Brahmic scripts

The Brahmic scripts, also known as Indic scripts, are a family of abugida writing systems. They are used throughout the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia and parts of East Asia, including Japan in the form of Siddhaṃ. They have descended from the Brahmi script of ancient India and are used by various languages in several language families in South, East and Southeast Asia: Indo-Aryan, Dravidian, Tibeto-Burman, Mongolic, Austroasiatic, Austronesian and Tai. They were also the source of the dictionary order (gojūon) of Japanese kana.[1]

History

Brahmic scripts descended from the Brahmi script. Brahmi is clearly attested from the 3rd century BC during the reign of Ashoka, who used the script for imperial edicts, but there are some claims of earlier epigraphy found on pottery in South India and Sri Lanka. The most reliable of these were short Brahmi inscriptions dated to the 4th century BC and published by Coningham et al. (1996).[2] Northern Brahmi gave rise to the Gupta script during the Gupta period, which in turn diversified into a number of cursives during the medieval period. Notable examples of such medieval scripts, developed by the 7th or 8th century, include Nagari, Siddham and Sharada.

The Siddhaṃ script was especially important in Buddhism, as many sutras were written in it. The art of Siddham calligraphy survives today in Japan. The syllabic nature and dictionary order of the modern kana system of Japanese writing is believed to be descended from the Indic scripts, most likely through the spread of Buddhism.[3]

Southern Brahmi evolved into the Kadamba, Pallava and Vatteluttu scripts, which in turn diversified into other scripts of South India and Southeast Asia.

The present Telugu script is derived from the Kannada-Telugu script, also known as "Old Kannada script", owing to its similarity to the same.[4]

Characteristics

Some characteristics, which are present in most but not all the scripts, are:

  • Each consonant has an inherent vowel which is usually a short 'a' (in Bengali, Assamese and Odia, the phonetic is 'ɔ' due to sound shifts). Other vowels are written by adding to the character. A mark, known in Sanskrit as a virama/halant, can be used to indicate the absence of an inherent vowel.
  • Each vowel has two forms, an independent form when not attached to a consonant, and a dependent form, when attached to a consonant. Depending on the script, the dependent forms can be either placed to the left of, to the right of, above, below, or on both the left and the right sides of the base consonant.
  • Consonants (up to 4 in Devanagari) can be combined in ligatures. Special marks are added to denote the combination of 'r' with another consonant.
  • Nasalization and aspiration of a consonant's dependent vowel is also noted by separate signs.
  • The alphabetical order is: vowels, velar consonants, palatal consonants, retroflex consonants, dental consonants, bilabial consonants, approximants, sibilants, and other consonants. Each consonant grouping had four stops (with all four possible values of voicing and aspiration), and a nasal consonant.

Comparison

Below are comparison charts of several of the major Indic scripts, organised on the principle that glyphs in the same column all derive from the same Brahmi glyph. Accordingly:

  • The charts are not comprehensive. Glyphs may be unrepresented if they don't derive from any Brahmi character, but are later inventions.
  • The pronunciations of glyphs in the same column may not be identical. The pronunciation row is only representative; the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) pronunciation is given for Sanskrit where possible, or another language if necessary.

The transliteration is indicated in ISO 15919.

