Brian Wilson

Brian Douglas Wilson (born June 20, 1942) is an American musician, singer, songwriter, and record producer who founded the Beach Boys. Often called a genius for his novel approaches to pop composition, extraordinary musical aptitude, and mastery of recording techniques, he is widely acknowledged as one of the most innovative and significant songwriters of the 20th century. Wilson is also known for his lifelong struggles with mental illness.

Brian Wilson
Wilson performing in New Orleans with the Beach Boys during their 2012 reunion tour
Background information
Birth nameBrian Douglas Wilson
Born (1942-06-20) June 20, 1942
Inglewood, California, U.S.
OriginHawthorne, California, U.S.
  • Musician
  • singer
  • songwriter
  • record producer
  • Vocals
  • keyboards
  • bass
Years active1961–present
  • Capitol
  • Brother
  • Reprise
  • Caribou
  • CBS
  • Sire
  • Giant
  • Nonesuch
  • Walt Disney
Associated acts
  • American Spring
  • The Beach Boys
  • California Music
  • Hale & the Hushabyes
  • The Honeys
  • Kenny & the Cadets
  • Andy Paley
  • Van Dyke Parks
  • The Survivors
  • The Wilsons
  • Wondermints

Raised in Hawthorne, California, Wilson's early influences included George Gershwin, the Four Freshmen, Phil Spector, and Burt Bacharach. In 1961, he began his professional career as a member of the Beach Boys, serving as the band's songwriter, producer, co-lead vocalist, bassist, keyboardist, and de facto leader. After signing with Capitol Records in 1962, he became the first pop artist credited for writing, arranging, producing, and performing his own material. He also produced other acts, most notably the Honeys. By the mid-1960s, he had written or co-written more than two dozen U.S. Top 40 hits, including the number-ones "Surf City" (1963), "I Get Around" (1964), "Help Me, Rhonda" (1965), and "Good Vibrations" (1966).

In 1964, Wilson suffered a nervous breakdown and resigned from regular concert touring, which led to more refined work, such as the Beach Boys' Pet Sounds and Wilson's first credited solo release, "Caroline, No" (both 1966). As his mental health deteriorated in the late 1960s, his contributions to the band diminished, and he became much-mythologized for his lifestyle of seclusion, overeating, and drug abuse.[1] In the 1980s, he formed a controversial creative and business partnership with his psychologist, Eugene Landy, and relaunched his solo career with the album Brian Wilson (1988). Following his disassociation from Landy in 1991, Wilson started receiving conventional medical treatment. Since the late 1990s, he has recorded and performed consistently as a solo artist.

Wilson is considered the principal originator of the California sound, one of the first music producer auteurs, and among the first rock producers to use the studio as a discrete instrument. The zeitgeist of the early 1960s is commonly associated with his early songs, and he became an important figure in the development of art pop, chamber pop, punk, chillwave, and outsider music. Wilson's honors include inductions into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame (as a member of the Beach Boys) and the Songwriters Hall of Fame, as well as two Grammy Awards. His life was dramatized in the 2014 biopic Love & Mercy.


Early years and musical training

Brian Douglas Wilson was born on June 20, 1942, at Centinela Hospital in Inglewood, California, the first child of Audree Neva (née Korthof) and Murry Wilson, a machinist and later a part-time songwriter.[2][3] He has Dutch, Scottish, English, German, Irish, and Swedish ancestry.[4][5] Brian's brothers Dennis and Carl were born in 1944 and 1946, respectively.[6] Shortly after Dennis' birth, the family moved from Inglewood to 3701 West 119th Street in nearby Hawthorne, California.[7][6] Like his brothers, Brian suffered abuse from his father that was mostly psychological and sometimes physical.[8]

From an early age, Wilson demonstrated an extraordinary skill for learning by ear.[9] Speaking of Wilson's unusual musical abilities prior to his first birthday, his father said that, as a baby, he could repeat the melody from "When the Caissons Go Rolling Along" after only a few verses had been sung by the father.[10] The Wilsons' father encouraged his children in the music field in numerous ways. As a child, Wilson was given six weeks of lessons on a "toy accordion" and, at seven and eight, sang solos in church with a choir behind him.[11][nb 1] There, his choir director discovered that Wilson had perfect pitch.[13] After the Wilson family purchased a piano for their home, Brian abandoned his accordion and devoted hours to learning his favorite songs on piano.[14] Further to his musical education, Wilson frequently listened to his favorite radio station at the time, KFWB.[15] He was then introduced to R&B by Carl and taught to play boogie woogie piano by their uncle Charlie.[16] Carl said that, by the time Brian was ten, "he could play great boogie-woogie piano!"[13]

I got so into The Four Freshmen. I could identify with Bob Flanigan's high voice. He taught me how to sing high. I worked for a year on The Four Freshmen with my hi-fi set. I eventually learned every song they did.

—Brian Wilson, 1998[17]

Wilson sang with various students at school functions and with his family and friends at home, teaching his two brothers harmony parts that all three would then practice. He also played piano obsessively after school, deconstructing the harmonies of the Four Freshmen by listening to short segments of their songs on a phonograph, then working to recreate the blended sounds note by note on the keyboard.[17] Carl said, "There were many years of [Brian's] life where he did nothing but play the piano. Months at a time. Days on end. Four Freshmen records. Just all music."[18][nb 2] Brian owned an educational record called The Instruments of the Orchestra, which taught him more about arranging.[21] Later, he learned to write manuscript music from a friend of his father's.[22]

In high school, Wilson was quarterback on his local football team at Hawthorne High. He also played baseball and was a cross-country runner in his senior year.[23] Before his success in music, Wilson's only paid employment was a part-time job sweeping at a jewelry store for four months when he was 15.[24] Around this time, Wilson auditioned to be the singer of the record to mark the launch of the Original Sound Record Company, "Chapel of Love" (unrelated to the 1964 song), but he was rejected for being too young.[25] For his 16th birthday, he received a portable two-track[26] Wollensak tape recorder, allowing him to experiment with recording songs, group vocals, and rudimentary production techniques.[27][19] Biographer Peter Ames Carlin writes that the still-existing tapes suggest that "Brian liked nothing more than to gather his friends around the piano ... Most often he'd harmonize with ... friends from his senior class."[28]

Wilson's senior yearbook photo, June 1960[29]

Written for his Senior Problems course in October 1959, Wilson submitted an essay, "My Philosophy", in which he stated that his ambitions were to "make a name for myself ... in music."[30] One of Wilson's earliest public performances was at a fall arts program at his high school. He enlisted his cousin and frequent singing partner Mike Love and, to entice Carl into the group, named the newly formed membership "Carl and the Passions." The performance featured tunes by Dion and the Belmonts and the Four Freshmen ("It's a Blue World"), the latter of which proved difficult for the ensemble. The event was notable for the impression which it made on another musician and classmate of Wilson's in the audience, Al Jardine.[31]

Fred Morgan, Wilson's high school music teacher, remembered that Wilson, at 17, had demonstrated an above-average understanding of Bach and Beethoven.[32] Nonetheless, he gave Wilson a final grade of C for his Piano and Harmony course due to incomplete assignments.[33] For his final project, instead of composing a 120-measure piano sonata, Wilson submitted a 32-measure piece. Morgan gave the work an F.[34][nb 3] Reflecting on his last year of high school, Brian said that he was "very happy. I wouldn't say I was popular in school, but I was associated with popular people."[36]

Wilson enrolled as a psychology major at El Camino Junior College in Los Angeles, in September 1960, while simultaneously continuing his musical studies at the community college as well.[37] He was disappointed to find that his music teachers strongly disapproved of pop music, and he quit college after a year and half.[38] By Wilson's account, he wrote his first all-original melody, loosely based on a Dion and the Belmonts version of "When You Wish Upon a Star", in 1961. The song was eventually known as "Surfer Girl".[39] However, Wilson's closest high school friends disputed this, recalling that Wilson had written numerous songs prior to "Surfer Girl".[40][nb 4]

Formation of the Beach Boys

Wilson, brothers Carl and Dennis, cousin Mike Love, and their friend Al Jardine first appeared as a music group in the autumn of 1961, initially under the name the Pendletones. After being prodded by Dennis to write a song about the local water-sports craze, Wilson and Mike Love together created what became the first single for the band, "Surfin'". Around this time, the group rented an amplifier, a microphone, and a stand-up bass for Jardine to play. After the boys rehearsed for several weeks in the Wilsons' music room, his parents returned home from a brief trip to Mexico. Eventually impressed, Murry Wilson proclaimed himself the group's manager and the band embarked on serious rehearsals for a proper studio session.[42]

Recorded by Hite and Dorinda Morgan and released on the small Candix Records label, "Surfin'" became a top local hit in Los Angeles and reached number 75 on the national Billboard sales charts.[43] Dennis later described the first time that his older brother heard their song on the radio, as the three Wilson brothers and David Marks drove in Wilson's 1957 Ford in the rain: "Nothing will ever top the expression on Brian's face, ever ... that was the all-time moment."[44] However, the Pendletones were no more. Without the band's knowledge or permission, Candix Records had changed their name to the Beach Boys.[45] Wilson and his bandmates, following a set by Ike & Tina Turner, performed their first major live show at the Ritchie Valens Memorial Dance on New Year's Eve, 1961. Three days previously, Wilson's father had bought him an electric bass and amplifier. Wilson had learned to play the instrument in that short period of time, with Jardine moving to rhythm guitar.[46]

When Candix Records ran into money problems and sold the Beach Boys' master recordings to another label, Wilson's father terminated the contract. As "Surfin'" faded from the charts, Wilson, who had forged a songwriting partnership with local musician Gary Usher, created several new songs, including a car song, "409", that Usher helped them write. Wilson and the Beach Boys cut new tracks at Western Recorders in Hollywood, including "Surfin' Safari" and "409". These songs convinced Capitol Records to release the demos as a single; they became a double-sided national hit.[47]

Early productions and freelance work

Wilson at a Beach Boys photoshoot, c.1962

As a member of the Beach Boys, Wilson was signed by Capitol Records' Nick Venet to a seven-year contract in 1962.[48] Recording sessions for the band's first album, Surfin' Safari, took place in Capitol's basement studios in the famous tower building in August, but early on Wilson lobbied for a different place to cut Beach Boys tracks. The large rooms were built to record the big orchestras and ensembles of the 1950s, not small rock groups. At Wilson's insistence, Capitol agreed to let the Beach Boys pay for their own outside recording sessions, to which Capitol would own all the rights.[49] Additionally, during the taping of their first LP, Wilson fought for, and won, the right to helm the production – though this fact was not acknowledged with an album liner notes production credit.[49][50]

Wilson had been a massive fan of Phil Spector – who had risen to fame with the Teddy Bears – and aspired to model his burgeoning career after the record producer.[51][52] According to biographer Timothy White, the Crystals' Spector-produced hit "He's a Rebel" (1962) "hit Brian hardest" to this point.[53] With Gary Usher, Wilson wrote numerous songs patterned after the Teddy Bears, and they wrote and produced some records for local talent, albeit with no commercial success.[54] Brian gradually dissolved his partnership with Usher due to interference from Murry.[55]

By mid-1962, Brian was writing songs with DJ Roger Christian.[56] David Marks said, "He was obsessed with it. Brian was writing song with people off the street in front of his house, disc jockeys, anyone. He had so much stuff flowing through him at once he could hardly handle it."[57] Wilson started his own record label, Safari.[58] In October, Safari Records released the single "The Surfer Moon" by Bob & Sheri.[59] It was the first record that bore the label "Produced by Brian Wilson".[60][61] The only other record the label issued was Bob & Sheri's "Humpty Dumpty". Both songs were written by Wilson.[58]

From January to March 1963, Wilson produced the Beach Boys' second album, Surfin' U.S.A..[62] To focus his efforts on writing and recording, he limited his public appearances with the group to television gigs and local shows.[63][nb 5] In March, Capitol released the Beach Boys' first top-ten single, "Surfin' U.S.A.", which began their long run of highly successful recording efforts at Western.[64] The Surfin' U.S.A. album was also a big hit in the U.S., reaching number two on the national sales charts by July. The Beach Boys had become a top-rank recording and touring band.[3]

Against Venet's wishes, Wilson worked with non-Capitol acts.[65] Shortly after meeting Liberty Records' Jan and Dean (likely in August 1962),[66] Wilson offered them a new song he had written, "Surf City", which the duo soon recorded.[63] On July 20, 1963, "Surf City", which Wilson co-wrote with Jan Berry, was his first composition to reach the top of the US charts. The resulting success pleased Wilson, but angered both Murry and Capitol Records. Murry went so far as to order his oldest son to sever any future collaborations with Jan and Dean, although they continued to appear on each other's records.[67] Wilson's hits with Jan and Dean effectively revitalized the music duo's then-faltering career.[68]

