mh)/m̥/ χ̃/n̥/? (ŋh)/ŋ̊/
Trill r/r/
rh/r̥/
Lateral l/l/

lh/ɬ/
Approximant
j (i̯)/j/ w (u̯)/w/
ƕ/ʍ/
Vowels
RuneTranslit.IPA RuneTranslit.IPA RuneTranslit.IPA RuneTranslit.IPA RuneTranslit.IPA
a/a/ e/ɛ/ i/i/ o/ɔ/ u/u/
ā/aː/ ē/eː/ ī/iː/ ō/oː/ ū/uː/
æ/æ/ œ/œ/ y/y/
ǣ/æː/ œ̄/œː/
ȳ/yː/

Encoding schemes

Unicode

Equivalents for some (but not all) cirth can be found in the Runic block of Unicode.

Tolkien's mode of writing Modern English in Anglo-Saxon runes received explicit recognition with the introduction of his three additional runes to the Runic block with the release of Unicode 7.0, in June 2014. The three characters represent the English k, oo and sh graphemes, as follows:

  • U+16F1 RUNIC LETTER K
  • U+16F2 RUNIC LETTER SH
  • U+16F3 RUNIC LETTER OO

A formal Unicode proposal to encode Cirth as a separate script was made in September 1997 by Michael Everson.[25] No action was taken by the Unicode Technical Committee (UTC) but Cirth appears in the Roadmap to the SMP.[26]

ConScript Unicode Registry

Cirth
RangeU+E080..U+E0FF
(128 code points)
PlaneBMP
ScriptsArtificial Scripts
Major alphabetsCirth
Assigned109 code points
Unused19 reserved code points
Source standardsCSUR
Note: Part of the Private-Use Area, font conflicts possible

Unicode Private Use Area layouts for Cirth are defined at the ConScript Unicode Registry (CSUR)[27] and the Under-ConScript Unicode Registry (UCSUR).[28]

Two different layouts are defined by the CSUR/UCSUR:

  • 1997-11-03 proposal[29] implemented by fonts like GNU Unifont[30] and Code2000.
  • 2000-04-22 discussion paper[31][32] implemented by fonts like Constructium and Fairfax.

Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols below instead of Cirth.

Cirth (1997)[1][2]
ConScript Unicode Registry 1997 code chart
 0123456789ABCDEF
U+E08x
U+E09x
U+E0Ax
U+E0Bx
U+E0Cx
U+E0Dx
U+E0Ex      
U+E0Fx
Notes
1.^ As of 1997-11-03 version (differs from 2000-04-22 proposal)
2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points
Cirth (2000)[1][2]
ConScript Unicode Registry 2000 proposal
 0123456789ABCDEF
U+E08x
U+E09x
U+E0Ax
U+E0Bx
U+E0Cx
U+E0Dx
U+E0Ex
U+E0Fx
Notes
1.^ As of 2000-04-22 proposal (differs from 1997-11-03 version)
2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