Consonants

ISO[lower-alpha 1]kakhagaghaṅacachajajhañaṭaṭhaḍaḍhaṇatathadadhanaṉapaphababhamayaẏaraṟalaḷaḻavaśaṣasaha
Assamese য়
Bengali য়
Sylheti Nagari
Devanagari य़
Gujarati
Odia
Gurmukhi ਲ਼ਸ਼
Meitei Mayek[lower-alpha 2]
Tibetan གྷཛྷཌྷདྷབྷ
Lepcha ᰡ᰷
Limbu
Tirhuta 𑒏𑒐𑒑𑒒𑒓𑒔𑒕𑒖𑒗𑒘𑒙𑒚𑒛𑒜𑒝𑒞𑒟𑒠𑒡𑒢𑒣𑒤𑒥𑒦𑒧𑒨𑒩𑒪𑒬𑒭𑒮𑒯
Kaithi 𑂍𑂎𑂏𑂐𑂑𑂒𑂓𑂔𑂕𑂖𑂗𑂘𑂙𑂛𑂝𑂞𑂟𑂠𑂡𑂢𑂣𑂤𑂥𑂦𑂧𑂨𑂩𑂪𑂫𑂬𑂭𑂮𑂯
Early Brahmi 𑀓
𑀔
𑀕
𑀖
𑀗
𑀘
𑀙
𑀚
𑀛
𑀜
𑀝
𑀞
𑀟
𑀠
𑀡
𑀢
𑀣
𑀤
𑀥
𑀦
𑀧
𑀨
𑀩
𑀪
𑀫
𑀬
𑀭
𑀮
𑀴𑀯
𑀰
𑀱
𑀲
𑀳
Middle Brahmi 𑀴
Late Brahmi 𑀴
Tocharian
Tamil
Kannada
Sinhala
Telugu
Malayalam
Grantham 𑌕𑌖𑌗𑌘𑌙𑌚𑌛𑌜𑌝𑌞𑌟𑌠𑌡𑌢𑌣𑌤𑌥𑌦𑌧𑌨𑌪𑌫𑌬𑌭𑌮𑌯𑌰𑌲𑌳𑌵𑌶𑌷𑌸𑌹
Chakma[lower-alpha 3] 𑄇𑄈𑄉𑄊𑄋𑄌𑄍𑄎𑄏𑄐𑄑𑄒𑄓𑄔𑄕𑄖𑄗𑄘𑄙𑄚𑄛𑄜𑄝𑄞𑄟𑄠𑄡𑄢𑄣𑅄𑄤𑄥𑄦
Burmese ကဉ /
Khmer
Thai ข,ฃ[lower-alpha 4]ค,ฅ[lower-alpha 4]ช,ซ[lower-alpha 4]ฎ,[lower-alpha 4]ด,[lower-alpha 4]บ,[lower-alpha 4]ผ,ฝ[lower-alpha 4]พ,ฟ[lower-alpha 4]ห,ฮ[lower-alpha 4]
Lao [lower-alpha 5][lower-alpha 5][lower-alpha 5][lower-alpha 5][lower-alpha 5][lower-alpha 5][lower-alpha 5][lower-alpha 5][lower-alpha 5][lower-alpha 5][lower-alpha 5][lower-alpha 5][lower-alpha 5][lower-alpha 5]
Cham
Balinese
Javanese[lower-alpha 6] [lower-alpha 6][lower-alpha 6][lower-alpha 6][lower-alpha 6][lower-alpha 6][lower-alpha 6][lower-alpha 6][lower-alpha 6][lower-alpha 6][lower-alpha 6][lower-alpha 6][lower-alpha 6][lower-alpha 6]
Sundanese
Lontara
Rejang ꤿ
Batak (Toba) /
Baybayin                       
Buhid                       
Hanunuo                       
Tagbanwa                         
ISOkakhagaghaṅacachajajhañaṭaṭhaḍaḍhaṇatathadadhanaṉapaphababhamayaẏaraṟalaḷaḻavaśaṣasaha
Notes
  1. This list (tries to) includes characters of same origins, not same sounds. In Bengali র is pronounced as but it is originally va which is still used for wa sound in Mithilakshar and modern Assamese ৱ (wabbô) was derived from middle Assamese র (wô). Compare with জ (ja) য (ya) and য় (ẏ) which are pronounced as , and in Bengali and , and in Assamese respectively. য is related to Devanagari य (ya) and it is still pronounced as "ya" in Mithilakshar. Since their sounds shifted, the dots were added to keep the original sounds.
  2. includes supplementary consonants not in contemporary use
  3. inherent vowel is ā
  4. Modified forms of these letters are used for, but are not restricted to, Sanskrit and Pali in the Thai script.
  5. These letters are obsolete, but were used mainly for Sanskrit and Pali in the Lao script.
  6. Letters used in Old Javanese. They are now obsolete, but are used for honorifics in contemporary Javanese.

Vowels

Vowels are presented in their independent form on the left of each column, and in their corresponding dependent form (vowel sign) combined with the consonant k on the right. A glyph for ka is an independent consonant letter itself without any vowel sign, where the vowel a is inherent.

