Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and Transport

The Brihanmumbai Electricity Supply and Transport (BEST) is a civic transport and electricity provider public body based in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. It was originally set up in 1873 as a tramway company called "Bombay Tramway Company Limited". The company set up a captive thermal power station at the Wadi bunder in November 1905 to generate electricity for its trams and positioned it to also supply electricity to the city and re-branded itself to "Bombay Electric Supply & Tramways (BEST)" Company. In 1926, BEST also became an operator of motor buses. In 1947, the BEST became an undertaking of the Municipal Corporation and rebranded itself to "Bombay Electric Supply & Transport (BEST)". In 1995 the organisation was renamed to "Brihanmumbai Electric Supply & Transport (BEST)" alongside Mumbai. It now operates as an autonomous body under the Municipal Corporation.

Brihanmumbai Electricity Supply and Transport
Formerly1873 as Bombay Tramway Company Limited (Horsecar)
----
1905 as Bombay Electric Supply & Tramways Company Limited (BEST) (Tramways and Electricity)
----
1947 as Bombay Electric Supply and Transport (BEST) (Transport and Electricity)
----
1995 as Brihanmumbai Electric Supply & Transport (BEST) (Transport and Electricity)
TypeAutonomous State-owned enterprise
IndustryPublic transport -
Tram (1873–1964),
Trolleybus (1962-1971),
Bus (1926–present)
----
Electricity (1905–present)
FoundedMumbai (1873)
HeadquartersElectric House, Colaba, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
Key people
Lokesh Chandra , GM; Chairman - Ashish Chemburkar
Revenue 2,353.4 million ($538.7m USD) (2004)
₹620.4 million. ($14.2m USD) (2004)
Number of employees
44000 (2005)
ParentMunicipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai
Websitewww.bestundertaking.com

BEST operates one of India's largest fleets of buses. The bus transport service covers the entire city and also extends its operations outside city limits into neighbouring urban areas. In addition to buses, it also operates a ferry service in the northern reaches of the city. The electricity division of the organisation is also one of the few electricity departments in India to garner an annual gross profit.

History

1865–1873: Early proposals

The idea of a mass public transport system for Bombay was first put forward in 1865 by an American company, which applied for a licence to operate a horse-drawn tramway system. Although a licence was granted, the project was never realized due to the prevailing economic depression in the city due to the end of the American Civil War, during which Bombay had made vast strides in its economy by supplying cotton and textiles to the world market. On 27 November 1871, a notice in the Times of India newspaper found to be too expensive and the tender was promptly abandoned.

1873–1905: Bombay Tramway Company Limited, introduction of horse-drawn trams

The "Bombay Tramway Company Limited" was formally set up in 1873. After a contract was entered into between the Bombay Tramway Company, the municipality and Stearns and Kitteredge company, the Bombay Presidency enacted "The Bombay Tramways Act, 1874", under which the company was licensed to run a horsecar tramway service in the city.[1] On 9 May 1874, the first horse-drawn tram made its début in the city, plying on the Colaba–Pydhone via Crawford Market, and Bori Bunder to Pydhonie via Kalbadevi routes. The initial fare was three annas (15 paise) , and no tickets were issued. As the service became increasingly popular, the fare was reduced to two annas (10 paise). Later that year, tickets were issued for the first time to curb increasing ticketless travel.[2] Stearns and Kitteredge reportedly had a stable of 900 horses when tram service began.

In 1882 the municipality entered into an agreement with the Eastern Electric Light and Power Company to provide electric lighting in the Crawford Market and on some of the roads. But the company went into liquidation the following year and the market reverted to gas lighting. In 1899, Bombay Tramway Company applied to the municipality, for operation of electrically operated trams. Due to the high investment required, the company suggested that the Bombay Municipal Corporation (BMC) should waive its right to take over the tramways, which was to take place in 1901 according to the Bombay Tramways Act. Instead, the BMC decided to take over the company, but was met with several legal problems. In 1904 the British Electric Traction Company (England) applied for a license to supply electricity to the city. The "Brush Electrical Engineering Company" was its agent. It got "The Bombay Electric License" on 31 July 1905 signed by Bombay Tramways Company, the Bombay Municipality and its agent, the Brush Electrical Company.

1905–1947: Bombay Electric Supply & Tramway Company Limited, introduction of electric trams and buses

City's first electric tram in 1907
Gas lamps of the early 20th century

In 1905, "Bombay Electric Supply & Tramway Company Limited" (B.E.S.T.) was formed. The B.E.S.T. Company was granted the monopoly for electric supply and the running of an electric tram service in the city. It bought the assets of the Bombay Tramway Company for Rs.9,850,000.[3] Two years later in 1907, the first electric tram debuted in the city. Later that year, a 4,300 kilowatts (5,800 hp) steam power generator was commissioned at Wari Bunder. In 1916, the Tata Power group began purchasing power and by 1925, all power generation was outsourced from Tata.[4] The passing years aggravated the problem of rush-hour traffic and to ease the situation, double-decker trams were introduced in September 1920.

The city's first bus in 1926.

Since 1913, the company had been pondering over starting a motorised bus service. The main factor against its introduction was the high accident rate for a similar service in London. After years of debate, the company came to a decision on 10 February 1926, to start a bus service later that year. Bombay saw its first bus run on 15 July 1926 between Afghan Church and Crawford Market. The people of Bombay received the bus with enthusiasm, but it took some time before this means of conveyance really established itself. Despite stiff opposition and protests by taxi drivers, the service ran without a hitch, transporting 600,000 passengers by the end of that year. The following year the number had increased to 3.8 million. For several years, it was looked upon as transport for the upper-middle class. Those were the days when the tram was the poor man's transport; it carried one all the way from the Sassoon Docks to Dadar. The bus fare for the same journey was 25 paise. In response to the pleas made by the Government and the Bombay Municipal Corporation, the company extended its services to the northern part of the city in 1934. The Indian independence movement's call for mass non-violent strikes and general civil disobedience led to regular service disruptions, leading to the company incurring huge losses in 1929. The next year was a particular bad year for the company in the wake of the Great Depression. To remain solvent, the company decided to introduce discounted fares for short routes, and increase its coverage to the northern portions of the city. In 1937, the introduction of double-decker buses proved to be extremely popular.