Around the same time, Wilson began producing a girl group, the Honeys, consisting of sisters Marilyn and Diane Rovell and their cousin Ginger Blake, who were local high school students he had met at a Beach Boys concert during the previous August.[69] Wilson pitched the Honeys to Capitol, envisioning them as a female counterpart to the Beach Boys.[70] The company released several Honeys recordings as singles, although they sold poorly.[71] In the meantime, Wilson became closely acquainted with the Rovell family and made their home his primary residence for most of 1963 and 1964.[72]

Wilson was for the first time officially credited as the Beach Boys' producer on the album Surfer Girl, recorded in June and July 1963 and released that September.[73] This LP reached number seven on the national charts, with similarly successful singles.[74] He also produced a set of largely car-oriented tunes for the Beach Boys' fourth album, Little Deuce Coupe, which was released in October 1963, only three weeks after the Surfer Girl LP.[75] Still resistant to touring, Wilson was substituted onstage for many of the band's live performances in mid-1963 by Al Jardine, who had briefly quit the band to focus on school.[57][76] Wilson was forced to rejoin the touring line-up upon Marks' departure in late 1963.[75]

Excepting his work with the Beach Boys, for the whole of 1963, Wilson had written, arranged, produced, or performed on at least 42 songs with the Honeys, Jan and Dean, the Survivors, Sharon Marie, the Timers, the Castells, Bob Norberg, Vickie Kocher, Gary Usher, Roger Christian, Paul Petersen, and Larry Denton.[68]

International success and first nervous breakdown

Wilson at a Beach Boys photoshoot, 1964

Throughout 1964, Wilson engaged in worldwide concert tours with the Beach Boys while continuing to write and produce for the group, whose studio output for this year included the albums Shut Down Volume 2 (March), All Summer Long (June), and The Beach Boys' Christmas Album (November).[77] Following a particularly stressful Australasian tour in early 1964, it was agreed by the group to dismiss Murry from his managerial duties.[78] Murry still had a subsequent influence over the band's activities and kept a direct correspondence with Brian, giving him thoughts about the group's decisions;[79] Wilson also periodically sought music opinions from his father.[80]

In February, Beatlemania swept the U.S., a development that deeply disturbed Wilson.[81][82] In a 1966 interview, he commented, "The Beatles invasion shook me up a lot. They eclipsed a lot of what we'd worked for. ... The Beach Boys' supremacy as the number one vocal group in America was being challenged. So we stepped on the gas a little bit."[83] Author James Perone identifies the Beach Boys' May single "I Get Around", their first U.S. number one hit, as representing both a successful response by Wilson to the British Invasion, and the beginning of an unofficial rivalry between him and the Beatles, principally Paul McCartney.[84] The B-side, "Don't Worry Baby", was cited by Wilson in a 1970 interview as "Probably the best record we've done".[85]

Wilson ceased writing surfing-themed material after "Don't Back Down" in April.[86] During the group's first major European tour, in late 1964, Wilson replied angrily to a journalist when asked how he felt about originating the surfing sound: "We don't play surfing music. We're tired of being labelled as the originators of the surfing sound. We just produce a sound that teens dig, and that can be applied to any theme. The surfing theme has run its course. Cars are finished now, too. And even Hondas are over. We're just gonna stay on the life of a social teenager."[87] While promoting Christmas Album, Jack Wagner remarked that Wilson's decision to sing solo on a version of "Blue Christmas" could be "the start of a whole new career", to which Wilson responded "I don’t know. It could and it couldn't. I really don’t know."[88]

In his memoir, Mike Love wrote of an incident that suggested that Wilson had experimented with drugs as early as 1964, when Love had discovered drug paraphernalia in Wilson's hotel room during a tour stop in Texas. Love added that he was unsure of the drug contents, although it was certainly not marijuana, and he did not confront Wilson about the matter, "as he was the last person I imagined getting involved in drugs."[89]

Wilson performing "Dance, Dance, Dance" with the Beach Boys at NBC TV studio, December 18, 1964[90]

The increasing pressures of Wilson's career and personal life pushed him to a psychological breaking point.[91] He later described himself as a "Mr Everything" that had been so "run down mentally and emotionally ... to the point where I had no peace of mind and no chance to actually sit down and think or even rest."[92] Adding to his concerns was the group's "business operations" and the quality of their records, which he believed suffered from this arrangement.[93] On December 7, in an effort to bring himself more emotional stability, Wilson impulsively married Marilyn Rovell.[92]

On December 23, Wilson was to accompany his bandmates on a two-week US tour, but while on a flight from Los Angeles to Houston, began sobbing uncontrollably over his marriage.[94][95] Al Jardine, who had sat next to Wilson on the plane, later said, "None of us had ever witnessed something like that."[94] Wilson played the show in Houston later that day, but was substituted by session musician Glen Campbell for the rest of the tour dates.[96][nb 6] At the time, Wilson described it as "the first of a series of three breakdowns I had."[93] When the group resumed recording their next album in January 1965, Wilson declared to his bandmates that he would be withdrawing from future tours.[97][98] He later told a journalist that his decision had been a byproduct of his "fucked up" jealousy toward Spector and the Beatles.[99][nb 7]

In 1965, Wilson immediately showcased great advances in his musical development with the albums The Beach Boys Today! (March) and Summer Days (And Summer Nights!!) (June).[102] According to Wilson, after the airplane episode, he endeavored to "take the things I learned from Phil Spector and use more instruments whenever I could."[103] Campbell remained on tour with the band until he was no longer able to, in February.[98] As a thanks, Wilson produced a single for Campbell in March, "Guess I'm Dumb", after which the band recruited Columbia Records staff producer Bruce Johnston as Wilson's substitute on tour.[104] In February, March, July, and October, Wilson rejoined the live group for one-off occasions.[105]

Growing drug use and religious epiphany

With his bandmates often away on tour, Wilson distanced himself socially from the other Beach Boys.[106] Since the autumn of 1964, he had moved from the Rovells' home to a one-bedroom apartment at 7235 Hollywood Boulevard,[107] and given his newfound independence, had begun forming a new social circle for himself through the industry connections he had accumulated.[108] Biographer Steven Gaines writes, "Brian had total freedom from family restraints for the first time. ... he was finally able to make a new set of friends without parental interference."[108] By Gary Usher's account, Wilson had had few close friends and was "like a piece of clay waiting to be molded".[109] By the end of the year, Wilson was one of the most successful, influential, and sought-after young musicians in Los Angeles.[110] However, a wider public recognition of Wilson's talents eluded him until 1966.[111]

Wilson's closest friend in this period was Loren Schwartz, a talent agent that he had met a Hollywood studio.[108] Through Schwartz, Wilson was exposed to a wealth of literature and mystical topics – largely of philosophy and world religions – that he formed a deep fascination with.[112][113] Schwartz also introduced marijuana and hashish to Wilson, whose habitual use of the drug caused a rift in his marriage to Marilyn, further strained by his frequent visitations to Schwartz' apartment.[114] Beginning with "Please Let Me Wonder" (1965), Wilson wrote songs while under the influence of marijuana, as his 2016 memoir suggested, "smoking a little bit of pot ... changed the way I heard arrangements."[115] His drug use was initially kept hidden from the rest of his family and group.[116]

[In 1965] I had what I consider to be a very religious experience. I took LSD, a full dose of LSD, and later, another time, I took a smaller dose. And I learned a lot of things, like patience, understanding. I can't teach you, or tell you what I learned from taking it.

—Brian Wilson, 1966[117][118]

Early in 1965, a few weeks after Wilson and his wife moved into a new apartment on West Hollywood's Gardner Street, Wilson took the psychedelic drug LSD (or "acid") for the first time, under Schwartz' supervision.[119] Schwartz recalled that Wilson's dosage was 125 micrograms of "pure Owsley" and that his first experience included "the full-on ego death".[120][nb 8] Marilyn recalled that Wilson returned home the next day and recounted his experience, telling her repeatedly that his "mind was blown" and that he had seen God.[121][nb 9] In Wilson's words, "I took LSD and it just tore my head off. ... You just come to grips with what you are, what you can do [and] can't do, and learn to face it."[93]

During his first acid trip, Wilson went to a piano and devised the riff for the band's next single, "California Girls".[122] He later described the instrumental tracking for the song, held on April 6, as "my favorite session", and the opening orchestral section as "the greatest piece of music that I've ever written."[123] For the remainder of the year, he experienced considerable paranoia.[124] Wilson's 2016 memoir states that he refrained from dropping LSD for a second time until he was twenty-three, in 1966 or 1967.[125] Marilyn believed that her husband likely took dozens of LSD trips in the subsequent years, although she had been only aware of the two trips at the time.[126]

Following unsuccessful attempts to dissuade him from his constant fraternizing with Schwartz, Marilyn separated from Brian for at least a month.[123][127] She later said, "He was not the same Brian that he was before the drugs. ... These people were very hurtful, and I tried to get that through to Brian. ... He wasn't devastated at all [by my leaving]. ... I think he was too involved with the drug thing."[126] In mid-1965, at the suggestion of Four Freshmen manager Bill Wagner, Brian consulted with a UCLA psychiatrist on the adverse effects of LSD. The psychiatrist later told Wagner, "I don't know if he is savable. He gives me the impression he's been on it for a while, and he's entirely enamored of it."[128] Speaking in 1966, Wilson said that he had developed an interest in "pills" for the purpose of self-discovery, not recreation, and believed that the usage of psychedelics "won't hurt you".[129]

Pet Sounds, "genius" campaign, and Smile

A view of Los Angeles as seen from Beverly Hills, where Wilson took residence in October 1965.

Brian and Marilyn eventually reconciled,[130] and in October 1965, moved into a new home on 1448 Laurel Way in Beverly Hills.[131][nb 10] Wilson said that he spent five months planning an album that would reflect his growing interest in "the making of music for people on a spiritual level."[133] He recalled having an unexpected rush of "creative ideas" and that he "didn't mind" the constant presence of visitors at his home. "so long as there weren't too many and provided I could cop out and sit, thinking. I had a big Spanish table and I sat there hour after hour making the tunes inside my head ... I was taking a lot of drugs, fooling around with pills, a lot of pills, and it fouled me up for a while. It got me really introspective."[133]

In December 1965, Tony Asher, a jingle writer whom Wilson had recently met, accepted Wilson's offer to be his writing partner for what became the Beach Boys' next album, Pet Sounds (May 1966).[134] He produced most of Pet Sounds from January to April 1966 at four different Hollywood studios, mainly employing his bandmates on vocals and his usual pool of session musicians for the backing tracks.[135] Among the album tracks, he later described "Let's Go Away for Awhile" as "the most satisfying piece of music" he had made to date,[136] and "I Just Wasn't Made for These Times" as an autobiographical song "about a guy who was crying because he thought he was too advanced".[137] In 1995, he referred to "Caroline, No" as "probably the best I've ever written."[137]

The thing that I remember the most is that when Pet Sounds wasn't as quickly a hit or as huge or an immediate success, it really destroyed Brian. He just lost a lot of faith in people and music.

—Wilson's first wife Marilyn[138]

Released in March 1966, the album's first single, "Caroline, No", marked the first record credited to Wilson as a solo artist.[139] It led to speculation that he was considering leaving the band.[140] Wilson recalled, "I explained to [the rest of the group], 'It's OK. It is only a temporary rift where I have something to say.' I wanted to step out of the group a little bit and, sure enough, I was able to."[139] "Caroline, No" ultimately stalled at number 32.[139] In the U.S., Pet Sounds faced similarly underwhelming sales. Wilson was "mortified" that his artistic growth failed to translate into a number-one album.[141] According to Marilyn, "When it wasn't received by the public the way he thought it would be received, it made him hold back. ... but he didn't stop. He couldn't stop. He needed to create more."[138]

Thanks to mutual connections, Wilson had been introduced to the Beatles' former press officer Derek Taylor, who was subsequently employed as the Beach Boys' publicist. Responding to Brian's request to inspire a greater public appreciation for his talents, Taylor initiated a media campaign that proclaimed Wilson to be a genius. Taylor's prestige was crucial in offering a credible perspective to those on the outside,[142][143] and his efforts are widely recognized as instrumental in the album's success in Britain.[144] In turn, however, Wilson resented that the branding had the effect of creating higher public expectations for himself.[145][146] The fact that the music press had begun undervaluing the contributions of the rest of the group also frustrated him and his bandmates, including Love and Carl Wilson.[147]

Wilson in October 1966

For the remainder of 1966, Wilson focused on completing the band's single "Good Vibrations", which became a number-one hit in December, and a new batch of songs written with session musician Van Dyke Parks for inclusion on Smile, the album planned to follow Pet Sounds.[148] Wilson touted the album as a "teenage symphony to God"[149] and continued to involve more people in his social, business, and creative affairs.[150] Parks said that, eventually, "it wasn't just Brian and me in a room; it was Brian and me ... and all kinds of self-interested people pulling him in various directions."[151]