ISOaāêôiīuūeēaioōaur̥̄ [lower-alpha 1] [lower-alpha 1]l̥̄ [lower-alpha 1]
akaāêôikiīukuūekeēaikaiokoōaukaukr̥r̥̄kr̥̄kl̥l̥̄kl̥̄kṁkḥk
Assamese কাঅ্যাক্যা  কিকীকুকূ  কেকৈঅৗকৗকোকৌকৃকৄকৢকৣঅংকংঅঃকঃ ক্,ক্‍
Bengali কাঅ্যাক্যা  কিকীকুকূ  কেকৈকোকৌকৃকৄকৢকৣঅং কং অঃ কঃ ক্,ক্‍
Devanagari काकॅकॉकिकीकुकूकॆकेकैकॊकोकौकृकॄकॢकॣअंकंअःकः क्,क्‍
Gujarati કા    કિકીકુકૂ  કેકૈ  કોકૌકૃકૄકૢકૣઅં કં અઃ કઃ ક્,ક્‍
Odia କା    କିକୀକୁକୂ  କେକୈ  କୋକୌକୃକୄକୢକୣକଂକଃ କ୍
Gurmukhi ਕਾ    ਕਿਕੀਕੁਕੂ  ਕੇਕੈ  ਕੋਕੌ        ਅਂ ਕਂ ਅਃਕਃ ਕ੍
Meitei Mayek[lower-alpha 2] ꯑꯥꯀꯥ    ꯀꯤꯑꫫꯀꫫꯀꯨꯑꫬꯀꫬ  ꯑꯦꯀꯦꯑꯩꯀꯩ  ꯑꯣꯀꯣꯑꯧꯀꯧ        ꯑꯪꯀꯪꯑꫵꯀꫵ
Tibetan ཨཱཀཱ    ཨིཀིཨཱིཀཱིཨུཀུཨཱུཀཱུ  ཨེཀེཨཻཀཻ  ཨོཀོཨཽཀཽརྀཀྲྀརཱྀཀཷལྀཀླྀལཱྀཀླཱྀཨཾཀཾཨཿཀཿཀ྄
Lepcha ᰣᰦᰀᰦ    ᰣᰧᰀᰧᰣᰧᰶᰀᰧᰶᰣᰪᰀᰪᰣᰫᰀᰫ  ᰣᰬᰀᰬ    ᰣᰨᰀᰨᰣᰩᰀᰩ        ᰣᰴᰀᰴ   
Limbu ᤀᤠᤁᤠ    ᤀᤡᤁᤡᤀᤡ᤺ᤁᤡ᤺ᤀᤢᤁᤢᤀ᤺ᤢᤁ᤺ᤢᤀᤧᤁᤧᤀᤣᤁᤣᤀᤤᤁᤤᤀᤨᤁᤨᤀᤥᤁᤥᤀᤦᤁᤦ        ᤀᤲᤁᤲ  ᤁ᤻
Tirhuta 𑒁𑒏𑒂𑒏𑒰    𑒃𑒏𑒱𑒄𑒏𑒲𑒅𑒏𑒳𑒆𑒏𑒴 𑒏𑒺𑒋𑒏𑒹𑒌𑒏𑒻 𑒏𑒽𑒍𑒏𑒼𑒎𑒏𑒾𑒇𑒏𑒵𑒈𑒏𑒶𑒉𑒏𑒷𑒊𑒏𑒸𑒁𑓀𑒏𑓀𑒁𑓁𑒏𑓁𑒏𑓂
Kaithi 𑂃𑂍𑂄𑂍𑂰    𑂅𑂍𑂱𑂆𑂍𑂲𑂇𑂍𑂳𑂈𑂍𑂴  𑂉𑂍𑂵𑂊𑂍𑂶  𑂋𑂍𑂷𑂌𑂍𑂸        𑂃𑂁𑂍𑂁𑂃𑂂𑂍𑂂𑂍𑂹
Sylheti Nagari  ꠇꠣ    ꠇꠤ  ꠇꠥ    ꠇꠦꠅꠂꠇꠂ  ꠇꠧ          ꠀꠋꠇꠋ  ꠇ꠆
Brahmi 𑀅𑀓𑀆𑀓𑀸    𑀇𑀓𑀺𑀈𑀓𑀻𑀉𑀓𑀼𑀊𑀓𑀽  𑀏𑀓𑁂𑀐𑀓𑁃  𑀑𑀓𑁄𑀒𑀓𑁅𑀋𑀓𑀾𑀌𑀓𑀿𑀍𑀓𑁀𑀎𑀓𑁁𑀅𑀂𑀓𑀂𑀅𑀃𑀓𑀃𑀓𑁆
Tamil கா    கிகீகுகூகெகேகைகொகோகௌ        அஂகஂஅஃகஃக்
Kannada ಕಾ    ಕಿಕೀಕುಕೂಕೆಕೇಕೈಕೊಕೋಕೌಕೃಕೄಕೢಕೣఅంಕಂఅఃಕಃ ಕ್
Telugu కా    కికీకుకూకెకేకైకొకోకౌకృకౄకౢకౣఅంకంఅఃకః క్
Sinhala කාකැකෑකිකීකුකූකෙකේකෛකොකෝකෞසෘකෘසෲකෲකෟකෳඅං කං අඃ කඃ ක්
Malayalam കാ    കികീകുകൂകെകേകൈകൊകോകൗകൃകൄകൢകൣഅംകംഅഃകഃ ക്,ക്‍
Chakma 𑄃𑄧𑄇𑄧𑄃𑄇𑄃𑄬𑄬𑄇𑄬𑄬𑄃𑅅𑄇𑅅𑄄, 𑄃𑄨𑄇𑄨𑄃𑄩𑄇𑄩𑄅, 𑄃𑄪𑄇𑄪𑄃𑄫𑄇𑄫  𑄆, 𑄃𑄬𑄇𑄬𑄃𑄰𑄇𑄰  𑄃𑄮𑄇𑄮𑄃𑄯𑄇𑄯        𑄃𑄧𑄁𑄇𑄧𑄁𑄃𑄧𑄂𑄇𑄧𑄂𑄇𑄴
Burmese ကအာကာအယ်ကယ်အွကွကိကီကုကူကေအေးကေးအိုင်ကိုင်ကော  ကော်ကၖကၗကၘကၙအံကံအးကးက်