City's first double-decker tram in 1920

1947–1995: Bombay Electric Supply & Transport, further expansion

Pursuant to the option given to it under the deed of concession granted to the Bombay Electric Supply and Tramways Co. Ltd, the BMC acquired the assets of the combined undertaking, namely the operation of tramways and distribution of electricity in the city of Bombay as a going concern on 7 August 1947. By mutual agreement, the corporation also took over the operation of the bus services, which was run by the Bombay Electric Supply & Transport Company. Thus, "Bombay Electric Supply & Tramways Company" was renamed "Bombay Electric Supply & Transport".[5][6]

As the company grew, it increased its fleet from 242 to 582 buses over the next decade. In 1949, it took over the Bandra Bus Company, which used to ply buses in the suburbs.[7] In 1951, the electricity division switched over from direct current (DC) to the more efficient alternating current (AC). The company launched its services in the eastern suburbs in 1955. That year, the Undertaking and private operators went to court with BEST asking for a complete closure of the private companies. The case dragged on for four years before the Supreme Court of India granted the organisation a complete monopoly over bus services in the Greater Bombay area. In 1964, due to high operational costs and poor public support, its long-running tram services were terminated.[8] The company became the first company in the country to issue computerised billing in 1974. In 1994, the company introduced electronic meters in a move to replace the less accurate electric meters.

1995–present: Brihanmumbai Electric Supply & Transport, recent developments

With the renaming of the city from Bombay to Mumbai in 1995, the organization was renamed to "Brihanmumbai Electric Supply & Transport (BEST)". Following a Supreme Court directive, the company gradually phased out old buses and introduced new buses which complied with the Euro III pollution control standards.[9] On 19 November 2004, route SPL-8 travelling from Churchgate to the World Trade Centre had started accepting cashless smart cards for automatic fare collection in BEST buses. BEST currently has over 3000 buses in its fleet and plans to increase the number of buses.

After the 9/11 bombings, BEST had installed an audio-visual surveillance system (CCTV) on each of its buses to monitor suspicious behavior on-board its vehicles but it is no longer done. Almost all buses had two LCD TVs per bus which showed BEST TV but it was discontinued. BEST had introduced A/C Cerita services on certain routes but due to high maintenance it got discontinued.

The A/C bus "AS-4" from Oshiwara Depot to Backbay Depot was the route with the highest revenue for BEST.

A new era for BEST began in 2019 when it revised its fare and increased bus fleet by inducting non-AC and AC buses on wet lease. Passenger numbers which were all time low started to increase and in 2020 it achieved its passenger numbers which it had in 2012. Since 2019, BEST revenue has also improved, however it is still not in profit.

Organisational structure

Management structure of BEST

The company is headed by a general manager, currently Lokesh Chandra.

The transport department is overseen by a "Deputy General Manager (Traffic Operations)" who is assisted by the "Chief Manager (Traffic)." The 'Chief Manager (Traffic)' oversees the five BEST zones, each headed by a 'Dy. Chief Manager (traffic)'. Each zone consists of 7 to 8 depots, whose operations are overseen by an 'assistant general manager (Traffic Operation)'. A 'Depot Manager' or 'Dy. Depot Manager' heads each depot.[10]

The electricity department is headed by a "Deputy General Manager (Electric Supply)' (DGM (ES))," who is assisted by an "Assistant General Manager (Electric Supply)" (AGM (ES)), and is in charge of planning, new projects, construction, street lighting, computer applications and the generation cell. The "Chief Engineer – Electric Supply" (CEES) is in-charge of material testing and the Standards, Meters and Relays and the Review departments. Two "Chief Engineer – Distribution" (CED) officials manage the two administrative zones.[11]

BEST enjoys a high degree of autonomy under the BMC; the latter approves its yearly budget and permits increases in bus fares when required. A body of 17 municipal corporate officials from the ruling party in the BMC form the BEST committee. The committee, headed by a chairman, keeps a tab on the undertaking's daily operations.[12] The committee has a staggered two-year term.

Transport department

Rolling stock and Depot

BEST uses primarily CNG and a handful of conventional diesel buses. As of January 2021, the BEST has a fleet of approximately 3800 buses.[13] The fleet comprises 200 single-decker diesel buses, 2400 CNG buses, 25 AC hybrid buses, 1000 AC Mini & Midi buses, 100 electric ac & non ac buses and 120 double-decker buses. Please note due to 15 year old scrap policy and continuous new purchases of buses the numbers are varying. The diesel buses are being scrapped and being replaced by new CNG and electric buses. BEST also have goods carrier buses, break-down vans, blue coloured sightseeing and party buses, tree cutting double decker buses and driving school buses which are used to train drivers. All buses are tagged with a route number and its corresponding destination. They are displayed in the front in Marathi and on the side in English. All buses have GPS devices installed which give real time information about arrival to management as well as passengers. Inside the bus there are LED indicators displaying route and destination as well as upcoming stop name in Marathi and English. The newer wet leased buses have cctv cameras installed but the older buses do not have cctv cameras.[14] All unit overhauling, repairing of body damages, tyre cut repairs, plant and equipment installation and repairs, and reclamation activities are carried out in the workshop. There are roughly 4,500 to 5,000 bus stops in Mumbai Metropolitan Region. Some of them are equipped with bus ETA system. The bus stops are of two types, shelter and pole. All bus stops have route numbers which stop and stop name in Marathi and English. They even have a unique code on all stops. Each bus has a unique number and depot code assigned to it. The depot codes are mentioned below.

Mostly all BEST buses are painted in standard original red colour with "BEST" logo in English and Marathi. There are different coloured stripes on these buses to indicated some features and type of fuel the bus uses. The following are the different stripes and its meaning :-

1. Yellow and Green strip- it indicates the bus is run on CNG.

2. Grey strip- it indicates the bus is run on Diesel. (These types are almost scrapped)

3. White strip- these are also run on diesel but are procured under MUTP-II and MUTP-III. (By 2023 these types will be scrapped)

4. Silver strip- it indicates the bus is electric powered.

5. Black, Yellow and Green strip- it indicates that a AC CNG bus is converted into non AC CNG bus. (They were earlier Purple coloured King Long AC buses)

Best has some special livery buses too with BEST logo on it.