Over the summer, Wilson had become further acquainted with former MGM Records agent David Anderle thanks to a mutual friend, singer Danny Hutton (later of Three Dog Night). Anderle, who was nicknamed "the mayor of hip", acted as a conduit between Wilson and the "hip".[152] Additional writers were brought in as witnesses to Wilson's recording sessions, who also accompanied him outside the studio. Among the crowd: Richard Goldstein from the Village Voice, Jules Siegel from The Saturday Evening Post, and Paul Williams, the 18-year-old founder and editor of Crawdaddy![153][nb 11] Television producer David Oppenheim, who attended these scenes to film the documentary Inside Pop: The Rock Revolution (1967), characterized Wilson's home as a "playpen of irresponsible people."[155]

Home studio and Bedroom Tapes

Bel Air, Los Angeles, where Wilson relocated to in April 1967 and set up a home studio.[156]

Smile was never finished, due in large part to Wilson's worsening mental condition and exhaustion.[149] His friends, family, and colleagues often date the project's unraveling and Wilson's onset of erratic behavior to around November 1966 – namely, when he recorded the would-be album track "Mrs. O'Leary's Cow" (or "Fire").[157] In early 1967, Wilson and his wife put their Laurel Way home up for sale and took residence at a newly purchased mansion on 10452 Bellagio Road in Bel Air.[156][158][nb 12] Wilson also set to work on constructing a personal home studio.[156] By then, most of his new contacts had disassociated or were exiled from his social circle.[160]

In May, Derek Taylor announced that the six-months-overdue Smile album had been "scrapped".[161] Wilson explained in a 1968 interview, "We pulled out of that production pace, really because I was about ready to die. I was trying so hard. So, all of a sudden I decided not to try any more."[162] The underwhelming critical and commercial response to the band's July single "Heroes and Villains" has been cited as another exacerbating factor in Wilson's professional and psychological decline.[163][164]

Starting with Smiley Smile (September 1967), the band made Wilson's home their primary base of recording operations until 1972. The album was also the first in which production was credited to the entire group instead of Wilson alone.[165][166] Producer Terry Melcher attributed this change to Wilson's self-consciousness over his reputation, unwilling to "put his stamp on records so that peers will have a Brian Wilson track to criticize."[167] In August, Wilson rejoined the live band for two one-off appearances in Honolulu. The shows were recorded for a planned live album, Lei'd in Hawaii, that was never finished.[168]

Wilson produced recordings for the band Redwood, later known as Three Dog Night (pictured 1969).

During the sessions for Wild Honey (December), Brian requested Carl to contribute more to the record-making process.[145] Brian also attempted to produce an album for Danny Hutton's new group, Redwood, but after the recording of three songs, including "Time to Get Alone" and "Darlin'", this motion was halted by Mike Love and Carl Wilson, who wanted Brian to focus on the Beach Boys' contractual obligations.[169] Friends (June 1968) was recorded during a period of emotional recovery for Wilson.[170] Although it included more contributions from the rest of the group, he actively led the studio sessions, even on the songs that he did not write.[171] He later referred to it as his second "solo album" (the first being Pet Sounds),[172] as well as his favorite Beach Boys album.[173][170]

For the remainder of 1968, Wilson's songwriting output declined substantially, as did his emotional state, leading him to self-medicate with the excessive consumption of food, alcohol, and drugs.[174] Amid the looming financial insolvency of the Beach Boys, he began to supplement his regular use of amphetamines and marijuana with cocaine.[175] Hutton recalled that Wilson expressed suicidal wishes at the time, and that it was when his "real decline started".[175] In mid-1968, Wilson was admitted to a psychiatric hospital, possibly of his own volition.[176] His issues were not disclosed to the public, and sessions for 20/20 (February 1969) continued in his absence.[176] Journalist Nik Cohn, writing in 1968, said that Wilson had been rumored to be "increasingly withdrawn, brooding, hermitic ... and occasionally, he is to be seen in the back of some limousine, cruising around Hollywood, bleary and unshaven, huddled way tight into himself."[177]

Once discharged later in the year, Wilson rarely finished any tracks for the band, leaving much of his subsequent output for Carl Wilson to complete.[178] Regarding Brian's participation on the group's recordings from then, band engineer Stephen Desper said that Brian remained "indirectly involved with production" through Carl.[179][nb 13] Brian often stayed in his bedroom upstairs while his bandmates recorded in the studio down below. He would occasionally visit a session if he had heard a piece of music that he felt should be changed.[181] Dennis Wilson said that his elder brother began to have "no involvement at all", which forced the group to "find things that [he] worked on and try and piece it together."[182] Marilyn Wilson recalled that her husband withdrew because of perceived resentment from the group: "It was like, 'OK, you assholes, you think you can do as good as me or whatever – go ahead – you do it. You think it’s so easy? You do it.'"[183] Referencing the accusation that the Beach Boys refused to let Brian work, Dennis said "I would go to his house daily and beg, 'What can I do to help you?' I said, 'Forget recording, forget all of it.' It got to Brian's health."[182][nb 14]

Journalist Brian Chidester coined "Bedroom Tapes" as a loose umbrella term for Wilson's subsequent unreleased output until 1975, despite the fact that his home studio was dismantled in 1972.[178] Much of the material that Wilson recorded from the epoch remains unreleased and unheard by the public. Chidester states that some of it has been described as "schizophrenia on tape" and "intensely personal songs of gentle humanism and strange experimentation, which reflected on his then-fragile emotional state."[178][nb 15] Wilson's daughter Wendy remembered, "Where other people might take a run to release some stress, he would go to the piano and write a 5-minute song."[183]

Radiant Radish and Sunflower

Early in 1969, the Beach Boys commenced recording their album Sunflower (August 1970).[185] Wilson was an active participant in the year-long sessions, writing more than an album's worth of material by himself or with collaborators, most of which was left off the record.[184] He recorded a single for the band, "Break Away", that was co-written with his father, after which he was rarely in the studio until August 1969.[186] Due to his poor reputation in the music industry, the Beach Boys struggled to secure a record contract with another label.[187] In May, he revealed to reporters that the group were on the verge of bankruptcy.[188] His remarks had the effect of ruining negotiations with Deutsche Grammophon[189] and nearly compromised the band's imminent tour of the UK and Europe.[190] In July, Wilson opened a short-lived health food store, the Radiant Radish, with his friend Arnie Geller and cousin Steve Korthof.[191][nb 16]

In August, Sea of Tunes, the band's publishing company that held the rights to their song catalog, was sold to Irving Almo Music for $700,000 (equivalent to $4.94 million in 2020).[194] Wilson signed the consent letter at his father's behest.[195] According to Marilyn, the sale devastated Brian. "It killed him. Killed him. I don't think he talked for days. ... Brian took it as a personal thing, Murry not believing in him anymore."[196] Around this period, Wilson attempted to drive his vehicle off a cliff, and on another occasion, demanded that he be pushed into and buried in a grave that he had dug in his backyard.[193][nb 17] He channeled his despondence into the writing of his song "'Til I Die",[198] which he described as the summation of "everything I had to say at the time."[193]

Later in 1969, Wilson produced a collection of spoken-word recordings, A World of Peace Must Come, for poet Stephen Kalinich.[199][186] In November, Wilson and his band signed to Reprise Records, a subsidiary of Warner. Bros..[200] Part of the contract stipulated Wilson's proactive involvement with the group in all albums.[201][nb 18] Van Dyke Parks, who brokered the deal, said that "They [the band] were considered a problem at that time ... Everyone at the label just wanted Brian Wilson to come over and write some songs."[200] Before the contract was effectuated, Wilson attended a band meeting with Reprise executives with his face painted bright green. Asked why he did this, Wilson responded, "Just seeing what would happen."[201]

Wilson briefly substituted for Love on the road in March 1970, later calling the experience "the best three days of my life, I guess."[203] In April, he attempted to produce a country and western album for the band's co-manager Fred Vail, Cows in the Pasture, that was never finished.[204] In mid-1970, Wilson was reported to be working on a "chorus of frogs" piece for Kalinich and contemplated scoring an Andy Warhol film about a homosexual surfer.[205]

Spring and Holland stay

Wilson was deeply affected by the poor commercial response to Sunflower[206] and resumed having minimal contributions to the Beach Boys' records.[207] Bruce Johnston characterized him as merely "a visitor" to the sessions for Surf's Up (August 1971).[208] In November 1970, Wilson joined the live band for one-and-a-half dates at the Whisky a Go Go.[209][nb 19] Following this, Wilson told Melody Maker that although he had been "quite happy living at home", he felt that he was "not as creative as I once was and I'm not participating as much as I should have done."[210] He identified himself as "a kind of drop-out" who sleeps into the afternoon and "potter[s] around doing nothing much."[210]

Speaking to a reporter one year later, in September 1971, Wilson said that he had recently returned to "arranging, doing that more than writing now."[211][nb 20] In December, while at a concert in Long Beach, manager Jack Rieley coaxed Wilson into performing with the Beach Boys, although his time on stage lasted only minutes.[212] In February 1972, Wilson went to an America gig at the Whisky a Go Go; according to Dan Peek, he "held court like a Mad King as Danny Hutton scurried about like his court jester" during the band's performance.[213]

From late 1971 to early 1972, Wilson and musician David Sandler collaborated on Spring, the first album by Marilyn Wilson and Diane Rovell's new group, American Spring.[180] As with much of Brian's work in the era, his contributions "ebbed and flowed."[214] It was the most involved Wilson had been in an album's production since Friends in 1968.[215] Meanwhile, Blondie Chaplin stated that Wilson rarely left his bedroom during the recording of Carl and the Passions (April 1972), but "when he came down his contribution was amazing."[216] Carlin writes, "Brian ended up being so absent ... that the group actually had to edit his face into the group portrait that appeared on the inner sleeve of the album cover."[217][nb 21]

During the summer of 1972, Wilson joined his bandmates when they temporarily moved base to Holland, albeit after much cajoling.[218] While living in a Dutch house called "Flowers" and listening repeatedly to Randy Newman's newest album Sail Away, Wilson was inspired to write a fairy tale, Mount Vernon and Fairway, loosely based on his memories listening to the radio at Mike Love's family home as a teenager.[219] The group rejected his proposal to include the fairy tale on their next album, Holland (January 1973). Instead, it was packaged with Holland as a bonus EP.[220] In 1973, Jan Berry (under the alias JAN) released the single "Don't You Just Know It", a duet featuring Wilson.[221] That April, Wilson briefly joined his bandmates onstage during an encore for the group's concert at the Hollywood Palladium.[222]

Recluse period

I was taking some drugs and I experimented myself right out of action. ... I'd sometimes go and record. But basically I just stayed in my bedroom. I was under the sheets and I watched television.

—Brian Wilson[223]

After his father's death in June 1973, Wilson secluded himself in the chauffeur's quarters of his home, where he spent his time sleeping, abusing drugs and alcohol, overeating, and exhibiting self-destructive behavior.[224] He rarely ventured outside wearing anything but pajamas and later said that his father's death "had a lot to do with my retreating."[225] Wilson's family were eventually forced to take control of his financial affairs due to his irresponsible drug expenditures.[226][227][nb 22] This led Brian to occasionally wander the city, begging for rides, drugs, and alcohol.[227] According to Wilson, from 1974 to 1975, he recorded only "skimpy little bits and pieces, little fragments" due to a loss of "the ability to concentrate enough to follow through."[228]

Reflecting on this period, Wilson said that he was preoccupied with snorting cocaine, reading magazines such as Playboy and Penthouse,[230] and "hanging out with Danny Hutton", whose house had become the center of Wilson's social life.[231] Although increasingly reclusive during the day, Wilson spent many nights at Hutton's house fraternizing with colleagues such as Alice Cooper and Iggy Pop, who were mutually bemused by an extended Wilson-led singalong of the folk song "Shortnin' Bread".[232] According to Cooper, Wilson proclaimed that it was "the greatest song ever written."[55] Other visitors of Hutton's home included Harry Nilsson, John Lennon, Ringo Starr and Keith Moon.[232] On several occasions, Marilyn Wilson sent her friends to climb Hutton's fence and retrieve her husband.[231]

Of Wilson in the early 1970s, music historian Charles Granata writes, "The stories—many of them dubious—are legendary."[227] Cooper told another story in which he witnessed Wilson at a party, with John Lennon, repeatedly asking fellow attendees to introduce him to the Beatle, one after another.[233] Micky Dolenz, recalling an occasion in which he took LSD with Wilson, Nilsson, and Lennon in Malibu, said that Wilson "played just one note on a piano over and over again".[234] John Sebastian often showed up at Wilson's home "to jam" and later recalled of Wilson's situation, "It wasn't all grimness."[235] Jeff Foskett, a Beach Boys fan who visited Wilson's home unannounced, said that Wilson was cordial and unlike the popular myths surrounding him.[236]