Khmer[lower-alpha 3] អាកា    កិកីកុកូ  កេកៃ  កោកៅក្ឫក្ឬក្ឭក្ឮអំកំអះកះក៑
Thai[lower-alpha 4] อ (อะ)ก (กะ)อากาแอแก(ออ)(กอ)อิกิอีกีอุกุอูกู(เอะ)(เกะ)เอเกไอ,ใอไก,ใก(โอะ)(โกะ)โกเอาเกากฺฤฤๅกฺฤๅกฺฦฦๅกฺฦๅอํกํอะ (อะฮฺ)กะ (กะฮฺ)กฺ (ก/ก์)
Lao[lower-alpha 4] ອະກະອາກາແອແກ(ອອ)(ກອ)ອິກິອີກີອຸກຸອູກູ(ແອະ)(ແກະ)ເອເກໄອ,ໃອໄກ,ໃກ(ໂອະ)(ໂກະ)ໂອໂກເອົາ,ອາວເກົາ,ກາວ        ອํກํອະກະ
Cham ꨀꨩꨆꨩ    ꨆꨪꨁꨩꨆꨫꨆꨭꨂꨩꨆꨭꨩ  ꨆꨯꨮꨆꨰ  ꨆꨯꨀꨯꨱꨆꨯꨱꨣꨮꨆꨴꨮꨣꨮꨩꨆꨴꨮꨩꨤꨮꨆꨵꨮꨤꨮꨩꨆꨵꨮꨩꨀꩌꨆꩌꨀꩍꨆꩍ
Balinese ᬓᬵ    ᬓᬶᬓᬷᬓᬸᬓᬹᬓᬾ  ᬓᬿᬓᭀ  ᬓᭁᬓᬺᬓᬻᬓᬼᬓᬽᬅᬂᬓᬂᬅᬄᬓᬄᬓ᭄
Javanese ꦄꦴꦏꦴ    ꦏꦶꦏꦷꦏꦸꦈꦴꦏꦹꦏꦺ  ꦏꦻꦏꦺꦴ  ꦎꦴꦏꦻꦴꦏꦽꦉꦴꦏꦽꦴꦏ꧀ꦭꦼꦏ꧀ꦭꦼꦴꦄꦁꦏꦁꦄꦃꦏꦃꦏ꧀
Sundanese   ᮊᮦᮊᮩᮊᮤ  ᮊᮥ  ᮊᮦ    ᮊᮧ    ᮊ᮪ᮻ  ᮊ᮪ᮼ  ᮃᮀᮊᮀᮃᮂᮊᮂᮊ᮪
Lontara   ᨕᨛᨀᨛ  ᨕᨗᨀᨗ  ᨕᨘᨀᨘ  ᨕᨙᨀᨙ    ᨕᨚᨀᨚ                 
Rejang   ꥆꥎꤰꥎꥆꥍꤰꥍꥆꥇꤰꥇ  ꥆꥈꤰꥈ  ꥆꥉꤰꥉ  ꥆꥊꤰꥊꥆꥋꤰꥋ  ꥆꥌꤰꥌ        ꥆꥏꤰꥏꥆꥒꤰꥒꤰ꥓
Batak (Toba)       ᯂᯪ  ᯂᯮ   ᯂᯩ     ᯂᯬ            ᯀᯰᯂᯰᯀᯱᯂᯱᯂ᯲
Baybayin       ᜃᜒ  ᜃᜓ  ᜃᜒ    ᜃᜓ                ᜃ᜔
Buhid       ᝃᝒ  ᝃᝓ                           
Hanunuo       ᜣᜲ  ᜣᜳ                          ᜣ᜴
Tagbanwa       ᝣᝲ  ᝣᝳ                           
ISOakaāêôikiīukuūekeēaikaiokoōaukaukr̥r̥̄kr̥̄kl̥l̥̄kl̥̄kṁkḥk
aāêôiīuūeēaioōaur̥̄l̥̄
Notes
  1. Letters for r̥̄, , l̥̄ and a few others are obsolete or very rarely used.
  2. includes supplementary vowels not in contemporary use
  3. When used to write their own languages, Khmer can have either an a or an o as the inherent vowel, following the rules of its orthography.
  4. Thai and Lao scripts do not have independent vowel forms, for syllables starting with a vowel sound, a "zero" consonant, อ and ອ, respectively, to represent the glottal stop /ʔ/.