1. Full grey coloured "Safety is our Motto" in red or white text livery.

2. Yellow and Black livery to indicate that the bus is hybrid and given by MMRDA.

3. Yellow and Pink livery to indicate ladies special 'Tejaswini' buses.

A BEST AC mini-bus

Until BEST was taken over by the municipality, only the Colaba depot was available for the maintenance of buses and minor repairs. As the fleet grew, more depots were needed. In 1961 the fleet comprised 1045 buses. Six new depots were constructed for their maintenance. The Wadala depot was equipped for the maintenance of 300 buses. At this time it was the largest depot in Asia. After this, the authorities decided that no depot should be called on to look after more than 125 to 150 buses after taking long maintenance times into account. Accordingly, small depots were built at convenient spots in the city and its suburbs. The most recent depot was Kalakilla and Malad. Each depot is a work center that provides bus services effectively every day, carries out preventive maintenance, as well as repairs on buses. Depots carry out maintenance practices such as preventive maintenance, unit replacement, RTO passing, body damage repairs of buses. BEST buses are operated out of the 27 bus depot located in four zones viz. City, Central, Western, Eastern & Suburban zones.[15][16]

In late 2019, BEST began operating air-conditioned mini-buses and midi-buses that were hired on a wet lease. BEST also plans to increase its fleet size to 6,00 buses by 2022.[17][18][19]