Paul McCartney and his wife Linda visited Wilson in April 1974, but Wilson refused to let them inside his home.[237] Jimmy Webb reported Wilson's presence at an August session for Nilsson's "Salmon Falls"; he kept in the back of the studio playing "Da Doo Ron Ron" haphazardly on a B3 organ.[238] Later that month, he played on the sessions for Keith Moon's solo album, Two Sides of the Moon,[239] and was photographed at Moon's 28th birthday party (held on August 28 at the Beverly Wilshire Hotel) wearing only his bathrobe. On another occasion that year, Wilson interrupted a set by jazz musician Larry Coryell at The Troubadour by leaping on stage and singing "Be-Bop-A-Lula", again wearing slippers and a bathrobe.[240]

The Beach Boys' greatest hits compilation Endless Summer was a surprise success, becoming the band's second number-one U.S. album in October 1974. To take advantage of their sudden resurgence in popularity, Wilson agreed to join his bandmates in Colorado for the recording of a new album at James William Guercio's Caribou Ranch studio.[241] Guercio remembered, "From the day he got here, he said, 'I want [to] go home.'"[242] The group completed a few tracks, including "Child of Winter (Christmas Song)", but ultimately abandoned the project.[242] Released as a single at the end of December 1974, "Child of Winter" was their first record that displayed the credit "Produced by Brian Wilson" since 1966.[243]

Early in 1975, while still under contract with Warner Bros., Wilson signed a short-lived sideline production deal with Bruce Johnston and Terry Melcher's Equinox Records. Together, they founded the loose-knit supergroup known as California Music, which also included involvement from Gary Usher, Curt Boettcher, and other Los Angeles musicians.[224] Along with his guest appearances on Johnny Rivers' rendition of "Help Me, Rhonda" and Jackie DeShannon's "Boat to Sail", Wilson's production of California Music's single "Why Do Fools Fall in Love" represents his only "serious" work throughout this period of semi-inactivity.[244]

An event that Wilson remembered as the most embarrassing in his life was when he met Elvis Presley at RCA Victor Studio in 1975. Wilson was accordingly "so nervous" that he attempted to karate chop the singer.[245][nb 23] Also in 1975, NME published an extended three-part piece by journalist Nick Kent, "The Last Beach Movie", which depicted Wilson in a highly unfavorable light.[247] Johnston stated in another music magazine that Wilson became "suicidally depressed" after reading the article.[248]

15 Big Ones and Love You

Wilson's overconsumption of food, cigarettes, alcohol, and other drugs – which now sometimes included heroin – further strained his marriage to Marilyn, who responded by threatening her husband with divorce or committing him to a mental institution.[224] By then, Wilson's weight had ballooned to 240 pounds (110 kg).[249][250][nb 24] To help reverse his physical decline, in 1975, band manager Stephen Love appointed his brother Stan, a basketball player, as Wilson's bodyguard, trainer, and caretaker.[251][252][nb 25] Marilyn also called in the band's lawyers and accountants to remind her husband that, pursuant to the terms of his contract with Warner Bros., he was legally obligated to write and produce for the Beach Boys or else he would be sued by the label and lose his home.[251][nb 26] Stan was successful in improving Wilson's health and lifestyle, but after several months, went back to working with the NBA.[251] Wilson then volunteered into psychologist Eugene Landy's radical 24-hour therapy program in October.[254][255]

Wilson producing 15 Big Ones in early 1976.

Under Landy's care, Wilson became more stable and socially engaged, with his productivity increasing once again.[256][257] Throughout 1976, the tagline "Brian's Back!" became a major promotional tool for the band's concert tours, as well as their July release 15 Big Ones, the first Beach Boys album that credited Wilson as the sole producer since Pet Sounds.[258][259] The sessions were fraught with tension, as Wilson's bandmates fought against his wish to record a covers album and did not feel that he was ready to assume control of their studio proceedings.[260] Ultimately, a compromise was reached, with the album including a mix of covers and originals.[260]

Starting on July 2, 1976, Wilson made regular concert appearances with his bandmates for the first time since December 1964, singing and alternating between bass guitar and piano.[261][262][nb 27] In August, Wilson traveled with his group for concert dates outside of California, the first time he had done so since March 1970.[263] NBC also premiered a Lorne Michaels-produced television special about the band, called simply The Beach Boys, which included recent concert footage, interviews, and a comedy sketch involving Wilson and NBC's Saturday Night cast members Dan Aykroyd and John Belushi.[264][nb 28]

That's when it all happened for me. That's where my heart lies. Love You, Jesus, that's the best album we ever made.

—Brian Wilson, 1998[267]

From October 1976 to January 1977, Wilson produced a large collection of studio recordings, largely by himself while his bandmates were preoccupied with other personal and creative affairs.[268] Released in April 1977, The Beach Boys Love You was the Beach Boys' first album to feature Wilson as a primary composer since Wild Honey in 1967.[269] Wilson also played virtually all of the instruments on the album.[270] Once again, he was credited as producer, while Carl was credited as "mixdown producer".[271] Band engineer Earle Mankey described it as "Brian Wilson giving what he had [to make] a serious, autobiographical album: ... Sort of like Eraserhead."[272] Asked for his favorite Beach Boys albums in a 1998 interview, Wilson responded with 15 Big Ones and Love You.[267]

Wilson's family and management relieved Landy of his services at the end of 1976, when he raised his monthly fees to $20,000 (equivalent to $91,000 in 2020).[273] Shortly afterward, Wilson told a journalist that he felt the treatment had been a success despite the exorbitant fees.[274] Landy's role as Wilson's handler and constant supervisor was immediately taken over by Wilson's cousins, Steve Korthof and Stan Love, and a professional model, Rocky Pamplin, who had been friends with Love in college.[275] Wilson maintained a healthy, drug-free disposition for several months under their auspices.[276]

In March 1977, the Beach Boys signed to CBS Records, whose contract stipulated that Wilson compose most of the material on all of the group's albums. According to Gaines, "When Brian signed the contract, he cried, knowing he would now have to go back to the studio full-time."[277] Referencing the sessions for M.I.U. Album (October 1978), Wilson said that he went through a "mental blank-out" during this period.[278] Wilson was credited as the album's "executive producer", likely for contractual reasons.[279] Stan said, "Brian was putting in his time, but he wasn't too happy. He was depressed and on medication."[280] He added that Wilson did not want to produce his bandmates because he resented them personally. In particular, "Brian didn't want to write with [Mike] anymore, but of course Mike tried to hang on."[281] Around this time, Wilson attempted to produce an album for Pamplin that would have featured the Honeys as backing vocalists.[282]

Hospitalizations and relapse

Wilson (right) with Mike Love, 1980

Wilson entered a period of regression over the subsequent years[266] – particularly, after the band's disastrous tour of Australia in 1978 – and found ways of obtaining cocaine and barbiturates without the knowledge of his handlers.[282] In mid-1978, a day after he overdosed on a combination of drugs, he disappeared from his family and went hitchhiking in West Hollywood, ultimately arriving at a gay bar, where he played piano for drinks.[283] After this, he was driven to Mexico by a bar patron, and then hitchhiked to San Diego.[284] Days later, police officers discovered Wilson lying under a tree in Balboa Park without shoes, money, or a wallet.[284] They promptly took him to Alvarado Hospital for detox from alcohol poisoning.[285][286]

Once discharged, Wilson immediately joined his bandmates for the recording of L.A. (Light Album) (March 1979), but after producing some demos, requested that Bruce Johnston helm the project.[287] Korthof recalled, "Brian was real weird then, real quiet, not saying much. Real depressed. I think he just realized he wasn't going to be able to pick up the slack."[288] Wilson's bandmates implored him to produce their next album, Keepin' the Summer Alive (March 1980), but he was unable or unwilling.[289][290]

With his marriage disintegrated, Wilson moved from his mansion on Bellagio Road to a small house on Sunset Boulevard, where he descended further into alcoholism.[291] Following an incident in which he attacked his doctor during a visit, Wilson spent several months institutionalized at Brotzman Memorial Hospital.[292][293] While there, in January 1979, Stan Love and Rocky Pamplin were dismissed of their services.[294] Wilson was discharged in March.[295] Afterward, Wilson rented a house in Santa Monica and was arranged to be taken care of by a "round-the-clock" psychiatric nursing team.[296] Later, he purchased a home in Pacific Palisades.[297]

Brian remained engrossed in his overeating and drug habits, spurred on partly through the influence of Dennis.[298] To motivate his brother to write and produce songs, Dennis would sometimes offer McDonald's hamburgers and grams of cocaine to Brian.[298] In early 1981, Pamplin and Stan Love were convicted of assaulting Dennis in his home after the former bodyguards had heard that Dennis had been supplying Brian with drugs.[299]

During this period, Brian's diet included up to four or five steaks a day,[298] as well as copious amounts of ice cream, cookies, and cakes.[300] By the end of 1982, his weight exceeded 340 pounds (150 kg).[301][nb 29]

Recovery and the Wilson Project

In 1982, after Wilson overdosed on a combination of alcohol, cocaine, and other psychoactive drugs,[303] his family and management successfully coordinated an elaborate ruse to convince him to volunteer back into Landy's program.[304][305] When approached by the band, Landy had agreed to treat Wilson again, but only if he was to be given total control over Brian's affairs without interference from anyone.[305] Additionally, Landy promised that he would need no more than two years to rehabilitate Wilson.[306] On November 5, Wilson was falsely told by the group that he was penniless and no longer a member of the Beach Boys, and if he wanted to continue receiving his share of income from the touring band's earnings, he had to reenlist Landy as his caretaker.[304]

Wilson performing with the Beach Boys in 1983

Wilson acquiesced and was subsequently taken to Hawaii, where he was isolated from friends and family and put on a rigorous diet and health regimen.[307][308] Coupled with counseling sessions, which involved reteaching Wilson basic social etiquette, this therapy was successful in bringing him back to physical health.[309] By March 1983, he had returned to Los Angeles and was moved by Landy into a home in Malibu, where Wilson lived with several of Landy's aides and was cut off from contacting many of his own friends and family, including his children and ex-wife Marilyn.[310]

Between 1983 and 1986, Landy charged about $430,000 annually (equivalent to $1.12 million in 2020). When Landy requested more money, Carl Wilson was obliged to give away a quarter of Brian's publishing royalties.[303] Landy soon extended to being Brian's creative and financial partner.[311] Eventually, Landy became his representative at the Beach Boys' Brother Records, Inc (BRI) corporate meetings.[312] Landy was accused of creating a Svengali-like environment for Wilson, controlling every movement in his life, including his musical direction.[313] Responding to such allegations, Wilson said, "People say that Dr. Landy runs my life, but the truth is, I'm in charge."[314] He later claimed that, in mid-1985, he attempted suicide by swimming out to sea as far as he could before one of Landy's aides brought him back to shore.[315]

As Wilson's recovery consolidated, he actively participated in the recording of the album The Beach Boys (June 1985).[316] The publicity surrounding the release labelled it as a "comeback" for Wilson.[317] Afterward, he stopped working with his bandmates on a regular basis to focus on launching a solo career with Landy's assistance.[314] Starting in 1986, Wilson engaged his former collaborator Gary Usher in writing songs and recording demos for his prospective solo album at Usher's studio.[314] They recorded about a dozens songs in varying stages of completion, most of which remain unreleased.[318][nb 30] This collection of recordings came to be known as "the Wilson Project".[318]

Brian Wilson, Sweet Insanity, and lawsuits

In January 1987, Wilson agreed to a solo contract offered by Sire Records president Seymour Stein, who stipulated his own choice of co-producer, multi-instrumentalist Andy Paley, to keep Wilson on-task.[315][318] In exchange, Landy was allowed to take on an "executive producer" role.[315] Other producers, including Russ Titelman and Lenny Waronker, were soon involved, and difficulties between them and Landy ensued throughout the recording sessions.[320]

Released in July 1988, Brian Wilson was met with favorable reviews and moderate sales, peaking at number 52 in the U.S.[318][321] It included "Rio Grande", an eight-minute Western suite written in a similar vein to the songs from Smile.[322] The LP's release was largely overshadowed by the controversy surrounding Landy and the success of the Beach Boys' "Kokomo", the band's first number-one hit since "Good Vibrations", and their first hit that had no involvement from Wilson.[323]

Wilson in the studio, 1990.