Numerals

Hindu-Arabic0123456789
Brahmi numbers 𑁒𑁓𑁔𑁕𑁖𑁗𑁘𑁙𑁚
Brahmi digits 𑁦𑁧𑁨𑁩𑁪𑁫𑁬𑁭𑁮𑁯
Assamese
Bengali
Tirhuta 𑓐𑓑𑓒𑓓𑓔𑓕𑓖𑓗𑓘𑓙
Odia
Devanagari
Gujarati
Modi 𑙐‎𑙑‎𑙒𑙓‎𑙔‎𑙕𑙖‎𑙗𑙘‎𑙙
Sharada 𑇐𑇑𑇒𑇓𑇔𑇕𑇖𑇗𑇘𑇙
Takri 𑛀𑛁𑛂𑛃𑛄𑛅𑛆𑛇𑛈𑛉
Gurmukhi
Khudabadi 𑋰𑋱𑋲𑋳𑋴𑋵𑋶𑋷𑋸𑋹
Meitei (Manipuri)
Pracalit 𑑐‎𑑑‎𑑒‎𑑓‎𑑔‎𑑕‎𑑖‎𑑗‎𑑘‎𑑙
Tibetan
Mongolian[lower-alpha 1]
Lepcha
Limbu
Sinhala astrological numbers
Sinhala archaic numbers 𑇡𑇢𑇣𑇤𑇥𑇦𑇧𑇨𑇩
Tamil
Telugu
Kannada
Malayalam
Saurashtra
Ahom 𑜰𑜱𑜲𑜳𑜴𑜵𑜶𑜷𑜸𑜹
Chakma 𑄶𑄷𑄸𑄹𑄺𑄻𑄼𑄽𑄾𑄿
Burmese
Shan
Khmer
Thai
Lao
Cham
Tai Tham[lower-alpha 2]
Tai Tham (Hora)[lower-alpha 3]
New Tai Lue
Balinese
Javanese
Sundanese
Hindu-Arabic0123456789
Notes
  1. Mongolian numerals are derived from Tibetan numerals and used in conjunction with the Mongolian and Clear script
  2. for liturgical use
  3. for everyday use

List of Brahmic scripts

Historical

Early Brahmic scripts
IASTAshokaGirnarChandra
-gupta
GujaratAllahabadNarbadaKistna
a
ā
i
ī
u
ū
e
ai
o
au
k
kh
g
gh
c
ch
j
jh
ñ
ṭh
ḍh
t
th
d
dh
n
p
ph
b
bh
m
y
r
l
v
ś
s
h
A map of Indo-Aryan languages using their respective Brahmic family scripts (except dark blue- colored Khowar, Pashai, Kohistani, and Urdu- not marked here, which use Arabic derived scripts).
A map of Dravidian languages using their respective Brahmic family scripts (except Brahui which uses Arabic derived script).

The Brahmi script was already divided into regional variants at the time of the earliest surviving epigraphy around the 3rd century BC. Cursives of the Brahmi script began to diversify further from around the 5th century AD and continued to give rise to new scripts throughout the Middle Ages.

The main division in antiquity was between northern and southern Brahmi. In the northern group, the Gupta script was very influential, and in the southern group the Vatteluttu and Kadamba/Pallava scripts with the spread of Buddhism sent Brahmic scripts throughout Southeast Asia.