BEST Bus Depot List and Routes operated from each depot
No Depot Name in English Depot Name in Marathi Depot Code Inauguration Address Bus Route No. Bus Stations Major Operations
City Zone
1 Colaba कुलाबा C Electric House, Colaba, Mumbai 2L, 6L, 22L, 103, 111, 113, 122, Fort Ferry 2, 1SPL, 4SPL Colaba Depot, Chht. Shivaji Terminus, Ballard Pier Colaba, Chht. Shivaji Terminus, Fort, Churchgate, Malabar Hill, Andheri (E), Mahul
2 Backbay बॅकबे BB 1976 Cuffe Parade Road, Backbay, Mumbai 3, 9, 25L, 45, 100, 106, 108, 112, 114, 120, 121, 132, 133, 134, 136, 137, 138, 139, 8SPL, 9SPL Backbay Depot, Navy Nagar, Colaba Bus Stn., Ahilyabai Holkar Chk. Backbay, Nariman Point, Churchgate, Byculla, Colaba, Antop Hill, Sion, Mantralaya, Malabar Hill, Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Terminus, Gateway of India, Charni Road, Opera House, Tardeo, Sewree
3 Mumbai Central मुंबई सेंट्रल CN 1950 Morland Road, Byculla, Mumbai 30L, 42, 48, 49, 63, 68, 102, 104, 105, 123, 126, 130, 135, 154, 155, 156, 157, 166, 351 Mumbai Central Depot, Ferry Wharf, Jijamata Udyan, Vasantrao Naik Chk., Byculla Stn. [W], Mumbai Central, Tardeo, Byculla, Mazgaon, Walkeshwar, Chembur, Vikhroli, Malabar Hill, Ferry Wharf, August Kranti Maidan, Mazgaon, Mahul, Chunabhatti, Mahalakshmi, Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Terminus, Grant Road, Pydhonie, Navy Nagar, Mantralaya, Tardeo, Fort, Worli, Cumbala Hill, Antop Hill
4 Worli वरळी WR 1961 Off A. B. Road, Worli, Mumbai 27, 44, 50, 56, 82, 89, 110, 124, 125, 161, 162, 167, 171 Worli Depot, Worli Village, Com. P. K. Kurne Chk. Worli, Dadar (W), Prabhadevi, Parel, Mulund (W), Fort, Ferry Wharf, Versova, Mantralaya, Wadala (E), Colaba, Navy Nagar, Sewree, Prabhadevi Stn (W), Antop Hill
5 Wadala वडाळा W 1961 Tilak Road, Opp. Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar College, Wadala, Mumbai 16L, 40L, 57, 69, 77, 151, 168, 174, 212, 213, 217, 241, 411, 440L, 453L, 504L, 526L Wadala Depot, P. Thakre Udyan Wadala, Dadar (E), Sewree, Chandivali (Andheri (E)), Parel, Worli, Kharghar (Jalvayu Vihar), Malabar Hill, Fort, Reay Road, Antop Hill, Dadar (W), Bandra (W), Borivali (E), Chembur, Santacruz (E), Malvani, Thane
Central Suburb Zone
6 Marol मरोळ M 1968 Central Road, MIDC, Marol, Andheri (E), Mumbai 22L, 35, 186, 307, 328, 334, 335, 337, 338, 340, 434, 435, 443, 491L, 522L, 545L, 706L, A333, A335, A337, A338, A340, A441, A442, A443, A434 Marol Depot, Agarkar Chowk, Marol Maroshi Bus Stn. Andheri (E), Marol, Chandivali, Sahar, Maroshi, Vashi Rly Stn, Airoli Bus Stn, Bhayandar Rly Station (E), Colaba Depot, Worli, Powai, Mulund (W), Versova, Ghatkopar (W), Sahar, Thane (W)
7 Dharavi धारावी DH 1980 Bandra-Sion Link Road, Dharavi, Mumbai 11L, 87L, 164, 165, 173, 303, 310, 311, 316, 317, 413, BKC-1, BKC-3, BKC-10, BKC-11, BKC-12, BKC-13, BKC-16, BKC-21, BKC-22, BKC-23 Dharavi Depot, Bandra Rly Ter [E], Bandra Colony Bus Stn., Santacruz Rly Stn (E) Bandra (E), BKC, Sion, Dharavi, Kharghar (Jalvayu Vihar), Navy Nagar, Mantralaya, Mazgaon, Bhuleshwar, Mulund (E), Kurla (W), Santacruz (E), Kalina, Borivali (E), Thane (Hiranandani Estate), Mulund (Maharana Pratap Chowk)
8 KalaKilla काळाकिल्ला KK 31.01.2016 Bandra-Sion Link Road, Dharavi, Mumbai 52, 66, 302, 352, 463, C42Exp, C71Exp, C72Exp KalaKilla Depot, Dharavi Depot, Bandra Rly Ter [E], Bandra Colony Bus Stn. Bandra (E), BKC, Sion, Cotton Green, Dharavi, Dadar (W), Colaba, Ballard Pier, Mulund (W), Trombay, Mira Road Rly Stn (E), Bhayander Rly Station (E)
9 Magathane मागाठणे MT 1992 Near Tata Steel, Western Express Highway, Borivali (E), Mumbai-400066. 209, 297, 298, 301, 477, 498L, 524L, 698, 700L, 702L, 709L, 710L Magathane Depot, Borivali Stn. [E], Samata Nagar Chandivali (Andheri (E)), Borivali (E), Dahisar (E), Vashi (APMC Market), Kandivali (E), Thane, Mira Road Rly Station (E), Bhayandar Rly Station (E)
10 Dindoshi दिंडोशी DIN 1985 Film City Road, Dindoshi, Mumbai 282, 287, 288, 289, 300, 326, 327, 342, 343, 344, 346, 347, 349, 398L, 447, 451, 452, 523L, 525L, 601, 624, 646, 701L, 705L, 718L, A624 Dindoshi Depot, Goregaon Stn [E], Kandivali Bus Stn., Shivshahi Prakalp, N.N.P, Gokuldham Kandivali (E), Malad (E), Kurla (W), Mulund (W), Goregaon (E), Vashi (APMC Market), Millennium Business Park (MBP) (Mahape), Mira Road Rly Stn (E), Mira Road (E), Bhayandar Rly Station (E)
11 Majas मजास MJ 15.08.1995 J.V.L.R, Jogeshwari (E), Mumbai 39, 264, 308, 332, 333, 392, 415, 428, 441, 442, 491L, 492L, 496L Majas Depot, Seepz Bus Stn., Satbhakti Mandir Jogeshwari (E), Andheri (E), Seepz, Worli, Vidya Vihar (W), Kurla (W), Sahar Airport, Vikhroli (W), Bhandup (W), Thane (W)
12 Kurla कुर्ला K 1955 L.B.S. Road, Kurla (W), Mumbai 37, 62, 306L, 310, 313, 318, 320, 322, 323, 330L, 332, 365, 426, 446, 507L, 517L, 613, 618, 632 Kurla Stn. [W], Santacruz Stn. [E], Vidyavihar Bus Stn. Santacruz (E), Kurla (W), BKC, Vidyavihar (W), Malabar Hill, Dadar (W), Mulund (W), Santacruz (E), Bandra (E), Vihar Lake, Vile Parle (E), Andheri (E), Andheri (W), Sahar Cargo Complex, Nerul Bus Stn, Vashi (APMC Market)
Western Suburb Zone
13 Bandra वांद्रे BN 1980 Bandra Rly Stn (W), Mumbai 1, 61, 86, 211, 214, 215, 220, 225, 321L, 422, 473, 505L, C55Exp, A211 Bandra Bus Stn. [W], Mahim Bus Stn., Bandra Reclamation Bus Stn. Bandra (W), Bandra (E), Khar (W), Mahim (W), CBD Belapur Bus Stn, Colaba, Fort, Backbay Depot, Dahisar (E), Ghatkopar (W), Mulund (W), Trombay
14 Santacruz सांताक्रूझ S 1950 Swami Vivekanand Road, Santacruz (W), Mumbai 1L, 28, 51, 80L, 81L, 83, 224, 229, 231, 339, 356L, 627, C12EXP Santacruz Depot, Juhu Vile Parle Bus Stn., Santacruz Stn. [W] Santacruz (W), Khar (W), JVPD, Juhu, Dahisar, Colaba, Fort, Malabar Hill, Churchgate, Vile Parle (W), Borivali (W), Jogeshwari (E), Chembur (E), Juhu
15 Goregaon गोरेगांव GG 1978 Near Motilal Nagar, Goregaon (W), Mumbai 32, 33, 201, 203, 204, 205, 234, 258, 261, 265, 424, 425, 454, 469L, 707L Goregaon Depot, Goregaon Bus Stn., Jogeshwari Bus Stn. Goregaon (W), Girgaon, Jogeshwari (W), Sewri, Dahisar (W), Juhu, Andheri (W), Mulund (W), Bhandup (W), Goregaon (E), Bhayandar Rly Stn (E)
16 Oshiwara ओशिवरा OSH 1990 Oshiwara Village, Goregaon (W), Mumbai 4L, 84L, 200, 221, 223L, 235, 242, 248, 251, 252, 254, 257, 266, A4, A235, A251, A254, A266 Oshiwara Depot, Andheri Stn. [W], Yari Road Bus Stn. Jogeshwari (W), Andheri (W), Versova, Fort, Byculla, Kandivali (E)
17 Poisar पोयसर P & PSR 1966 Swami Vivekanand Road, Kandivali (W), Mumbai 203, 210L, 239, 246, 276, 277, 278, 280, 281, 286, 290L Poisar Depot, Kandivali Stn. [W] Kandivali (W), Borivali (W), Dahisar (W), Juhu, Malwani, Malad (E), Andheri (E)
18 Gorai गोराई GR & GOR 29.01.1996 Lokmanya Tilak Road, Gorai, Mumbai 79, 202L, 206, 208, 226L, 240, 245, 247, 259, 269, 294, 309L, 345, 460L, 461L Gorai Depot, Borivali Stn. [W], P. Thakre Nagar Bus Stn., Kandharpada Bus Stn. Gorai, Borivali (W), Dahisar (W), Dahisar (E), Mulund (W), Mahim (W)
19 Malvani मालवणी MLV 26.01.1991 Malvani, Malad (W), Mumbai 180, 207, 241, 256, 273, 359L, 456, 459L, 720L Malvani Depot, Madh Jetty, Marve Malad (W), Malvani, Madh, Mulund (W)
20 Malad मालाड MLD 01.04.2014 Chincholi Bunder, Malad (W), Mumbai 243, 262, 270, 271, 272, 458L, 620, 621, 622 Malad Depot, Malad Stn. (W), Malad Stn. [E] Malad (W), Malad (E), Thane
Eastern Suburb Zone
21 Anik आणिक A 1988 Salt-pan Road, Wadala, Mumbai. 5, 58, 59, 60, 75, 85, 312, 348L, 360, 361, 362, 363, 367, 369, 377, 431, 432, 501L Anik Depot, Nehru Nagar Bus Stn., Chunabhatti Kurla (E), Sion, Anik, Mahul Village, Dahisar (E), Trombay, Airoli, Churchgate, Wadala (E), Dadar, Mazgaon, Sion, Cuffe Parade
22 Prateeksha Nagar प्रतीक्षानगर PN 1996 Salt-pan Road, Wadala, Mumbai 14, 15, 43, 67, 76, 88, 166, 169, 172, 255L, 312, 341, 448L Prateeksha Nagar Depot, Antop Hill, Antop Hill Extn. Antop Hill, Wadala (E), Matunga (E), Borivali (E), Colaba, Churchgate, Mazgaon, Malabar Hill,
23 Deonar देवनार D 1969 Sion–Trombay Road, Deonar, Mumbai 21L, 92L, 355L, 364, 380, 382L, 399L, 502L, 506L, 521L, 526L, 663, C21Exp, C50Exp, C60Exp Deonar Depot, Trombay, Anushakti Nagar Chembur (E), Trombay, Mankhurd, Anushakti Nagar, Borivali (E), Govandi (E), Ghansoli, Nerul, Vashi Bus Stn, Cheetah Camp, Fort, Cuffe Parade
24 Shivaji Nagar शिवाजीनगर SN 1998 Govandi, Shivaji Nagar, Mumbai 8L, 19L, 20L, 329, 350, 357, 358, 366, 375L, 376L, 379, 383, 404, 488L, 489L, C8Exp Shivaji Nagar Depot, Shivaji Nagar Ter., Dr. Ambedkar Udyan (Chembur W) Shivaji Nagar, Govandi (W), Chembur (W), Goregaon (E), Dahisar (E), Mumbai Central, Churchgate, Fort
25 Ghatkopar घाटकोपर G 1974 Ghatkopar (E), Mumbai 10L, 185, 305, 325, 354, 381, 385, 388L, 394, 397, 419, 421, 430, 470L, 481, 494L, 499L, 511L, 533L, C53 EXP Ghatkopar Depot, Ghatkopar Stn (E), Ghatkopar Stn (W), Kannamwar Nagar 2 Ghatkopar (W), Ghatkopar (E), Kannamwar Nagar, Vashi (APMC Market), Nerul Bus Stn, Kalamboli Bus Stn, Borivali (E), Fort, Andheri (E), Thane
26 Vikhroli विक्रोळी V 1972 L.B.S Road, Vikroli (W), Mumbai 7L, 331, 386, 387, 410, 418, 478L, 500L, 602, 603, 604, 605, 606, 607, 608, 612 Vikhroli Depot, Bhandup Stn. (W), Kanjurmarg Stn. (W) Vikhroli (W), Bhandup(W), Kanjurmarg (W), Hiranandani Bus Depot, Airoli, Borivali (E), Backbay
27 Mulund मुलुंड MU 1999 Devidayal Road, Mulund (W), Mumbai 368L, 373L, 391, 396L, 402, 403L, 405, 408, 409L, 412, 484L, 487L, 512L, 513L, C-61Exp Mulund Depot, Mulund Stn. (W), Mulund Bus Stn. [W], Mhada Bus Stn. [E] Mulund (W), Thane, Mulund (E), Nahur, Vashi Rly Stn, Nerul Bus Stn, Mira Road Rly Stn (E), Andheri (E), Vile Parle (E)