In 1989, Wilson and Landy formed the company Brains and Genius, by which time Landy had ceased to be Wilson's therapist on legal record and had surrendered his license to practice psychology in the state of California.[324] Together, they worked on Wilson's second solo album, Sweet Insanity, with Landy co-writing almost all of the material.[325] Sire rejected the album due to Landy's lyrics and the inclusion of Wilson's rap song "Smart Girls".[318] In May 1989, Wilson recorded "Daddy's Little Girl" for the film She's Out of Control, and in June, was among the featured guests on the charity single "The Spirit of the Forest".[318] Wilson also collaborated with Linda Ronstadt on her single "Adios".[326]

Throughout the 1990s, Wilson was embroiled in numerous lawsuits.[327] In August 1989, he filed a $100 million suit against Irving Music to recover the song publishing rights that had been sold by his father decades earlier.[318] Although Wilson failed to recover the rights, he was awarded $10 million through an out of court settlement in April 1992.[327] By 1990, Wilson was estranged from the Beach Boys, with his bandmates deliberately scheduling recording sessions that Wilson could not attend. According to Brother Records president Elliot Lott, the band also twice rejected Wilson's offers to produce an album for them.[328]

In October 1991, Wilson's first memoir Wouldn't It Be Nice: My Own Story was published.[329] According to Carlin, in addition to plagiarizing excerpts from earlier biographies, the contents of the book ranged from Wilson's castigations against his bandmates to passages that "read like depositions for their various court cases".[329] The book prompted defamation lawsuits from Love, Al Jardine, Carl Wilson, and his mother Audree Wilson .[327][330]

Paley sessions, Orange Crate Art, and Imagination

Following a conservatorship suit filed by Wilson's family in May 1991, Wilson and Landy's partnership was dissolved in December, with a restraining order enacted soon thereafter.[327] Consequently, Wilson's productivity increased significantly.[326] The day after the restraining order was placed on Landy, Wilson renewed his songwriting partnership with Andy Paley and, together, subsequently wrote and recorded a large collection of material for a proposed Beach Boys album throughout the early to mid-1990s.[331] A month after Wilson was awarded $10 million from his Irving Almo lawsuit, in May 1992, he was sued by Mike Love for decades-long neglected royalties and songwriting credits. In December 1994, the jury ruled in favor of Love, who was awarded $5 million and a share of future royalties from Wilson.[332]

Concurrently, Wilson worked with Don Was on a documentary about his life, Brian Wilson: I Just Wasn't Made for These Times (1995).[333] The soundtrack consisted of rerecordings of Beach Boys songs and was released as Wilson's second solo album in August.[334] In 1993, Wilson accepted an offer to record an album of songs written by Van Dyke Parks.[335] Credited to the pair, Orange Crate Art was released in October 1995.[334][336] In the late 1990s, Wilson and Asher rekindled their writing partnership and wrote some songs together.[337] One of them "Everything I Need", appeared on The Wilsons (1997), a project involving Wilson and his daughters.[337]

Although some recordings were completed with the Beach Boys, the Wilson/Paley project was ultimately abandoned.[338] Instead, Wilson co-produced the band's 1996 album Stars and Stripes Vol. 1 with Joe Thomas, owner of River North Records and former professional wrestler.[339] In 1997, Wilson moved to St. Charles, Illinois to work on a solo album project with Thomas [340] Released in June 1998, Wilson described his third album, Imagination, as "really a Brian Wilson/Joe Thomas album."[341] It peaked at number 88 in the U.S. and was criticized by fans for its mainstream pop sound.[342]

Numerous reports from this period suggested that Wilson was being pressured to have a career and exploited by those close to him, including his second wife Melinda Ledbetter.[342] Wilson's daughter Carnie referred to Ledbetter as "Melandy",[343] and Ginger Blake, a family friend, characterized Wilson as "complacent and basically surrendered".[344] Mike Love stated that he was in favor of reuniting the Beach Boys with Wilson, however, "Brian usually has someone in his life who tells him what to do. And now that person kinda wants to keep him away from us. I don't know why. You'd have to ask her, I guess."[342] Asked if he still considered himself a Beach Boy, Wilson replied, "No. Maybe a little bit."[342] Referencing Wilson's longtime dependencies on his father and Landy, Westword's Michael Roberts wrote in 2000 that "his public statements over time have tended to reiterate those of whoever's supervising his activities at the moment."[345]

From March to July 1999, Wilson embarked on his first ever solo tour, playing about a dozen dates in the U.S. and Japan.[346] His supporting band consisted of former Beach Boys touring musician Jeff Foskett (guitar), Wondermints members Darian Sahanaja (keyboards), Nick Walusko (guitar), Mike D'Amico (percussion, drums), and Probyn Gregory (guitar, horns), and Chicago-based session musicians Scott Bennett (various), Paul Mertens (woodwinds), Bob Lizik (bass), Todd Sucherman (drums), and Taylor Mills (backing vocals).[347][348] Wilson toured the U.S. again in October.[349] In 2000, Wilson said that the tours "so far [have] been great. I feel much more comfortable on stage now. I have a good band behind me. It's a much better band than the Beach Boys were."[350]

In August 1999, Wilson filed a suit against Thomas, seeking damages and a declaration which freed him to work on his next album without involvement from Thomas.[351] Thomas reciprocated with his own suit, citing that Ledbetter had "schemed against and manipulated" him and Wilson. The case was settled out of court.[352]

Live albums and Brian Wilson Presents Smile

Early in 2000, Wilson released his first live album, Live at the Roxy Theatre.[353] Later in the year, he embarked on a series of U.S. concert dates that included the first full live performances of Pet Sounds, with Wilson backed by a 55-piece orchestra. Van Dyke Parks was commissioned to write an overture arrangement of Wilson's songs.[354] Although the tour was positively received by critics, it was poorly attended, and financial losses ran up to hundreds of thousands of dollars.[353] In March 2001, Wilson attended a tribute show held in his honor at the Radio City Music Hall in New York,[355] where he sang "Heroes and Villains" before a public audience for the first time in decades.[356]

The Pet Sounds tour was followed by another in 2002, this time playing in Europe, with a sold-out four-night residency at the Royal Festival Hall in London.[357] Recordings from these concerts were released in the form of a second live album, Brian Wilson Presents Pet Sounds Live (June 2002).[358] Over the next year, Wilson continued sporadic recording sessions for his fourth solo album, Gettin' in over My Head.[359] Released in June 2004, the record featured guest appearances from Van Dyke Parks, Paul McCartney, Eric Clapton, and Elton John.[360] Some of the songs were leftovers from Wilson's past collaborations with Paley and Thomas.[361]

Brian Wilson Presents Smile at the Royal Festival Hall in London on February 21, 2004

To the surprise of his associates, Wilson agreed to follow the Pet Sounds tours with concert dates that would feature songs from the unfinished Smile album arranged for live performance.[362] Sahanaja assisted Wilson with the sequencing, and later, they were joined by Parks, who was brought in to contribute additional lyrics.[363] Brian Wilson Presents Smile (BWPS) premiered at the Royal Festival Hall in London in February 2004.[364] Encouraged by the positive reception, a studio album adaptation was soon recorded.[365] Wilson's engineer Mark Linett recalled that when he handed Wilson the CD of the completed album, "I swear you could see something change in him. And he's been different ever since."[366] According to Sahanaja, Wilson held the CD to his chest and said, "'I'm going to hold this dear to my heart.' He was trembling."[367]

Released in September, BWPS debuted at number 13 on the Billboard Hot 100, the highest chart position of any album by the Beach Boys or Brian Wilson since 1976's 15 Big Ones,[365] and the highest ever debut for a Beach Boys-related album.[368] It was later certified platinum.[369] In support of BWPS, Wilson embarked on a world tour that included stops in the US, Europe, and Japan.[370] Sahanaja told Australian Musician, "In six years of touring this is the happiest we've ever seen Brian, I mean consistently happy".[371] In July 2005, Wilson performed a concert at Live 8 in Berlin watched by a television audience of about three million.[372]

In September 2005, Wilson arranged a charity drive to aid victims of Hurricane Katrina, wherein people who donated $100 or more would receive a personal phone call from Wilson. According to the website, over $250K was raised.[373] In November, Mike Love sued Wilson over "shamelessly misappropriating ... Love's songs, likeness, and the Beach Boys trademark, as well as the 'Smile' album itself" in the promotion of BWPS.[374][375] The lawsuit was ultimately dismissed on grounds that it was meritless.[376]

Covers albums, That Lucky Old Sun, and Beach Boys reunion

In December 2005, Arista Records released Wilson's album What I Really Want for Christmas, which contained only two new originals by Wilson. To celebrate the 40th anniversary of Pet Sounds, Wilson embarked on a brief tour in November 2006.[377] Al Jardine accompanied Wilson for the tour.[378] In 2007, the Southbank Centre in London commissioned Wilson to create another song cycle in the style of Smile. With Scott Bennett, Wilson reconfigured a collection of songs that they had recently written and recorded together. The end result, That Lucky Old Sun, was a semi-autobiographical conceptual piece about California.[379] One year after Wilson premiered the work in London, a studio-recorded version of the piece was released as his seventh solo album in September 2008.[380] It received generally favorable reviews.[381]

Around this time, Wilson announced that he was developing another concept album, titled Pleasure Island: A Rock Fantasy. Accordingly: "It's about some guys who took a hike, and they found a place called Pleasure Island. And they met all kinds of chicks, and they went on rides and — it's just a concept. I haven't developed it yet. I think people are going to love it — it could be the best thing I've ever done."[382]

In 2009, Wilson was asked by Walt Disney Records to record an album of Disney songs. He accepted on the condition that he could also record an album of George Gershwin songs as part of the deal.[383] The latter, Brian Wilson Reimagines Gershwin, was released in August 2010; it reached number 26 on the Billboard 200 and topped Billboard's Jazz Albums chart.[384] Wilson embarked on a concert tour in which he performed the album in its entirety.[385] In October 2011, the record was followed by In the Key of Disney, which peaked at number 83 in the U.S. The album was largely overshadowed by the release of The Smile Sessions one week later.[386]

Wilson performing with the Beach Boys during their brief 2012 reunion

Whether Wilson had truly consented to his semi-regular touring schedule since the 2000s remained a subject of debate among fans.[387] Wilson himself frequently stated that he enjoyed live performances, however, writing in his 2011 book about the Beach Boys, Jon Stebbins concluded, "His handlers, managers, and wife insist that he works. It's all a bit Landy-like when you look behind the curtain."[387] Stebbins referred to a "recent interview [in which Brian was asked] what he disliked the most about touring, [and] Brian replied that it was going on stage and performing. ... Upon hearing Brian say that, his 'handler' quickly reminded Brian, through a fake smile, that he loved performing."[387] Asked about Wilson's alleged exploitation in an interview, Jeff Foskett denied the reports.[236]

In mid-2011, Wilson reunited with his bandmates to rerecord "Do It Again" surreptitiously for a potential 50th anniversary album.[388] Rumors that the group would reunite for a world tour soon appeared in the music press. Wilson stated in a September report that he was not participating in the tour with his bandmates. "I don't really like working with the guys, but it all depends on how we feel and how much money's involved. Money's not the only reason I made records, but it does hold a place in our lives."[389] Wilson ultimately agreed to the tour, which lasted until September 2012, and an album, That's Why God Made the Radio, released in June 2012.[390] By then, Wilson had renewed his creative partnership with Joe Thomas. Although Wilson was listed as the album's producer, Thomas was credited with "recording", while Mike Love was "executive producer".[391]

Continued activity and Love & Mercy

In June 2013, Wilson's website announced that he was recording and self-producing new material with Don Was, Al Jardine, David Marks, former Beach Boy Blondie Chaplin, and guitarist Jeff Beck.[392] It stated that the material might be split into three albums: one of new pop songs, another of mostly instrumental tracks with Beck, and another of interwoven tracks dubbed "the suite" which initially began form as the closing four tracks of That's Why God Made the Radio.[393] In January 2014, Wilson declared in an interview that the Beck collaborations would not be released.[394][395]

In September 2014, Wilson attended the premiere of the Bill Pohlad-directed biopic of his life, Love & Mercy, at the Toronto International Film Festival.[396] Wilson had contributed a song to the film, "One Kind of Love", that was nominated for Best Original Song at the 2016 Golden Globe Awards.[397] In October 2014, BBC released a newly recorded version of "God Only Knows" with guest appearances by Wilson, Brian May, Elton John, Jake Bugg, Stevie Wonder, Lorde, and many others. It was recorded to celebrate the launch of BBC Music.[398] A week later, Wilson was featured as a guest vocalist on the Emile Haynie single "Falling Apart".[399] Wilson's cover of Paul McCartney's "Wanderlust" was released on the tribute album The Art of McCartney in November.[400]

Released in April 2015, No Pier Pressure marked another collaboration between Wilson and Joe Thomas, featuring guest appearances from Jardine, Marks, Chaplin, and others.[401] Fans reacted negatively to the announcement that Wilson would be recording a duets album, describing it as a "cash-in". A Facebook post attributed to Wilson responded to the feedback: "In my life in music, I’ve been told too many times not to fuck with the formula, but as an artist it's my job to do that."[402] The album reached the U.S. top 30, but critical reaction was mixed due to the adult contemporary arrangements and excessive use of autotune.[403] Later in the year, Sahanaja was asked if Wilson was reaching the end of his career as a performing artist. He answered, "I gotta be honest. Each of the past five years I thought to myself, 'Well, this is probably going to be it.'"[404]

Wilson performing Pet Sounds at Byron Bay Bluesfest, 2016

In March 2016, Wilson embarked on the Pet Sounds 50th Anniversary World Tour, promoted as his final performances of the album.[405] In October, his second memoir, I Am Brian Wilson, was published. It was written by journalist Ben Greenman through several months of interviews with Wilson.[406] Also in October, Wilson announced a new album, Sensitive Music for Sensitive People, comprising originals and rock and roll cover songs.[407] He described the name as a "working title" and said that recording would begin in December.[408]

Asked about negative remarks made against him in Wilson's book, Love disputed that Wilson's printed statements were actually spoken by him and suggested that Wilson is "not in charge of his life, like I am mine. ... But, I don't like to put undue pressure on him ... because I know he has a lot of issues."[409] During the filming of the 2021 documentary Brian Wilson: Long Promised Road, Wilson remarked that he had not "had a friend to talk to in three years."[410]

In a 2016 Rolling Stone interview, Wilson responded to a question about retiring: "Retirement? Oh, man. No retiring. If I retired I wouldn’t know what to do with my time. What would I do? Sit there and go, 'Oh, I don’t want to be 74'? I’d rather get on the road and do concerts and take airplane flights."[411] Similarly, in 2017, Wilson told Rolling Stone that he had not written a song since 2012, but still had no intentions of retiring from the road.[412] In 2019, Wilson embarked on a co-headlining tour with the Zombies, performing selections from Friends and Surf's Up.[413] Wilson was still performing Pet Sounds shows at the time the COVID-19 pandemic emerged in early 2020.[414]


Early influences

Record producer Phil Spector (pictured 1966) was a massive influence on Wilson.