Northern Brahmic

  • Gupta, 4th century
  • Tocharian (Slanting Brahmi)

Southern Brahmic

  • Tamil-Brahmi, 2nd century BC
    • Pallava
      • Tamil
      • Grantha
        • Malayalam
        • Tigalari
        • Dhives Akuru
        • Saurashtra
      • Khmer
        • Khom Thai
        • Sukhothai
          • Thai
            • Tai Viet
            • Dai Don
          • Fakkham
            • Tai Yo
            • Thai Noi
              • Lao
      • Cham
      • Kawi
        • Balinese
        • Batak
        • Buda
        • Javanese
        • Sundanese
        • Lontara
        • Makasar
        • Lampung
        • Rencong
        • Rejang
        • Baybayin
          • Buhid
          • Hanunó'o
          • Tagbanwa
          • Kulitan
      • Old Mon
    • Vatteluttu
      • Kolezhuthu
      • Malayanma
  • Sinhala
  • Bhattiprolu

Unicode

As of Unicode version 13.0, the following Brahmic scripts have been encoded:

script derivation Period of derivation usage notes ISO 15924 Unicode range(s) sample
Ahom Burmese[5] 13th century Extinct Ahom language Ahom U+11700–U+1173F 𑜒𑜠𑜑𑜨𑜉
Balinese Kawi 11th century Balinese language Bali U+1B00–U+1B7F ᬅᬓ᭄ᬲᬭᬩᬮᬶ
Batak Pallava 14th century Batak languages Batk U+1BC0–U+1BFF ᯘᯮᯒᯖ᯲ ᯅᯖᯂ᯲
Baybayin Kawi 14th century Tagalog, other Philippine languages Tglg U+1700–U+171F ᜊᜌ᜔ᜊᜌᜒᜈ᜔
Bengali-Assamese Siddhaṃ 11th century Assamese language (Assamese script variant), Bengali language (Bengali script variant), Bishnupriya Manipuri, Maithili, Angika Beng U+0980–U+09FF
  • অসমীয়া লিপি
  • বাংলা লিপি
Bhaiksuki Gupta 11th century Was used around the turn of the first millennium for writing Sanskrit Bhks U+11C00–U+11C6F
Buhid Kawi 14th century Buhid language Buhd U+1740–U+175F ᝊᝓᝑᝒᝇ
Burmese Pyu 11th century Burmese language, numerous modifications for other languages including Chakma, Eastern and Western Pwo Karen, Geba Karen, Kayah, Mon, Rumai Palaung, S’gaw Karen, Shan Mymr U+1000–U+109F, U+A9E0–U+A9FF, U+AA60–U+AA7F မြန်မာအက္ခရာ
Chakma Burmese 8th century Chakma language Cakm U+11100–U+1114F 𑄌𑄋𑄴𑄟𑄳𑄦
Cham Pallava 8th century Cham language Cham U+AA00–U+AA5F ꨌꩌ
Devanagari Nagari 13th century Numerous Indo-Aryan languages, including Sanskrit, Hindi, Marathi, Nepali, Bhili, Konkani, Bhojpuri, Nepal Bhasa and sometimes Sindhi and Kashmiri. Formerly used to write Gujarati. Sometimes used to write or transliterate Sherpa Deva U+0900–U+097F, U+A8E0–U+A8FF देवनागरी
Dhives Akuru Grantha Was used to write the Maldivian language up until the 20th century.[6] Diak U+11900–U+1195F 𑤞𑥂𑤧𑤭𑥂
Dogra Takri Was used to write Dogri. Dogra script is closely related to Takri.[7] Dogr U+11800–U+1184F 𑠖𑠵𑠌𑠤𑠬
Grantha Pallava 6th century Restricted use in traditional Vedic schools to write Sanskrit. Was widely used by Tamil speakers for Sanskrit and the classical language Manipravalam. Gran U+11300–U+1137F 𑌗𑍍𑌰𑌨𑍍𑌥
Gujarati Nagari 17th century Gujarati language, Kutchi language Gujr U+0A80–U+0AFF ગુજરાતી લિપિ
Gunjala Gondi 16th century Used for writing the Adilabad dialect of the Gondi language.[8] Gong U+11D60–U+11DAF 𑵶𑶍𑶕𑶀𑵵𑶊 𑵶𑶓𑶕𑶂𑶋
Gurmukhi Sharada 16th century Punjabi language Guru U+0A00–U+0A7F ਗੁਰਮੁਖੀ
Hanunó'o Kawi 14th century Hanuno'o language Hano U+1720–U+173F ᜱᜨᜳᜨᜳᜢ
Javanese Kawi 16th century Javanese language, Sundanese language, Madurese language Java U+A980–U+A9DF ꦄꦏ꧀ꦱꦫꦗꦮ
Kaithi Nagari 16th century Historically used for writing legal, administrative, and private records. Kthi U+11080–U+110CF 𑂍𑂶𑂟𑂲
Kannada Telugu-Kannada 9th century Kannada language, Konkani language Tulu, Badaga, Kodava, Beary others Knda U+0C80–U+0CFF ಕನ್ನಡ ಅಕ್ಷರಮಾಲೆ
Khmer Pallava 11th century Khmer language Khmr U+1780–U+17FF, U+19E0–U+19FF អក្សរខ្មែរ