Bus routes

BEST bus routes are spread citywide and to neighboring cities. BEST operates inter-city services to three areas beyond the municipal limits of Mumbai City; i.e., into the limits of the bordering corporations of Navi Mumbai, Thane, and Mira-Bhayandar. BEST supplements suburban rails, metro rail and monorail in the Mumbai region. It is for this reason that BEST always gives priority for feeder routes over other routes. BEST uses CNG, electric and diesel-powered buses for its operation. BEST introduced Air-conditioned buses in 1998.[20]

The majority of BEST buses consist of ordinary routes. Limited bus services that skip minor stops are used on long routes, high-capacity routes, and routes that provide connectivity beyond Mumbai city. The buses have "LTD" appended to the route number. "C" routes are ultra long routes. 5xx LTD numbered buses connect Navi Mumbai with Mumbai. Some buses like 504 LTD and C 53 EXP plies till Navi Mumbai's Raigad district, also called as South Navi Mumbai, thereby connecting the nodes of Kharghar and Kalamboli. Buses number 4xx mostly like 496 LTD and 497 LTD serve Mulund and Thane and provide the connection to greater Mumbai and buses numbered 6xx LTD and 7xx LTD serves Mira-Bhayander region like 706 LTD and 720 LTD. Buses number 3xx most likely cater to eastern suburbs. Buses number 2xx mostly serve western suburbs. Buses number 1xx mostly serve central suburbs. Bus numbers from 1 to 99 mostly serve south Mumbai.

As of 2021, the BEST runs approximately 3,800 buses,[13][21] ferrying 5 million passengers[22] over 443 routes, and has a workforce strength of 38,000, which includes 22,000 bus drivers and conductors. BEST plans to induct more AC & Non AC buses on wet lease and increase total fleet to 6,000 buses by 2021.

Besides buses, BEST operates a ferry service since 1981 in northern Mumbai, across the Manori Creek. The barges operate at regular intervals across the shallow creek linking Manori to Marve.[23]

The BEST bus service suffered two bombings on 6 December 2002 and 28 July 2003 killing six people. In August 2006, BEST introduced payphone system and CCTVs on its buses as a response to terror attacks on the city's buses and trains.[24]

Mumbai normal bus routes

The following is a list of the bus routes operated by BEST in Mumbai.[25]