Chord-wise, Wilson's main music influences are rock and roll, doo-wop, and vocal jazz.[415] At about age two, he heard Glenn Miller's rendition of Gershwin's Rhapsody in Blue, which had a profound emotional impact on him.[416][417] Wilson said, "It sort of became a general life theme [for me]."[418] As a child, his favorite artists included Roy Rogers, Carl Perkins, Bill Haley, Elvis Presley, Henry Mancini, and Rosemary Clooney.[14] Most of his education in music composition and jazz harmony came from deconstructing the harmonies of his favorite vocal group, the Four Freshmen, whose repertoire included songs by Gershwin, Jerome Kern, and Cole Porter.[419] The first pop album he listened to in its entirety was their 1956 album Freshmen Favorites.[420]

Phil Spector's influence on Wilson is well-documented.[421][422] A pivotal moment in Wilson's life occurred when he was listening to his car radio and heard the Ronettes' Spector-produced song "Be My Baby" (1963).[423] Wilson was so overwhelmed by the record that he immediately pulled over to the side of the road and concluded that it was the greatest he had ever heard.[423] Carlin describes the song as becoming "a spiritual touchstone" for Wilson,[424] while music historian Luis Sanchez states that it formed an enduring part of Wilson's mythology, being the Spector record that "etched itself the deepest into Brian's mind ... it comes up again and again in interviews and biographies, variably calling up themes of deep admiration, a source of consolation, and a baleful haunting of the spirit."[422] In a 1966 article, Wilson referred to Spector as "the single most influential producer."[425]

Producer Burt Bacharach is among the "often-overlooked" influences on Wilson's music.[426][nb 31] In a 1998 interview, he cited Bacharach as "probably the greatest songwriting genius of the 20th century, and that includes...even better than George Gershwin."[343][nb 32] Of his own vocal style, Wilson stated, "I don't think people realize just how much Rosemary Clooney affected my singing. She taught me to sing with love in my heart ... I would sing along with [her recording of "Hey There"], studying her phrasing, and that's how I learned to sing with feeling."[429] Granata writes that Wilson also admired Frankie Valli and the Four Seasons, although he rarely singled them out in interviews.[421] Regarding his increasingly melodic bass lines in the mid-1960s, Granata speculated that Wilson "may have taken a cue" from Motown's James Jamerson.[430] Cultural historian Hal Lifson argued that Wilson's "symphonic element" was influenced by Disney film soundtracks such as Mary Poppins (1964).[431]


Explaining his writing process in 1966, Wilson stated that he started with finding a basic chord pattern and rhythm that he described as "feels", or "brief note sequences, fragments of ideas", and "once they're out of my head and into the open air, I can see them and touch them firmly. They're not 'feels' anymore."[432][433] Wilson wrote his own arrangements – an unusual practice among rock groups of the 1960s[434] – but typically relied on collaborators for lyrics.[435] Unlike his contemporaries, the lyrics of Wilson's songs did not touch on social issues, and instead usually dealt with introspective themes.[436]

Common devices in Wilson's musical structures include jazz chords (such as sevenths and ninths),[437] key changes within verse and choruses (including "truck driver's modulations"),[438] stepwise diatonic rises (such as I – iii – IV – V),[439] tertian movement,[440] and chord inversions (especially a tonic with a fifth in the bass).[441]

Recording practices in the 1960s

Exterior of Western Studio in Hollywood, Wilson's preferred recording facility in the mid-1960s.

On the subject of recording, Wilson said, "I was unable to really think as a producer up until the time where I really got familiar with Phil Spector's work. That was when I started to design the experience to be a record rather than just a song."[442] Wilson often attended Spector's recording sessions, taking notes on the producer's arranging and recording methods (later dubbed the "Wall of Sound"), and adopted the same choice of studios and session musicians as Spector.[424][nb 33] This collective of studio musicians later became known as the Wrecking Crew.[446]

Rather than using Gold Star Studios, Spector's favorite studio, Wilson preferred working at the Studio 3 room of Western for its privacy and for the presence of staff engineer Chuck Britz.[447] From 1962 to 1967, Brtiz acted as Wilson's "right-hand man".[448] Once Britz assembled a preliminary recording setup, Wilson would take over the console, directing the session musicians from the booth using an intercom or verbal gestures after supplying them with chord charts.[449][nb 34]

Among his musicians, bassist Carol Kaye remembered, "We had to create [instrumental] parts for all the other groups we cut for, but not Brian. We were in awe of Brian."[434] Guitarist Jerry Cole said, "we would walk out of Brian's sessions shaking our heads, saying, 'This son of a bitch is either crazy, or he's an absolute genius.' And the latter came to pass."[452] Keyboardist Don Randi referred to Wilson as "the Bill Evans of rock 'n' roll".[453]

Influence and legacy

From 1962 to 1979, Wilson wrote or co-wrote more than two dozen U.S. Top 40 hits for the Beach Boys, eleven of which reached the top 10.[454][nb 35] Three more that he produced, but did not write, were the band's "Barbara Ann" (number 2) in 1965, "Sloop John B" (number 3) in 1966, and "Rock and Roll Music" (number 5) in 1976.[454] Among his other top 10 hits, Wilson co-wrote Jan and Dean's "Surf City" (the first chart-topping surf song) and "Dead Man's Curve" (number 8) in 1963, and the Hondells' "Little Honda" (number 9) in 1964.[455]

Wilson is widely regarded as one of the most innovative and significant songwriters of the late 20th century.[456] He was the first pop artist credited for writing, arranging, producing, and performing his own material.[457] Wilson was also one of the first music producer auteurs, helping to popularize the idea of the recording studio as a compositional tool,[458] and was the first rock producer to use the studio as a discrete instrument.[459] In the 2010 book The Producer as Composer: Shaping the Sounds of Popular Music, he is acknowledged as a "brilliant producer" and "a major innovator in the field of music production."[460] The control Wilson had over his own band's records was itself unprecedented in the music industry.[461][462][463] Murphy writes,

[N]o other recording artist had ... wrested complete creative control of his music away from a major record company, its recording studios, engineers, and the watchful, but often intrusive, A&R man assigned to produce the group. ... Armed with this unprecedented artistic freedom, Brian began transforming popular music and, equally important, the industry's perception of it.[463]

Although there had been numerous examples of artists who were essentially "self-produced", Wilson marked himself as an outlier for having directed every phase of an album's production.[464] This effectively set a precedent that allowed subsequent bands and artists to enter a recording studio and act as producers, either autonomously, or in conjunction with other like minds, and music producers afterward drew on his influence.[458] Granata writes that Wilson's "authoritative approach ... affected his contemporaries" and thus "redefined" the role of the producer.[464] Jimmy Webb explained, "As far as a major, modern producer who was working right in the middle of the pop milieu, no one was doing what Brian was doing. We didn't even know that it was possible until he did it."[465][nb 36]

Following his exercise of total creative autonomy, Wilson ignited an explosion of like-minded California producers, supplanting New York as the center of popular records.[467] His incorporation of quasi-symphonic textures also propelled the mid-1960s art pop movement.[468] According to journalist Erik Davis, "Not only did [he] write a soundtrack to the early '60s, but Brian let loose a delicate and joyful art pop unique in music history and presaged the mellowness so fundamental to '70s California pop."[469] The A.V. Club's Noel Murray wrote that Wilson was among "studio rats [that] set the pace for how pop music could and should sound in the Flower Power era: at once starry-eyed and wistful."[470] In the wake of Pet Sounds, Wilson was heralded as art rock's leading figure.[471][nb 37]

Writing in 2016, The Atlantic's Jason Guriel credits Pet Sounds with inventing the modern pop album, stating that Wilson "paved the way for auteurs [and] anticipated the rise of the producer [and] the modern pop-centric era, which privileges producer over artist and blurs the line between entertainment and art."[473] In the late 1960s, Wilson also started a trend of "project" recording, where an artist records by himself instead of going into an established studio.[458]

Cultural legend, alternative music, and tributes

"I guess I just wasn't made for these times," he had declared on Pet Sounds, and the song had become the overture for a decades-long saga that would be, in its way, just as influential as Pet Sounds had been. ... Ultimately, Brian's public suffering had transformed from a musical figure into a cultural one.

—Biographer Peter Ames Carlin[474]

Writing in 1981, sociomusicologist Simon Frith identified Wilson's withdrawal in 1967, along with Phil Spector's self-imposed retirement in 1966, as the catalysts for the "rock/pop split that has afflicted American music ever since".[475][nb 38] By the mid-1970s, Wilson had tied with ex-Pink Floyd member Syd Barrett for rock music's foremost "mythical casualty".[343] Rock journalist Barney Hoskyns identified Wilson's retreat as "central to the obsession many people have with his lost greatness."[476] Timothy White wrote that Wilson's legend rivaled that of the California myth promoted by the Beach Boys.[477]

Since then, Wilson became regarded as the most famous example of an outsider musician.[478][479][nb 39] He was also influential to punk rock and the movement's evolution into indie rock.[480] Later, Wilson became regarded as "godfather" to an era of indie music heavily indebted to his melodic sensibilities, chamber pop orchestrations, and recording experiments.[481]

During the 1980s and 1990s, many of the most popular acts of the era recorded songs that celebrated or referenced Wilson's music, including R.E.M., Bruce Springsteen, Barenaked Ladies, The Jayhawks, and Wilco.[482] John Cale's 1974 album Slow Dazzle included "Mr. Wilson", one of the earliest songs written about Wilson himself.[482]

In 2000, Marina Records released Caroline Now!, an album of Wilson's songs recorded by artists including Alex Chilton, Kim Fowley, the Aluminum Group, Eric Matthews, Saint Etienne, Peter Thomas, the High Llamas, and Jad Fair of Half Japanese.[483] In 2009, Pitchfork ran an editorial feature that linked chillwave directly to the Beach Boys, in particular, Wilson's legend as an "emotionally fragile dude with mental health problems who coped by taking drugs."[484] Writing in his 2011 book on the Beach Boys, Mark Dillon stated that tributes to Wilson remained "common among musicians young enough to be his children".[385]

Documentary films

  • Brian Wilson: I Just Wasn't Made for These Times, directed by Don Was, premiered at the Sundance Film Festival in January 1995.[334] It features new interviews with Wilson and many other musicians, including Linda Ronstadt and Sonic Youth's Thurston Moore, who discuss Wilson's life and his music achievements.[485]
  • Beautiful Dreamer: Brian Wilson and the Story of Smile, directed by David Leaf, premiered on the Showtime network in October 2004.[486] It includes interviews with Wilson and dozens of his associates, albeit none of his surviving bandmates from the Beach Boys, who declined to appear in the film.[487]
  • Brian Wilson: Long Promised Road, directed by Brent Wilson (no relation), premiered at the Tribeca Film Festival in June 2021.[488] It is focused on the previous two decades of Wilson's life, with appearances from Bruce Springsteen, Elton John, Jim James, Nick Jonas, Taylor Hawkins, and Jakob Dylan.[489]