Khojki Landa 16th century Some use by Ismaili communities. Was used by the Khoja community for Muslim religious literature. Khoj U+11200–U+1124F 𑈉𑈲𑈐𑈈𑈮
Khudawadi Landa 16th century Was used by Sindhi communities for correspondence and business records. Sind U+112B0–U+112FF 𑊻𑋩𑋣𑋏𑋠𑋔𑋠𑋏𑋢
Lao Khmer 14th century Lao language, others Laoo U+0E80–U+0EFF ອັກສອນລາວ
Lepcha Tibetan 8th century Lepcha language Lepc U+1C00–U+1C4F ᰛᰩᰴ
Limbu Lepcha 9th century Limbu language Limb U+1900–U+194F ᤛᤡᤖᤡᤈᤨᤅ
Lontara Kawi 17th century Buginese language, others Bugi U+1A00–U+1A1F ᨒᨚᨈᨑ
Mahajani Landa 16th century Historically used in northern India for writing accounts and financial records. Mahj U+11150–U+1117F 𑅬𑅱𑅛𑅧𑅑‎
Makasar Kawi 17th century Was used in South Sulawesi, Indonesia for writing the Makassarese language.[9] Makasar script is also known as "Old Makassarese" or "Makassarese bird script" in English-language scholarly works.[10] Maka U+11EE0–U+11EFF 𑻪𑻢𑻪𑻢
Malayalam Grantha 12th century Malayalam language Mlym U+0D00–U+0D7F മലയാളലിപി
Marchen Tibetan 7th century Was used in the Tibetan Bön tradition to write the extinct Zhang-Zhung language Marc U+11C70–U+11CBF 𑱳𑲁𑱽𑱾𑲌𑱵𑲋𑲱𑱴𑱶𑲱𑲅𑲊𑱱
Meetei Mayek Tibetan 12th century Historically used for the Meitei language. Some modern usage. Mtei U+AAE0–U+AAFF, U+ABC0–U+ABFF ꯃꯤꯇꯩ ꯃꯌꯦꯛ
Modi Nāgarī 17th century Was used to write the Marathi language Modi U+11600–U+1165F 𑘦𑘻𑘚𑘲
Multani Landa Was used to write the Multani language Mult U+11280–U+112AF 𑊠𑊣𑊖𑊚
Nandinagari Nāgarī 7th century Historically used to write Sanskrit in southern India Nand U+119A0–U+119FF
New Tai Lue Tai Tham 1950s Tai Lü language Talu U+1980–U+19DF ᦟᦲᧅᦎᦷᦺᦑ
Odia Siddhaṃ 13th century Odia language Orya U+0B00–U+0B7F ଓଡ଼ିଆ ଅକ୍ଷର
'Phags-Pa Tibetan 13th century Historically used during the Mongol Yuan dynasty. Phag U+A840–U+A87F ꡖꡍꡂꡛ ꡌ
Prachalit (Newa) Nepal Has been used for writing the Sanskrit, Nepali, Hindi, Bengali, and Maithili languages Newa U+11400–U+1147F 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐔𑐮𑐶𑐟
Rejang Kawi 18th century Rejang language, mostly obsolete Rjng U+A930–U+A95F ꥆꤰ꥓ꤼꤽ ꤽꥍꤺꥏ
Saurashtra Grantha 20th century Saurashtra language, mostly obsolete Saur U+A880–U+A8DF ꢱꣃꢬꢵꢰ꣄ꢜ꣄ꢬꢵ
Sharada Gupta 8th century Was used for writing Sanskrit and Kashmiri Shrd U+11180–U+111DF 𑆯𑆳𑆫𑆢𑆳
Siddham Gupta 7th century Was used for writing Sanskrit Sidd U+11580–U+115FF 𑖭𑖰𑖟𑖿𑖠𑖽
Sinhala Brahmi[11] 4th century[12] Sinhala language Sinh U+0D80–U+0DFF, U+111E0–U+111FF ශුද්ධ සිංහල
Sundanese Kawi 14th century Sundanese language Sund U+1B80–U+1BBF, U+1CC0–U+1CCF ᮃᮊ᮪ᮞᮛ ᮞᮥᮔ᮪ᮓ
Sylheti Nagari Nagari 16th century Historically used for writing the Sylheti language Sylo U+A800–U+A82F ꠍꠤꠟꠐꠤ ꠘꠣꠉꠞꠤ
Tagbanwa Kawi 14th century various languages of Palawan, nearly extinct Tagb U+1760–U+177F ᝦᝪᝨᝯ
Tai Le Mon 13th century Tai Nüa language Tale U+1950–U+197F ᥖᥭᥰᥖᥬᥳᥑᥨᥒᥰ
Tai Tham Mon 13th century Northern Thai language, Tai Lü language, Khün language Lana U+1A20–U+1AAF ᨲᩫ᩠ᩅᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ
Tai Viet Thai 16th century Tai Dam language Tavt U+AA80–U+AADF ꪼꪕꪒꪾ
Takri Sharada 16th century Was used for writing Chambeali, and other languages Takr U+11680–U+116CF 𑚔𑚭𑚊𑚤𑚯
Tamil Pallava 2nd century Tamil language Taml U+0B80–U+0BFF, U+11FC0–U+11FFF தமிழ் அரிச்சுவடி
Telugu Telugu-Kannada 5th century Telugu language Telu U+0C00–U+0C7F తెలుగు లిపి
Thai Khmer 13th century Thai language Thai U+0E00–U+0E7F อักษรไทย
Tibetan Gupta 8th century Tibetan language, Dzongkha language, Ladakhi language Tibt U+0F00–U+0FFF བོད་ཡིག་
Tirhuta Siddham 13th century Historically used for the Maithili language Tirh U+11480–U+114DF 𑒞𑒱𑒩𑒯𑒳𑒞𑒰