Route

number

Origin Destination Notes
1 R.C. Church Bandra Reclamation Bus Station
3 Navy Nagar Jijamata Udyan
5 Mantralaya Kurla Bus Station (E)
9 Colaba Bus Station Antop Hill
14 Dr. Shyama Prasad Mukherjee Chowk Pratiksha Nagar Depot
15 Mantralaya
27 Worli Depot Vaishali Nagar, Mulund (W)
28 Swami Dayanand Swarswati Chowk J.V.P.D. Bus Station
32 Vesave Yari Road Bus Station Goregaon Bus Station (W)
33 Pandit Paluskar Chowk
35 Comrade P.K. Kurne Chowk Marol Maroshi Bus Station
37 J. Mehta Marg Kurla Bus Station (E)
39 Comrade P.K. Kurne Chowk SEEPZ Village
42 Kamala Nerhu Park Noorbaug
43 Maharana Pratap Chowk Pratiksha Nagar Depot
44 Dr. Shyama Prasad Mukherjee Chowk Worli Village
45 Mantralaya M.M.R.D.A Colony (Extension) Mahul
46 Ferry Wharf Dharavi Depot
48 August Kranti Nagar
49 Maharana Pratap Chowk M.M.R.D.A Colony (Extension) Mahul
50 Ferry Wharf Worli Depot
51 Colaba Bus Station Santacruz Depot
52 Sharawan Yeshwante Chowk Dharavi Depot
56 Worli Depot Vesave Yari Road Bus Station
57 Kamala Nehru Park Prabodhankar Thackray Udyan (Sewree)
58 Wadala Truck Terminal Nehru Nagar Bus Station (E)
59 Veer Hutatma Bhai Kotwal Udyan
60 Maharana Pratap Chowk
61 Swami Dayanand Sarswati Chowk Machhimar Nagar Mahim
62 Veer Hutatma Bhai Kotwal Udyan Vidyavihar Bus Station
63 J. Mehta Marg Byculla Station (W)
66 Ballard Pier Rani Lakshmi Chowk Bus Depot
67 Kamala Nerhu Park Antop Hill
68 Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Terminus Sant Gadge Maharaj Chowk
69 Dr. Shyama Prasad Mukherjee Chowk Prabodhankar Thackray Udyan (Sewree)
71 Byculla Station (W) Ram Ganesh Gadkari Chowk
75 Bhakti Park Complex Rani Lakshmi Chowk Bus Depot
76 Mantralaya Pratiksha Nagar Depot
77 J. Mehta Marg Wadala Depot
79 Machhimar Nagar Mahim Gorai Depot
82 Mantralaya Worli Depot
83 Colaba Bus Station Santacruz Depot
85 Jagriti Vyapar Kendra Kurla Bus Station (E)
86 Backbay Bus Depot Bandra Station (W)
88 Mantralaya Pratiksha Nagar Depot
89 Worli Depot
100 Yashwantrao Chavan Pratishthan Ahilyabai Holkar Chowk
102 Vijay Vallabh Chowk Grant Road Railway Station (E)
103 R.C. Church Kamala Nehru Park
104 Johar Chowk J. Mehta Marg
105 Kamala Nehru Park
106 R.C. Church
108 Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Terminus
110 Sangam Nagar Wadala Station
Comrade P.K. Kurne Chowk
111 Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Terminus Gateway of India
112 Ahilyabai Holkar Chowk
113 Khadi Bhandar Mahatma Phule Market
114 Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Terminus Ahilyabai Holkar Chowk
120 Marine Lines Railway Station Dawa Bazar
121 Backbay Bus Depot J. Mehta Marg
122 Ballard Pier
123 R.C. Church Vasantrao Naik Chowk
124 Colaba Bus Station Worli Depot
125 Navy Nagar Worli Village
126 Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Terminus Jijamata Udyan
Mantralaya
130 Dr. Shyama Prasad Mukherjee Chowk Vasantrao Naik Chowk
132 Colaba Bus Station
133
134 Backbay Bus Depot Prabodhankar Thackray Udyan (Sewree)
135 J. Mehta Marg Ferry Wharf
136 Backbay Bus Depot Ahilyabai Holkar Chowk
137 Navy Nagar
138 Backbay Bus Depot Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Terminus
139 Geetanagar
151 J. Mehta Marg Wadala Depot
154 Byculla Station (W) Nehru Planetarium
155 Grant Road Station (W) Vatsalabai Desai Chowk
156 Shimla House Byculla Station (W)
161 Flora Hotel / Watumai Engineering College Veer Hutatma Bhai Kotwal Udyan
162 Prabodhankar Thackray Udyan (Sewree) Worli Village
164 Maharana Pratap Chowk Dharavi Depot
165 Kasturbha Gandhi Cowk
166 Vasantrao Naik Chowk Bharani Naka (Antop Hill)
167 Comrade P.K. Kurne Chowk Deepak Cinema
168 Lal Bahadur Shastri College Wadala Depot
169 Worli Village Pratiksha Nagar Depot
171 Worli Milk Dairy Antop Hill

Types of bus services

Route Description
Ordinary Ordinary routes are the most common, with buses on these routes stopping at all stops. Buses traveling on these routes are identified by a white route number on a black background.
Limited Buses on these routes stop only at major stops and skip all the minor stops in between on high volume routes. They are identified by the route number in red on a white background. The route number ends with 'LTD'.
Special These buses travel on select routes covering railway termini and the central business districts. These routes are identified by the route number in white on a red background. The route number ends with 'SPL'.
C These buses travel on ultra long routes which are very high in demand by passengers. These routes are identified by route number in red on a yellow background. The route number starts with 'C'.
A, AS, AC These bus routes are air conditioned, they can be ordinary, limited or point to point. The route number starts with 'A, AS, AC'.

The routes operated by BEST can be broadly classified in the following categories.

  • Feeder Routes: These routes feed the railway stations and metro stations either from the residential complexes or business districts.
  • East-west connectors: These are the routes, which run east/west, where railways have no role to play and connect the western suburb with the eastern suburb.
  • Trunk routes: These routes run south–north through the city and are almost parallel to the railways.
  • Loop routes: Normally BEST routes are point to point, but there are some routes in the city which are one way loops.

Sometimes there are ladies special buses which are deployed during peak hours. Boards are fixed on windows of bus reading 'Ladies Special'. Since 2019, BEST runs special Tejaswini livery buses which are in yellow and pink colour specially for women passenger.

AC standard routes: These are air-conditioned routes across the city.

  • AC express routes: These route runs on western and eastern express highways, to provide faster services to the commuters.
  • AC standard routes: These are air-conditioned ordinary routes across the city.
  • AC feeder routes: These routes feed the railway stations and metro stations either from the residential complexes or business districts.

Since 2019, BEST has introduced conductor-less AC & non-AC buses where passengers have to buy the ticket before boarding the bus or on bus stops. However this is a test project and many passengers as well as staff are not satisfied with this new test project.

The aforementioned routes are further classified into types depending on the number of stops the bus takes and the type of bus used.

Fare

BEST has several options to pay bus fares.

  • Single journey (paper ticket issued by the bus conductor)
  • Daily pass

The fares vary depending on the type. Paper tickets are valid only for single journey. Commuters have the option to buy a daily pass, distance-wise bus pass values and zonal pass. Students are eligible for discounts on monthly and quarterly passes and senior citizens for discounts on weekly, fortnightly, monthly and quarterly passes.[26]

Single Journey Fares

Single Journey Fares are valid only for a single trip between any two points. They are issued on paper tickets by the bus conductor. All fare payments can be made in cash and through UPI since 2020. The fare depends on the distance of the destination. Single Journey fare is not valid for transfers. Ordinary and Limited bus service has the same fares. Ac bus fare is little higher.