References

  1. Simek, Rudolf (2005). Mittelerde: Tolkien und die germanische Mythologie [Middle-earth: Tolkien and Germanic Mythology] (in German). C. H. Beck. pp. 155–156. ISBN 3-406-52837-6.
  2. Smith, Arden R. (1997). "The semiotics of the writing systems of Tolkien's Middle-earth". In Rauch, Irmengard; Carr, Gerald F. (eds.). Semiotics Around the World: Synthesis in Diversity. Proceedings of the Fifth Congress of the International Association for Semiotic Studies, Berkeley, 1994. 1. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 1239–1242. ISBN 3-11-012223-5.
  3. Tolkien, J. R. R. (1955). The Return of the King – Being the Third Part of The Lord of the Rings; Appendix E. London: George Allen & Unwin.
  4. "Sindarin Words: certh". eldamo.org. Retrieved 2019-03-31.
  5. "Sindarin Words: certhas". eldamo.org. Retrieved 2019-03-31.
  6. "Sindarin Words: angerthas". eldamo.org. Retrieved 2019-05-11.
  7. Tolkien, J.R.R. (2015-06-12). "The Feanorian Alphabet (Part 1) and Quenya Verb Structure: Qenya Grammar – Spelling and Transcription". Parma Eldalamberon (22): 66. q (kw) consists of a lip-rounded followed by a partly unvoiced w-offglide (more marked medially than initially).
  8. Tolkien, J.R.R. (2015-06-12). "The Feanorian Alphabet (Part 1) and Quenya Verb Structure: Qenya Grammar – Spelling and Transcription". Parma Eldalamberon (22): 66. gw which only occurs in the medial group ngw is the voiced counterpart: a lip-rounded ɡ̊ followed by a w-offglide.
  9. Tolkien, J. R. R. (2015-06-12). "The Feanorian Alphabet (Part 1) and Quenya Verb Structure: On Ælfwine's Spelling". Parma Eldalamberon (22): 67. But he knew the old sign for 'nasal ṽ' and sometimes represents this (espec. where it is an initial variant on m) by mh.
  10. Tolkien, J. R. R. (2015-06-12). "The Feanorian Alphabet (Part 1) and Quenya Verb Structure: Qenya Grammar – Spelling and Transcription". Parma Eldalamberon (22): 66. ty is pronounced as a 'front explosive' [c], as e.g. Hungarian ty; but it is followed by an appreciable partly unvoiced y-offglide.
  11. "Quenya pronunciation". RealElvish.net. Retrieved 2019-05-07.
  12. Tolkien, J. R. R. (2015-06-12). "The Feanorian Alphabet (Part 1) and Quenya Verb Structure: Qenya Grammar – Spelling and Transcription". Parma Eldalamberon (22): 66. dy was formerly the voiced counterpart [ɟ] followed by a y-offglide.
  13. Tolkien, J. R. R. (2015-06-12). "The Feanorian Alphabet (Part 1) and Quenya Verb Structure: Qenya Grammar – Spelling and Transcription". Parma Eldalamberon (22): 65. hy is an audibly spirant voiceless y, that is approximately [ç] as ch in German ich.
  14. Tolkien, J. R. R. (2015-06-12). "The Feanorian Alphabet (Part 1) and Quenya Verb Structure: Qenya Grammar – Spelling and Transcription". Parma Eldalamberon (22): 66. dy ... only occurred in the group ndy, which has become simplified to ny.
  15. Tolkien, J. R. R. (2015-06-12). "The Feanorian Alphabet (Part 1) and Quenya Verb Structure: Qenya Grammar – Spelling and Transcription". Parma Eldalamberon (22): 66. n in ny is 'palatal n' but followed by (cf. ty) a y-offglide, more marked medially (where ny counts as a group), less so initially).
  16. "Amanye Tenceli: Tengwar - The Classical mode". Amanye Tenceli. Retrieved 2021-01-02. ñwalme > nwalme. Only used for initial nw, which developed from ñw. Other occurrences of nw (originating in n + w) are written númen + vilya.
  17. Amram, Tess (2015). Aglab Khazad: The Secret Language of Tolkien's Dwarves (PDF) (BA). Swarthmore College.
  18. Hyde, Paul Nolan (Summer 1990). "Quenti Lambardillion: Runing on Empty: Charting a New Course". Mythlore. 16 (4, no. 62).
  19. Tolkien, J.R.R. (1937). The Hobbit. London: George Allen & Unwin.
  20. Smith, Arden R. "Writing Systems". The Tolkien Estate. Retrieved December 30, 2020. The runic alphabet used on Thror's Map and elsewhere in The Hobbit is not the Angerthas, but is rather the futhorc used by the Anglo-Saxons in England over a thousand years ago, adapted by Tolkien for the representation of modern English.
  21. Lindberg, Per (2016-11-27). "Tolkien English Runes" (PDF). forodrim.org. Retrieved 2019-03-27.
  22. Tolkien, J.R.R. (November 30, 1947). "Letter 112". Letter to Katherine Farrer. Retrieved December 31, 2020.
  23. Hyde, Paul Nolan (July 1992). "Quenti Lambardillion: The 'Gondolinic Runes': Another Picture". Mythlore. 18 (3, no. 69).
  24. "Study explores JRR Tolkien's Welsh influences". BBC. 2011-05-21. Retrieved 2019-03-27.
  25. Everson, Michael (1997-09-18). "N1642: Proposal to encode Cirth in Plane 1 of ISO/IEC 10646-2". Working Group Document, ISO/IEC JTC1/SC2/WG2 and UTC. Retrieved 2015-08-08.
  26. "Roadmap to the SMP". Unicode.org. 2015-06-03. Retrieved 2015-08-08.
  27. "ConScript Unicode Registry". Evertype.com. Retrieved 2015-08-08.
  28. "Under-ConScript Unicode Registry". Retrieved 2015-08-08.
  29. "Cirth: U+E080U+E0FF". ConScript Unicode Registry. 1997-11-03. Retrieved 2015-08-08.
  30. "GNU Unifont". Unifoundry.com. Retrieved 2015-07-24.
  31. Everson, Michael (2000-04-22). "X.X Cirth 1xx00–1xx7F" (PDF). Retrieved 2015-08-08.
  32. "Cirth, Range: E080–E0FF" (PDF). Under-ConScript Unicode Registry. 2008-04-14. Retrieved 2015-08-08.
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