See also

  • Devanagari transliteration
  • Bharati Braille, the unified braille assignments of Indian languages
  • Indus script – the earliest writing system on the Indian subcontinent
  • ISCII – the coding scheme specifically designed to represent Indic scripts

References

  1. Trautmann, Thomas R. (2006). Languages and Nations: The Dravidian Proof in Colonial Madras. University of California Press. pp. 65–66.
  2. Coningham, R. A. E.; Allchin, F. R.; Batt, C. M.; Lucy, D. (April 1996). "Passage to India? Anuradhapura and the Early Use of the Brahmi Script". Cambridge Archaeological Journal. 6 (1): 73–97. doi:10.1017/S0959774300001608.
  3. "Font: Japanese". Monotype Corporation. Archived from the original on 24 March 2007. Retrieved 14 August 2017.
  4. Adluri, Seshu Madhava Rao; Paruchuri, Sreenivas (February 1999). "Evolution of Telugu Character Graphs". Notes on Telugu Script. Archived from the original on 23 September 2009. Retrieved 14 August 2017.
  5. Terwiel; Khamdaengyodtai (2003). Shan Manuscripts,Part 1. p. 13.
  6. Pandey, Anshuman (23 January 2018). "L2/18-016R: Proposal to encode Dives Akuru in Unicode" (PDF).
  7. Pandey, Anshuman (4 November 2015). "L2/15-234R: Proposal to encode the Dogra script" (PDF).
  8. "Chapter 13: South and Central Asia-II" (PDF). The Unicode Standard, Version 11.0. Mountain View, CA: Unicode, Inc. June 2018. ISBN 978-1-936213-19-1.
  9. "Chapter 17: Indonesia and Oceania" (PDF). The Unicode Standard, Version 11.0. Mountain View, CA: Unicode, Inc. June 2018. ISBN 978-1-936213-19-1.
  10. Pandey, Anshuman (2 November 2015). "L2/15-233: Proposal to encode the Makasar script in Unicode" (PDF).
  11. Daniels (1996), p. 379.
  12. Diringer, David (1948). Alphabet a key to the history of mankind. p. 389.
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