Distance-wise Bus Pass

Distance bus value passes are valid only between two destinations (on a distance basis) on ordinary and limited bus service. Unlimited rides and transfers are available between opted destinations except for single rides. The bus passes are valid for travel between any two destinations up to a distance of a maximum of 20  km. These are issued on an RFID Smart Cards and verified by conductors using a machine. Passes are issued and renewed at all bus depots and also online through the website of BEST undertaking.[27]

Daily Pass

Passengers can avail unlimited bus travel for a day for Rs.50 on non-AC buses of any route and for Rs.60 on AC as well as non-AC of any route.

Zonal Pass

Zonal passes can be purchased according to the service type. These can be used on any bus routes(no AC and AC defined).

BEST Transport Museum

The BEST Transport Museum is at Anik Bus depot at Wadala. The museum was founded by P D Paranjape, the BEST officer who religiously collected bus tickets, engines, ticket-issuing machines from depots across the city. The museum was set up in 1984 at BEST's Kurla depot and was shifted to Anik depot in 1993.[28] The museum traces the evolution of BEST. It houses mini models of charming old BEST buses and ancient trams. Hand-written placards in Marathi and photographs are on display for the public. Entry to the museum is free.[29]

Electric department

Power, supplied by the Tata Group is brought to the city across creeks in pylons like these.

Since 1926, the BEST has been sourcing its power from Tata Power, part of the Tata Group conglomerate. The power cables are laid underground, which reduces pilferage and other losses that plague most other parts of India. The nominal rating of power supplied by BEST is 3-phase, 50 Hz, 220/110 kV. Unlike the transport company, the electricity department services only the Mumbai City area, and not the suburbs. It provides power to 5 million residential and commercial establishments[30] and over 33,000 street lights within the city limits. As of 2000, BEST supplies a total of 700 MW (938,715 hp), with a consumption of 3,216 GWh (11,578 TJ).[31] The electricity department has 6,000 employees. The city has four 110-kV, twenty-two 33-kV and 22-kV substations. BEST has a distribution loss of around 10% (2001), among the lowest in India. In 2006, the RPS (Renewable purchase specification)[32] framework came into force, which has made it mandatory for electricity providers to generate or purchase fixed percentage (6% for FY 2009–10) of their power through renewable sources. To comply with this act, BEST plans to install photovoltaic cells in each of its 25 depots. They also plan to use solar power in gardens and street lighting where the demand is low. Another option being considered is the possibility of using the 7,000 tonnes (6,889 long tons; 7,716 short tons) of garbage disposed by the city on a daily basis, which can be potentially used to generate 350 megawatts (469,358 hp) of electricity.[33]

Issues

Transport revenues
Electricity revenues: Blue–Income, Red–Expenditure, Green–Net profits
Net profit/loss

In the financial year 2004–05, the company earned Rs. 15142.2 million[34] from its electricity department, and 839.18 crore from its transport department. Profits from its electricity department totalled Rs. 152.82 crore (US$35m), and losses in its transport department totalled Rs 212.86 crore ($48.8m), giving the company a net loss of Rs. 62.04 crore ($14.2m). For the financial year 2005–06, BEST is expected to earn Rs. 15401.3 million ($352.92m) with a profit of 1408 million ($32.3m) from the electricity department alone. However, its transport department is expected to earn 9486.8 million ($217.39m), with a loss of 1403.0 million ($32.26m). This gives it an estimated net loss of Rs. 5 million ($114,575).[35][36] Newer management techniques, such as retrenching of excess staff (494 till date),[12] and the closure of less patronised routes, have reduced the losses in recent years, from a high of Rs. 1.75 billion ($40.1m) in 2001.[37] Daily earnings from its transport system is Rs. 20 million ($458,450). It collects Rs. 7 million ($160,450) worth of five rupee coins daily, Rs. 4.8 million ($110,000) worth of ten and twenty rupee notes, and Rs. 6 million ($137,535) worth of fifty rupee notes, through its fare collection system. This has led a unique situation wherein it has accumulated a surplus of short change. In July 2005, the company floated tender inquiries to 54 banks to exchange the loose change, which totalled 46.7 million ($1.07m). However, none of the banks sent in a single bid, some citing that their vaults are full, and others saying it would be unprofitable for low denominations, given security considerations.[38]

Though the BEST is a government-owned company, it does not receive any financial assistance from the BMC, or the state government.[12] BEST also earns revenues by way of advertisements on its buses and bus-stops, and through rent from offices on owned properties. The BEST, being a public utility company, cannot increase electricity and bus fares to maximise its profits. An increase, when effected, is usually carried out to curb losses due to inflation. BMC approval is needed before such an increase goes into effect.Prior 2003 the BEST Understanding was a case Peter paying for Paul means the Electricity Division was in profit and Transport loss, so profit of Electricity was diverted to Transport so break even .The Company down stream started after the inception of Electricity Act 2003, in that act it is stated that the profit of Electricity supply cannot be diverted but to be used for same entity. After taking the issue with Maharashtra Electricity Regulatory Commission the company was running by adjusting the profit but after Supreme Court order,it could not adjusted the profit to transport now running in loss.

Culture and awards

BEST has been a quintessential part of life in Mumbai. The red double-decker buses, modelled on the AEC Routemaster buses of London, are one of the defining characteristics of the city. When BEST decided to do away with the double-deckers for operational reasons recently, public protests and sentiment forced it to continue with the service. A move to colour all its buses saffron from red in 1997 also drew in criticism, resulting in the red colour being retained. Bus drivers and conductors have come in for praise in the media for their service during the 2005 Mumbai floods, when they ensured that all the stranded passengers were dropped safely to their respective destinations. A total of 900 buses were damaged.[39]

The organisation has received the following awards for safety and management:[40]

  • The prize for the second best production achievement by an urban transport body in the country for the year 1982.
  • The second prize for production achievement in Urban Transport during the year 1984.
  • A memento for the Administrative Report and Statement of Accounts of the Undertaking for the year 1983–84 awarded by the selection committee nominated by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India.
  • The first place and the Best production achievement award in the category of urban transport for the year 1986–87.
  • National Productivity Award for the year 1991–92.
  • Award for the best passenger-safety record for the year 1994.
  • The award for the Best Passenger-Safety performance in Urban Transport in the whole country instituted by the Association of State Road Transport Undertaking (ASRTU) for the year 1995–96.
  • International Road Safety Award for the year 2003.