Awards and honors

Wilson (third from right) at the Kennedy Center with George W. Bush and others, 2007
  • Nine-time Grammy Award nominee, two-time winner.[490]
    • 2005: Best Rock Instrumental Performance for "Mrs. O'Leary's Cow".[491]
    • 2013: Best Historical Album for The Smile Sessions.[492]
  • 1988: Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as a member of the Beach Boys.[318]
  • 2000: Songwriters Hall of Fame, inducted by Paul McCartney,[493] who referred to him as "one of the great American geniuses".[494]
  • 2006: UK Music Hall of Fame, inducted by Pink Floyd guitarist David Gilmour.[495]
  • 2003: Ivor Novello International Award for his contributions to popular music.[360]
  • 2003: Honorary doctorate of music from Northeastern University in Boston, Massachusetts.[360]
  • 2004: BMI Icon at the 52nd annual BMI Pop Awards, being saluted for his "unique and indelible influence on generations of music makers."[496]
  • 2005: MusiCares Person of the Year, for his artistic and philanthropic accomplishments[372]
  • 2007: Kennedy Center Honors committee recognized Wilson for a lifetime of contributions to American culture through the performing arts in music.[497]
  • 2008: Golden Plate Award of the American Academy of Achievement.[498][499]
  • 2011: UCLA George and Ira Gershwin Award at UCLA Spring Sing.[500]
  • 2016: Golden Globe nomination for "One Kind of Love" from Love & Mercy.[501]

Polls and critics' rankings

As of 2021, the website Acclaimed Music lists eight of Wilson's co-written songs within the thousand highest rated songs of all time: "Surfin' U.S.A." from 1963; "Don't Worry Baby" and "I Get Around" from 1964, "California Girls" from 1965; "Wouldn't It Be Nice", "God Only Knows", and "Good Vibrations" from 1966; and "Surf's Up" from 1971.[502]

  • In 1966, Wilson was ranked number four in NME's "World Music Personality" reader's poll—about 1,000 votes ahead of Bob Dylan and 500 behind John Lennon.[503]
  • In 2008, Wilson was ranked number 52 in Rolling Stone's list of the "100 Greatest Singers of All Time". He was described in his entry as "the ultimate singer's songwriter" of the mid-1960s.[504]
  • In 2012, Wilson was ranked number eight in NME's list of the "50 Greatest Producers Ever", elaborating "few consider quite how groundbreaking Brian Wilson's studio techniques were in the mid-60s".[505]
  • In 2015, Wilson was ranked number 12 in Rolling Stone's list of the "100 Greatest Songwriters of All Time".[506]
  • In 2020, Brian Wilson Presents Smile was ranked number 399 in Rolling Stone's list of "The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time".[507]

Personal life

Deafness in right ear

At age 11, during a Christmas choir recital in 1954, Wilson was discovered to have significantly diminished hearing in his right ear.[429] A family doctor soon diagnosed the issue as a nerve impingement.[508] The cause is unclear; theories range from it being a birth defect to him being struck by either his father or a neighborhood boy.[508][509][21]

It is unlikely for Wilson to have been born partially deaf since such congenital defects usually appear at an earlier age.[429] Brian's father Murry offered, "He was injured in some football game or some injury of some kind. Or it just happened, who knows?"[429] According to Brian's mother Audree, "Brian thinks it happened when he was around ten. Some kid down the street really whacked him in the ear."[429] On another occasion, Audree said that the deafness was caused by Murry hitting Brian with an iron while Brian was asleep.[510]

One account from Wilson suggested that the deafness was caused by his father slapping his ear shortly before his third birthday.[508] Timothy White states that Brian rarely discussed the issue with Murry after the father had "reacted so menacingly the one time Brian had brought up the subject".[508] Brian said of his father in a 2000 interview, "I was born deaf ... He hit me with a 2×4, but I was already deaf by that time."[511] In his 2016 memoir, the blame is given to a neighborhood boy.[512]

Due to this infirmity, Wilson developed a habit of speaking from the side of his mouth,[513][512] giving the false impression that he had suffered a stroke.[512] He also suffers a ringing in the ear that worsens when he is tired or subjected to loud noise.[514] In the late 1960s, he underwent corrective surgery that was unsuccessful in restoring his hearing.[515]

Relationships and children

Wilson's first serious relationship was with Judy Bowles, a girl he had met at a baseball game in mid-1961.[516] She inspired his songs "Judy" (1962), "Surfer Girl" (1963), and "The Warmth of the Sun" (1964).[517] They were engaged during Christmas 1963 and planned to be married the next December.[518] They separated after 1964, when Wilson gradually became more romantically involved with Marilyn Rovell, a 15-year-old high school student.[519] Wilson's "All Summer Long (1964) nodded to their first meeting with the lyric "Remember when you spilled Coke all over your blouse?"[520][nb 40] Their relationship was initially kept a secret from outsiders.[521][522][nb 41] Inspired by a remark from her older sister Diane, Wilson later wrote "Don't Hurt My Little Sister" (1965) about the affair.[523][524]

Wilson's daughters Carnie (right) and Wendy (center) performing with Wilson Phillips in 2011.

Wilson and Marilyn were married in December 1964. Together, they had two daughters, Carnie and Wendy (born 1968 and 1969, respectively), who later had musical success of their own as two-thirds of the group Wilson Phillips.[334] Wilson believed that he "wasn't a good husband", nor "much of a father".[525] Marilyn said that her husband completely "backed out" of the responsibility of raising their children because he felt that he would "do it wrong".[526][nb 42] Carlin referred to a "disturbing anecdote" printed in a 1971 Rolling Stone article in which Brian discussed his child's sexual experiments. Brian had remarked, "It just goes to prove that if you don't hide anything from kids, they'll start doing things they normally wouldn't do until much later."[528]

Many of the lyrics from Pet Sounds reflected the couple's early marital struggles.[433][nb 43] Marilyn reflected, "I slept with one eye open because I never knew what he was going to do. He was like a wild man."[530] A few years into his marriage to Marilyn, Wilson encouraged her to have affairs with other men, including songwriter Tandyn Almer.[531][nb 44] In turn, Wilson had simultaneous affairs with Diane[532][533] and a teenage telephone operator named Deborah Keil.[532] Keil was a Beach Boys fan who had moved from Kansas to Los Angeles with the explicit purpose of getting close to Wilson. To Marilyn's chagrin, Wilson permitted Keil's frequent visitations to the Wilson household.[534] Wilson wrote "The Night Was So Young" (1977) about Keil and her nightly visits,[535]

In July 1978, Wilson and Marilyn separated, with Wilson filing for divorce in January 1979.[536] Marilyn was given custody of their children.[537] He subsequently maintained a relationship with Keil for some time.[538] Following this, Wilson entered a relationship with one of his nurses, a black woman named Carolyn Williams, which lasted from 1979 to January 1983.[539] His 2016 memoir says of Williams, "My head wasn't on straight at all and I would sometimes say stupid things to her. Once I got impatient and said, 'Get your black ass in there and make me lunch.' I apologized immediately but I didn't feel right about it. She split pretty soon and it was mostly because of me. I’m sorry about it even today."[540][nb 45]

Wilson initially dated former model and car saleswoman Melinda Kae Ledbetter from 1986 to late 1989.[543] Ledbetter stated that the relationship ended prematurely due to interference from Landy.[544] After Wilson parted ways with his psychiatrist, in 1991, he and Ledbetter reconnected and were married on February 6, 1995.[545][nb 46] Since 1999, Ledbetter has been Wilson's manager, a job which she has said is "basically negotiating, and that's what I did every single day when I sold cars."[547] They adopted three children: Daria, Delanie, and Dylan.[372] By 2012, Wilson had five grandchildren.[372]

Spiritual and religious beliefs

In various interviews, Wilson frequently emphasized the spiritual qualities of his music, particularly with respect to Pet Sounds.[548] Wilson also had a fascination with matters such as astrology, numerology and the occult that was reflected in his original conceptions for Smile.[365] In 1966, he stated that he believed all music "starts with religion" and that although he believed in "some higher being who is better than we are", he was not religious in a "formal" sense.[432] Asked whether his music was religiously influenced in 1988, he referred to the 1962 book A Toehold on Zen, and said that he believed that he possessed what is called a "toehold". He explained, "say somebody had a grasp on life, a good grasp—they ought to be able to transfer that over to another thing."[549]

During the late 1960s, Wilson joined his bandmates in the promotion of Transcendental Meditation (TM).[550] In a 1968 interview, he expressed that religion and meditation were the same, and that, "for the first time in, God, I don't know how many millions of years, or thousands or hundreds, everybody has got a personal path to God".[550] He recalled that he had "already been initiated" into TM beforehand, but "for some ridiculous reason I hadn't followed through with it, and when you don't follow through with something you can get all clogged up."[550] Wilson soon lost interest in TM, saying that "it just doesn't do shit for me. I've given up on it."[274] His mantra was "eye-neh-mah".[551]

Wilson described himself in 1976 as someone who had "read too many books" and "went through a thing of having too many paths to choose from and of wanting to do everything and not being able to do it all."[172] He maintained that he still believed, as he did in the 1960s, that the coming of "the great Messiah ... came in the form of drugs", even though his own drug experiences "really didn't work out so well, so positively."[552][553] According to friend Stanley Shapiro, he and Dennis once discovered a tape reel labelled "Song to God" and attempted to play it in Brian's home. Brian immediately rushed in the room, confiscated the tape, and shouted "Don’t you ever touch that again! That’s between me and God!" The tape has since been lost.[229] In a 1977 interview, Wilson promoted "sexual deprivation" as a means of becoming "cosmically conscious".[554] In another interview, from 1995, he revealed that abstinence was the "secret" to how he functions, calling it an "Einsteinian formula" that "create[s] a void in your brain".[555]

In 1999, when asked for his religious beliefs, Wilson responded: "I believe in Phil Spector."[556] Asked again, in 2011, he said that while he had spiritual beliefs, he did not follow any particular religion.[557] Asked in 2004 for his favorite book, Wilson answered "the Bible", and questioned if he believed in life after death, Wilson replied "I don't."[245]

Mental health

[In 1965, Brian had] asked me to come down to Studio B. When we got down there, he said to me, "Let me play something that I hear when I've been on LSD. He sat down at the piano and played one note. He described what he was hearing. That's when I knew he was in trouble.

—Four Freshmen manager Bill Wagner[128]

Wilson is diagnosed with schizoaffective disorder and mild manic depression.[558] His past diagnoses included paranoid schizophrenia and organic personality disorder.[559] He regularly experiences auditory hallucinations that present in the form of disembodied voices.[560][561][nb 47] According to Wilson, he began having hallucinations in 1965, shortly after starting to use psychedelic drugs.[564][565] Eventually, he began suffering from paranoid delusions, believing that "the devil was chasing me around and [that he] came in the form of other people that were competing with me and had ideas of killing me."[223]

Marilyn said that while Brian had displayed instances of odd behavior, she began having serious concerns about his mental well-being after the birth of their first child in 1968.[566][nb 48] Later that year, he was admitted to a psychiatric hospital, where he was prescribed Thorazine for severe anxiety disorder.[178] Carlin speculated that Wilson may have self-admitted and may have been administered treatments ranging from talking therapies to doses of Lithium and electroconvulsive therapy during this stay.[176]

Responding to accusations of neglect, Marilyn stated that she sought professional help for her husband for many years. "Brian's ability to 'put on' these professionals made it difficult to find someone who could deal with him on his own level. I am tired of hearing that Brian's problems were never addressed, for those who say that were not there, and do not know the truth!"[568] Wilson typically refused counseling, and it had been long thought by his family that, rather than mental illness, his idiosyncrasies stemmed from his drug habits, or were merely part of his personality.[569][570] Gaines adds that, for Wilson's close associates, "it was hard to tell how much of his behavior was out of true craziness and how much was Brian's clever faking".[571] Loren Schwartz claimed, "Brian told me his well-documented nervous-breakdown on the airplane was a ploy to get off the road. He said, 'I did it on purpose.'"[572]

Following his admission to Landy's program, Wilson was diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia, with doctors finding evidence of brain damage caused by excessive and sustained drug use.[573] The paranoid schizophrenia diagnosis, originally made by Landy, was later retracted.[574] During this period, Wilson developed facial tics, called tardive dyskinesia, that were symptomatic of the excessive psychotropic medications he was taking.[575][nb 49] In a 2002 interview, he intimated, "I don't regret [the Landy program]. I loved the guy—he saved me."[576]

Wilson performing "Good Vibrations" in Washington D.C. in 2017

Wilson's mental condition improved in later years, although his struggles with auditory hallucinations were not eliminated, as the voices become more pronounced when he performs onstage.[236] He credits his relationship with his second wife for allowing him to resume his career as a musician. In his own words, he said that he should have spent the early 2000s "in a mental institution under heavy sedation" due to the stresses of his condition, however, "Things have started to get a little bit easier, but I'm not always in a positive, happy place."[560] In 2002, he said that he felt that his successful treatment inhibited his creativity and songwriting.[573]

In 2019, Wilson postponed some concert dates due to worsening mental health. His social media stated, "I've been struggling with stuff in my head and saying things I don’t mean and I don't know why. Its something I've never dealt with before and we can't quite figure it out just yet."[577] The next month, his social media declared that he had recovered and would resume touring.[578]