Future

Among its future plans is the "digitisation project", wherein all underground cables, sub-stations, street lights and bus-stops would be tracked digitally through the geographical information system. It also plans to connect all its electricity meters through a network, so that the readings can be taken remotely, and in realtime, thus obviating the need for monthly manual door-to-door inspection.

See also

  • Mumbai Suburban Railway
  • Mumbai Metro
  • Public transport in Mumbai
  • Water transport in Mumbai
  • Transport in Maharashtra
  • Transport in India
  • Maharashtra State Electricity Board
  • Maharashtra Electricity Regulatory Commission

References

  1. "Growth of Mumbai & its Municipal Corporation". Quarterly journal of the Local Self Government Institute (Mumbai). 1976. p. 13.
  2. David, M. D. (1995). Mumbai , the city of dreams: a history of the first city in India. Himalaya Publishing House. pp. 199–200.
  3. "Electricity Arrives in Mumbai". BEST Undertaking. Archived from the original on 11 October 2006. Retrieved 12 October 2006.
  4. "Electricity Arrives in Mumbai". BEST Undertaking. Archived from the original on 8 October 2006. Retrieved 12 October 2006.
  5. "Motor-Bus Appears". BEST Undertaking. Archived from the original on 15 January 2010. Retrieved 12 October 2006.
  6. "B.E.S.&T. Company". BEST Undertaking. Archived from the original on 11 October 2006. Retrieved 12 October 2006.
  7. "Progress of the Bus Service". BEST Undertaking. Archived from the original on 11 October 2006. Retrieved 12 October 2006.
  8. "Alternative modes of Transport". BEST Undertaking. Archived from the original on 6 October 2006. Retrieved 12 October 2006.
  9. "Electric Supply". BEST Undertaking. Archived from the original on 9 October 2006. Retrieved 12 October 2006.
  10. "Organisational Setup". BEST Undertaking. Archived from the original on 4 June 2009. Retrieved 12 October 2006.
  11. "Organisational Setup". BEST Undertaking. Archived from the original on 29 October 2006. Retrieved 12 October 2006.
  12. Kuber, Girish (15 August 2005). "Road warrior: City's bus service proves it's BEST". The Economic Times. Archived from the original on 29 March 2006. Retrieved 12 October 2006.
  13. "3 Puneites in race for Sammelan presidentship". The Times of India.
  14. Mumbai Mirror article published on 29 August 2012
  15. "Help line DEPOTS". BEST Undertaking. Archived from the original on 6 March 2001. Retrieved 26 November 2009.
  16. "Parking Facilities available at BEST Bus Depot". BEST Undertaking. Archived from the original on 17 December 2009. Retrieved 26 November 2009.
  17. Sen, Somit (12 June 2019). "BEST finally gets go-ahead for 1,250 new buses on wet-lease | Mumbai News - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 22 February 2020.
  18. Korde, Kailash (9 July 2019). "400 AC buses to make BEST better in Mumbai". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 22 February 2020.
  19. "New & cool: BEST begins 12 new AC services in town, Andheri". Free Press Journal. 10 December 2019. Retrieved 22 February 2020.
  20. "A timeline of BEST buses in Mumbai". Daily News and Analysis. Mumbai. 29 June 2013. Retrieved 11 March 2015.
  21. "Composition of Bus Fleet". BEST Undertaking. Archived from the original on 12 February 2005. Retrieved 12 October 2006.
  22. "Now running TV ads in Mumbai's BEST buses". Rediff.com. Retrieved 5 August 2011.
  23. "Bus Transport Profile". Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and Transport (BEST). Archived from the original on 28 June 2002. Retrieved 27 November 2009.
  24. DNA Correspondent (26 August 2006). "BEST makes a smart move". Daily News & Analysis. Retrieved 12 October 2006.
  25. "BEST". BEST. Retrieved 20 March 2021.
  26. "Buspass 2009" (PDF). BEST Undertaking. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 December 2009. Retrieved 20 November 2009.
  27. http://www.bestundertaking.com
  28. Priyanka Bhosale. "Summer Past-time - BEST TRANSPORT MUSEUM, WADALA". Karmayog.org. Retrieved 16 December 2009.
  29. Time Out Mumbai. "BEST Transport Museum". Time Out Mumbai. Archived from the original on 24 July 2011. Retrieved 16 December 2009.
  30. The BEST is the best option for Mumbai - Mumbai - DNA. Dnaindia.com. Retrieved on 2013-12-06.
  31. "Electricity" (PDF). Maharashtra Electricity Regulatory Commission. Retrieved 12 October 2006.
  32. http://mercindia.org.in/pdf/52_Order_dt_16_08_06_CN_06_of_2006.pdf
  33. Albuquerque, Olav (8 July 2005). "Short of funds, BEST looks to solar power". The Times of India. p. 3.
  34. 10 million = 10 million. (See Indian numbering system). Rs 100 million = 230,000 US$ approx. Exchange rate: Rs. 43.6 = 1 US$ as of 2005-08-27.
  35. 100,000 = 100,000.
  36. "Finance". BEST Undertaking. Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 12 October 2006.
  37. Joseph, Manu (21 August 2005). "May the Best Man Win". The Times of India. p. 3.
  38. Albuquerque, Olav (6 July 2005). "You could now approach BEST for some loose change". The Times of India. TNN. p. 3.
  39. "Statistics of Mumbai floods 2005". Karmayog. Retrieved 10 May 2009.
  40. "Awards". BEST Undertaking. Archived from the original on 29 October 2006. Retrieved 12 October 2006.

Notes

  • May the Best Man Win; Manu Joseph; Times of India, Mumbai; p. 3; 21 August 2005
  • BEST will have to wait to become smart; Ashley D'Mello/Times News Network; p. 3;Times of India; 2 July 2005.
  • Short of funds, BEST looks to solar power; Olav Albuquerque; Times of India; p. 3; 8 July 2005.
  • Exit clause introduced in BEST-TPC pact; Times News Network; p. 4; Times of India; 7 July 2005.
  • BEST to hire buses from private operators; Olav Albuquerque; Times of India; p. 7; 4 June 2005.
  • You could now approach BEST for some loose change; Olav Albuquerque/TNN; Times of India; p. 3; 2005-07-06.
This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.