During his comeback in the late 1970s, Wilson often solicited drugs from journalists mid-interview.[236] Leaf writes that this was "a game" on Brian's part "As one friend notes, 'If he had really wanted to get drugs, he would have known where to get them.'"[553] At the time, Wilson stated that he believed "Interviews are for publicity."[579] Nonetheless, journalist Alexis Petridis characterized Wilson's interviews from this period as "heartbreaking and horrifying in equal measure, depicting a halting, visibly terrified man who said he 'felt like a prisoner'".[236]

Some interviewers have accused Wilson of being difficult to interview, rarely giving a long answer.[580] According to Salon writer Peter Gilstrap: "He's also been known to get up, extend a hand and blurt out 'Thanks!' well before the allotted time is up. And sometimes he just gets tired and shuts down. None of this, however, is due to a bad attitude."[581] During one 2007 interview, Wilson was asked about "good movies" he had watched recently and answered with Norbit. Then, asked for his favorite movie ever, Wilson again answered Norbit. Writing in a Spin piece marking the tenth anniversary of the exchange, journalist Winston Cook-Wilson (no relation) referred to it as a typical example of Brian's terseness, and jokingly as "one of the most important blog posts in recent American history".[582]

Wilson has admitted to having a poor memory and occasionally lying in interviews to "test" people.[583] David Oppenheim, who interviewed Wilson in 1966, remembered that "we tried to talk with him but didn't get much out of him. Some guy said 'He's not verbal.'"[584] In 2017, The Charlotte Observer's Theodon Janes surmised that while Wilson's past struggles with mental illness are widely documented, he still "is faring well enough to write a book ... and to headline [a] hugely ambitious concert tour, so presumably he's capable of telling people who work for him that he's not up for interviews, if he isn't."[585]


Solo albums

  • Brian Wilson (1988)
  • Sweet Insanity (1991) (unofficial)
  • I Just Wasn't Made for These Times (1995) (soundtrack)
  • Orange Crate Art (1995) (with Van Dyke Parks)
  • Imagination (1998)
  • Gettin' in over My Head (2004)
  • Brian Wilson Presents Smile (2004)
  • What I Really Want for Christmas (2005)
  • That Lucky Old Sun (2008)
  • Brian Wilson Reimagines Gershwin (2010)
  • In the Key of Disney (2011)
  • No Pier Pressure (2015)

Selected productions for other artists

  • Stephen Kalinich – A World of Peace Must Come (1969) (released 2008)
  • Fred Vail – Cows in the Pasture (1970) (unreleased)
  • American Spring – Spring (1972)



Year Title Role
2021Brian Wilson: Long Promised Roadhimself
2018Echo in the Canyonhimself
2014Love & Mercyhimself (archival)
1995Brian Wilson: I Just Wasn't Made for These Timeshimself
1993Theremin: An Electronic Odysseyhimself
1987The Return of Brunohimself
1965The Monkey's Unclehimself (with the Beach Boys)
1965The Girls on the Beachhimself (with the Beach Boys)


Year Title Role
2006Tales of the Rat FinkThe Surfite (voice)
2005Duck Dodgershimself (voice)
1988Full Househimself (with the Beach Boys)
1988The New Leave It To BeaverMr. Hawthorne
1967Inside Pop: The Rock Revolutionhimself


  1. According to his mother, "The [accordion instructor] said, 'I don't think he's reading. He hears it just once and plays the whole thing perfectly.'"[12]
  2. Dennis remembered, "Brian was the freak. He used to stay in his room all day listening to records rather than play baseball."[19] Audree recalled that Brian "constantly" listened to the radio in his room during his junior high school years. "Murry once [said] to me, 'Do you think we should worry about him?' I said, 'No. He's just loving the music.'"[20]
  3. Morgan later said, "I had nothing against the song; it was nice, but it just wasn't what I asked him for."[33] Some reports suggest that the piece Wilson offered had been an early version of "Surfin'", but Wilson's mother Audree disputed this.[35]
  4. One of Brian's first songwriting exercises, penned on a sheet of paper when he was nine, was a rewriting of the lyrics to Stephen Foster's "Oh! Susannah".[41]
  5. David Marks acted as Wilson's substitute on vocals.[63]
  6. This was the first time Wilson had skipped concert dates with the Beach Boys since 1963.[93] Although he continued to make sporadic appearances at gigs, the Houston show marked his last as a regular member of the touring group until 1976.[94]
  7. According to Barry Mann and Cynthia Weil, Wilson had been considering retiring from the music industry, but changed his mind upon hearing their recent song "You've Lost That Lovin' Feelin'" (produced and co-written by Spector).[100] In an interview from August 1966, Wilson states, "I never wanted to quit the music business. I just wanted to get off the road, which I did."[101]
  8. Back then, Owsley's strain was ten times stronger than modern LSD.[119]
  9. Brian remembered taking the LSD at his home,[122] but according to Marilyn, he took the drug elsewhere with Schwartz.[119]
  10. White gives December 1965 as the date that the couple moved into their new Laurel Way home.[132]
  11. Other notable friends of Brian in this era included Michael Vosse, Anderle's assistant, and Paul Jay Robbins, a journalist from the underground press.[154]
  12. Marilyn told Gaines that they moved because her husband had "wanted a bigger house".[158] According to Badman, the move was to extricate themselves from Wilson's "hanger-ons".[156] To keep away strangers, Marilyn went so far as to install a high brick wall and an electronically-controlled gate around the estate.[159]
  13. Mike Love stated that "Brian lost interest in the mechanical aspect of things" and left the engineering side of production to Carl.[180]
  14. Desper said that Brian's reduced contributions was merely due to "limited hours in the day. Brian ... doesn't like to hurt anyone's feelings, so if someone's working on something else, he wasn't going to jump in there and say, 'Look, this is my production and my house, so get outta here!' That's totally out of character for him."[184]
  15. According to band archivist Alan Boyd, "A lot of the music that Brian was creating during this period was full of syncopated exercises and counterpoints piled on top of jittery eighth-note clusters and loping shuffle grooves. You get hints of it earlier in things like the tags to 'California Girls,' 'Wouldn't It Be Nice' and all throughout Smile, but it takes on an almost manic edge in the '70s."[178]
  16. The Radiant Radish had irregular hours. Wilson would open the store whenever he felt like it, usually at night, and manage the counter while still dressed in his pajamas, bathrobe, and slippers.[192] It closed a year later due to Wilson's lack of interest and business acumen.[191]
  17. According to Leaf, these episodes were treated as jokes by Wilson's family and friends.[197]
  18. Wilson never signed the document himself; due to the group's corporate structure, only three out of five votes were necessary for legally binding actions.[202]
  19. Wilson experienced intense discomfort during the second show and left the stage mid-performance. He recalled, "On the second night, I started ... feeling dizzy and I told the guys I had to stop. It felt like I was killing myself."[210]
  20. Leading up to this interview, a Time reporter had visited Wilson's home for what would have been his first interview in several years. Wilson refused to leave his bedroom. Instead, they briefly spoke via telephone while the reporter remained in the backyard. Wilson abruptly hung up after announcing that he needed to go to sleep.[211]
  21. Bruce Johnston left the band during those sessions partly due to his unhappiness with Wilson's creative withdrawal from the group.[216]
  22. Carl explained, "There was a thing where Brian kept on giving people money to 'score'. Not for himself but for themselves. It's like he was giving a guy every week a few hundred bucks, and a very well-known guy at that."[226]
  23. Presley was then recording "Pieces of My Life" for his album Today. Adding to this story, Memphis Mafia member Jerry Schilling said that Wilson played some of the band's recent recordings for Presley. "After a few tracks, Brian says, 'Well? Do you think they're any good?' Elvis looks up and replies, 'Nah,' before leaving. I don't think he had any idea that the guy was Brian Wilson."[246]
  24. His daughter Carnie remembered her father consuming a dozen eggs and an entire loaf of bread for breakfast every day.[224]
  25. Stan later alleged that he was hired "to keep [Brian] from giving heroin to his two young daughters."[253]
  26. According to Stan, Wilson's resentment for his bandmates had grown so much that he would often write letters announcing his withdrawal from the Beach Boys. "But they wouldn't pay attention and would just keep coming back."[251]
  27. Some reports erroneously state that it was the first time Wilson had appeared onstage with the band since 1964.[261]
  28. Among his other television appearances, in September, Wilson appeared as a guest presenter on Don Kirshner's Annual Rock Music Awards program, where he was nominated for the Hall of Fame category and lost to the Beatles.[265] In November, he appeared as a featured guest on The Mike Douglas Show and NBC's Saturday Night – his first solo television appearances since the Inside Pop special in 1966.[266]
  29. Gaines writes that Wilson was weighed at 320 pounds (150 kg) in January 1983.[302]
  30. One of their songs, "Let's Go to Heaven in My Car", was accepted into the soundtrack of the film Police Academy 3 (1986).[315]
  31. Likewise, Murphy writes that the Four Preps' influence "is largely underappreciated".[427]
  32. Wilson said in 1966: "Burt Bacharach and Hal David are more like me. They're also the best pop team – per se – today. As a producer, Bacharach has a very fresh, new approach."[428]
  33. Spector's engineer Larry Levine remembered that "[Brian] would ask questions, but [he] always understood what was happening in the studio. They had a good rapport. Phil was a champion of deserving people, and he loved what Brian was doing."[443] According to Dean Torrence, Wilson learned "a lot about studio technology from Jan", and "Jan pointed out to Brian that, rather wait for the Beach Boys to get off the road to record, he could use [session musicians] instead and get his records made quicker".[444] However, Wilson had been drawing from Spector's pool of musicians since first recording at Gold Star in June 1962.[445]
  34. Although more technical recording details such as level mixing and microphone placement were usually handled by Britz,[53] Wilson would then adjust his configuration to a large extent.[450] Standard studio practices of the era dictated that only the facility's assigned engineers were allowed to touch recording consoles.[451]
  35. "Surfin' U.S.A." (number 3), "Surfer Girl" (number 7), and "Be True to Your School" (number 6) in 1963; "Fun, Fun, Fun" (number 5), "I Get Around" (number 1), "When I Grow Up (To Be a Man)" (number 9), and "Dance, Dance, Dance" (number 8) in 1964; "Help Me, Rhonda" (number 1) and "California Girls", (number 3) in 1965; and "Wouldn't It Be Nice" (number 8) and "Good Vibrations" (number 1) in 1966.[454]
  36. According to Carl Wilson, "Record companies [like Capitol] were used to having absolute control over their artists. ... But what could they say? Brian made good records."[466]
  37. Carlin wrote that Wilson was the forerunner of "a new kind of art-rock that would combine the transcendent possibilities of art with the mainstream accessibility of pop music".[472]
  38. Frith added that, while the influence of both these producers was evident in 1967 hit songs by the Electric Prunes, the Turtles, Strawberry Alarm Clock, Tommy James and the Shondells, and the 5th Dimension, the most enduring and successful American pop act was the Monkees, which had been created as "an obvious imitation of the Beatles".[475]
  39. Author Irwin Chusid, who designed the term, noted Wilson as an ironic example of the genre due to Wilson's past commercial success, but argued that he should be considered an "outsider" due to his history of torment, struggles with substance abuse, and "loopy" songwriting.[478]
  40. In real life, he had accidentally spilled hot chocolate on Marilyn.[520]
  41. Gaines writes that Wilson although shared a bedroom with Marilyn and slept in different beds, the arrangement "didn't seem to raise any eyebrows at the Rovell household."[521] Conversely, according to Carlin, Wilson and Rovell began dating "seemingly with the knowledge and permission" of her parents.[522]
  42. Carnie remembered her mother explaining to her as a child that her father "was not like other dads. He'll never be able to be a father like your friends have."[527]
  43. According to Tony Asher, during the writing sessions for Pet Sounds, Wilson was visibly "confused about love", having displayed a fierce preoccupation with teenage girls and an infatuation with Diane.[529]
  44. In Marilyn's recollection, she felt that Brian's insistence was just "funny' at the time. She agreed to a threesome with him and Almer on at least one occasion.[531]
  45. Conversely, after Williams had alleged to reporters in early 1983 that Wilson was being held captive by Landy, Wilson held a press conference in which he stated that he had been in the process of disassociating himself from her.[541] Carlin wrote that Williams was generally considered to be "a sweet, well-intentioned woman."[542]
  46. Wilson chose the date because it was Marilyn's birthday, and thus easy to remember for future anniversaries.[545] Marilyn attended the wedding.[546]
  47. Wilson said of the voices: "Mostly [they're] derogatory. Some of it's cheerful. Most of it isn't."[562] He added that his hallucinations will inspire a song "every now and then".[563]
  48. Mike Love said that "we saw signs that something was amiss" after an incident from July 1965 in which Wilson "pulled into a gas station and began ramming his car into a 7-Up machine, laughing all the while. Brian loved pranks, but this was more bizarre than funny, and out of character."[567]
  49. In 1991, he told reporters that his prescribed medications included Navane and Serentil (anti-psychotics), Cogentin (to mitigate the side effects of the anti-psychotics), Xanax (a sedative used for anxiety), and Eskalith (for manic depression).[146]


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